The Periodic Table of the Elements, in Pictures

Periods

Alkali Metals Group 1
H Hydrogen 1

Atomic Symbol

number of protons

Atomic Number

Solid Liquid Gas
at room temperature

The color of the symbol is the color of the element in its most common pure form. Examples metallic solid red liquid colorless gas

Color Key
Metals H Noble Gases Halogens Nonmetals

Noble Gases 18
He Helium 2

1
Sun and Stars Li

Alkali Earth Metals 2

Symbols A Name Z

_____ium

Human Body

Earth's Crust Magnetic

top ten elements by weight

top eight elements by weight ferromagnetic at room temperature

Transition Metals

Boron Group 13
B Boron 5C

Carbon Group 14
Carbon

Nitrogen Group 15
6N Nitrogen 7O

Oxygen Group 16
Oxygen

Halogens 17
8F Fluorine

1
Balloons Neon 10

als s et oid nm all r No Met Poo ls ta Me

Alkali Earth Metals Alkali Metals

4 3 Be Beryllium Lithium Widgets

9 Ne

2
Batteries Na Sodium Emeralds

Noble Metals Radioactive

corrosion-resistant all isotopes are radioactive

Superheavy Elements Rare Earth Metals Actinide Metals

2
Advertising Basis of Life's Air Protein Toothpaste Signs Molecules 16 Cl 15 S 18 17 Ar 14 P Al 13 Si Sulfur Phosphorus Argon Chlorine Silicon Aluminum Sports Equipment

How it is (or was) used or where it occurs in nature

Only Traces Found in Nature Never Found in Nature
only made by people

less than a millionth percent of earth's crust

12 11 Mg Magnesium

3
Salt

Transition Metals
K Swimming Stone, Sand, Egg Yolks Bones Light Bulbs Chlorophyll Airplanes 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Pools and Soil 30 Ga 29 Zn 28 Cu 27 Ni 25 Fe 26 Co 24 Mn 23 Cr 22 V 21 Ti 20 Sc 19 Ca 34 Br 33 Se 36 35 Kr 31 Ge 32 As Zinc Copper Nickel Cobalt Manganese Iron Chromium Vanadium Titanium Scandium Calcium Potassium Selenium Arsenic Krypton Bromine Gallium Germanium

3

4
Brass Electric Stainless Shells and Fruits and Photography Light-Emitting Semiconductor Steel Coins Magnets Earthmovers Structures Springs Aerospace Bicycles Copiers Poison Flashlights Instruments Diodes (LEDs) Electronics Wires Steel Bones Vegetables Film 48 In 47 Cd 46 Ag 45 Pd 44 Rh 43 Ru 42 Tc 41 Mo 40 Nb 39 Zr 38 Y Rb 37 Sr 51 Te 53 Xe 50 Sb 49 Sn 52 I 54 Cadmium Silver Palladium Rhodium Ruthenium Molybdenum Technetium Niobium Zirconium Yttrium Strontium Rubidium Antimony Iodine Tin Indium Tellurium Xenon

4

5
Global Navigation Cs Cesium Fireworks Barium 56 Lasers 57 - 71 Rare Earth Metals X-Ray Diagnosis 88 Fr 87 Ra Radium Francium Atomic Clocks Nuclear Mobile Rocket Lamp Low-Temperature Labware Jewelry Spark Plugs Pen Points Thermometers Thermometers Submarines Phones Engines Filaments Rf 104 Db 109 Ds 110 Rg 107 Hs 108 Mt 105 Sg 106 Bh 113 111 112 Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Bohrium Hassium Dubnium Seaborgium Rutherfordium Weights 114 Anti-Static Radioactive Fire Medicine Brushes Sprinklers 117 115 116 Surgical Implants 118 Pollution Searchlight Electric Radioactive Cutting Mag Lev Chemical Car Plated Liquid Crystal Thermoelectric High-Intensity Paint Jewelry Disinfectant Control Reflectors Switches Diagnosis Tools Trains Pipelines Batteries Displays (LCDs) Food Cans Coolers Lamps Hf 72 Ta 78 Au 79 Hg 86 77 Pt 85 Rn 76 Ir 84 At 75 Os 83 Po 74 Re 82 Bi 73 W 80 Tl 81 Pb Hafnium Platinum Gold Radon Iridium Astatine Osmium Polonium Rhenium Bismuth Tungsten Lead Tantalum Mercury Thallium

5

55 Ba

6

6

89 - 103 Actinide Metals

7
Laser Atom Traps 119

Superheavy Elements
radioactive, never found in nature, no uses except atomic research 58 Pr La 57 Ce 65 Dy 64 Tb 71 70 Lu 63 Gd 67 Er 69 Yb 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 66 Ho 68 Tm Cerium Lanthanum Terbium Gadolinium Lutetium Ytterbium Europium Holmium Thulium Samarium Dysprosium Erbium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium

7

8

Luminous Watches 120 121 - 153

Rare Earth Metals

6
Lighter Telescope Fluorescent Smart Material MRI Scientific Photodynamic Color Laser Laser Torchworkers' Electric Motor Luminous Electric Motor Optical Fiber Flints Lenses Lamps Diagnosis Medicine Fiber Lasers Dials Televisions Surgery Surgery Eyeglasses Magnets Magnets Actuators Communications 97 Cf Ac 89 Th 96 Bk 103 95 Cm 102 Lr 93 Pu 94 Am 98 Es 99 Fm 91 U 92 Np 100 Md 101 No 90 Pa Berkelium Actinium Curium Lawrencium Americium Nobelium Neptunium Plutonium Californium Einsteinium Protactinium Uranium Fermium Mendelevium Thorium

Actinide Metals
Radioactive Medicine Gas Lamp Mantles Radioactive Waste Nuclear Power Radioactive Waste Nuclear Weapons Smoke Detectors Mineral Analyzers Radioactive Waste Mineral Analyzers radioactive, never found in nature, no uses except atomic research

7

elements.wlonk.com Copyright © 2005 Keith Enevoldsen See website for terms of use.

Hydrogen belongs to no definite group. It forms compounds by either donating an electron like an alkali metal or accepting an electron like a halogen. Alkali Metals are very reactive and readily form compounds but are not found free in nature. They form salts and alkali (acid-neutralizing) compounds such as baking soda. In pure form, they are very soft metals which catch fire on contact with water. Periods

The Periodic Table of the Elements, in Words
Atoms
Nucleus of protons and neutrons Electron shells Particles +1 Proton 0 Neutron -1 Electron

Chemical Bonding
Atoms form molecules by bonding together. Atoms give, take, or share electrons to achieve full outer electron shells.
Na Na
+

Noble Gases are inactive, or inert. Each atom has exactly the number of electrons it needs to have a full outer shell, so these atoms almost never bond with other atoms. That is why these are all gases. Halogens are reactive nonmetals and readily form compounds but are not found free in nature. They combine with alkali metals to form salts (halogen means salt-former).

Group 1
H Hydrogen 1 explosive gas, lightest element; 90% of atoms in the universe, sun and stars, water (H20), life's organic molecules

Cl

H H

O H

H Ag

Ag Ag Ag

Ag Ag Ag

1

An atom has a nucleus, made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons orbiting in cloud-like shells. Smaller shells are surrounded by larger shells. The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom. This determines the chemical properties of the atom. Protons have positive electric charge, neutrons are neutral, and electrons are negative. Normally, an atom has equal numbers of protons and electrons. An ion is a charged atom with more or fewer electrons than protons. The atomic weight of an element is the average number of protons plus neutrons. You can easily estimate the atomic weight: it is usually 2 to 2.5 times the atomic number. An element is a substance made from one or more atoms of the same atomic number. A compound is a substance made from two or more elements chemically bonded.

Salt

Cl

Water

O

Silver

2

Li

2

Lithium 3 Be Beryllium 4 lightest metal, lightweight metal; soft, reactive; non-sparking lightweight copper alloy tools, aluminum alloys, aerospace, batteries, X-ray windows, impact-resistant beryl gems: ceramic cookware, emeralds and mood stabilizer aquamarines Mg Magnesium 12 lightweight metal; chlorophyll in green plants, talc, basalt, aluminum alloys, cars, planes, bikes, flares, sparklers, antacids Ca

Alkali Earth Metals are reactive
and readily form compounds but are not found free in nature. Their oxides are called alkali earths. In pure form, they are soft and somewhat brittle metals.

Ionic bond Covalent bond One atom takes an Atoms share their electron from another outer electrons. atom and the oppositely charged ions attract.

Groups

Metallic bond Shared outer electrons flow, conducting heat and electricity.

Metalloids are partly like metals and partly like non-metals. For example, they are semiconductors, which means they conduct electricity in some conditions.

Nonmetals, in their solid state, are usually brittle (they break rather than bend) and they are insulators of both heat and electricity.

18
He Helium 2 inert gas, second lightest element; fuel for nuclear fusion in sun and stars, balloons, lasers, supercold refrigerant

1

13
Boron B 5 hard black solid; borax soap, fertilizer, stiff fibers, sports equipment, heat-resistant borosilicate glass, semiconductors Al Aluminum 13 lightweight noncorroding metal; kitchenware, cans, foil, machinery, cars, planes, bikes, feldspar, granite, clay, ceramics, corundum, gems C

14
Carbon 6 hard diamond, soft graphite; basis of life's organic molecules, animals, plants, CO2, wood, paper, cloth, plastic, coal, oil, gasoline N

15
Nitrogen 7 colorless gas; 78% of air, organic molecules, protein, muscles, DNA, ammonia, fertilizer, explosives (TNT), refrigerants O

16
Oxygen 8 colorless gas; 21% of air, H2O, 65% of the body, organic molecules, blood, breathing, fire, half of earth's crust, minerals, oxides F

17

Elements in the same group, or column, are similar because they typically have the same number of outer electrons. This table shows some easy-to-remember common numbers for each group. Group number 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Outer electrons* 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Valence number* +1 +2 +2 +3 +4,-4 -3 -2 -1 0 * typical The valence number is the number of electrons given (+) or taken (-) when bonding.

Fluorine 9 Ne Neon 10 yellowish inert gas; poison gas, orange-red most reactive neon tubes for element; advertising signs, glowing fluorite, lasers, toothpaste, supercold nonstick cookware, refrigerant CFC refrigerants

2

3

Sodium 11 soft metal, reactive; salt (NaCl), nerves, baking soda, antacids, lye, soap, soda ash, glass, papermaking, street lamps K Potassium 19 soft metal, reactive; salts, nerves, nutrients in fruits and vegetables, soap, fertilizer, potash, matches, gunpowder

Na

malleable (they can be hammered into shape), flexible (in thin sheets or wires), and they conduct both heat and electricity.

Transition Metals are typical metals: they are strong, shiny,

Poor Metals are usually
soft and have low melting temperatures.

3

4
V

5
Vanadium 23 hard metal; hard strong resilient steel, structures, vehicles, springs, driveshafts, tools, aerospace, violet sapphires

6

7
Fe

8

9

10

11
Cu Copper 29 colored metal, conducts heat and electricity well; wires, cookware, brass (Cu-Zn), bronze (Cu-Sn), coins, pipes, blue crab blood

12

Sulfur 16 Cl Chlorine 17 Ar Argon 18 Si Silicon 14 P Phosphorus 15 S hard metalloid; glowing white waxy brittle yellow solid; greenish poison gas; inert gas; quartz, granite, solid (also red skin, hair, salt (NaCl), bleach, 1% of air, sand, soil, clay, and black forms); egg yolks, onions, stomach acid, most abundant ceramics, glass, bones, DNA, garlic, skunks, disinfectant, inert gas, algae, diatoms, energy-storing hot springs, drinking water, light bulbs, semiconductors, phosphates (ATP), volcanos, gypsum, swimming pools, "neon" tubes, computer chips, fertilizer, acids, rubber, acids, PVC plastic lasers, silicone rubber detergent, matches papermaking pipes and bottles welding gas Ge Germanium 32 As Arsenic 33 Se Selenium 34 Br Bromine 35 Kr Krypton 36 inert gas; brittle metalloid; brittle metalloid; brittle gray solid; dark red liquid; disinfectant, high-intensity semiconductors, poisons, photocopiers, pools and spas, lamps, headlights, transistors, semiconductors, laser printers, photo film, flashlights, rectifiers, diodes, light-emitting photocells, flame retardant, lanterns, photocells, diodes (LEDs) red glass, "neon" tubes, lenses, (GaAs), dandruff shampoo, leaded gasoline, sedatives lasers infrared windows signal lights, rubber tiny lasers Sb Antimony 51 brittle metalloid; solders, lead hardener, batteries, bullets, semiconductors, photocells, matches, flame retardant Te Tellurium 52 brittle metalloid; alloys, semiconductors, photocopiers, computer disks, thermo-electric coolers and generators Iodine 53 Xe Xenon 54 I violet-black solid, inert gas; disinfectant for high-intensity wounds and lamps, headlights, drinking water, stadium lamps, added to salt projectors, to prevent strobes, lasers, thyroid disease, spacecraft photo film ion engines

3

4

Calcium 20 Sc Scandium 21 Ti Titanium 22 soft metal; soft lightweight strongest bones, teeth, milk, metal; lightweight metal, leaves, vegetables, aluminum alloys, heat-resistant; shells, coral, racing bikes, aerospace, limestone, chalk, stadium lamps, racing bikes, gypsum, plaster, furnace bricks, artificial joints, mortar, cement, aquamarines white paint, marble, antacids blue sapphires Zr Zirconium 40 non-corroding neutron-resistant metal; chemical pipelines, nuclear reactors, furnace bricks, abrasives, zircon gems

Cr Chromium 24 Mn Manganese 25 hard shiny metal; hard metal; stainless steel hard tough steel, (Fe-Cr-Ni), earthmovers, kitchenware, rock crushers, nichrome heaters, rails, plows, axes, car trim, paints, batteries, recording tape, fertilizer, emeralds & rubies amethysts

Iron 26 Co Cobalt 27 Ni Nickel 28 medium-hard hard metal, medium-hard metal, magnetic; magnetic; metal, magnetic; steel alloys hard strong steel, stainless steel are mostly iron, cutting tools, (Fe-Cr-Ni), structures, turbines, kitchenware, vehicles, magnets, magnets (Al-Ni-Co), nichrome heaters, earth's core, blue glass, ceramics, nicad batteries, red rocks, blood vitamin B-12 coins, earth's core Pd Palladium 46 non-corroding hard metal, absorbs hydrogen; labware, electric contacts, dentistry, catalyst, pollution control

Zinc Zn 30 Ga Gallium 31 non-corroding soft metal, melts metal; on a hot day; galvanized steel, semiconductors, brass (Cu-Zn), light-emitting batteries, white diodes (LEDs) paint, phosphors (GaAs), in TVs and lamps, signal lights, fertilizer tiny lasers In

4

5

Yttrium 39 Rb Rubidium 37 Sr Strontium 38 Y soft metal, soft metal; soft metal; reactive; red fireworks, phosphors in atomic clocks, flares, color TVs, global navigation phosphors, lasers (YAG, YLF), (GPS), nuclear batteries, furnace bricks, vacuum tube medical high-temperature scavenger diagnostic tracer, superconductors nuclear fallout Cs Cesium 55 soft metal, melts on a hot day, reactive, largest stable atoms; atomic clocks, global navigation (GPS), vacuum tube scavenger Barium 56 soft metal, absorbs X-rays; stomach X-ray contrast enhancer, green firworks, whitener and filler for paper, plastic, and rubber Ba 57 - 71

Nb Niobium 41 MoMolybdenum 42 high-melting-point high-melting-point non-corroding metal; metal; hard steel, chemical pipelines, cutting tools, superconductors, drill bits, magnetic armor plate, levitation trains, gun barrels, MRI magnets fertilizer

Tc Technetium 43 Ru Ruthenium 44 Rh Rhodium 45 radioactive, non-corroding non-corroding long-lived; hard metal; hard shiny metal; first human-made electric contacts, labware, element, only leaf switches, reflectors, traces on earth pen tips. electric contacts, but found in stars, catalyst, thermocouples, medical hydrogen catalyst, diagnostic tracer production pollution control Ir

Ag Silver 47 Cd Cadmium 48 soft shiny metal, non-corroding conducts soft metal, toxic; electricity best electroplated of all elements; steel, jewelry, nicad batteries, silverware, coins, red and yellow dentistry, paints, photo film fire sprinklers

Indium 49 Sn Tin 50 soft metal; non-corroding solders, soft metal; glass seals, solders, glass coatings, plated food cans, liquid crystal bronze (Cu-Sn), displays (LCDs), pewter cups, semiconductors, glassmaking, diodes, photocells fire sprinklers Thallium 81 soft metal, toxic; low-melting-point mercury alloys, low-temperature thermometers, undersea lamps, photocells 113 Pb

5

6

Rare Earth Metals

Hf Hafnium 72 Ta Tantalum 73 W Tungsten 74 Re Rhenium 75 Os Osmium 76 non-corroding high-melting-point highest-melting- high-melting-point non-corroding metal, dense metal; high-melting-point non-corroding point metal, dense; absorbs neutrons; filaments in rocket engines, hard metal, metal; nuclear reactor lamps and TVs, heater coils, densest element labware, control rods in cutting tools, lab filaments, (same as iridium); surgical tools, submarines, abrasives, electric contacts, electric contacts, artificial joints, plasma torch thermocouples thermocouples, pen tips, needles, capacitors, electrodes catalyst fingerprint powder mobile phones

Iridium 77 Pt Platinum 78 Au Gold 79 Hg Mercury 80 non-corroding non-corroding most malleable liquid metal, hard metal, dense metal; element, dense toxic; densest element labware, non-tarnishing thermometers, (same as osmium); spark plugs, colored metal; barometers, labware, catalyst, jewelry, coins, thermostats, spark plugs, pollution control, ultra-thin street lamps, pen tips, needles petroleum cracking, gold leaf, fluorescent lamps, processing fats electric contacts dentistry 112

Tl

Lead 82 Bi Bismuth 83 Po Polonium 84 At Astatine 85 Rn Radon 86 dense, soft, low-melting-point radioactive, radioactive, radioactive gas, non-corroding brittle metal; long-lived; short-lived; short-lived; metal, toxic; solders, fuses, first radioactive small traces environmental weights, solders, fire sprinklers element found, in nature, hazard, batteries, bullets, (plugs melt small traces cancer medicine surgical implants crystal glass, when hot), in nature, for cancer old plumbing, cosmetics pigment anti-static brushes, treatment radiation shield tobacco 114 115 116 117 118

6

7

Fr Francium 87 Ra Radium 88 radioactive, radioactive, short-lived long-lived; atoms larger luminous watches than cesium; (now banned), small traces medical radon in nature, production, studied in radiography, laser atom traps radwaste 119 120

89 - 103

Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Ds 110 Rg 111 Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Meitnerium

Actinide Metals

Superheavy Elements
radioactive, short-lived; never found in nature, no uses except atomic research

7

8

121 - 153

Rare Earth Metals are all soft metals.
They are chemically similar to scandium and yttrium and are difficult to separate from each other.

Actinide Metals are all radioactive
heavy metals. They are used mainly for their radioactive properties.

La Lanthanum 57 Ce Cerium 58 Pr Praseodymium 59 Nd Neodymium 60 Pm Promethium 61 soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; radioactive, optical glass, most abundant torchworkers' strong magnets long-lived; telescope rare earth metal, didymium eye(Nd-Fe-B), human-made, eyepieces, lighter flints, glasses (Pr-Nd), electric motors, small traces camera lenses, gas lamp mantles, lighter flints, speakers and in nature, lighter flints, self-cleaning arc lamps, headphones, luminous dials, arc lamps ovens, magnets, lasers, sheet thickness glass polishing yellow glass lighter flints gauges Ac Actinium 89 Th Thorium 90 Pa Protactinium 91 radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; small traces most abundant small traces in nature, radioactive element, in nature, cancer medicine, nuclear no uses, neutron source, reactor fuel, radwaste radwaste gas lamp mantles, tungsten filaments U

Sm Samarium 62 Eu Europium 63 Gd Gadolinium 64 Tb Terbium 65 Dy Dysprosium 66 soft metal; soft metal; soft metal, best soft metal; soft metal; magnets (Sm-Co), phosphors in neutron absorber, phosphors in nuclear electric motors, color TVs and magnetic; color TVs and control rods, speakers and trichromatic lamps, magnetic resonance trichromatic lamps, MRI phosphors, headphones, luminous paint, imaging (MRI) computer disks, computer disks, infrared sensors, lasers contrast enhancer, magnetostrictive magnetostrictive infrared-absorbing phosphors, neutron smart materials smart materials glass radiography (Terfenol-D®) (Terfenol-D®)

Ho Holmium 67 Er Erbium 68 Tm Thulium 69 Yb Ytterbium 70 Lu Lutetium 71 soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; soft metal, infrared lasers, fiber optic rarest stable fiber optic densest and laser surgery, signal amplifiers, rare earth metal, signal amplifiers, hardest eye-safe laser infrared lasers, infrared lasers, infrared rare earth metal; rangefinders, laser surgery, laser surgery, fiber lasers, cancer-fighting computer disks, pink glass, phosphors stainless steel photodynamic yellow glass filters sunglasses, alloys (light-activated) vanadium alloys medicine

6

Radioactivity. Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Some isotopes are stable; others are radioactive — their nuclei eventually disintegrate. The radioactive half-life is the time for half the nuclei to disintegrate. On this chart, an element is called long-lived if the half-life of any of its isotopes is more than one year; otherwise it is called short-lived.

99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 Uranium 92 Np Neptunium 93 Pl Plutonium 94 Am Americium 95 Cm Curium 96 Bk Berkelium 97 Cf Californium 98 Es Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, long-lived, dense; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; nuclear small traces small traces never found never found never found never found reactor fuel, in nature, in nature, in nature, in nature, in nature, in nature, nuclear weapons, neutron detectors, nuclear smoke detectors, scientific no uses, scientific counterweights, dosimeters, reactor fuel, sheet thickness instruments, radwaste instruments, armor piercing nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons, gauges, mineral analyzers, mineral analyzers, radioactive, short-lived; never found in nature, no uses except atomic research bullets radwaste radwaste radwaste radwaste radwaste

7

What is the last human-made element? For up-to-date information, search the web for "periodic table".

elements.wlonk.com Copyright © 2005 Keith Enevoldsen See website for terms of use.

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