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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources
Eisenstaedt, Alfred. Emperor Hirohito, 1946. Digital image. LIFE. LIFE, Feb. 1946. Web. 24
Aug. 2014. <
This source shows how Emperor Hirohito's decision to declare has affected the
people of Japan immensely.
Empire of Japan. Declaration of War against the United States and Britain. By Hirohito.
N.p.: Empire of Japan, n.d. Print.
This source was used to gather information and reasons to why Emperor Hirohito
was taking such rigorous actions. Also used to examine how Hirohito was
influenced by other to making his final decisions which affected his empire.
Empire of Japan. Japan's Unconditional Surrender. By Hirohito. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Emperor
Hirohito's Receipt of the Surrender. 14 Aug. 1945. Web. 22 Aug. 2014.
Source was used to visually observe the exact words written by Emperor Hirohito
on August 14, 1945. This was used to observe the failure and how he told the world
about it.
Hirohito, and Douglas McArthur, General. "Japan's Unconditional Surrender. Japans
Unconditional Surrender Translation. Prod. Elmer Peterson. NBC. San Francisco,
California, 16 Aug. 1945. Web. 22 Aug. 2014.
Annotated Bibliography

This source was used to quote Emperor Hirohito on the surrender of Japan. Also
used to quote how the American General views Emperor Hirohito after his
Hirohito. Hirohito Recording Surrender Speech. Digital image. War Responsibility and
Historical Memory: Hirohitos Apparition. DataMomentum, n.d. Web. 24 Aug.
2014. <>.
This source was used to enhance my explanation and reasons of how Emperor
Hirohito's surrender impacted his empire.
Japan. Constitution of Japan. By Joji Matsumoto, Courtney Whitney, and MacArthur. N.p.:
Government of Japan, 1946. Print.
This source is the new constitution of Japan which proves how Emperor Hirohito
has changed the history of Japan forever.
Japan, Germany, Italy. Ciano Von Ribbentrop Hotta. Protocol Concluded. By Ciano Von
Ribbentrop Hotta. N.p.: Italian Government, the Government of the German Reich,
and the Imperial Government of Japan, n.d. 25 Nov. 1936. Web. 4 Sept. 2014
This was used to understand the agreement the Allies had during WWII and the
impact it had on Japan and Hirohito as well.
Japan, Germany, Italy. Three-Power Pact Between Germany, Italy, and Japan, Signed at
Berlin, September 27, 1940. N.p.: Governments of Japan, Germany, and Italy, n.d.
Annotated Bibliography

This source is a document which sets the base to WWII and the alliances made
which came with regulations between nations and empires. This was used to
understand the agreement the Allies had during WWII.
Kamikaze Attack on the USS Essex, 1944. 1944. Arguments Supporting The Bomb. Web. 4
Sept. 2014.
This source was an image of the Battle of Okinawa, which will be used as a display
Japan. Chapter II: Japanese Policy and Strategy, 1931-July 1941. Web. 4 Sept.
This source was used to show the new army cabinet of Japan which persuaded
Hirohito to make his important decisions.
The TriPartite Pact Was a Purely Defensive Alliance among Germany, Italy, and
Japan. N.d. H v O / 3. Web. 4 Sept. 2014.
This source was a photograph of Hirohito with Hitler, showing the alliance between
Germany and Japan.
Tripartite Pact. N.d. Tokyo, Japan. WWII In Color. Web. 4 Sept. 2014.
This source was used to show how the influence of the alliances impacted Japan.
Secondary Sources
Behr, Edward. Hirohito: Behind the Myth. New York: Villard, 1989. Print.
Annotated Bibliography

This bibliography was used to create a better augment my understanding of
Hirohitos mysterious political and private life.
Bix, Herbert P. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York, NY:
HarperCollinsPublishers, 2000. Print.
This bibliography was used to build on the knowledge about the Emperors wars
which led up to the Japanese tragedy.
Color of War: Rare Color Films Document Atomic Bomb n.d.: n. pag. Gale Power Search.
Web. 24 Aug. 2014.
Used to get a better understanding of what the American government was offering
Emperor Hirohito if he surrendered. Also how the atomic bombs affected the nations
in WWII.
Ghanbarpour, Christina. "Hirohito, Emperor." Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, &
Africa: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 3: East and Southeast Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA:
SAGE Reference, 2012. 284-286. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Aug.
This source was used to understand how Hirohito thought of the expansion of his
empire and the growth of Japans military and defenses against other nations.
"Hirohito." A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 24 Aug. 2014.
Annotated Bibliography

This source was used to get a better understanding about what led Emperor Hirohito
to the decision to declare war on the USA and Great Britain.
Hoyt, Edwin Palmer. Hirohito: The Emperor and the Man. New York: Praeger, 1992. Print.
This source was used to understand how the Emperor reacted to the bombing of
August 14, 1945.
Irokawa, Daikichi. The Age of Hirohito: In Search of Modern Japan. New York: Free, 1995.
This source was used to understand how the people interacted with the Emperor
Hirohito and vice versa.
Siedall, Jordan. "Duke East Asia Nexus Archive Imperial Conductor? Hirohito and the
Rise of Japanese Militarism." Duke East Asia Nexus RSS. Duke University, 9 Mar.
2013. Web. 24 Aug. 2014. <
This source was used to get a better understanding of how Hirohito affected WWII
and Japanese militarism.