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Title :

Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions


Objective :
To Investigate the Action of Saliva and 3M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solution
Results:
Table 1:
Observations Conclusions
Solution
A
Benedicts Test:
The blue colouration of the mixture turns green,
yellow, orange and then forms abundant
amount of bric!red "reci"itate# The solution
was o"a$ue#
Iodine Test :
The solution was turn into greenish yellow and
translucent from colourless solution#
The "resence of red
"reci"itate in Solution A
indicates the "resence of a
reducing sugar#
Solution
B
Benedicts Test :
The blue colouration of co""er %II& ion
trans"arent solution remains the same#
Iodine Test :
A 'lue!blac solution translucent colouration
was formed#
It Indicates the "resence of
starch which means the
Solution ' is a non!
reducing sugar#
Table 2:
Tube Contents Tem"
%(C&
Benedicts Test Colour Observations --
After 5
th
in
!fro tubes 1"# into 1"# $
After %5
th
in !fro tubes 1"
# into 1"#$
) )*ml solution '
)ml saliva
3+ ,rom blue to green to yellowish
brown translucent solution with the
little blue sus"ension at the bottom
-ellowish orange layer formed
on to" and blue colour at the
bottom#
. )*ml solution '
)M/ 3m HC/
3+ ,rom light blue to blue translucent
solution with little bit of dar blue
"reci"itate
,rom light blue to dar
o"a$ue blue solution with the
moderate amount of blue
sus"ension in it#
3 )*ml solution '
)ml 3M HC/
01 ,rom light blue to o"a$ue blue
solution
,rom blue colour solution to
o"a$ue dar blue colour
solution
2 )*ml solution '
)ml saliva
01 ,rom light blue to blue trans"arent
solution with blue sus"ension in it
The light trans"arent blue
colour solution remains
&iscussion:
The ex"eriment was carried out on the human saliva to investigate the action of
saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in two carbohydrate solutions# The salivary amylase is also
nown as "tyalin is involved in this ex"eriment which is "roduced by salivary gland in mouth#
The com"lex starch broe down into sim"le sugars by the hel" of the salivary amylase, so
that the sugar can be easily converted into energy
#
The en3yme does not breadown carbohydrates to its sim"lest form# The en3yme
also acted as the biological catalyst which hel"s to reduce the activation energy needed for
the 'enedict4s test# 5hen the tem"erature increases to 01C, the en3yme denature the
increasing of tem"erature cause the molecules to vibrate more violently# The wea bonds of
the en3yme such as hydrogen bond will brea first# The en3yme bond of en3ymes such as
ionic bonds and disul"hide bridges brea later# Structure and surface of active site are
destroyed and altered# The catalytic function of en3yme losses and it said to be denatured#
5hen the structure of the en3yme is fully destroyed, they will be no catalysis tae "lace on it#

Hydrochloric acid, HCl hydrolyse starch into glucose at tem"erature 01C# Therefore,
glucose was "resent in tube .# Tube . has incubated at o"timum tem"erature of HCl, thus
HCl hydrolyse starch %Solution '& into glucose which show the "ositive result also tested with
'enedict4s solution# The blue solution turns to yellowish brown and lastly the solution forms
bric red "reci"itation# This is because with the tem"erature reach 01C, hydrolysis still
occurs before it undergoes denaturation# To "revent this, en3yme can be heated until it
reached 01C# Then use it to react with the solution ' instead of heating them together by
water bath# 5hen transferring sodium hydroxide from beaer by "i"etting, the "i"ette must
be ensured no bubbles inside# This is because the air bubbles occu"y s"ace and lead to the
inaccurate of result#
Iodine test and 'enedict4s test are done on both solution A and solution '# Solution A
show the "ositive result in 'enedict4s test but negative result in Iodine test# Therefore,
solution A contains reducing sugar but absence of starch# Solution ' has show the "ositive
result in iodine test but negative result in 'enedict4s test# Thus, solution ' contains starch but
absence of reducing sugar# Solution ' in table ) has been converted to reducing sugar by
the saliva added but still "resence of reducing sugar in solution ' in tube 2# This is because
more starch in solution ' in tube ) has been hydrolysed to glucose and less starch in
solution ' in tube 2 has been hydrolysed to glucose# Solution ' in tube ) "resent more
glucose then solution ' in tube 2# Therefore, the result in tube ) after 31 minutes has more
red "reci"itate formed but in tube 2 after 31 minutes has little red "reci"itate formed with
green colour solution after both of the tube tested with 'enedict4s test# In the other hand,
solution ' in tube . shows negative result of 'enedict4s test but "ositive result in tube 3# This
is because solution ' in tube 3 has been hydrolysed into glucose by HCl with high
tem"erature# The tem"erature of solution ' in tube . is not enough for HCl to hydrolyse
solution ' into glucose#
6lucose has combined more than ) monomer to form a new "olymer# This structure
also shows two trademars of a sugar7 a number of hydroxyl grou" and a carboxyl grou"#
6lucose is the isomer of the fructose# The carbon seleton of glucose is 8 carbon stems
long# However, starch is a storage "olysaccharide in "lants, which consists entirely of
glucose monomers# Starch molecules coil into a helical sha"e and maybe will be
unbranched and branched# Starch granules are same as carbohydrate 9ban: from which
"lant cell can withdraw glucose for energy# 6lucose is also classified as monosaccharide but
starch is classified as "olysaccharide#
Carbohydrate ' is more com"lex than carbohydrate A# This is because carbohydrate
A show "ositive result which 'enedict4s test directly without hydrolysed by hydrochloric acid
and saliva# However carbohydrate ' showed negative result with 'enedict4s test#
Carbohydrate ' only shown "ositive result after it has been hydrolysed by hydrochloric acid
and saliva# Therefore, carbohydrate ' is more com"lex than carbohydrate A and
carbohydrate A is the monomer of carbohydrate '#
'enedict4s solution contains co""er sul"hate# ;educing sugar such as glucose
reduced soluble blue co""er sul"hate# The solution of co""er %III& ions will reduce to
insoluble bric red co""er oxide containing co""er ions# This is seen as bric red "reci"itate#
Therefore, "ositive test of 'enedict4s solution by glucose will show bric red "reci"itate# The
chemical base of iodine test is a "oly"e"tide com"lex which is blue!blac in colour is formed
with starch# So, iodine is use to test the "resent of starch#
Conclusion:
The solution A is a reducing sugar while solution ' is a non!reducing sugar and the salivary
amylase act as en3yme in which has the o"timal tem"erature <3+(C and hydrochloric acid is
used as digestive en3yme#