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Law Providing For Alternative Dispute

Resolution-Republic Act 9285
The Lawyer's Post / 17 hours ago
REPUL!" A"# $%& 9285
A$ A"# #% !$'#!#U#!%$AL!(E #)E U'E %F A$
AL#ER$A#!*E D!'PU#E RE'%LU#!%$ '+'#E, !$
#)E P)!L!PP!$E' A$D #% E'#AL!') #)E %FF!"E
F%R AL#ER$A#!*E D!'PU#E RE'%LU#!%$- A$D F%R
%#)ER PURP%'E'
e it enacted b. t/e 'enate and )ouse o0 Representatives o0
t/e P/ilippines in "ongress asse1bled2
")AP#ER ! 3 4E$ERAL PR%*!'!%$'
'E"#!%$ 5& #itle& 6 #/is Act s/all be 7nown as t/e 8Alternative Dispute
Resolution Act o0 299:&;
'E"& 2& Declaration o0 Polic.& 6 !t is /ereb. declared t/e polic. o0 t/e 'tate to
activel. pro1ote part. autono1. in t/e resolution o0 disputes or t/e 0reedo1 o0
t/e parties to 1a7e t/eir own arrange1ents to resolve t/eir disputes& #owards
t/is end- t/e 'tate s/all encourage and activel. pro1ote t/e use o0 Alternative
Dispute Resolution <ADR= as an i1portant 1eans to ac/ieve speed. and
i1partial >ustice and de-clog court doc7ets& As suc/- t/e 'tate s/all provide
1eans 0or t/e use o0 ADR as an e00icient tool and an alternative procedure 0or t/e
resolution o0 appropriate cases& Li7ewise- t/e 'tate s/all enlist active private
sector participation in t/e settle1ent o0 disputes t/roug/ ADR& #/is Act s/all be
wit/out pre>udice to t/e adoption b. t/e 'upre1e "ourt o0 an. ADR s.ste1-
suc/ as 1ediation- conciliation- arbitration- or an. co1bination t/ereo0 as a
1eans o0 ac/ieving speed. and e00icient 1eans o0 resolving cases pending be0ore
all courts in t/e P/ilippines w/ic/ s/all be governed b. suc/ rules as t/e
'upre1e "ourt 1a. approve 0ro1 ti1e to ti1e&
'E"& ?& De0inition o0 #er1s&6For purposes o0 t/is Act- t/e ter12
8Alternative Dispute Resolution '.ste1; 1eans an. process or procedure used
to resolve a dispute or controvers.- ot/er t/an b. ad>udication o0 a presiding
>udge o0 a court or an o00icer o0 a govern1ent agenc.- as de0ined in t/is Act- in
w/ic/ a neutral t/ird part. participates to assist in t/e resolution o0 issues- w/ic/
includes arbitration- 1ediation- conciliation- earl. neutral evaluation- 1ini-trial-
or an. co1bination t/ereo0@
8ADR Provider; 1eans institutions or persons accredited as 1ediator-
conciliator- arbitrator- neutral evaluator- or an. person eAercising si1ilar
0unctions in an. Alternative Dispute Resolution s.ste1& #/is is wit/out pre>udice
to t/e rig/ts o0 t/e parties to c/oose nonaccredited individuals to act as 1ediator-
conciliator- arbitrator- or neutral evaluator o0 t/eir dispute& B/enever re0erred
to in t/is Act- t/e ter1 8ADR practitioners; s/all re0er to individuals acting as
1ediator- conciliator- arbitrator or neutral evaluator@
8Aut/enticate; 1eans to sign- eAecute or adopt a s.1bol or encr.pt a record in
w/ole or in part- intended to identi0. t/e aut/enticating part. and to adopt-
accept or establis/ t/e aut/enticit. o0 a record or ter1@
8Arbitration; 1eans a voluntar. dispute resolution process in w/ic/ one or 1ore
arbitrators- appointed in accordance wit/ t/e agree1ent o0 t/e parties- or rules
pro1ulgated pursuant to t/is Act- resolve a dispute b. rendering an award@
8Arbitrator; 1eans t/e person appointed to render an award- alone or wit/
ot/ers- in a dispute t/at is t/e sub>ect o0 an arbitration agree1ent@
8Award; 1eans an. partial or 0inal decision b. an arbitrator in resolving t/e
issue in a controvers.@
8"o11ercial Arbitration; 3 An arbitration is 8co11ercial; i0 it covers 1atter
arising 0ro1 all relations/ips o0 a co11ercial nature- w/et/er contractual or
not@
8"on0idential in0or1ation; 1eans an. in0or1ation- relative to t/e sub>ect o0
1ediation or arbitration- eApressl. intended b. t/e source not to be disclosed- or
obtained under circu1stances t/at would create a reasonable eApectation on
be/al0 o0 t/e source t/at t/e in0or1ation s/all not be disclosed& !t s/all include
<5= co11unication- oral or written- 1ade in a dispute resolution proceedings-
including an. 1e1oranda- notes or wor7 product o0 t/e neutral part. or non
part. participant- as de0ined in t/is Act@ <2= an oral or written state1ent 1ade or
w/ic/ occurs during 1ediation or 0or purposes o0 considering- conducting-
participating- initiating- continuing or reconvening 1ediation or retaining a
1ediator@ and <?= pleadings@ 1otions- 1ani0estations- witness state1ents- reports
0iled or sub1itted in an arbitration or 0or eApert evaluation@
8"onvention Award; 1eans a 0oreign arbitral award 1ade in a "onvention
'tate@
8"onvention 'tate; 1eans a 'tate t/at is a 1e1ber o0 t/e $ew +or7 "onvention@
8"ourt; as re0erred to in Article C o0 t/e ,odel Law s/all 1ean a Regional
#rial"ourt@
8"ourt-AnneAed ,ediation; 1eans an. 1ediation process conducted under t/e
auspices- o0 t/e court- a0ter suc/ court /as acDuired >urisdiction o0 t/e dispute@
8"ourt-Re0erred ,ediation; 1eans 1ediation ordered b. a court to be
conducted in accordance wit/ t/e Agree1ent o0 t/e Parties w/en an action is
pre1aturel. co11enced in violation o0 suc/ agree1ent@
8Earl. $eutral Evaluation; 1eans ADR process w/erein parties and t/eir
law.ers are broug/t toget/er earl. in a pre-trial p/ase to present su11aries o0
t/eir cases and receive a nonbinding assess1ent b. an eAperienced neutral
person- wit/ eApertise in t/e sub>ect in t/e substance o0 t/e dispute@
84overn1ent Agenc.; 1eans an. govern1ental entit.- o00ice or o00icer- ot/er
t/an a court- t/at is vested b. law wit/ Duasi >udicial power or t/e power to
resolve or ad>udicate disputes involving t/e govern1ent- its agencies and
instru1entalities- or private persons@
8!nternational Part.; s/all 1ean an entit. w/ose place o0 business is outside t/e
P/ilippines& !t s/all not include a do1estic subsidiar. o0 suc/ international part.
or a co-venturer in a >oint venture wit/ a part. w/ic/ /as its place o0 business in
t/e P/ilippines& #/e ter1 0oreign arbitrator s/all 1ean a person w/o is not a
national o0 t/e P/ilippines@
8,ediation; 1eans a voluntar. process in w/ic/ a 1ediator- selected b. t/e
disputing parties- 0acilitates co11unication and negotiation- and assists t/e
parties in reac/ing a voluntar. agree1ent regarding a dispute-
8,ediator; 1eans a person w/o conducts 1ediation@
8,ediation Part.; 1eans a person w/o participates in a 1ediation and w/ose
consent is necessar. to resolve t/e dispute@
8,ediation-Arbitration; or ,ed-Arb is a two-step dispute resolution process
involving bot/ 1ediation and arbitration2
8,ini-trial; 1eans a structured dispute resolution 1et/od in w/ic/ t/e 1erits o0
a case are argued be0ore a panel co1prising senior decision 1a7ers wit/ or
wit/out t/e presence o0 a neutral t/ird person a0ter w/ic/ t/e parties see7 a
negotiated settle1ent2
8,odel Law; 1eans t/e ,odel Law on !nternational "o11ercial Arbitration
adopted b. t/e United $ations "o11ission on !nternational #rade Law on 25
Eune 59852
8$ew +or7 "onvention; 1eans t/e United $ations "onvention on t/e
Recognition and En0orce1ent o0 Foreign Arbitral Awards approved in 5958 and
rati0ied b. t/e P/ilippine 'enate under 'enate Resolution $o& F52
8$on-"onvention Award; 1eans a Foreign arbitral award 1ade in a 'tate w/ic/
is not a "onvention 'tate2
8$on-"onvention 'tate; 1eans a 'tate t/at is not a 1e1ber o0 t/e $ew +or7
"onvention@
8$on-Part. Participant; 1eans a person& %t/er t/an a part. or 1ediator- w/o
participates in a 1ediation proceeding as a witness- resource person or eApert@
8Proceeding; 1eans a >udicial- ad1inistrative- or ot/er ad>udicative process-
including related pre-/earing or post-/earing 1otions-con0erences and
discover.2
Record; 1eans an in0or1ation written in a tangible 1ediu1 or stored in an
electronic or ot/er si1ila 1ediu1- retrievable in a perceivable 0or1@ and
8Roster; 1eans a list o0 persons Duali0ied provide ADR services as neutrals or to
serve arbitrators&
'E"& :& Electronic 'ignatures in 4lobal and E-"o11erce Act&6#/e provisions
o0 t/e Electronic 'ignatures in 4lobal and E-"o11erce Act& and its
!1ple1enting Rules and Regulations s/all appl. to proceedings conte1plated in
t/is Act&
'E"& 5& Liabilit. o0 ADR ProvidersG Practitioners&6#/e ADR providers and
practitioners s/all /ave t/e sa1e civil liabilit. 0or acts done in t/e per0or1ance
o0 t/eir duties as t/at o0 public o00icers as provided in 'ection ?8 & "/apter 9&
oo7 ! o0 t/e Ad1inistrative "ode o0 59&
'E"& C& EAception to t/e Application o0 t/is Act&6#/e provisions o0 t/is Act s/all
not appl. to resolution or settle1ent o0 t/e 0ollowing2 <a= labor disputes covered
b. Presidential Decree $o& ::2& ot/erwise 7nown as t/e Labor "ode o0 t/e
P/ilippines- as a1ended and its !1ple1enting Rules and Regulations2 <b= t/e
civil status o0 persons@ <c= t/e validit. o0 a 1arriage2 <d= an. ground 0or legal
separation2 <e= t/e >urisdiction o0 courts2 <0= 0uture legiti1e2 <g= cri1inal liabilit.@
and </= t/ose w/ic/ b. law cannot be co1pro1ised&
")AP#ER 2 3 ,ED!A#!%$
'E"& F& 'cope&6#/e provisions o0 t/is "/apter s/all cover voluntar. 1ediation&
w/et/er ad /oc or institutional- ot/er t/an court-anneAed& #/e ter1 81ediation;
s/all include conciliation&
'E"& 8& Application and !nterpretation&6!n appl.ing and construing t/e
provisions or t/is "/apter- consideration 1ust be given to t/e need to pro1ote
candor o0 parties and 1ediators t/roug/ con0identialit. o0 t/e 1ediation process-
t/e polic. o0 0ostering pro1pt- econo1ical and a1icable resolution o0 disputes in
accordance wit/ principles o0 integrit. o0 deter1ination b. t/e parties- and t/e
polic. t/at t/e decision-1a7ing aut/orit. in t/e 1ediation process rests wit/ t/e
parties&
'E"& 9& "on0identialit. o0 !n0or1ation&6 !n0or1ation obtained t/roug/
1ediation proceedings s/all be sub>ect to t/e 0ollowing principles and guidelines2
!n0or1ation obtained t/roug/ 1ediation s/all be privileged and con0idential&
A part.- a 1ediator- or a nonpart. participant 1a. re0use to disclose and 1a.
prevent an. ot/er person 0ro1 disclosing a 1ediation co11unication&
"on0idential !n0or1ation s/all not be sub>ect to discover. and s/all be
inad1issible in an. adversarial proceeding- w/et/er >udicial or Duasi->udicial&
)owever- evidence or in0or1ation t/at is ot/erwise ad1issible or sub>ect to
discover. does not beco1e inad1issible or protected 0ro1 discover. solel. b.
reason o0 its use in a 1ediation&
!n suc/ an adversarial proceeding- t/e 0ollowing persons involved or previousl.
in a 1ediation 1a. not be co1pelled to disclose con0idential in0or1ation
obtained during 1ediation2 <5= t/e parties to t/e dispute- <2= t/e 1ediator or
1ediators- <?= t/e counsel 0or t/e parties@ <:= t/e nonpart. participants@ <5= an.
persons /ired or engaged in connection wit/ t/e 1ediation as secretar.-
stenograp/er- cler7 or assistant@ and <C= an. ot/er person w/o obtains or
possesses con0idential in0or1ation b. reason o0 /isG/er pro0ession&
#/e protections o0 t/is Act s/all continue to appl. even i0 a 1ediator is 0ound to
/ave 0ailed to act i1partiall.&
A 1ediator 1a. not be called to testi0. to provide in0or1ation gat/ered in
1ediation& A 1ediator w/o is wrong0ull. subpoenaed s/all be rei1bursed t/e 0ull
cost o0 /is attorne.Hs 0ees and related eApenses&
'E"& 59& Baiver o0 "on0identialit.&6A privilege arising 0ro1 t/e con0identialit.
o0 in0or1ation 1a. be waived in a record- or orall. during a proceeding b. t/e
1ediator and 1ediation parties&
A privilege arising 0ro1 t/e con0idential o0 in0or1ation 1a. li7ewise be waived
b. a nonpart. participant i0 t/e in0or1ation provided b. suc/ nonpart.
participant&
A person w/o discloses con0idential in0or1ation s/all be precluded 0ro1
asserting t/e privilege under 'ection 9 o0 t/is "/apter to bar disclosure o0 t/e
rest o0 t/e in0or1ation necessar. to a co1plete understanding o0 t/e previousl.
disclosed in0or1ation& !0 a person su00ers loss or da1age as a result o0 t/e
disclosure o0 t/e con0idential in0or1ation- /e s/all be entitled to da1ages in a
>udicial proceeding against t/e person w/o 1ade t/e disclosure&
A person w/o discloses or 1a7es@ representation about a 1ediation is preclude
0ro1 asserting t/e privilege under 'ection 9- to t/e eAtent t/at t/e
co11unication pre>udices anot/er person in t/e proceeding and it is necessar.
0or t/e person pre>udiced to respond to t/e representation o0 disclosure&
'E"& 55& EAceptions to Privilege&6<a= #/ere is no privilege against disclosure
under 'ection 9 i0 1ediation co11unication is2
in an agree1ent evidenced b. a record aut/enticated b. all parties to t/e
agree1ent@
available to t/e public or t/at is 1ade during a session o0 a 1ediation w/ic/ is
open or is reDuired b. law to be open- to t/e public@
a t/reat or state1ent o0 a plan to in0lict bodil. in>ur. or co11it a cri1e o0
violence-
intentionall. used to plan a cri1e- atte1pt to co11it- or co11it a cri1e- or
conceal an ongoing cri1e or cri1inal activit.@
soug/t or o00ered to prove or disprove abuse- neglect- abandon1ent- or
eAploitation in a proceeding in w/ic/ a public agenc. is protecting t/e interest o0
an individual protected b. law@ but t/is eAception does not appl. w/ere a c/ild
protection 1atter is re0erred to 1ediation b. a court or a public agenc.
participates in t/e c/ild protection 1ediation@
soug/t or o00ered to prove or disprove a clai1 or co1plaint o0 pro0essional
1isconduct or 1alpractice 0iled against 1ediator in a proceeding@ or
soug/t or o00ered to prove or disprove a clai1 or co1plaint o0 pro0essional
1isconduct or 1alpractice 0iled against a part.- nonpart. participant- or
representative o0 a part. based on conduct occurring during a 1ediation&
<b= #/ere is no privilege under 'ection 9 i0 a court or ad1inistrative agenc.-
0inds- a0ter a /earing in ca1era- t/at t/e part. see7ing discover. o0 t/e
proponent o0 t/e evidence /as s/own t/at t/e evidence is not ot/erwise available-
t/at t/ere is a need 0or t/e evidence t/at substantiall. outweig/s t/e interest in
protecting con0identialit.- and t/e 1ediation co11unication is soug/t or o00ered
in2
a court proceeding involving a cri1e or 0elon.@ or
a proceeding to prove a clai1 or de0ense t/at under t/e law is su00icient to re0or1
or avoid a liabilit. on a contract arising out o0 t/e 1ediation&
<c= A 1ediator 1a. not be co1pelled to provide evidence o0 a 1ediation
co11unication or testi0. in suc/ proceeding&
<d= !0 a 1ediation co11unication is not privileged under an eAception in
subsection <a= or <b=- onl. t/e portion o0 t/e co11unication necessar. 0or t/e
application o0 t/e eAception 0or nondisclosure 1a. be ad1itted& #/e ad1ission o0
particular evidence 0or t/e li1ited purpose o0 an eAception does not render t/at
evidence- or an. ot/er 1ediation co11unication- ad1issible 0or an. ot/er
purpose&
'E"& 52& Pro/ibited ,ediator Reports& 6 A 1ediator 1a. not 1a7e a report-
assess1ent- evaluation- reco11endation- 0inding- or ot/er co11unication
regarding a 1ediation to a court or agenc. or ot/er aut/orit. t/at 1a. 1a7e a
ruling on a dispute t/at is t/e sub>ect o0 a 1ediation- eAcept2
w/ere t/e 1ediation occurred or /as ter1inated- or w/ere a settle1ent was
reac/ed&
As per1itted to be disclosed under 'ection 5? o0 t/is "/apter&
'E"& 5?& ,ediatorHs Disclosure and "on0lict o0 !nterest&6#/e 1ediation s/all be
guided b. t/e 0ollowing operative principles2
<a= e0ore accepting a 1ediation- an individual w/o is reDuested to serve as a
1ediator s/all2
1a7e an inDuir. t/at is reasonable under t/e circu1stances to deter1ine
w/et/er t/ere are an. 7nown 0acts t/at a reasonable individual would consider
li7el. to a00ect t/e i1partialit. o0 t/e 1ediator- including a 0inancial or personal
interest in t/e outco1e o0 t/e 1ediation and an. eAisting or past relations/ip
wit/ a part. or 0oreseeable participant in t/e 1ediation@ and
disclose to t/e 1ediation parties an. suc/ 0act 7nown or learned as soon as is
practical be0ore accepting a 1ediation&
<b= !0 a 1ediator learns an. 0act described in paragrap/ <a=<l= o0 t/is section a0ter
accepting a 1ediation- t/e 1ediator s/all disclose it as soon as practicable& At t/e
reDuest o0 a 1ediation part.- an individual w/o is reDuested to serve as 1ediator
s/all disclose /isG/er Duali0ications to 1ediate a dispute&
#/is Act does not reDuire t/at a 1ediator s/all /ave special Duali0ications b.
bac7ground or pro0ession unless t/e special Duali0ications o0 a 1ediator are
reDuired in t/e 1ediation agree1ent or b. t/e 1ediation parties&
'E"& 5:& Participation in ,ediation&6EAcept as ot/erwise provided in t/is Act- a
part. 1a. designate a law.er or an. ot/er person to provide assistance in t/e
1ediation& A waiver o0 t/is rig/t s/all be 1ade in writing b. t/e part. waiving it&
A waiver o0 participation or legal representation 1a. be rescinded at an. ti1e&
'E"& 55& Place o0 ,ediation&6#/e parties are 0ree to agree on t/e place o0
1ediation& Failing suc/ agree1ent- t/e place o0 1ediation s/all be an. place
convenient and appropriate to all parties&
'E"& 5C& E00ect o0 Agree1ent to 'ub1it Dispute to ,ediation Under !nstitutional
Rules&6 An agree1ent to sub1it a dispute to 1ediation b. an institution s/all
include an agree1ent to be bound b. t/e internal 1ediation and ad1inistrative
policies o0 suc/ institution& Furt/er- an agree1ent to sub1it a dispute to
1ediation under institutional 1ediation rules s/all be dee1ed to include an
agree1ent to /ave suc/ rules govern t/e 1ediation o0 t/e dispute and 0or t/e
1ediator- t/e parties- t/eir respective counsel- and nonpart. participants to
abide b. suc/ rules& !n case o0 con0lict between t/e institutional 1ediation rules
and t/e provisions o0 t/is Act- t/e latter s/all prevail&
'E"& 5F& En0orce1ent o0 ,ediated 'ettle1ent Agree1ents&6#/e 1ediation s/all
be guided b. t/e 0ollowing operative principles2
A settle1ent agree1ent 0ollowing success0ul 1ediation s/all be prepared b. t/e
parties wit/ t/e assistance o0 t/eir respective counsel- i0 an.- and b. t/e 1ediator&
#/e parties and t/eir respective counsels s/all endeavor to 1a7e t/e ter1s and
condition t/ereo0 co1plete and 1a7e adeDuate provisions 0or t/e contingenc. o0
breac/ to avoid con0licting interpretations o0 t/e agree1ent
#/e parties and t/eir respective counsels i0 an.- s/all sign t/e settle1ent
agree1ent& #/e 1ediator s/all certi0. t/at /eGs/e eAplained t/e contents o0 t/e
settle1ent agree1ent to t/e parties in a language 7nown to t/e1&
!0 t/e parties so desire- t/e. 1a. deposit suc/ settle1ent agree1ent wit/ t/e
appropriate "ler7 o0 a Regional #rial "ourt o0 t/e place w/ere one o0 t/e parties
resides& B/ere t/ere is a need to en0orce t/e settle1ent agree1ent- a petition
1a. be 0iled b. an. o0 t/e parties wit/ t/e sa1e court- in w/ic/ case- t/e court
s/all proceed su11aril. to /ear t/e petition- in accordance wit/ suc/ rules o0
procedure as 1a. be pro1ulgated b. t/e 'upre1e "ourt&
#/e parties 1a. agree in t/e settle1ent agree1ent t/at t/e 1ediator s/all
beco1e a sole arbitrator 0or t/e dispute and s/all treat t/e settle1ent agree1ent
as an arbitral award w/ic/ s/all be sub>ect to en0orce1ent under Republic Act
$o& 8FC- ot/erwise 7nown as t/e Arbitration Law- notwit/standing t/e provisions
o0 EAecutive %rder $o& 5998 0or 1ediated dispute outside o0 t/e "!A"&
")AP#ER ? 3 %#)ER ADR F%R,'
'E"& 58& Re0erral o0 Dispute to %t/er ADR For1s&6#/e parties 1a. agree to
re0er one or 1ore or all issues arising in a dispute or during its pendenc. to ot/er
0or1s o0 ADR suc/ as but not li1ited to <a= t/e evaluation o0 a t/ird person or
<b= a 1ini-trial- <c= 1ediation-arbitration- or a co1bination t/ereo0&
For purposes o0 t/is Act- t/e use o0 ot/er ADR 0or1s s/all be governed b.
"/apter 2 o0 t/is Act eAcept w/ere it is co1bined wit/ arbitration in w/ic/ case
it s/all li7ewise governed b. "/apter 5 o0 t/is Act&
")AP#ER : 3 !$#ER$A#!%$AL "%,,ER"!AL AR!#RA#!%$
'E"& 59& Adoption o0 t/e ,odel Law on !nternational "o11ercial Arbitration&
6 !nternational co11ercial arbitration s/all be governed b. t/e ,odel Law on
!nternational "o11ercial Arbitration <t/e 8,odel Law;= adopted b. t/e United
$ations "o11ission on !nternational #rade Law on 25 Eune 5985 <United
$ations Docu1ent AG:9G5F= and reco11ended 0or enact1ent b. t/e 4eneral
Asse1bl. in Resolution $o& :9GF2 approved on 55 Dece1ber 5985- cop. o0 w/ic/
is /ereto attac/ed as AppendiA 8A;&
'E"& 29& !nterpretation o0 ,odel Law&6!n interpreting t/e ,odel Law- regard
s/all be /ad to its international origin and to t/e need 0or uni0or1it. in its
interpretation and resort 1a. be 1ade to t/e travauA preparatories and t/e
report o0 t/e 'ecretar. 4eneral o0 t/e United $ations "o11ission on
!nternational #rade Law dated 25 ,arc/ 5985 entitled- 8!nternational
"o11ercial Arbitration2 Anal.tical "o11entar. on Dra0t #eAt identi0ied b.
re0erence nu1ber AG"$& 9G 2C:&;
'E"& 25& "o11ercial Arbitration&6An arbitration is 8co11ercial; i0 it covers
1atters arising 0ro1 all relations/ips o0 a co11ercial nature- w/et/er
contractual or not& Relations/ips o0 a co11ercial nature include- but are not
li1ited to- t/e 0ollowing transactions2 an. trade transaction 0or t/e suppl. or
eAc/ange o0 goods or services@ distribution agree1ents@ construction o0 wor7s@
co11ercial representation or agenc.@ 0actoring@ leasing@ consulting@ engineering@
licensing@ invest1ent@ 0inancing@ ban7ing@ insurance- >oint venture and ot/er
0or1s o0 industrial or business cooperation@ carriage o0 goods or passengers b.
air- sea- rail or road&
'E"& 22& Legal Representation in !nternational Arbitration&6 !n international
arbitration conducted in t/e P/ilippines- a part. 1a. be represented b. an.
person o0 /is c/oice2 Provided- #/at suc/ representative- unless ad1itted to t/e
practice o0 law in t/e P/ilippines- s/all not be aut/oriIed to appear as counsel in
an. P/ilippine court- or an. ot/er Duasi->udicial bod. w/et/er or not suc/
appearance is in relation to t/e arbitration in w/ic/ /e appears&
'E"& 2?& "on0identialit. o0 Arbitration Proceedings&6#/e arbitration
proceedings- including t/e records- evidence and t/e arbitral award- s/all be
considered con0idential and s/all not be publis/ed eAcept <5= wit/ t/e consent o0
t/e parties- or <2= 0or t/e li1ited purpose o0 disclosing to t/e court o0 relevant
docu1ents in cases w/ere resort to t/e court is allowed /erein2 Provided-
/owever- #/at t/e court in w/ic/ t/e action or t/e appeal is pending 1a. issue a
protective order to prevent or pro/ibit disclosure o0 docu1ents or in0or1ation
containing secret processes- develop1ents- researc/ and ot/er in0or1ation w/ere
it is s/own t/at t/e applicant s/all be 1ateriall. pre>udiced b. an aut/oriIed
disclosure t/ereo0&
'E"& 2:& Re0erral to Arbitration&6A court be0ore w/ic/ an action is broug/t in a
1atter w/ic/ is t/e sub>ect 1atter o0 an arbitration agree1ent s/all- i0 at least
one part. so reDuests not later t/an t/e pre-trial con0erence- or upon t/e reDuest
o0 bot/ parties t/erea0ter- re0er t/e parties to arbitration unless it 0inds t/at t/e
arbitration agree1ent is null and void- inoperative or incapable o0 being
per0or1ed&
'E"& 25& !nterpretation o0 t/e Act&6!n interpreting t/e Act- t/e court s/all /ave
due regard to t/e polic. o0 t/e law in 0avor o0 arbitration& B/ere action is
co11enced b. or against 1ultiple parties- one or 1ore o0 w/o1 are parties to an
arbitration agree1ent- t/e court s/all re0er to arbitration t/ose parties w/o are
bound b. t/e arbitration agree1ent alt/oug/ t/e civil action 1a. continue as to
t/ose w/o are not bound b. suc/ arbitration agree1ent&
'E"& 2C& ,eaning o0 8Appointing Aut/orit.&; 6 8Appointing Aut/orit.; as used
in t/e ,odel Law s/all 1ean t/e person or institution na1ed in t/e arbitration
agree1ent as t/e appointing aut/orit.@ or t/e regular arbitration institution
under w/ose rules t/e arbitration is agreed to be conducted& B/ere t/e parties
/ave agreed to sub1it t/eir dispute to institutional arbitration rules- and unless
t/e. /ave agreed to a di00erent procedure- t/e. s/all be dee1ed to /ave agreed to
t/e procedure under suc/ arbitration rules 0or t/e selection and appoint1ent o0
arbitrators& !n ad /oc arbitration- t/e de0ault appoint1ent o0 an arbitrator s/all
be 1ade b. t/e $ational President o0 t/e !ntegrated ar o0 t/e P/ilippines <!P=
or /is dul. aut/oriIed representative&
'E"& 2F& B/at Functions ,a. be Per0or1ed b. Appointing Aut/orit.&6#/e
0unctions re0erred to in Articles 55<?=- 55<:=- 5?<?= and 5:<5= o0 t/e ,odel Law
s/all be per0or1ed b. t/e Appointing Aut/orit.- unless t/e latter s/all 0ail or
re0use to act wit/in t/irt. <?9= da.s 0ro1 receipt o0 t/e reDuest in w/ic/ case t/e
applicant 1a. renew t/e application wit/ t/e "ourt&
'E"& 28& 4rant o0 !nteri1 ,easure o0 Protection& 6
<a= !t is not inco1patible wit/ an arbitration agree1ent 0or a part. to reDuest-
be0ore constitution o0 t/e tribunal- 0ro1 a "ourt an interi1 1easure o0
protection and 0or t/e "ourt to grant suc/ 1easure& A0ter constitution o0 t/e
arbitral tribunal and during arbitral proceedings- a reDuest 0or an interi1
1easure o0 protection- or 1odi0ication t/ereo0- 1a. be 1ade wit/ t/e arbitral
tribunal or to t/e eAtent t/at t/e arbitral tribunal /as no power to act or is
unable to act e00ectivel.- t/e reDuest 1a. be 1ade wit/ t/e "ourt& #/e arbitral
tribunal is dee1ed constituted w/en t/e sole arbitrator or t/e t/ird arbitrator-
w/o /as been no1inated- /as accepted t/e no1ination and written
co11unication o0 said no1ination and acceptance /as been received b. t/e
part. 1a7ing t/e reDuest&
<b= #/e 0ollowing rules on interi1 or provisional relie0 s/all be observed2
An. part. 1a. reDuest t/at provisional relie0 be granted against t/e adverse
part.&
'uc/ relie0 1a. be granted2
to prevent irreparable loss or in>ur.@
to provide securit. 0or t/e per0or1ance o0 an. obligation@
to produce or preserve an. evidence@ or
to co1pel an. ot/er appropriate act or o1ission&
#/e order granting provisional relie0 1a. be conditioned upon t/e provision o0
securit. or an. act or o1ission speci0ied in t/e order&
!nteri1 or provisional relie0 is reDuested b. written application trans1itted b.
reasonable 1eans to t/e "ourt or arbitral tribunal as t/e case 1a. be and t/e
part. against w/o1 )i relie0 is soug/t- describing in appropriate detail t/e
precise relie0- t/e part. against w/o1 t/e relie0 is reDuested- t/e grounds 0or t/e
relie0- and t/e evidence supporting t/e reDuest&
#/e order s/all be binding upon t/e parties&
Eit/er part. 1a. appl. wit/ t/e "ourt 0or assistance in i1ple1enting or
en0orcing an interi1 1easure ordered b. an arbitral tribunal&
A part. w/o does not co1pl. wit/ t/e order s/all be liable 0or all da1ages
resulting 0ro1 nonco1pliance- including all eApenses and reasonable attorne.Hs
0ees- paid in obtaining t/e orderHs >udicial en0orce1ent&
'E"& 29& Furt/er Aut/orit. 0or Arbitrator 4rant !nteri1 ,easure o0 Protection&
6 ot/erwise agreed b. t/e parties- t/e tribunal 1a.- at t/e reDuest o0 a part.-
order an. part. to ta7e suc/ interi1 1easures o0 protection as t/e arbitral
tribunal 1a. consider necessar. in respect o0 t/e sub>ect-1atter o0 t/e dispute
0ollowing t/e rules in 'ection 28- paragrap/ 2& 'uc/ interi1 1easures 1a.
include but s/all not be li1ited to preli1inar. in>unction directed against a
part.- appoint1ent o0 receivers or detention- preservation- inspection o0 propert.
t/at is t/e sub>ect o0 t/e dispute in arbitration& Eit/er part. 1a. appl. wit/ t/e
"ourt 0or assistance in i1ple1enting or en0orcing an interi1 1easure ordered
b. an arbitral tribunal&
'E"& ?9& Place o0 Arbitration&6#/e parties are 0ree to agree on t/e place o0
arbitration& Failing suc/ agree1ent- t/e place o0 arbitration s/all be in ,etro
,anila- unless t/e arbitral tribunal- /aving regard to t/e circu1stances o0 t/e
case- including t/e convenience o0 t/e parties s/all decide on a di00erent place o0
arbitration& #/e arbitral tribunal 1a.- unless ot/erwise agreed b. t/e parties-
1eet at an. place it considers appropriate 0or consultation a1ong its 1e1bers-
0or /earing witnesses- eAperts or t/e parties- or 0or inspection o0 goods- ot/er
propert. or docu1ents&
'E"& ?5& Language o0 t/e Arbitration&6#/e parties are 0ree to agree on t/e
language or languages to be used in t/e arbitral proceedings& Failing suc/
agree1ent- t/e language to be used s/all be Englis/ in international arbitration-
and Englis/ or Filipino 0or do1estic arbitration- unless t/e arbitral tribunal s/all
deter1ine a di00erent or anot/er language or languages to be used in t/e
proceedings& #/is agree1ent or deter1ination- unless ot/erwise speci0ied t/erein-
s/all appl. to an. written state1ent b. a part.- an. /earing and an. award-
decision or ot/er co11unication b. t/e arbitral tribunal&
#/e arbitral tribunal 1a. order t/at an. docu1entar. evidence s/all be
acco1panied b. a translation into t/e language or languages agreed upon b. t/e
parties or deter1ined in accordance wit/ paragrap/ 5 o0 t/is 'ection&
")AP#ER 5 3 D%,E'#!" AR!#RA#!%$
'E"& ?2& Law 4overning Do1estic Arbitration&6 Do1estic arbitration s/all
continue to be governed b. Republic Act $o& 8FC- ot/erwise 7nown as 8#/e
Arbitration Law; as a1ended b. t/is "/apter& #/e ter1 8do1estic arbitration;
as used /erein s/all 1ean an nation t/at is not international as de0ined in Article
5<?= o0 t/e ,odel Law&
'E"& ??& Applicabilit. to Do1estic Arbitration& 6Articles 8- 59- 55- 52- 5?- 5:- 58
and 59 and 29 to ?2 o0 t/e ,odel Law and 'ections 22 to ?5 o0 t/e preceding
"/apter : s/all appl. to do1estic arbitration&
")AP#ER C 3 AR!#RA#!%$ %F "%$'#RU"#!%$ D!'PU#E'
'E"& ?:& Arbitration o0 "onstruction Disputes2 4overning Law&6#/e
arbitration o0 construction disputes s/all be governed b. EAecutive %rder $o&
5998- ot/erwise 7nown as t/e "onstruction !ndustr. Arbitration Law&
'E"& ?5& "overage o0 t/e Law& 6"onstruction disputes w/ic/ 0all wit/in t/e
original and eAclusive >urisdiction o0 t/e "onstruction !ndustr. Arbitration
"o11ission <t/e 8"o11ission;= s/all include t/ose between or a1ong parties
to- or w/o are ot/erwise bound b.- an arbitration agree1ent- directl. or b.
re0erence w/et/er suc/ parties are pro>ect owner- contractor- subcontractor-
0abricator- pro>ect 1anager- design pro0essional- consultant- Duantit. surve.or-
bonds1an or issuer o0 an insurance polic. in a construction pro>ect&
#/e "o11ission s/all continue to eAercise original and eAclusive >urisdiction
over construction disputes alt/oug/ t/e arbitration is 8co11ercial; pursuant to
'ection 25 o0 t/is Act&
'E"& ?C& Aut/orit. to Act as ,ediator or Arbitrator&6. written agree1ent o0
t/e parties to a dispute- an arbitrator 1a. act as 1ediator and a 1ediator 1a.
act as arbitrator& #/e parties 1a. also agree in writing t/at- 0ollowing a
success0ul 1ediation- t/e 1ediator s/all issue t/e settle1ent agree1ent in t/e
0or1 o0 an arbitral award&
'E"& ?F& Appoint1ent o0 Foreign Arbitrator&6#/e "onstruction !ndustr.
Arbitration "o11ission <"!A"= s/all pro1ulgate rules to allow 0or t/e
appoint1ent o0 a 0oreign arbitrator as co-arbitrator or c/air1an o0 a tribunal a
person w/o /as not been previousl. accredited b. "!A"2 Provided- #/at2
t/e dispute is a construction dispute in w/ic/ one part. is an international part.@
t/e person to be appointed agreed to abide b. t/e arbitration rules and policies
o0 "!A"@
/eGs/e is eit/er co-arbitrator upon t/e no1ination o0 t/e international part.@ or
/eGs/e is t/e co11on c/oice o0 t/e two "!A" accredited arbitrators 0irst
appointed- one o0 w/o1 was no1inated b. t/e international part.@ and
t/e 0oreign arbitrator s/all be o0 di00erent nationalit. 0ro1 t/e international
part.&
'E"& ?8& Applicabilit. to "onstruction Arbitration&6#/e provisions o0 'ections
5F<d= o0 "/apter 2- and 'ections 28 and 29 o0 t/is Act s/all appl. to arbitration
o0 construction disputes covered b. t/is "/apter&
'E"& ?9& "ourt to Dis1iss "ase !nvolving a "onstruction Dispute&6A Regional
#rial "ourt be0ore w/ic/ a construction dispute is 0iled s/all- upon beco1ing
aware- not later t/an t/e pre-trial con0erence- t/at t/e parties /ad entered into
an arbitration agree1ent- dis1iss t/e case and re0er t/e parties to arbitration to
be conducted b. t/e "!A"- unless bot/ parties- assisted b. t/eir respective
counsel- s/all sub1it to t/e Regional #rial "ourt a written agree1ent eAclusivel.
0or t/e "ourt- rat/er t/an t/e "!A"- to resolve t/e dispute&
")AP#ER F 3 EUD!"!AL RE*!EB %F AR!#RAL ABARD'
A& D%,E'#!" ABARD'
'E"& :9& "on0ir1ation o0 Award&6#/e con0ir1ation o0 a do1estic arbitral
award s/all be governed b. 'ection 2? o0 R& A& $o& 8FC&
A do1estic arbitral award w/en con0ir1ed s/all be en0orced in t/e sa1e 1anner
as 0inal and eAecutor. decisions o0 t/e Regional #rial "ourt& #/e recognition and
en0orce1ent o0 an award in an international co11ercial arbitration s/all be
governed b. Article ?5 o0 t/e ,odel Law& #/e con0ir1ation o0 a do1estic award
s/all be 1ade b. t/e Regional #rial "ourt accordance wit/ t/e Rules o0
Procedure to pro1ulgated b. t/e 'upre1e "ourt&
A "!A" Arbitral award need not be con0ir1ed b. t/e Regional #rial "ourt to be
eAecutor. as provided under E&%& $o& 5998&
'E"& :5& *acation Award&6A part. to a do1estic arbitration 1a. Duestion t/e
arbitral award wit/ t/e appropriate Regional #rial "ourt in accordance wit/
rules o0 procedure to be pro1ulgated b. t/e 'upre1e "ourt onl. on t/ose
grounds enu1erated in 'ection 25 o0 Republic Act $o& 8FC& An. ot/er ground
raised against a do1estic arbitral award s/all be disregarded b. t/e Regional
#rial "ourt&
& F%RE!4$ AR!#RAL ABARD'
'E"& :2& Application o0 t/e $ew +or7 "onvention&6 #/e $ew +or7 "onvention
s/all govern t/e recognition and en0orce1ent o arbitral awards covered b. said
"onvention& #/e recognition and en0orce1ent o0 sad arbitral awards s/all be
0iled wit/ t/e Regional #rial "ourt in accordance wit/ t/e rules o0 procedure to
be pro1ulgated b. t/e 'upre1e e "ourt& 'aid procedural rules s/all provide t/at
t/e part. rel.ing on t/e award or appl.ing 0or its en0orce1ent s/all 0ile wit/ t/e
court t/e original or aut/enticated cop. o0 t/e award and t/e arbitration
agree1ent& !0 t/e award or agree1ent is not 1ade in an. o0 t/e languages- t/e
part. s/all suppl. a dul. certi0ied translation t/ereo0 into an. o0 suc/ languages&
#/e applicant s/all establis/ t/at t/e countr. in w/ic/ 0oreign arbitration award
was 1ade is a part. to t/e $ew +or7 "onvention&
!0 t/e application 0or re>ection or suspension o0 en0orce1ent o0 an award /as
been 1ade- t/e Regional #rial "ourt 1a.- i0 considers it proper- vacate its
decision and 1a. also- on t/e application o0 t/e part. clai1ing recognition or
en0orce1ent o0 t/e award- order t/e part. to provide appropriate securit.&
'E"& :?& Recognition and En0orce1ent o0 Foreign Arbitral Awards $ot "overed
b. t/e $ew +or7 "onvention&6#/e recognition and en0orce1ent o0 0oreign
arbitral awards not covered b. t/e $ew +or7 "onvention s/all be done in
accordance wit/ procedural rules to be pro1ulgated b. t/e 'upre1e "ourt& #/e
"ourt 1a.- on grounds o0 co1it. and reciprocit.- recogniIe and en0orce a non-
convention award as a convention award&
'E"& ::& Foreign Arbitral Award $ot Foreign Eudg1ent&6A 0oreign arbitral
award w/en con0ir1ed b. a court o0 a 0oreign countr.- s/all be recogniIed and
en0orced as a 0oreign arbitral award and not as a >udg1ent o0 a 0oreign court& A
0oreign arbitral award- w/en con0ir1ed b. t/e Regional #rial "ourt- s/all be
en0orced in t/e sa1e 1anner as 0inal and eAecutor. decisions o0 courts o0 law o0
t/e P/ilippines&
'E"& :5& Re>ection o0 a Foreign Arbitral Award&6A part. to a 0oreign
arbitration Proceeding 1a. oppose an application 0or recognition and
en0orce1ent o0 t/e arbitral award in accordance wit/ t/e procedural rules to be
pro1ulgated b. t/e 'upre1e "ourt onl. on t/ose grounds enu1erated under
Article * o0 t/e $ew +or7 "onvention& An. ot/er ground raised s/all be
disregarded b. t/e Regional #rial "ourt&
'E"& :C& Appeal 0ro1 "ourt Decisions on Arbitral Awards&6A decision o0 t/e
Regional #rial "ourt con0ir1ing- vacating- setting aside- 1odi0.ing or correcting
an arbitral award 1a. be appealed to t/e "ourt o0 Appeals in accordance wit/
t/e rules o0 procedure to be pro1ulgated b. t/e 'upre1e "ourt&
#/e losing part. w/o appeals 0ro1 t/e >udg1ent o0 t/e court con0ir1ing an
arbitral award s/all be reDuired b. t/e appellate court to post a counterbond
eAecuted in 0avor o0 t/e prevailing part. eDual to t/e a1ount o0 t/e award in
accordance wit/ t/e rules to be pro1ulgated b. t/e 'upre1e "ourt&
'E"& :F& *enue and Eurisdiction&6 Proceedings 0or recognition and en0orce1ent
o0 an arbitration agree1ent or 0or vacation- setting aside- correction or
1odi0ication o0 an arbitral award- and an. application wit/ a court 0or
arbitration assistance and supervision s/all be dee1ed as special proceedings
and s/all be 0iled wit/ t/e Regional #rial "ourt <i= w/ere arbitration proceedings
are conducted@ <ii= w/ere t/e asset to be attac/ed or levied upon- or t/e act to be
en>oined is located- <iii= w/ere an. o0 t/e parties to t/e dispute resides or /as /is
place o0 business@ or <iv= in t/e $ational Eudicial "apital Region- at t/e option o0
t/e applicant&
'E"& :8& $otice o0 Proceeding to Parties&6 !n a special proceeding 0or
recognition and en0orce1ent o0 an arbitral award- t/e "ourt s/all send notice to
t/e parties at t/eir address o0 record in t/e arbitration- or i0 an. part. cannot be
served notice at suc/ address- at suc/ part.Hs last 7nown address& #/e notice
s/all be sent at least 0i0teen <55= da.s be0ore t/e date set 0or t/e initial /earing o0
t/e application&
")AP#ER 8 3 ,!'"ELLA$E%U' PR%*!'!%$'
'E"& :9& %00ice 0or Alternative Dispute Resolution&6#/ere is /ereb. establis/ed
t/e %00ice 0or Alternative Dispute Resolution as an attac/ed agenc. to t/e
Depart1ent o0 Eustice <D%E= w/ic/ s/all /ave a 'ecretariat to be /eaded b. an
EAecutive Director& #/e EAecutive Director s/all be appointed b. t/e President o0
t/e P/ilippines& #/e ob>ectives o0 t/e %00ice are2
<a= #o pro1ote- develop and eApand t/e use o0 ADR in t/e private and public
sectors@ and #o assist t/e govern1ent to 1onitor- stud. and evaluate t/e use b.
t/e public and t/e private sector o0 ADR- and reco11end to "ongress need0ul
statutor. c/anges to develop- strengt/en and i1prove ADR practices in
accordance wit/ world standards&
'E"& 59& Powers and Functions o0 t/e %00ice 0or Alternative Dispute Resolution&
6#/e %00ice 0or Alternative Dispute Resolution s/all /ave t/e 0ollowing powers
and 0unctions2
#o 0or1ulate standards 0or t/e training o0 t/e ADR practitioners and service
providers@
#o certi0. t/at suc/ ADR practitioners and ADR service providers /ave
undergone t/e pro0essional training provided b. t/e %00ice@
#o coordinate t/e develop1ent- i1ple1entation- 1onitoring and evaluation o0
govern1ent ADR progra1s@
#o c/arge 0ees 0or t/eir services@ and
#o per0or1 suc/ acts as 1a. be necessar. to carr. into e00ect t/e provisions o0
t/is Act&
'E"& 55& Appropriations&6#/e a1ount necessar. to carr. out t/e provisions o0
t/is Act s/all be included in t/e 4eneral Appropriations Act o0 t/e .ear 0ollowing
its enact1ent into law and t/erea0ter&
'E"& 52& !1ple1enting Rules and Regulations <!RR=&6Bit/in one <5= 1ont/
a0ter t/e approval o0 t/is Act- t/e 'ecretar. o0 Eustice s/all convene a "o11ittee
t/at s/all 0or1ulate t/e appropriate rules and regulations necessar. 0or t/e
i1ple1entation o0 t/is Act& #/e "o11ittee- co1posed o0 representatives 0ro12
t/e Depart1ent o0 Eustice@
t/e Depart1ent o0 #rade and !ndustr.@
t/e Depart1ent o0 t/e !nterior and Local 4overn1ent@
t/e President o0 t/e !ntegrated ar o0 t/e P/ilippines@
A representative 0ro1 t/e arbitration pro0ession@
A representative 0ro1 t/e 1ediation pro0ession@ and
A representative 0ro1 t/e ADR organiIations& s/all- wit/in t/ree <?= 1ont/s a0ter
convening- sub1it t/e !RR to t/e Eoint "ongressional %versig/t "o11ittee 0or
review and approval& #/e %versig/t "o11ittee s/all be co1posed o0 t/e
"/air1an o0 t/e 'enate "o11ittee on Eustice and )u1an Rig/ts- "/air1an o0
t/e )ouse "o11ittee on Eustice- and one <5= 1e1ber eac/ 0ro1 t/e ,a>orit.
and ,inorit. o0 bot/ )ouses& #/e Eoint %versig/t "o11ittee s/all beco1e
0unctus o00icio upon approval o0 t/e !RR&
'E"& 5?& Applicabilit. o0 t/e Jatarungang Pa1baranga.&6#/is Act s/all not be
interpreted to repeal- a1end or 1odi0. t/e >urisdiction o0 t/e Jatarungang
Pa1baranga. under Republic Act $o& F5C9- ot/erwise 7now as t/e Local
4overn1ent "ode o0 5995&
'E"& 5:& Repealing "lause&6All laws- decrees- eAecutive orders- rules and
regulations w/ic/ are inconsistent wit/ t/e provisions o0 t/is Act are /ereb.
repealed- a1ended or 1odi0ied accordingl.&
'E"& 55& 'eparabilit. "lause&6!0 0or an. reason or reasons- an. portion or
provision o0 t/is Act s/all be /eld unconstitutional or invalid- all ot/er parts or
provisions not a00ected s/all t/ereb. continue to re1ain in 0ull 0orce and e00ect&
'E"& 5C& E00ectivit.&6#/is Act s/all ta7e e00ect 0i0teen <55= da.s a0ter its
publication in at least two <2= national newspapers o0 general circulation&
Republic Act 89:2-,igrant Bor7ers Act
The Lawyer's Post / September 3, 2014
REPUL!" A"# $%& 89:2
A$ A"# #% !$'#!#U#E #)E P%L!"!E' %F %*ER'EA'
E,PL%+,E$# A$D E'#AL!') A )!4)ER
'#A$DARD %F PR%#E"#!%$ A$D PR%,%#!%$ %F
#)E BELFARE %F ,!4RA$# B%RJER'- #)E!R
FA,!L!E' A$D %*ER'EA' F!L!P!$%' !$ D!'#RE''-
A$D F%R %#)ER PURP%'E'
e it enacted b. t/e 'enate and )ouse o0 Representatives o0
t/e P/ilippines in "ongress asse1bled2
'E"#!%$ 5& '/ort #itle& 6 #/is Act s/all be 7nown and cited as t/e 8,igrant
Bor7ers and %verseas Filipinos Act o0 5995&;
'E"& 2& Declaration o0 Policies& 6
!n t/e pursuit o0 an independent 0oreign polic. and w/ile considering national
sovereignt.- territorial integrit.- national interest and t/e rig/t to sel0-
deter1ination para1ount in its relations wit/ ot/er states- t/e 'tate s/all- at all
ti1es- up/old t/e dignit. o0 its citiIens w/et/er in countr. or overseas- in
general- and Filipino 1igrant wor7ers- in particular&
#/e 'tate s/all a00ord 0ull protection to labor- local and overseas- organiIed and
unorganiIed- and pro1ote 0ull e1plo.1ent and eDualit. o0 e1plo.1ent
opportunities 0or all& #owards t/is end- t/e 'tate s/all provide adeDuate and
ti1el. social- econo1ic and legal services to Filipino 1igrant wor7ers&
B/ile recogniIing t/e signi0icant contribution o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers to t/e
national econo1. t/roug/ t/eir 0oreign eAc/ange re1ittances- t/e 'tate does not
pro1ote overseas e1plo.1ent as a 1eans to sustain econo1ic growt/ and
ac/ieve national develop1ent& #/e eAistence o0 t/e overseas e1plo.1ent
progra1 rests solel. on t/e assurance t/at t/e dignit. and 0unda1ental /u1an
rig/ts and 0reedo1s o0 t/e Filipino citiIen s/all not- at an. ti1e- be co1pro1ised
or violated&
#/e 'tate- t/ere0ore- s/all continuousl. create local e1plo.1ent opportunities
and pro1ote t/e eDuitable distribution o0 wealt/ and t/e bene0its o0
develop1ent&
'tate a00ir1s t/e 0unda1ental eDualit. be0ore t/e law o0 wo1en and 1en and t/e
signi0icant role o0 wo1en in nation-building& RecogniIing t/e contribution o0
overseas 1igrant wo1en wor7ers and t/eir particular vulnerabilities- t/e 'tate
s/all appl. gender sensitive criteria in t/e 0or1ulation and i1ple1entation o0
policies and progra1s a00ecting 1igrant wor7ers and t/e co1position o0 bodies
tas7ed 0or t/e wel0are o0 1igrant wor7ers&
Free access to t/e courts and Duasi->udicial bodies and adeDuate legal assistance
s/all not be denied to an. person b. reason o0 povert.& !n t/is regard- it is
i1perative t/at an e00ective 1ec/anis1 be instituted to ensure t/at t/e rig/ts and
interest o0 distressed overseas Filipinos- in general- and Filipino 1igrant
wor7ers- in particular- docu1ented or undocu1ented- are adeDuatel. protected
and sa0eguarded&
#/e rig/t o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers and all overseas Filipinos to participate in
t/e de1ocratic decision-1a7ing processes o0 t/e 'tate and to be represented in
institutions relevant to overseas e1plo.1ent is recogniIed and guaranteed&
#/e 'tate recogniIes t/at t/e ulti1ate protection to all 1igrant wor7ers is t/e
possession o0 s7ills& Pursuant to t/is and as soon as practicable- t/e govern1ent
s/all deplo. andGor allow t/e deplo.1ent onl. o0 s7illed Filipino wor7ers&
$on-govern1ental organiIations- dul. recogniIed as legiti1ate- are partners o0
t/e 'tate in t/e protection o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers and in t/e pro1otion o0
t/eir wel0are& #/e 'tate s/all cooperate wit/ t/e1 in a spirit o0 trust and 1utual
respect&
4overn1ent 0ees and ot/er ad1inistrative costs o0 recruit1ent- introduction-
place1ent and assistance to 1igrant wor7ers s/all be rendered 0ree wit/out
pre>udice to t/e provision o0 'ection ?5 /ereo0&
$onet/eless- t/e deplo.1ent o0 Filipino overseas wor7ers- w/et/er land-based or
sea-based- b. local service contractors and 1anning agencies e1plo.ing t/e1
s/all be encouraged& Appropriate incentives 1a. be eAtended to t/e1&
'E"& ?& De0initions& 6 For purposes o0 t/is Act2
8,igrant wor7er; re0ers to a person w/o is to be engaged- is engaged or /as
been engaged in a re1unerated activit. in a state o0 w/ic/ /e or s/e is not a legal
resident@ to be used interc/angeabl. wit/ overseas Filipino wor7er&
84ender-sensitivit.; s/all 1ean cogniIance o0 t/e ineDualities and ineDuities
prevalent in societ. between wo1en and 1en and a co11it1ent to address
issues wit/ concern 0or t/e respective interests o0 t/e seAes&
8%verseas Filipinos; re0er to dependents o0 1igrant wor7ers and ot/er Filipino
nationals abroad w/o are in distress as 1entioned in 'ections 2: and 2C o0 t/is
Act&
!& Deplo.1ent
'E"& :& Deplo.1ent o0 ,igrant Bor7ers& 6 #/e 'tate s/all deplo. overseas
Filipino wor7ers onl. in countries w/ere t/e rig/ts o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers
are protected& #/e govern1ent recogniIes an. o0 t/e 0ollowing as a guarantee on
t/e part o0 t/e receiving countr. 0or t/e protection and t/e rig/ts o0 overseas
Filipino wor7ers2
!t /as eAisting labor and social laws protecting t/e rig/ts o0 1igrant wor7ers@
!t is a signator. to 1ultilateral conventions- declarations or resolutions relating
to t/e protection o0 1igrant wor7ers@
!t /as concluded a bilateral agree1ent or arrange1ent wit/ t/e govern1ent
protecting t/e rig/ts o0 overseas Filipino wor7ers@ and
!t is ta7ing positive- concrete 1easures to protect t/e rig/ts o0 1igrant wor7ers&
'E"& 5& #er1ination or an on Deplo.1ent& 6 $otwit/standing t/e provisions
o0 'ection : /ereo0- t/e govern1ent- in pursuit o0 t/e national interest or w/en
public wel0are so reDuires- 1a.- at an. ti1e- ter1inate or i1pose a ban on t/e
deplo.1ent o0 1igrant wor7ers&
!!& !llegal Recruit1ent
'E"& C& De0inition& 6 For purposes o0 t/is Act- illegal recruit1ent s/all 1ean
an. act o0 canvassing- enlisting- contracting- transporting- utiliIing- /iring- or
procuring wor7ers and includes re0erring- contract services- pro1ising or
advertising 0or e1plo.1ent abroad- w/et/er 0or pro0it or not- w/en underta7en
b. a non-licensee or non-/older o0 aut/orit. conte1plated under Article 5?<0= o0
Presidential Decree $o& ::2- as a1ended- ot/erwise 7nown as t/e Labor "ode o0
t/e P/ilippines2 Provided- #/at an. suc/ non-licensee or non-/older w/o- in an.
1anner- o00ers or pro1ises 0or a 0ee e1plo.1ent abroad to two or 1ore persons
s/all be dee1ed so engaged& !t s/all li7ewise include t/e 0ollowing acts- w/et/er
co11itted b. an. person- w/et/er a non-licensee- non-/older- licensee or /older
o0 aut/orit.2
#o c/arge or accept directl. or indirectl. an. a1ount greater t/an t/at speci0ied
in t/e sc/edule o0 allowable 0ees prescribed b. t/e 'ecretar. o0 Labor and
E1plo.1ent- or to 1a7e a wor7er pa. an. a1ount greater t/an t/at actuall.
received b. /i1 as a loan or advance@
#o 0urnis/ or publis/ an. 0alse notice or in0or1ation or docu1ent in relation to
recruit1ent or e1plo.1ent@
#o give an. 0alse notice- testi1on.- in0or1ation or docu1ent or co11it an. act
o0 1isrepresentation 0or t/e purpose o0 securing a license or aut/orit. under t/e
Labor "ode@
#o induce or atte1pt to induce a wor7er alread. e1plo.ed to Duit /is
e1plo.1ent in order to o00er /i1 anot/er unless t/e trans0er is designed to
liberate a wor7er 0ro1 oppressive ter1s and conditions o0 e1plo.1ent@
#o in0luence or atte1pt to in0luence an. person or entit. not to e1plo. an.
wor7er w/o /as not applied 0or e1plo.1ent t/roug/ /is agenc.@
#o engage in t/e recruit1ent or place1ent o0 wor7ers in >obs /ar10ul to public
/ealt/ or 1oralit. or to t/e dignit. o0 t/e Republic o0 t/e P/ilippines@
#o obstruct or atte1pt to obstruct inspection b. t/e 'ecretar. o0 Labor and
E1plo.1ent or b. /is dul. aut/oriIed representative@
#o 0ail to sub1it reports on t/e status o0 e1plo.1ent- place1ent vacancies-
re1ittance o0 0oreign eAc/ange earnings- separation 0ro1 >obs- departures and
suc/ ot/er 1atters or in0or1ation as 1a. be reDuired b. t/e 'ecretar. o0 Labor
and E1plo.1ent@
#o substitute or alter to t/e pre>udice o0 t/e wor7er- e1plo.1ent contracts
approved and veri0ied b. t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent 0ro1 t/e
ti1e o0 actual signing t/ereo0 b. t/e parties up to and including t/e period o0 t/e
eApiration o0 t/e sa1e wit/out t/e approval o0 t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and
E1plo.1ent@
For an o00icer or agent o0 a recruit1ent or place1ent agenc. to beco1e an o00icer
or 1e1ber o0 t/e oard o0 an. corporation engaged in travel agenc. or to be
engaged directl. or indirectl. in t/e 1anage1ent o0 a travel agenc.@
#o wit//old or den. travel docu1ents 0ro1 applicant wor7ers be0ore departure
0or 1onetar. or 0inancial considerations ot/er t/an t/ose aut/oriIed under t/e
Labor "ode and its i1ple1enting rules and regulations@
Failure to actuall. deplo. wit/out valid reason as deter1ined b. t/e Depart1ent
o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent@ and
Failure to rei1burse eApenses incurred b. t/e wor7er in connection wit/ /is
docu1entation and processing 0or purposes o0 deplo.1ent- in cases w/ere t/e
deplo.1ent does not actuall. ta7e place wit/out t/e wor7erHs 0ault& !llegal
recruit1ent w/en co11itted b. a s.ndicate or in large scale s/all be considered
an o00ense involving econo1ic sabotage&
!llegal recruit1ent is dee1ed co11itted b. a s.ndicate i0 carried out b. a group
o0 t/ree <?= or 1ore persons conspiring or con0ederating wit/ one anot/er& !t is
dee1ed co11itted in large scale i0 co11itted against t/ree <?= or 1ore persons
individuall. or as a group&
#/e persons cri1inall. liable 0or t/e above o00enses are t/e principals-
acco1plices and accessories& !n case o0 >uridical persons- t/e o00icers /aving
control- 1anage1ent or direction o0 t/eir business s/all be liable&
'E"& F& Penalties& 6
An. person 0ound guilt. o0 illegal recruit1ent s/all su00er t/e penalt. o0
i1prison1ent o0 not less t/an siA <C= .ears and one <5= da. but not 1ore t/an
twelve <52= .ears and a 0ine o0 not less t/an #wo /undred t/ousand pesos
<P299-999= nor 1ore t/an Five /undred t/ousand pesos <P599-999=&
#/e penalt. o0 li0e i1prison1ent and a 0ine o0 not less t/an Five /undred
t/ousand pesos <P599-999= nor 1ore t/an %ne 1illion pesos <P5-999-999= s/all be
i1posed i0 illegal recruit1ent constitutes econo1ic sabotage as de0ined t/erein&
Provided- /owever- #/at t/e 1aAi1u1 penalt. s/all be i1posed i0 t/e person
illegall. recruited is less t/an eig/teen <58= .ears o0 age or co11itted b. a non-
licensee or non-/older o0 aut/orit.&
'E"& 8& Pro/ibition on %00icials and E1plo.ees& 6 !t s/all be unlaw0ul 0or an.
o00icial or e1plo.ee o0 t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent- t/e P/ilippine
%verseas E1plo.1ent Ad1inistration <P%EA=- or t/e %verseas Bor7ers
Bel0are Ad1inistration <%BBA=- or t/e Depart1ent o0 Foreign A00airs- or ot/er
govern1ent agencies involved in t/e i1ple1entation o0 t/is Act- or t/eir relatives
wit/in t/e 0ourt/ civil degree o0 consanguinit. or a00init.- to engage- directl. or
indirectl.- in t/e business o0 recruiting 1igrant wor7ers as de0ined in t/is Act&
#/e penalties provided in t/e i11ediate preceding paragrap/ s/all be i1posed
upon t/e1&
'E"& 9& *enue& 6 A cri1inal action arising 0ro1 illegal recruit1ent as de0ined
/erein s/all be 0iled wit/ t/e Regional #rial "ourt o0 t/e province or cit. w/ere
t/e o00ense was co11itted or w/ere t/e o00ended part. actuall. resides at t/e
ti1e o0 t/e co11ission o0 t/e o00ense2 Provided- #/at t/e court w/ere t/e
cri1inal action is 0irst 0iled s/all acDuire >urisdiction to t/e eAclusion o0 ot/er
courts2 Provided- /owever- #/at t/e a0orestated provisions s/all also appl. to
t/ose cri1inal actions t/at /ave alread. been 0iled in court at t/e ti1e o0 t/e
e00ectivit. o0 t/is Act&
'E"& 59& ,onetar. "lai1s& 6 $otwit/standing an. provision o0 law to t/e
contrar.- t/e Labor Arbiters o0 t/e $ational Labor Relations "o11ission
<$LR"= s/all /ave t/e original and eAclusive >urisdiction to /ear and decide-
wit/in ninet. <99= calendar da.s a0ter t/e 0iling o0 t/e co1plaint- t/e clai1s
arising out o0 an e1plo.er-e1plo.ee relations/ip or b. virtue o0 an. law or
contract involving Filipino wor7ers 0or overseas deplo.1ent including clai1s 0or
actual- 1oral- eAe1plar. and ot/er 0or1s o0 da1ages&
#/e liabilit. o0 t/e principalGe1plo.er and t/e recruit1entG place1ent agenc.
0or an. and all clai1s under t/is section s/all be >oint and several& #/is provision
s/all be incorporated in t/e contract 0or overseas e1plo.1ent and s/all be a
condition precedent 0or its approval& #/e per0or1ance bond to be 0iled b. t/e
recruit1entG place1ent agenc.- as provided b. law- s/all be answerable 0or all
1one. clai1s or da1ages t/at 1a. be awarded to t/e wor7ers& !0 t/e
recruit1entGplace1ent agenc. is a >uridical being- t/e corporate o00icers and
directors and partners as t/e case 1a. be- s/all t/e1selves be >ointl. and
solidaril. liable wit/ t/e corporation or partners/ip 0or t/e a0oresaid clai1s and
da1ages&
'uc/ liabilities s/all continue during t/e entire period or duration o0 t/e
e1plo.1ent contract and s/all not be a00ected b. an. substitution- a1end1ent
or 1odi0ication 1ade locall. or in a 0oreign countr. o0 t/e said contract&
An. co1pro1iseGa1icable settle1ent or voluntar. agree1ent on 1one. clai1s
inclusive o0 da1ages under t/is section s/all be paid wit/in 0our <:= 1ont/s 0ro1
t/e approval o0 t/e settle1ent b. t/e appropriate aut/orit.&
!n case o0 ter1ination o0 overseas e1plo.1ent wit/out >ust- valid or aut/oriIed
cause as de0ined b. law or contract- t/e wor7er s/all be entitled to t/e 0ull
rei1burse1ent o0 /is place1ent 0ee wit/ interest at twelve percent <52K= per
annu1- plus /is salaries 0or t/e uneApired portion o0 /is e1plo.1ent contract or
0or t/ree <?= 1ont/s 0or ever. .ear o0 t/e uneApired ter1- w/ic/ever is less&
$onco1pliance wit/ t/e 1andator. periods 0or resolutions o0 cases provided
under t/is section s/all sub>ect t/e responsible o00icials to an. or all o0 t/e
0ollowing penalties2
#/e salar. o0 an. suc/ o00icial w/o 0ails to render /is decision or resolution
wit/in t/e prescribed period s/all be- or caused to be- wit//eld until t/e said
o00icial co1plies t/erewit/@
'uspension 0or not 1ore t/an ninet. <99= da.s@ or
Dis1issal 0ro1 t/e service wit/ disDuali0ication to /old an. appointive public
o00ice 0or 0ive <5= .ears&
Provided- /owever- #/at t/e penalties /erein provided s/all be wit/out pre>udice
to an. liabilit. w/ic/ an. suc/ o00icial 1a. /ave incurred under ot/er eAisting
laws or rules and regulations as a conseDuence o0 violating t/e provisions o0 t/is
paragrap/&
'E"& 55& ,andator. Periods 0or Resolution o0 !llegal Recruit1ent "ases& 6 #/e
preli1inar. investigations o0 cases under t/is Act s/all be ter1inated wit/in a
period o0 t/irt. <?9= calendar da.s 0ro1 t/e date o0 t/eir 0iling& B/ere t/e
preli1inar. investigation is conducted b. a prosecution o00icer and a pri1a 0acie
case is establis/ed- t/e corresponding in0or1ation s/all be 0iled in court wit/in
twent.-0our <2:= /ours 0ro1 t/e ter1ination o0 t/e investigation& !0 t/e
preli1inar. investigation is conducted b. a >udge and a pri1a 0acie case is 0ound
to eAist- t/e corresponding in0or1ation s/all be 0iled b. t/e proper prosecution
o00icer wit/in 0ort.-eig/t <:8= /ours 0ro1 t/e date o0 receipt o0 t/e records o0 t/e
case&
'E"& 52& Prescriptive Periods& 6 !llegal recruit1ent cases under t/is Act s/all
prescribe in 0ive <5= .ears2 Provided- /owever- #/at illegal recruit1ent cases
involving econo1ic sabotage as de0ined /erein s/all prescribe in twent. <29=
.ears&
'E"& 5?& Free Legal Assistance@ Pre0erential Entitle1ent Under t/e Bitness
Protection Progra1& 6 A 1ec/anis1 0or 0ree legal assistance 0or victi1s o0
illegal recruit1ent s/all be establis/ed wit/in t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and
E1plo.1ent including its regional o00ices& 'uc/ 1ec/anis1 1ust include
coordination and cooperation wit/ t/e Depart1ent o0 Eustice- t/e !ntegrated ar
o0 t/e P/ilippines- and ot/er non-govern1ental organiIations and volunteer
groups&
#/e provisions o0 Republic Act $o& C985 to t/e contrar. notwit/standing- an.
person w/o is a victi1 o0 illegal recruit1ent s/all be entitled to t/e Bitness
Protection Progra1 provided t/ereunder&
!!!& 'ervices
'E"& 5:& #ravel Advisor. G!n0or1ation Disse1ination& 6 #o give ut1ost priorit.
to t/e establis/1ent o0 progra1s and services to prevent illegal recruit1ent-
0raud and eAploitation or abuse o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers- all e1bassies and
consular o00ices- t/roug/ t/e P/ilippine %verseas E1plo.1ent Ad1inistration
<P%EA=- s/all issue travel advisories or disse1inate in0or1ation on labor and
e1plo.1ent conditions- 1igration realities and ot/er 0acts@ and ad/erence o0
particular countries to international standards on /u1an and wor7ersH rig/ts
w/ic/ will adeDuatel. prepare individuals into 1a7ing in0or1ed and intelligent
decisions about overseas e1plo.1ent& 'uc/ advisor. or in0or1ation s/all be
publis/ed in a newspaper o0 general circulation at least t/ree <?= ti1es in ever.
Duarter&
'E"& 55& Repatriation o0 Bor7ers@ E1ergenc. Repatriation Fund& 6 #/e
repatriation o0 t/e wor7er and t/e transport o0 /is personal belongings s/all be
t/e pri1ar. responsibilit. o0 t/e agenc. w/ic/ recruited or deplo.ed t/e wor7er
overseas& All costs attendant to repatriation s/all be borne b. or c/arged to t/e
agenc. concerned andGor its principal& Li7ewise- t/e repatriation o0 re1ains and
transport o0 t/e personal belongings o0 a deceased wor7er and all costs attendant
t/ereto s/all be borne b. t/e principal andGor t/e local agenc.& )owever- in cases
w/ere t/e ter1ination o0 e1plo.1ent is due solel. to t/e 0ault o0 t/e wor7er- t/e
principalGe1plo.er or agenc. s/all not in an. 1anner be responsible 0or t/e
repatriation o0 t/e 0or1er andG or /is belongings&
#/e %verseas Bor7ers Bel0are Ad1inistration <%BBA=- in coordination wit/
appropriate international agencies- s/all underta7e t/e repatriation o0 wor7ers
in cases o0 war- epide1ic- disasters or cala1ities- natural or 1an-1ade- and
ot/er si1ilar events wit/out pre>udice to rei1burse1ent b. t/e responsible
principal or agenc.& )owever- in cases w/ere t/e principal or recruit1ent agenc.
cannot be identi0ied- all costs attendant to repatriation s/all be borne b. t/e
%BBA&
For t/is purpose- t/ere is /ereb. created and establis/ed an e1ergenc.
repatriation 0und under t/e ad1inistration- control and supervision o0 t/e
%BBA- initiall. to consist o0 %ne /undred 1illion pesos <P599-999-999=- w/ic/
s/all be ta7en 0ro1 t/e eAisting 0und controlled and ad1inistered b. t/e %BBA&
#/erea0ter- suc/ 0und s/all be provided 0or in t/e 4eneral Appropriations Act
0ro1 .ear to .ear2 Provided- #/at t/e a1ount appropriated s/all in no case be
less t/an %ne /undred 1illion pesos <P599-999-999=- inclusive o0 outstanding
balances&
'E"& 5C& ,andator. Repatriation o0 Underage ,igrant Bor7ers& 6 Upon
discover. or being in0or1ed o0 t/e presence o0 1igrant wor7ers w/ose actual
ages 0all below t/e 1ini1u1 age reDuire1ent 0or overseas deplo.1ent- t/e
responsible o00icers in t/e 0oreign service s/all wit/out dela. repatriate said
wor7ers and advise t/e Depart1ent o0 Foreign A00airs t/roug/ t/e 0astest 1eans
o0 co11unication available o0 suc/ discover. and ot/er relevant in0or1ation&
'E"& 5F& Establis/1ent o0 Re-place1ent and ,onitoring "enter& 6 A re-
place1ent and 1onitoring center is /ereb. created in t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor
and E1plo.1ent 0or returning Filipino 1igrant wor7ers w/ic/ s/all provide a
1ec/anis1 0or t/eir reintegration into t/e P/ilippine societ.- serve as a
pro1otion /ouse 0or t/eir local e1plo.1ent- and tap t/eir s7ills and potentials
0or national develop1ent&
#/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent- t/e %verseas Bor7ers Bel0are
Ad1inistration- and t/e P/ilippine %verseas E1plo.1ent Ad1inistration s/all-
wit/in ninet. <99= da.s 0ro1 t/e e00ectivit. o0 t/is Act- 0or1ulate a progra1 t/at
would 1otivate 1igrant wor7ers to plan 0or productive options suc/ as entr.
into /ig/l. tec/nical >obs or underta7ings- liveli/ood and entrepreneurial
develop1ent- better wage e1plo.1ent- and invest1ent o0 savings&
For t/is purpose- t/e #ec/nical Education and '7ills Develop1ent Aut/orit.
<#E'DA=- t/e #ec/nolog. Liveli/ood Resource "enter <#LR"=- and ot/er
govern1ent agencies involved in training and liveli/ood develop1ent s/all give
priorit. to returnees w/o /ad been e1plo.ed as do1estic /elpers and
entertainers&
'E"& 58& Functions o0 t/e Re-place1ent and ,onitoring "enter& 6 #/e "enter
s/all provide t/e 0ollowing services2
Develop liveli/ood progra1s and pro>ects 0or returning Filipino 1igrant
wor7ers in coordination wit/ t/e private sector@
"oordinate wit/ appropriate private and govern1ent agencies in t/e pro1otion-
develop1ent- re-place1ent and t/e 0ull utiliIation o0 t/eir potentials@
!nstitute- in cooperation wit/ ot/er govern1ent agencies concerned- a co1puter-
based in0or1ation s.ste1 on s7illed Filipino 1igrant wor7ers w/ic/ s/all be
accessible to all local recruit1ent agencies and e1plo.ers- bot/ public and
private@
Provide a periodic stud. and assess1ent o0 >ob opportunities 0or returning
Filipino 1igrant wor7ers@ and
Develop and i1ple1ent ot/er appropriate progra1s to pro1ote t/e wel0are o0
returning Filipino 1igrant wor7ers&
'E"& 59& Establis/1ent o0 a ,igrant Bor7ers and %t/er %verseas Filipinos
Resource "enter& 6 Bit/in t/e pre1ises and under t/e ad1inistrative
>urisdiction o0 t/e P/ilippine E1bass. in countries w/ere t/ere are large
concentrations o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers- t/ere s/all be establis/ed a ,igrant
Bor7ers and %t/er %verseas Filipinos Resource "enter wit/ t/e 0ollowing
services2
"ounselling and legal services@
Bel0are assistance including t/e procure1ent o0 1edical and /ospitaliIation
services@
!n0or1ation- advisor. and progra1s to pro1ote social integration suc/ as post-
arrival orientation- settle1ent and co11unit. networ7ing services and activities
0or social interaction@
!nstitute a sc/e1e o0 registration o0 undocu1ented wor7ers to bring t/e1 wit/in
t/e purview o0 t/is Act& For t/is purpose- t/e "enter is en>oined to co1pel
eAisting undocu1ented wor7ers to register wit/ it wit/in siA <C= 1ont/s 0ro1 t/e
e00ectivit. o0 t/is Act- under pain o0 /aving /isG/er passport cancelled@
)u1an resource develop1ent- suc/ as training and s7ills upgrading@
4ender sensitive progra1s and activities to assist particular needs o0 wo1en
1igrant wor7ers@
%rientation progra1 0or returning wor7ers and ot/er 1igrants@ and
,onitoring o0 dail. situations- circu1stances and activities a00ecting 1igrant
wor7ers and ot/er overseas Filipinos&
#/e establis/1ent and operations o0 t/e "enter s/all be a >oint underta7ing o0
t/e various govern1ent agencies& #/e "enter s/all be open 0or twent.-0our <2:=
/ours dail. including 'aturda.s- 'unda.s and /olida.s- and s/all be sta00ed b.
Foreign 'ervice personnel- service attac/es or o00icers w/o represent ot/er
P/ilippine govern1ent agencies abroad and- i0 available- individual volunteers
and bona 0ide non-govern1ent organiIations 0ro1 t/e /ost countries& !n
countries categoriIed as /ig/l. proble1atic b. t/e Depart1ent o0 Foreign
A00airs and t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent and w/ere t/ere is a
concentration o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers- t/e govern1ent 1ust provide a
law.er and a social wor7er 0or t/e "enter& #/e Labor Attac/e s/all coordinate
t/e operation o0 t/e "enter and s/all 7eep t/e "/ie0 o0 ,ission in0or1ed and
updated on all 1atters a00ecting it&
#/e "enter s/all /ave a counterpart 2:-/our in0or1ation and assistance center
at t/e Depart1ent o0 Foreign A00airs to ensure a continuous networ7 and
coordinative 1ec/anis1 at t/e /o1e o00ice&
'E"& 29& Establis/1ent o0 a '/ared 4overn1ent !n0or1ation '.ste1 0or
,igration& 6 An inter-agenc. co11ittee co1posed o0 t/e Depart1ent o0
Foreign A00airs and its attac/ed agenc.- t/e "o11ission on Filipinos %verseas-
t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent- t/e P/ilippine %verseas
E1plo.1ent Ad1inistration- t/e Depart1ent o0 #ouris1- t/e Depart1ent o0
Eustice- t/e ureau o0 !11igration- t/e $ational ureau o0 !nvestigation- and
t/e $ational 'tatistics %00ice s/all be establis/ed to i1ple1ent a s/ared
govern1ent in0or1ation s.ste1 0or 1igration& #/e inter-agenc. co11ittee s/all
initiall. 1a7e available to itsel0 t/e in0or1ation contained in eAisting data basesG
0iles& #/e second p/ase s/all involve lin7aging o0 co1puter 0acilities in order to
allow 0ree-0low data eAc/anges and s/aring a1ong concerned agencies&
#/e inter-agenc. co11ittee s/all convene to identi0. eAisting data bases w/ic/
s/all be declassi0ied and s/ared a1ong 1e1ber agencies& #/ese s/ared data
bases s/all initiall. include- but not be li1ited to- t/e 0ollowing in0or1ation2
,asterlists o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ersGoverseas Filipinos classi0ied according to
occupationG>ob categor.- civil status- b. countr.Gstate o0 destination including
visa classi0ication@
!nventor. o0 pending legal cases involving Filipino 1igrant wor7ers and ot/er
Filipino nationals- including t/ose serving prison ter1s@
,asterlists o0 departingGarriving Filipinos@
'tatistical pro0ile on Filipino 1igrant wor7ersGoverseas FilipinosGtourists@
lac7listed 0oreignersGundesirable aliens@
asic data on legal s.ste1s- i11igration policies- 1arriage laws and civil and
cri1inal codes in receiving countries particularl. t/ose wit/ large nu1bers o0
Filipinos@
List o0 labor and ot/er /u1an rig/ts instru1ents w/ere receiving countries are
signatories@
A trac7ing s.ste1 o0 past and present gender disaggregated cases involving 1ale
and 0e1ale 1igrant wor7ers@ and
Listing o0 overseas posts w/ic/ 1a. render assistance to overseas Filipinos- in
general- and 1igrant wor7ers- in particular&
'E"& 25& ,igrant Bor7ers Loan 4uarantee Fund& 6 !n order to 0urt/er prevent
unscrupulous illegal recruiters 0ro1 ta7ing advantage o0 wor7ers see7ing
e1plo.1ent abroad- t/e %BBA- in coordination wit/ govern1ent 0inancial
institutions- s/all institute 0inancing sc/e1es t/at will eApand t/e grant o0 pre-
departure loan and 0a1il. assistance loan& For t/is purpose- a ,igrant Bor7ers
Loan 4uarantee Fund is /ereb. created and t/e revolving a1ount o0 %ne
/undred 1illion pesos <P599-999-999= 0ro1 t/e %BBA is set aside as a guarantee
0und in 0avor o0 participating govern1ent 0inancial institutions&
'E"& 22& Rig/ts and En0orce1ent ,ec/anis1 Under !nternational and Regional
)u1an Rig/ts '.ste1s& 6 #/e Depart1ent o0 Foreign A00airs is 1andated to
underta7e t/e necessar. initiative suc/ as pro1otions- acceptance or ad/erence
o0 countries receiving Filipino wor7ers to 1ultilateral convention- declaration or
resolutions pertaining to t/e protection o0 1igrant wor7ersH rig/ts& #/e
Depart1ent o0 Foreign A00airs is also 1andated to 1a7e an assess1ent o0 rig/ts
and avenues o0 redress under international and regional /u1an rig/ts s.ste1s
t/at are available to Filipino 1igrant wor7ers w/o are victi1s o0 abuse and
violation and- as 0ar as practicable and t/roug/ t/e Legal Assistant 0or ,igrant
Bor7ers A00airs created under t/is Act- pursue t/e sa1e on be/al0 o0 t/e victi1
i0 it is legall. i1possible to 0ile individual co1plaints& !0 a co1plaints 1ac/iner.
is available under international or regional s.ste1s- t/e Depart1ent o0 Foreign
A00airs s/all 0ull. apprise t/e Filipino 1igrant wor7ers o0 t/e eAistence and
e00ectiveness o0 suc/ legal options&
!*& 4overn1ent Agencies
'E"& 2?& Role o0 4overn1ent Agencies& 6 #/e 0ollowing govern1ent agencies
s/all per0or1 t/e 0ollowing to pro1ote t/e wel0are and protect t/e rig/ts o0
1igrant wor7ers and- as 0ar as applicable- all overseas Filipinos2
Depart1ent o0 Foreign A00airs 6 #/e Depart1ent- t/roug/ its /o1e o00ice or
0oreign posts- s/all ta7e priorit. action or 1a7e representation wit/ t/e 0oreign
aut/orit. concerned to protect t/e rig/ts o0 1igrant wor7ers and ot/er overseas
Filipinos and eAtend i11ediate assistance including t/e repatriation o0 distressed
or beleaguered 1igrant wor7ers and ot/er overseas Filipinos@
Depart1ent o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent 6 #/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and
E1plo.1ent s/all see to it t/at labor and social wel0are laws in t/e 0oreign
countries are 0airl. applied to 1igrant wor7ers and w/enever applicable- to
ot/er overseas Filipinos including t/e grant o0 legal assistance and t/e re0erral to
proper 1edical centers or /ospitals2
<b&5= P/ilippine %verseas E1plo.1ent Ad1inistration6'ub>ect to deregulation
and p/ase-out as provided under 'ections 29 and ?9 /erein- t/e Ad1inistration
s/all regulate private sector participation in t/e recruit1ent and overseas
place1ent o0 wor7ers b. setting up a licensing and registration s.ste1& !t s/all
also 0or1ulate and i1ple1ent- in coordination wit/ appropriate entities
concerned- w/en necessar.- a s.ste1 0or pro1oting and 1onitoring t/e overseas
e1plo.1ent o0 Filipino wor7ers ta7ing into consideration t/eir wel0are and t/e
do1estic 1anpower reDuire1ents&
<b&2= %verseas Bor7ers Bel0are Ad1inistration6#/e Bel0are o00icer or in /is
absence- t/e coordinating o00icer s/all provide t/e Filipino 1igrant wor7er and
/is 0a1il. all t/e assistance t/e. 1a. need in t/e en0orce1ent o0 contractual
obligations b. agencies or entities andGor b. t/eir principals& !n t/e per0or1ance
o0 t/is 0unction- /e s/all 1a7e representation and 1a. call on t/e agencies or
entities concerned to con0erences or conciliation 1eetings 0or t/e purpose o0
settling t/e co1plaints or proble1s broug/t to /is attention&
*& #/e Legal Assistant For ,igrant Bor7ers A00airs
'E"& 2:& Legal Assistant 0or ,igrant Bor7ers A00airs& 6 #/ere is /ereb. created
t/e position o0 Legal Assistant 0or ,igrant Bor7ers A00airs under t/e
Depart1ent o0 Foreign A00airs w/o s/all be pri1aril. responsible 0or t/e
provision and overall coordination o0 all legal assistance services to be provided
to Filipino 1igrant wor7ers as well as overseas Filipinos in distress& )e s/all
/ave t/e ran7- salar. and privileges eDual to t/at o0 an undersecretar. o0 said
Depart1ent&
#/e said Legal Assistant 0or ,igrant Bor7ers A00airs- s/all be appointed b. t/e
President and 1ust be o0 proven co1petence in t/e 0ield o0 law wit/ at least ten
<59= .ears o0 eAperience as a legal practitioner and 1ust not /ave been a
candidate to an elective o00ice in t/e last local or national elections&
A1ong t/e 0unctions and responsibilities o0 t/e a0oresaid Legal Assistant are2
#o issue t/e guidelines- procedures and criteria 0or t/e provision o0 legal
assistance services to Filipino 1igrant wor7ers@
#o establis/ close lin7ages wit/ t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent- t/e
P%EA- t/e %BBA and ot/er govern1ent agencies concerned- as well as wit/
non-govern1ental organiIations assisting 1igrant wor7ers- to ensure e00ective
coordination and cooperation in t/e provision o0 legal assistance to 1igrant
wor7ers@
#o tap t/e assistance o0 reputable law 0ir1s and t/e !ntegrated ar o0 t/e
P/ilippines and ot/er bar associations to co1ple1ent t/e govern1entHs e00orts to
provide legal assistance to our 1igrant wor7ers@
#o ad1inister t/e legal assistance 0und 0or 1igrant wor7ers establis/ed under
'ection 25 /ereo0 and to aut/oriIe disburse1ents t/ere0ro1 in accordance wit/
t/e purposes 0or w/ic/ t/e 0und was set up@ and
#o 7eep and 1aintain t/e in0or1ation s.ste1 as provided in 'ection 29&
#/e Legal Assistant 0or ,igrant Bor7ers A00airs s/all /ave t/e aut/orit. to /ire
private law.ers- do1estic or 0oreign- in order to assist /i1 in t/e e00ective
disc/arge o0 t/e above 0unctions&
'E"& 25& Legal Assistance Fund& 6 #/ere is /ereb. establis/ed a legal assistance
0und 0or 1igrant wor7ers- /ereina0ter re0erred to as t/e Legal Assistance Fund-
in t/e a1ount o0 %ne /undred 1illion pesos <P599-999-999= to be constituted
0ro1 t/e 0ollowing sources2
Fi0t. 1illion pesos <P59-999-999= 0ro1 t/e "ontingenc. Fund o0 t/e President@
#/irt. 1illion pesos <P?9-999-999= 0ro1 t/e Presidential 'ocial Fund@ and
#went. 1illion pesos <P29-999-999= 0ro1 t/e Bel0are Fund 0or %verseas Bor7ers
establis/ed under Letter o0 !nstruction $o& 5?F- as a1ended b. Presidential
Decree $os& 5C9: and 5899&
An. balances o0 eAisting 0unds w/ic/ /ave been set aside b. t/e govern1ent
speci0icall. as legal assistance or de0ense 0und to /elp 1igrant wor7ers s/all-
upon e00ectivit. o0 t/is Act- be turned over to- and 0or1 part o0- t/e Fund created
under t/is Act&
'E"& 2C& Uses o0 t/e Legal Assistance Fund& 6 #/e Legal Assistance Fund
created under t/e preceding section s/all be used eAclusivel. to provide legal
services to 1igrant wor7ers and overseas Filipinos in distress in accordance wit/
t/e guidelines- criteria and procedures pro1ulgated in accordance wit/ 'ection
2:<a= /ereo0& #/e eApenditures to be c/arged against t/e Fund s/all include t/e
0ees 0or t/e 0oreign law.ers to be /ired b. t/e Legal Assistant 0or ,igrant
Bor7ers A00airs to represent 1igrant wor7ers 0acing c/arges abroad- bail bonds
to secure t/e te1porar. release o0 wor7ers under detention- court 0ees and
c/arges and ot/er litigation eApenses&
*!& "ountr.-#ea1 Approac/
'E"& 2F& Priorit. "oncerns o0 P/ilippine Foreign 'ervice Posts& 6 #/e countr.-
tea1 approac/- as enunciated under EAecutive %rder $o& F:- series o0 599?- s/all
be t/e 1ode under w/ic/ P/ilippine e1bassies or t/eir personnel will operate in
t/e protection o0 t/e Filipino 1igrant wor7ers as well as in t/e pro1otion o0
t/eir wel0are& #/e protection o0 t/e Filipino 1igrant wor7ers and t/e pro1otion
o0 t/eir wel0are- in particular- and t/e protection o0 t/e dignit. and 0unda1ental
rig/ts and 0reedo1s o0 t/e Filipino citiIen abroad- in general- s/all be t/e /ig/est
priorit. concerns o0 t/e 'ecretar. o0 Foreign A00airs and t/e P/ilippine Foreign
'ervice Posts&
'E"& 28& "ountr.-#ea1 Approac/& 6 Under t/e countr.-tea1 approac/- all
o00icers- representatives and personnel o0 t/e P/ilippine govern1ent posted
abroad regardless o0 t/eir 1ot/er agencies s/all- on a per countr. basis- act as
one countr.-tea1 wit/ a 1ission under t/e leaders/ip o0 t/e a1bassador& !n t/is
regard- t/e a1bassador 1a. reco11end to t/e 'ecretar. o0 t/e Depart1ent o0
Foreign A00airs t/e recall o0 o00icers- representatives and personnel o0 t/e
P/ilippine govern1ent posted abroad 0or acts ini1ical to t/e national interest
suc/ as- but not li1ited to- 0ailure to provide t/e necessar. services to protect t/e
rig/ts o0 overseas Filipinos&
Upon receipt o0 t/e reco11endation o0 t/e a1bassador- t/e 'ecretar. o0 t/e
Depart1ent o0 Foreign A00airs s/all- in t/e case o0 o00icers- representatives and
personnel o0 ot/er depart1ents- endorse suc/ reco11endation to t/e
depart1ent secretar. concerned 0or appropriate action& Pending investigation b.
an appropriate bod. in t/e P/ilippines- t/e person reco11ended 0or recall 1a.
be placed under preventive suspension b. t/e a1bassador&
!n /ost countries w/ere t/ere are P/ilippine consulates- suc/ consulates s/all also
constitute part o0 t/e countr.-tea1 under t/e leaders/ip o0 t/e a1bassador&
!n t/e i1ple1entation o0 t/e countr.-tea1 approac/- visiting P/ilippine
delegations s/all be provided 0ull support and in0or1ation&
*!!& Deregulation and P/ase-%ut
'E"& 29& "o1pre/ensive Deregulation Plan on Recruit1ent Activities& 6
Pursuant to a progressive polic. o0 deregulation w/ereb. t/e 1igration o0
wor7ers beco1es strictl. a 1atter between t/e wor7er and /is 0oreign e1plo.er-
t/e D%LE- wit/in one <5= .ear 0ro1 t/e e00ectivit. o0 t/is Act- is /ereb.
1andated to 0or1ulate a 0ive-.ear co1pre/ensive deregulation plan on
recruit1ent activities ta7ing into account labor 1ar7et trends- econo1ic
conditions o0 t/e countr. and e1erging circu1stances w/ic/ 1a. a00ect t/e
wel0are o0 1igrant wor7ers&
'E"& ?9& 4radual P/ase-out o0 Regulator. Functions& 6 Bit/in a period o0 0ive
<5= .ears 0ro1 t/e e00ectivit. o0 t/is Act- t/e D%LE s/all p/ase-out t/e regulator.
0unctions o0 t/e P%EA pursuant to t/e ob>ectives o0 t/e deregulation&
*!!!& Pro0essional and %t/er )ig/l.-'7illed Filipinos Abroad
'E"& ?5& !ncentives to Pro0essionals and %t/er )ig/l.-'7illed Filipinos Abroad&
6 Pursuant to t/e ob>ective o0 encouraging pro0essionals and ot/er /ig/l.-
s7illed Filipinos abroad especiall. in t/e 0ield o0 science and tec/nolog. to
participate in- and contribute to national develop1ent- t/e govern1ent s/all
provide proper and adeDuate incentives and progra1s so as to secure t/eir
services in priorit. develop1ent areas o0 t/e public and private sectors&
!L& ,iscellaneous Provisions
'E"& ?2& P%EA and %BBA oard@ Additional ,e1bers/ips& 6
$otwit/standing an. provision o0 law to t/e contrar.- t/e respective oards o0
t/e P%EA and t/e %BBA s/all- in addition to t/eir present co1position- /ave
t/ree <?= 1e1bers eac/ w/o s/all co1e 0ro1 t/e wo1en- sea-based and land-
based sectors respectivel.- to be appointed b. t/e President in t/e sa1e 1anner
as t/e ot/er 1e1bers&
'E"& ??& Report to "ongress& 6 !n order to in0or1 t/e P/ilippine "ongress on
t/e i1ple1entation o0 t/e polic. enunciated in 'ection : /ereo0- t/e Depart1ent
o0 Foreign A00airs and t/e Depart1ent o0 Labor and E1plo.1ent s/all sub1it to
t/e said bod. a se1i-annual report o0 P/ilippine 0oreign posts located in
countries /osting Filipino 1igrant wor7ers& #/e report s/all include- but s/all
not be li1ited to- t/e 0ollowing in0or1ation2
,asterlist o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers- and inventor. o0 pending legal cases
involving t/e1 and ot/er Filipino nationals including t/ose serving prison ter1s@
Bor7ing conditions o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers@
Proble1s encountered b. t/e 1igrant wor7ers- speci0icall. violations o0 t/eir
rig/ts@
!nitiativesGactions ta7en b. t/e P/ilippine 0oreign posts to address t/e proble1s
o0 Filipino 1igrant wor7ers@
"/anges in t/e laws and policies o0 /ost countries@ and
'tatus o0 negotiations on bilateral labor agree1ents between t/e P/ilippines and
t/e /ost countr.&
An. o00icer o0 t/e govern1ent w/o 0ails to report as stated in t/e preceding
section s/all be sub>ect to ad1inistrative penalt.&
'E"& ?:& Representation in "ongress& 6 Pursuant to 'ection 5<2=- Article *! o0
t/e "onstitution and in line wit/ t/e ob>ective o0 e1powering overseas Filipinos
to participate in t/e polic.-1a7ing process to address Filipino 1igrant concerns-
two <2= sectoral representatives 0or 1igrant wor7ers in t/e )ouse o0
Representatives s/all be appointed b. t/e President 0ro1 t/e ran7s o0 1igrant
wor7ers2 Provided- #/at at least one <5= o0 t/e two <2= sectoral representatives
s/all co1e 0ro1 t/e wo1en 1igrant wor7ers sector2 Provided- 0urt/er- #/at all
no1inees 1ust /ave at least two <2= .ears eAperience as a 1igrant wor7er&
'E"& ?5& EAe1ption 0ro1 #ravel #aA and Airport Fee& 6 All laws to t/e contrar.
notwit/standing- t/e 1igrant wor7er s/all be eAe1pt 0ro1 t/e pa.1ent o0 travel
taA and airport 0ee upon proper s/owing o0 proo0 o0 entitle1ent b. t/e P%EA&
'E"& ?C& $on-increase o0 Fees@ Abolition o0 Repatriation ond& 6 Upon
approval o0 t/is Act- all 0ees being c/arged b. an. govern1ent o00ice on 1igrant
wor7ers s/all re1ain at t/eir present levels and t/e repatriation bond s/all be
abolis/ed&
'E"& ?F& #/e "ongressional ,igrant Bor7ers 'c/olars/ip Fund& 6 #/ere is
/ereb. created a "ongressional ,igrant Bor7ers 'c/olars/ip Fund w/ic/ s/all
bene0it deserving 1igrant wor7ers andGor t/eir i11ediate descendants below
twent.-one <25= .ears o0 age w/o intend to pursue courses or training pri1aril.
in t/e 0ield o0 science and tec/nolog.& #/e initial seed 0und o0 #wo /undred
1illion pesos <P299-999-999= s/all be constituted 0ro1 t/e 0ollowing sources2
Fi0t. 1illion pesos <P59-999-999= 0ro1 t/e uneApended "ountr.wide
Develop1ent Fund 0or 5995 in eDual s/aring b. all ,e1bers o0 "ongress@ and
#/e re1aining %ne /undred 0i0t. 1illion pesos <P559-999-999= s/all be 0unded
0ro1 t/e proceeds o0 Lotto draws&
#/e "ongressional ,igrant Bor7ers 'c/olars/ip Fund as /erein created s/all be
ad1inistered b. t/e D%LE in coordination wit/ t/e Depart1ent o0 'cience and
#ec/nolog. <D%'#=& #o carr. out t/e ob>ectives o0 t/is section- t/e D%LE and
t/e D%'# s/all 0or1ulate t/e necessar. rules and regulations&
'E"& ?8& Appropriation and %t/er 'ources o0 Funding& 6 #/e a1ount necessar.
to carr. out t/e provisions o0 t/is Act s/all be provided 0or in t/e 4eneral
Appropriations Act o0 t/e .ear 0ollowing its enact1ent into law and t/erea0ter&
'E"& ?9& ,igrant Bor7ers Da.& 6 #/e da. o0 signing b. t/e President o0 t/is
Act s/all be designated as t/e ,igrant Bor7ers Da. and s/all /ence0ort/ be
co11e1orated as suc/ annuall.&
'E"& :9& !1ple1enting Rules and Regulations& 6 #/e depart1ents and agencies
c/arged wit/ carr.ing out t/e provisions o0 t/is Act s/all- wit/in ninet. <99= da.s
a0ter t/e e00ectivit. o0 t/is Act- 0or1ulate t/e necessar. rules and regulations 0or
its e00ective i1ple1entation&
'E"& :5& Repealing "lause& 6 All laws- decrees- eAecutive orders- rules and
regulations- or parts t/ereo0 inconsistent wit/ t/e provisions o0 t/is Act are
/ereb. repealed or 1odi0ied accordingl.&
'E"& :2& 'eparabilit. "lause& 6 !0- 0or an. reason- an. section or provision o0
t/is Act is /eld unconstitutional or invalid- t/e ot/er sections or provisions /ereo0
s/all not be a00ected t/ereb.&
'E"& :?& E00ectivit. "lause& 6 #/is Act s/all ta7e e00ect a0ter 0i0teen <55= da.s
0ro1 its publication in t/e %00icial 4aIette or in at least two <2= national
newspapers o0 general circulation w/ic/ever co1es earlier&