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MEDICAL IMAGING
BME 229
F2014
(with slides from Drs. H. Keller, A. Clerk, P. Sprawls)
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Imaging Chain
Properties of medical images
Visibility
PSF and MTF
Computer Thomography
Outline
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Generic Imaging Model
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Imaging chain
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blurring and noise sources of error causes
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Converting Tissue Characteristics into a Visual Image
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Contrast sensitivity
Increasing Contrast Sensitivity Increases Image
Contrast and the Visibility of Objects in the Body
contrast
-->
---
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Effect of Contrast Sensitivity on Object Visibility
too much constant--- you loose details
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Effect of Blur on Visibility of Image Detail
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Effect of Noise on Object Visibility
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Viewing Condition Factors That Affect Object Visibility
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Effect of Viewing Conditions on Object Visibility
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Sensitivity and Specificity
--for damages
we have a damage
normal tissue
not
100%
sure
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True and False Decisions
Relationship of True and False Diagnostic Decisions
to Sensitivity and Specificity
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Sensitivity and Specificity
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ROC curve I
Comparison of ROC Curves for an Ideal Diagnostic Procedure
with One that Produces No Useful Information
------>means method
does not work
100%speci and sensi
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ROC curve II
An ROC Curve for a Specific Imaging Procedure. The Actual
Operating Point is Determined by Characteristics of the Observer
-75 % and higher just acceptable
-less than that not acceptable as
less than 50% not at all accpetable -
with computer tomography
accuracy ha improved
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Setting a threshold

is low when
specificity is much higher
?
is high when
sensitivity much higher
than specif?
the tresh hold
---faulse positive
specifity
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X-ray Imaging Chain
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Each step adds sources of
imperfections that will
subsequently be propagated
through the chain. The main
sources are:
! Blur
! Noise

X-ray imaging chain
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Imaging Process
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Parameters that describe image quality:
-Object and image contrast
-Spatial resolution: determined by blur
-Contrast resolution: determined by noise
-Field-of-View, Voxel Size: determined by
recording process (detector) and reconstruction.
-Temporal resolution (for dynamic or 4D
imaging)

Descriptors of Medical Images
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Contrast

In x-ray images, contrast refers to the
difference in visible gray scales (image
contrast) seen as a result of differences in
attenuation (object contrast).
Image contrast is determined by: density,
material, thickness (projection imaging only),
x-ray tube settings (voltage, mAs), scatter.
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Object contrast and image contrast
ligh
worse contrast
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Every imaging system produces a blurred
(unsharp) image.
Sources of blur:
-Geometry: finite source size, distance
between source and object, distance between
object and detector
-Detector blur
-Object/patient motion

Blurred images
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(benz)
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Blur size
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Blur Shape
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Blur Distribution Patterns
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Blurred images
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Blurred images: edges
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Blurred images: Point Spread Function
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Visibility of details
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Effect of Blur on Resolution
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cycle per mm
sometimes
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MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF)
The Relationship
of an Image
Spatial Frequency
Spectrum to the
Object Spectrum
and the MTF of the
Imaging System
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1:
2:
3:
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Spatial resolution is the ability to sharply and
clearly define the extent or shape of features
within an image.
Spatial resolution defines how close two
features (usually high contrast objects) can be
and still be resolved.
Blur defines spatial resolution
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Spatial Resolution
how well can
we distinguish
these two
objects?
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Spatial Resolution
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Comparison of Blur and Resolution Values for
Different Imaging Methods
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Image Noise
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Quantum Noise
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Random Image Noise
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Low-Contrast Resolution
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Contrast Resolution
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High- and low-contrast resolution
til here
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High- and low-contrast resolution
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Field of view (FOV)
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Voxel size
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Voxel size
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Voxel size
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Voxel size
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Digital Image Processing
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Display: Level and Window
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Images take time to acquire
~1 min for CT
~ 3 min for MR
~ 8 min for PET

Motion can occur as an artifact with
different characteristics in each
modality
Temporal resolution
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Computed Tomography
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Beers Law
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Tomography image reconstruction
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The concept of back projection
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Image reconstruction in 2 views
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First Generation CT
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First Generation CT
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Contemporary CT
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Contemporary CT
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Conventional X-ray versus CT
Conventional X-ray
CT
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3D CT