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Title :

Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions

Objective :
To Investigate the Action of Saliva and 3M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solution
Table 1:
Observations Conclusions
Benedicts Test:
The blue colouration of the mixture turns green,
yellow, orange and then forms abundant
amount of bric!red "reci"itate# The solution
was o"a$ue#
Iodine Test :
The solution was turn into greenish yellow and
translucent from colourless solution#
The "resence of red
"reci"itate in Solution A
indicates the "resence of a
reducing sugar#
Benedicts Test :
The blue colouration of co""er %II& ion
trans"arent solution remains the same#
Iodine Test :
A 'lue!blac solution translucent colouration
was formed#
It Indicates the "resence of
starch which means the
Solution ' is a non!
reducing sugar#
Table 2:
Tube Contents Tem"
Benedicts Test Colour Observations --
After 5
!fro tubes 1"# into 1"# $
After %5
in !fro tubes 1"
# into 1"#$
) )*ml solution '
)ml saliva
3+ ,rom blue to green to yellowish
brown translucent solution with the
little blue sus"ension at the bottom
-ellowish orange layer formed
on to" and blue colour at the
. )*ml solution '
)M/ 3m HC/
3+ ,rom light blue to blue translucent
solution with little bit of dar blue
,rom light blue to dar
o"a$ue blue solution with the
moderate amount of blue
sus"ension in it#
3 )*ml solution '
)ml 3M HC/
01 ,rom light blue to o"a$ue blue
,rom blue colour solution to
o"a$ue dar blue colour
2 )*ml solution '
)ml saliva
01 ,rom light blue to blue trans"arent
solution with blue sus"ension in it
The light trans"arent blue
colour solution remains
The ex"eriment was carried out on the human saliva to investigate the action of
saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in two carbohydrate solutions# The salivary amylase is also
nown as "tyalin is involved in this ex"eriment which is "roduced by salivary gland in mouth#
The com"lex starch broe down into sim"le sugars by the hel" of the salivary amylase, so
that the sugar can be easily converted into energy
The en3yme does not breadown carbohydrates to its sim"lest form# The en3yme
also acted as the biological catalyst which hel"s to reduce the activation energy needed for
the 'enedict4s test# 5hen the tem"erature increases to 01C, the en3yme denature the
increasing of tem"erature cause the molecules to vibrate more violently# The wea bonds of
the en3yme such as hydrogen bond will brea first# The en3yme bond of en3ymes such as
ionic bonds and disul"hide bridges brea later# Structure and surface of active site are
destroyed and altered# The catalytic function of en3yme losses and it said to be denatured#
5hen the structure of the en3yme is fully destroyed, they will be no catalysis tae "lace on it#

Hydrochloric acid, HCl hydrolyse starch into glucose at tem"erature 01C# Therefore,
glucose was "resent in tube .# Tube . has incubated at o"timum tem"erature of HCl, thus
HCl hydrolyse starch %Solution '& into glucose which show the "ositive result also tested with
'enedict4s solution# The blue solution turns to yellowish brown and lastly the solution forms
bric red "reci"itation# This is because with the tem"erature reach 01C, hydrolysis still
occurs before it undergoes denaturation# To "revent this, en3yme can be heated until it
reached 01C# Then use it to react with the solution ' instead of heating them together by
water bath# 5hen transferring sodium hydroxide from beaer by "i"etting, the "i"ette must
be ensured no bubbles inside# This is because the air bubbles occu"y s"ace and lead to the
inaccurate of result#
Iodine test and 'enedict4s test are done on both solution A and solution '# Solution A
show the "ositive result in 'enedict4s test but negative result in Iodine test# Therefore,
solution A contains reducing sugar but absence of starch# Solution ' has show the "ositive
result in iodine test but negative result in 'enedict4s test# Thus, solution ' contains starch but
absence of reducing sugar# Solution ' in table ) has been converted to reducing sugar by
the saliva added but still "resence of reducing sugar in solution ' in tube 2# This is because
more starch in solution ' in tube ) has been hydrolysed to glucose and less starch in
solution ' in tube 2 has been hydrolysed to glucose# Solution ' in tube ) "resent more
glucose then solution ' in tube 2# Therefore, the result in tube ) after 31 minutes has more
red "reci"itate formed but in tube 2 after 31 minutes has little red "reci"itate formed with
green colour solution after both of the tube tested with 'enedict4s test# In the other hand,
solution ' in tube . shows negative result of 'enedict4s test but "ositive result in tube 3# This
is because solution ' in tube 3 has been hydrolysed into glucose by HCl with high
tem"erature# The tem"erature of solution ' in tube . is not enough for HCl to hydrolyse
solution ' into glucose#
6lucose has combined more than ) monomer to form a new "olymer# This structure
also shows two trademars of a sugar7 a number of hydroxyl grou" and a carboxyl grou"#
6lucose is the isomer of the fructose# The carbon seleton of glucose is 8 carbon stems
long# However, starch is a storage "olysaccharide in "lants, which consists entirely of
glucose monomers# Starch molecules coil into a helical sha"e and maybe will be
unbranched and branched# Starch granules are same as carbohydrate 9ban: from which
"lant cell can withdraw glucose for energy# 6lucose is also classified as monosaccharide but
starch is classified as "olysaccharide#
Carbohydrate ' is more com"lex than carbohydrate A# This is because carbohydrate
A show "ositive result which 'enedict4s test directly without hydrolysed by hydrochloric acid
and saliva# However carbohydrate ' showed negative result with 'enedict4s test#
Carbohydrate ' only shown "ositive result after it has been hydrolysed by hydrochloric acid
and saliva# Therefore, carbohydrate ' is more com"lex than carbohydrate A and
carbohydrate A is the monomer of carbohydrate '#
'enedict4s solution contains co""er sul"hate# ;educing sugar such as glucose
reduced soluble blue co""er sul"hate# The solution of co""er %III& ions will reduce to
insoluble bric red co""er oxide containing co""er ions# This is seen as bric red "reci"itate#
Therefore, "ositive test of 'enedict4s solution by glucose will show bric red "reci"itate# The
chemical base of iodine test is a "oly"e"tide com"lex which is blue!blac in colour is formed
with starch# So, iodine is use to test the "resent of starch#
The solution A is a reducing sugar while solution ' is a non!reducing sugar and the salivary
amylase act as en3yme in which has the o"timal tem"erature <3+(C and hydrochloric acid is
used as digestive en3yme#