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A Brief Introduction
Er. Saroj Bhattarai, SDE, DOR
House on piles
A substructure
(footings, base)
supported on piles.
Transfers loads to
deep soil strata deep soil strata
To stronger base
To a larger area
through skin
friction
When the top
layers of soil are
weak (low bearing
capacity)
When there is
When we use pile foundation? When we use pile foundation?
When there is
possibility of deep
scour (bridge)
If lateral forces
(such as bridge
abutment) are
considerably
prominent
By load carrying mechanism:
End bearing piles
Friction piles
Mixed type
Other special types
B t i l d By material used:
Concrete piles
Steel piles
Timber piles, etc.
By method of construction:
Driven piles
Bored and cast in situ piles
Concrete, steel, timber
Piles are prepared first
Special pile driving
mechanism
Hammering,
percussion, jetting and
pressure etc pressure, etc.
Suitable mostly in
granular soils
Fast construction, good
quality control
Noise and vibration
Requires precision
driving
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1. Preparation of boring,
placing the tubular casing
2. Boring hole to the required
depth in the ground
3. Stabilizing the hole walls
with casing or bentonite
solution solution
4. Placing the reinforcement
cage
5. Fixing the reinforcement
cage (should not sink by
its selfweight
6. Pouring concrete and
pulling out the casing
7. Finished pile
1) Preparation. 2) Initial boring. 3) Placing the case. 4) Pouring bentonite. 5)
Further boring +circulation of bentonite. 6 - 7) Belling out if required. 8)
Checking the specific gravity of the fluid inside. 9) Placing reinforcement cage.
10-11) Placing the tremie pipe. 12) Pouring concrete. 13) Concreting finished.
14) Pulling out of the casing.
Percussion method:
Repeated raising and dropping of
chisel-edged bit to break loose
and pulverize material fromthe
bottomof the hole.
The pulverized soil is mixed with
water and forms slurry.
Periodicallythe boring bit is lifted
and the slurry is removed with a
bucked shaped bailer.
This process is repeated until the
desired depth is bored.
1. Boring with locally developed system
2. Chiseled bit for percussion boring, with check valve for lifting slurry
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The reinforcement cage
is prepared on the ground
and lowered into the
bored hole with the help
of a crane or the chain-
pulley systemwhich is
used for boring.
Concrete is poured into the hole with the help
of tremie pipe. The tremie systemconsists of
a funnel and number of pipes which can be
joined together.
The poured concrete should be fluid
enough to work through the tremie
pipes but the w/c ratio should not
exceed the design limit. Admixtures can
be used to increase workability.
The top of the borehole
should be overflowed so
that the mud with the
bentonite solution is
expelled out.
Picture courtesy of Mr. Muhammad Naveed, Pakistan
16Nos600mmdiapile
16@200C/C (APC3+APC4) BOTHWAYS
16 @ 150 C/C (APC3+APC4) BOTHWAYS
8 3 NOS.ALONG THE
PERIPHERY (PC5)
25@ 150 C/C (APC1+APC2) BOTHWAYS
M20CONCRETE
600
R
300
10 @150C/C (PL2) LATERAL TIES
THROUGHTOUT THE LENGTH OF PILE
12NOS 20 BARS ALOGNG PILE LENGTH (PL1)
10@116C/C (PL2) LATERAL TIES
AT TOP 1mLENGTH OF PILE NEAR HEAD
ALOGNG PILE LENGTH (PL1)
12NOS 20 BARS
1700 1700 1700
1
7
0
0
1
7
0
0
1
7
0
0
c. ABUTMENT -65 mm
b. BACK WALL - 40mm
a. ABUTMENT CAP - 65 mm
2. CLEAR COVER
a. ABUTMENT ANDPILES - M20
1. CONC. GRADE
NOTE :
PLAN OF PILES
10 @158C/C (PL2) LATERAL TIES
THROUGHTOUT THE LENGTH OF PILE
c. PILES - 70 mm
PILE CROSS SECTION
0.5 0
(Scale)
0.5 1.0 2.5M
0.14 0
(Scale)
0.14 0.28 0.42M
PILE CROSS SECTION
0.28 0
(Scale)
0.28 0.56 0.84 M
TOTAL PER ABUTMENT FOUNDATION 14963.147 kg
7400 7 200 7400
APC5 8 3 30.00 0.4 36.00
5870
1000 6 5870
1000
1000
5
4 5870
1000 3 5870
2 470 250
40
40
40
APC3 16
APC4 1000 16
APC2
1000
1000 25
1.58 7.87
7.87 1.58
7.87 3.85
40 APC1 1000 25
PL2 10
7.87 3.85
1860 1.726 0.62
1 2X 900 17870
400
S.N. SHAPE NOS.
(mm)
PL1 20
LABEL DIA.
(Kg/m) (m)
192 20.07 2.47
LENGTH WEIGHT
497.384
497.384
1211.98
1211.98
1990.423
(Kg)
9517.996
WEIGHT
BAR BENDING SCHEDULE OF PILES AT ABUTMENT (PER WALL)
16Nos600mmdiapile
R750
6000
6
0
0
0
0
0
1
7
0
0
16Nos600mmdiapile
R
750
6000
0
0
1700 1700 1700
1
7
0
0
1
7
0
6
0
0
Pile layout plan
16@200C/C (APC3+APC4) BOTHWAYS
16 @ 150 C/C (APC3+APC4) BOTHWAYS
8 3 NOS.ALONG THE
PERIPHERY (PC5)
25@ 150 C/C (APC1+APC2) BOTHWAYS
16 Nos 600 mm dia pile
ALOGNG PILE LENGTH (PL1)
12 NOS 20 BARS
View showing elevation of pile cap and piles
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1000 3 5870
2 470 250
40 APC1 1000 25
PL2 10
7.87 3.85
1860 1.726 0.62
1
2 X 900 17870
400
S.N. SHAPE
NOS.
(mm)
PL1 20
LABEL DIA.
(Kg/m) (m)
192 20.07 2.47
LENGTH WEIGHT
1211.98
1990.423
(Kg)
9517.996
WEIGHT
BAR BENDING SCHEDULE OF PILES AT ABUTMENT (PER WALL)
TOTAL PER ABUTMENT FOUNDATION 14963.147 kg
7400 7
200 7400
APC5 8 3 30.00 0.4 36.00
5870
1000 6
5870
1000
1000
5
4 5870
40
40
40
APC3 16
APC4 1000 16
APC2
1000
1000 25
1.58 7.87
7.87 1.58
7.87 3.85
497.384
497.384
1211.98
Bar Bending Schedule
8mmdia tie bars
@ ..mmc/c
Pile Reinforcement details
Bulging or Over break.
Reason : Falling of soil from the sidewalls or squeezing
of the wall due to improper use of bentonite solution.
Picture courtesy of Mr. Muhammad Naveed, Pakistan
Provide sufficient laps in the reinforcement to avoid
slippage of the reinforcing bars.
Picture courtesy of Mr. Muhammad Naveed, Pakistan
It is very important to monitor the vertical
alignment (plumb) of the piles, particularly in
driven piles.
The concrete is placed in boreholes using
tremmie pipe to prevent from segregation &
impinging of concrete on the sides of the impinging of concrete on the sides of the
borehole.
The concreting process should be continuous
and completed without any break to avoid
bleeding of cement slurry
The tremie pipe should be embedded at least 1.0
m in concrete during concreting otherwise
bentonite can mix in concrete and weaken the pile
shaft.
The metal casing should be clean and without rust
to ensure smooth removal after concreting is
l t complete.
The tremie pipes should be washed thoroughly
after each shift to prevent clogging due to
hardened residue.
Section 1600 of the Standard Specifications for
Road and Bridge Works, 2001 gives all the
specifications for piling. The book is available in
the Central Lab of the DOR.
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THANK YOU!