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Deterministic seismic hazard assessment of 102 MW Shigo Kas HPP

,
District Dir Pakistan
MUHAMMAD ABID
1
, KHAN SHAHZADA
1
, SALMAN AFZAL
2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan
Email: salmanafzalkhangmail!com
Abstract: In this research study the engineering properties of locally available light weight aggregate, i.e.
bloated slate aggregate in this study, were studied when utilized as a replacement for the conventional
aggregates in concrete in order to achieve numerous engineering properties of resulting lightweight concrete.
Physical properties of light weight aggregates, such as water absorption, specific gravity and loss angles
abrasion values, were initially calculated and evaluated to check the feasibility of the local light weight
aggregate for use as aggregate. Trial mixes of concrete batches were prepared and various engineering
properties were determined during the plastic state and hardened state. These properties included workability,
initial setting time, final setting time and compaction. Hardened concrete specimens were subected to uniaxial
compressive testing for compressive strength determination. The results of both the plastic state testing and
hardened concrete specimen indicated that the bloated slate aggregates can be used as light weight aggregate
when used for preparing lightweight concrete structures. The study showed that the bloated slate aggregate
when used in concrete mix imparted lower slump values, lower setting times as compared to the normal weight
concrete mixes. !imilarly, the uniaxial compressive testing indicated that the concrete cylinders prepared in
bloated slate aggregate possesses lower compressive strength values as compared to the normal weight concrete
cylinders. "ifferent trial mixes were prepared and analyzed for uniaxial compressive testing along with the
analysis of mode of failure under the application of loading.
Keywords: "loate# slate aggregates, light weight aggregate, compressive strength
1 !ntrod"ction:
!tructural lightweight aggregate concrete is an
important and versatile material in modern
construction. It has many and varied applications
including multistory building frames and floors,
bridges, offshore oil platforms, and Prestressed or
precast elements of all types #$%. &any architects,
engineers, and contractors recognize the inherent
economies and advantages offered by this material,
as evident by the various impressive lightweight
concrete structures found today throughout the world
#'%.
(ightweight concrete has strengths comparable to
normal weight concrete, yet is typically ')* to +)*
lighter #+%. !tructural lightweight concrete offers
design flexibility and substantial cost savings by
providing less dead load, improved seismic structural
response, longer spans, better fire ratings, and thinner
sections, decreased story height, smaller size
structural members, less reinforcing steel, and lower
foundation costs #,%.
(ightweight concrete precast elements offer reduced
transportation and placement costs #)%. -otary kiln
process is generally used to process the natural or by.
product material to make them a light weight material
#/%. !ome times in rotary kiln process the material are
discharged and cooled after which they are crushed
up to re0uired gradation of aggregate size #1%. The
resultant materials tend to be cubical or angular in
shape having porous nature of structure. #2%. The bulk
density of bloated slate aggregate is varying normally
from '3 to ') lb4ft
+
depending on the nature of
deposits of parent rock #5%. Their compressive
strenght after '2days are varying from /33 psi to
$)33 psi #5%.
2 Materia#s and Methods:
$!1! %cc&rrence of "loate# slate:
The slate selected in this research study was obtained
from precambrian &anki formation, as depicted in
6igure $ #5%. The &anki formation consists of thick
se0uence of !late and Phyllite slate with some
intercalations of 0uartzite and lime stone. "olerite
intrusions and 0uartz veins are found locally. It is
bedded and fractured ointed and is extensively
developed in the northern portion of 7ttock.8herat
range, west of Indus river #$3%.
7 developed slate cleavage is prominent near &anki,
9iarat kaka sahib, 7ttock and :hairabad #$3%.
&anganese dendrite and pyrite cubes are present in
abundance in lower portions of the slates of &anki
formation. (imestone occurs in pockets. 7nother
important feature is the presence of 0uartz veins
usually prominent near the northern part of &anki
!harif.#$$%
2.2. Physical characteristics of bloated slate
aggregate (course aggregate):
!late is a metamorphic laminated clay rock available
in huge 0uantities in Pakistan, was crushed up to ; in
down <$'.)mm= and ensured proper gradation. These
slates were brought to the Pakistan 8ouncil of
!cientific and Industrial -esearch <P8!I-=
laboratory and were bloated by rotary :illen method
for its bloating involving $$33
o
8 temperature under
control environment.
!pecific >ravity <"ry= ? $.)32
!pecific >ravity <!aturated !urface "ry= ? $./3$
7bsorption <!aturated !urface "ry= ? /.$2/*
(os 7ngeles 7brasion ? ,'*
2.3. Preparation of trial mix for obtaining optimum
mix
Trial mixes were prepared to obtain optimum mix.
"ifferent ratios were divided in to two sets@ first of
all ratio of $A,A2 and $A+A/ was initially used. The
basis for this initial selection is the locally used
construction language for concrete works.
Methods:
6irst trial was selected using local field terminology
in which ratio used was $A,A2 <$part cementA ,parts
sandA 2parts coarse aggregate= and $A+A/ <$part
cementA +parts sandA /parts coarse aggregate= by
weight as initial trial to have some basic information.
"ue to high absorption of bloated slate aggregate it
was thoroughly wetted and mixed with sand and
cement but the mix was not properly mixed, due to
which the cement sand mortar was prepared and then
the wet aggregate were mixed with the paste. !lump
test was carried out for different water cement ratios
and was recorded. 8oncrete cylinders were prepared
with the workability needed for construction of slabs.
7fter ', hours as the cylinders was removed from
moulds, they showed a rough surface. 7 total of six
cylinders were prepared and kept in water tank for
curing.
7t 1 days, $, days and at '2 days one cylinder from
each mix was tested for compressive strength of
bloated slate concrete.
7fter analyzing the data the mix was made richer
than the above ratios and two sets of cylinders were
prepared and for that particular water cement ratio,
slump criteria was the controlling factor. The w4c
ratio for which the desired slump achieved was used
for preparing cylinders for compressive strength
testing. These sets having the ratios of $A'A, <$part
cementA ' parts sandA ,parts coarse aggregate= and
$A$.)A+ by weight.
8ylinders were prepared in the same way as
discussed above. 8ylinders were kept in water tank
and from each mix they were tested after 1, $, and
'2days for compressive strength. 7fter analyzing the
data it was revealed that the ratio between $A'A, and
$A$.)A+ should be adopted as optimum mix.
&ore cylinders were prepared for the ratio of
$A$.1A+.) by weight and tested after 1,$, and '2 days
respectively after analyzing the data, as it was
selected as optimum mix.
$ %es"#ts and Disc"ssion
'!1! "ehavior of (loate# slate aggregate:
Bloated slate aggregates, which were crushed down
to the re0uired gradation after bloating, have porous
nature due to expansion. They have very rough
surface and harsh to work with. The moisture
absorption of /* shows its high porosity due to
which it is difficult to mix it directly with dried
matrix.
If it is mixed in dry conditions with cement plus
aggregate and then water is applied, they do not
allow proper mixing and the workability of the mix is
much reduced due high absorption of concrete. They
make the concrete harden in short time. !o to avoid
this, the aggregate should be applied with water
according to its absorption and then they should be
added with the water cement ratio. The obtained slate
)ig&re 1: *ap of the *anki sharif )ormation +,-
aggregate from the source was found covered slightly
with &ica due to which its weight was higher than
water. The unit weight <oven dried= was observed to
be 5, lb4ft
+
which is lower than normal aggregate.
The (os 7ngeles abrasion test showed results
relatively better than they were expected as the
aggregates can be broken by a slight hit on to the
ground.
The aggregates have less abrasion resistance to
loading as compared to normal weight aggregate. It is
very difficult to achieve the level of workability with
normally used water to cement ratio which is 3.) due
to roughness of the aggregate texture and porous
nature.
Chen the aggregate is broken into pieces before
bloating, it has less porosity and has smooth surface
which helps in achieving a level of workability. But
after bloating if it is broken into pieces then it possess
angular and harsh structure.
'!$! .ater cement ratio an# worka(ility relation
Trial batches were prepared to obtain the optimum
mix to be used in the construction of light weight
aggregate concrete members. "ifferent trials of water
to cement ratio were conducted and results analyzed
as depicted in 6igure ' and 6igure +.
It is indicative from 6igure ' that at 3.) water4cement
ratio the mix is very harsh and very difficult to
produce slump and at 3.1' to 3.2 it gives some
reasonable value of slump. 7bove these values the
cement.sand mortar sets due to their heavier weight
and the aggregates are bonded with each other due to
the slurry in the pores of the aggregate. This serves as
reinforcement in connecting the aggregate with each
other.
In other words the slump is achieved when some
balanced amount of aggregates and mortar setting
more than the mortar. This behavior is opposite to
that normal weight aggregate mixes in which the
aggregate sets which is termed as segregation.
)ig&re $: /elationship (etween w0c 123a2is4 an#
sl&mp 1y3a2is4 for 1:$:5 concrete
)ig&re ': /elationship (etween w0c ratio 123a2is4
an# sl&mp 1y3a2is4 for 1:1!6:'!7 concrete
'!'! 8etting time of (loate# slate aggregate concrete
The setting time of the bloated slate aggregate
concrete is almost half as compared to normal weight
aggregate due to its nature. The final setting time is
also affected in this. 8oncrete sets within +3 to ,3
minutes and also final setting time is reduced in this
case up to 2 to 5 hours. The setting time is affected
by 0uantity of aggregate and cement.
'!5! Compaction of (loate# slate aggregate concrete
It is very difficult to obtain smooth surface from
Bloated slate aggregate concrete by application of
vibrator as during vibration the aggregate comes to
upper portion and the cement paste sits due to which
the finished surface is not achieved although by
rodding it give better results.
3.5. ompressi!e strength of bloated slate aggregate
concrete
8ompressive strength of bloated slate aggregate is
summarized in Table $ for different mixes in order to
obtain optimum mix to be used in the construction
hollow core light weight aggregated slab panels. 6or
various mixes '2 days compressive strength varies
from +23psi to $,)3psi.
It can be seen that the strength is affected very much
by increasing cement content keeping the sand
content constant up to a limit where the failure of
aggregate take place. 6urther increasing the content
though increases the strength but not very effectively
as shown in Table $, that the failure of aggregate
occurs in the ratio of $A'A, and $A$.)A+. This means
that due to the increase in cement content increases a
very little increment in strength of aggregate by
occupying the pores with in the aggregate structure.
Table $A &ix ratios v4s strength performance
%atios & da's strength 1( da's strength 2) da's strength *ai#"re +atterns
$A+A/ )3) psi /)3 psi 1$' psi 6ailure of mortar
$A'A, 253 psi $3$' psi $'') psi Partial aggregate and
bond failure
$A$.)A+ $3$3 psi $'3) psi $,'' psi 7ggregate
$A$.1A+.) 51, psi $$3) psi $+/) psi 7ggregate
The compressive strength of the bloated slate
aggregate concrete is greater in first $, days. Chile it
has normal distribution, not too scattered which is
contributed by the presence of sand as from previous
studies on no fines bloated slate aggregate having
variations in the strength of cylinders. By volume
mix proportioning more strength may be obtained but
then there is no considerable reduction in weight of
light weight aggregate concrete. The ratio of $A'A, by
weight of <cement, sand and aggregate= for normal
concrete gives +333 psi strength and the failure
occurs by bond separation.
( ,onc#"sion and %ecommendation:
,onc#"sions:
$. Bloated slate when crushed before bloating has
workability much more than when are crushed
after bloating. 7s the optimum water to cement
ratio in former case was 3.)) while in the later it
was 3.1+.
'. Dvery bloated slate aggregate concrete mix has
its own optimum water4cement ratio below or
above which there is no appreciable workability.
+. The strength of bloated slate aggregate varies
with cement contents.
,. The bloated slate aggregate concrete has ')*
less weight than that of normal weight
aggregate concrete.
). The setting time of bloated slate aggregate
concrete is almost half as compared to that of
normal weight aggregate concrete.
/. If mixture proportioning is done by weight for
the lightweight aggregate concrete then the
strength achieved is less but weight reduction is
more in the case of volumetric batching.
1. The failure of bloated slate concrete is abrupt as
compared to that of normal weight aggregate.
%ecommendations:
$. &ore refined testing is re0uired to study the
behavior of concrete in which normal weight
aggregate are replaced by bloated slate
aggregates.
'. !ome of the bloated slates aggregates were
covered by &ica due to which its weight was
more than pure bloated slates. The investigation
of pure bloated slates should also be carried out.
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