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..

 
'"
July/August 1
Danny  Easterling 
10 18  Preston,  6th  floor 
Houston  77 00 2 
- ~  
DOC(ET CALL
Congratulations!
..J
Mark Goldberg, Denise Collins, Rick Brass, Jules L. Laird Jr.
Treasurer  Vice-President  President  Secretary 
EDITOR
C. I.belZ
ASSOCIATE
EDITOR
Robert p.Zton
PRODUCTION
Donna K. KZ••zcz
DOCKET CALL
DOClET  CALL  is  published  eyery 
two  months  by  the  Harris  County 
Criminal  Lawyers    a 
non-profit.  tal-elempt  profes-
sional  Association  of  criminal 
defense  lawyers. 
ADVERTISING  RATES: 
Full  Page •••••••.••••••• $200.00 
(15%  discount  on  3  or  more 
insertions- full  page  only) 
1/2  Page •.••••.••..••••• SlOO.OO 
1/4  Page ••..•••••••••••• $  50.00 
Business  card  size .••.•• $  25.00 
Distribution:  500  copies  per 
issue.  Articles  and  other  edi-
torial  contributions  should  be 
sent  to  the  Editor.  202  TraYis. 
Suite  208.  Houston  77002  or  the 
Association  office  at  705  Hain 
St .•  Suite  400A.  Houston  77002. 
TELEPHONE:  (713)  227-2404. 
President 
Rick Brass
Vice-President 
Denise Collins
Secretary 
Jules L. Laird Jr.
Treasurer 
Mark A. Goldberg
President-Elect 
Mary E. Conn
BOARD  OF  DIRECTORS 
Chairman 
Allen C.  Isbell
Kristine c.  Woldy
Rosemary Garza 
Ron Hayes
Angel Z.  Fraga 
Richard Frankoff
Douglas Durham
W. Randolph Bates, Jr.
Jack Millin
Rhyllis R. Frye
C.  Logan Dietz
J. M. Mike Monks
Joe  W. Varela
Loren A. Detamore
Willie J. Rhodes
Robert Fickman
Contents-
July/August 1990
President's  Column ....................... .  ..... Rick  Brass  3 
Opinions  1st  Court  of  Appeals.... .•..•••..•. ... .•.. .•••..  4 
Opinions  14th  Court  of  Appeals .... Henry  J.  Burkholder  III  5 
Preserve  Me  Please! ...•.•...•....•.•...••. Allen  C.  Isbell  6 
The  Federal  Roundup .•.. Robert  S.  Bennett  & Jules  L.  Laird  7 
Hearsay ................................... Allen  C.  Isbell  8 
Paralegal  Program ...•..• • •..•...•.. Gwen  Teague  9 
Spontaneous  Exclamations! •.........••...••.•.• Walter  Boyd  10 
Application  for  Certificate  To  Secure  Attendance  Of 
Witness  From  Another  State ................... David  Suhler  12 
Certificate  Requesting  Attendance  Of  Witness  In  State  Of 
Texas •..••..•..••.....•..••.•....•••..••.. • •. David  Suhler  13 
Application  And  Affidavit  Of  Defendant ..•••• Joe  W.  Varela  13 
Preserve  Me  Please! .....•.•••....••.•...•• Allen  C.  Isbell  14 
Request  For  Judicial  Recommendation  Against  Deportation •• 
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  . Richard  Prinz  17 
Atta  Boy/Atta  GirL ......... .. ............... Mary  E.  Conn  18 
Plea  Bargaining ••.....••...••.....•...•..••.•. Will  Outlaw  19 
Educational Programs Scheduled
August  9.  1990  N  & B  of  Criminal  Practice  Seminar 
"Evidence  & Experts".  Carolyn  Garcia 
Civil  Courthouse,  301  Fannin,  Room  205 
5  to  7  pm.  02.00  MCLE;  $15.M;  $25.  NM. 
September  13  N  & B  "Direct/Cross  Examination" 
Jan  Woodward  Fox,  Rusty  Hardin. 
August  15-19  NACDL  Annual  Meeting  Toronto,  Canada 
For  information  Call  (202)872-8688. 
August  16  LUNCHEON  PROGRAM  Inns  of  Court  Club 
707  Travis,  15th  fl .•  Noon.  01.00  MCLE 
WEDNESDAY  APPELATE  UPDATES  noon  weekly 
301  San  Jacinto,  177th  Ct.  01.00  MCLE 
Deadline for next issue:
September  7 
Let's Hear From YOU!
HARRIS COUNTY CRIMINAL  LAWYERS 
ASSOCIATION 
POI'  PTOsidml5  197J.19U: 
C.  Anthony  Frlloux  (1972-73) 
Stuart  Kinard  (1973-74) 
Georqe  Luquette  (1974-75) 
Marvin  O.  Teaque  (1975-76) 
Dick  DeGuarin  (1976-77) 
W.  B.  "Bennie"  House ,Jr. (1977-78) 
David  R.  Bires  (1978-79) 
Woody  Densen  (1979-80) 
Will  Gray  (1980-81) 
Edward  A.  Mallett  (1981-82) 
Carolyn  Garcia  (1982-83) 
B.  Z.mmermann  (1983-84) 
Clyde  Williams  (1984-85) 
Robert  pelton  (1985-86) 
Candealrio  Elizondo  (1986-87) 
Allen  C.  Isbell  (1987-88) 
Oavid  Mitcham  (1988-89) 
Jim  E.  Lavine  (1989-90) 
President's Column ...
by Rick Brass
This is one year that you won't be able to tell where one administration
stops and the next one starts. Jim Lavine and I have worked so closely and
so well this past year that we are not willing to break up the combination.
He and I will continue our plans and together with Mary Conn and Denise
Collins we will continue to function as a team. wi th the help of Jules
Laird, Mark Goldberg and our entire board we are looking at another year of
increased visibility and credibility. The Judges have recognized our
organization and so has our District Attorney. The appointment of Ron Woods
as U.S. Attorney will enable us to establish a liaison with that office. In
general, its onward and upward with bringing Pre-Trial Diversion not only to
the misdemeanor Courts but to the felony Courts as well. We will expand our
organization to include support personnel such as investigators, paralegals,
interpreters, jury analysts, and mental health professionals. We have just
experienced a growth year and expectant with that, we are starting off this
year with less money than we had a year ago. We will economize this year and
expand our membership and increase our financial security
We have started a tradition with a glorious Annual Banquet. My personal
thanks to those who worked so hard to plan it and to those 215 of you who
attended it. Next year's will be even bigger and better. I'll borrow a line
from my own swearing-in message to close this column. lilt is a privilege and
an honor to be the President of this organization, because of who its members
are, and because of who the judges are that we practice before." See you
next issue.
Rick
Opinions From The 1 st Court of Appeals
by Henr L. Burk.holder III
Brown   State, NO. 01-88-1195-Cr 5/31/90 by O'Connor, J.
LAW OF CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE IN BURGLARY CASES DISCUSSED INSIDE
OUT.
Defendant charged with burglary residence. Great defense at trial
was: Nobody saw me enter! On appeal, court applies the "Stretch
Test." Evidence is viewed in the light most favorable to the
evidence. Court then applies the "Come on" corollary: when
defendant is seen a short distance from the burglarized premises,
with property taken from the premises, the evidence is sufficient
for a rational trier of fact to have found the defendant had gone
inside the premises. Evidence held sufficient to support burglary
of a habitation.
STATE NOT REQUIRED TO READ OR PLEAD DEFENDANT'S MIND.
Defendant moves to quash burglary indictment on grounds that it
does not state what property he took. Court of Appeals rules that
where specific property is allegedly taken, the property must be
described in the indictment. HOWEVER, where intent to commit
theft is alleged (i.e., take property), the State is not required
to prove what property the defendant had the intent to take.
I showed this opinion to a burglar-client of mind, who agreed
whole heartily with the rational. As he pointed out to me, he
often has no idea what he is going to take on the way in.
Martinez   State, 01-89-115-Cr, O'Connor, J., 5/31/90
EMERGENCY SEARCH DOCTRINE IS LIMITED IN NATURE.
Here officer rushes into building thinking there might be a fire.
(A man outside assures him its just barbecue!). Officer sees
defendant cutting up a car with torch. After looking inside dash
area of one car, noticing no VIN, officer calls in
reinforcements.
Court of Appeals holds that once officer determines that there is
no fire, he can look no farther. Probable cause developed after
his further investigation is tainted, and dope found as a result
of his search for stolen car parts was illegally seized.
CONSENT TAINTED BY ILLEGAL ARREST.
Court of Appeals recites factors for determining whether an
illegal arrest taints a consent to search. The factors: (1)
whether Miranda warnings are given (or defendant otherwise told
he could refuse to consent; (2) time frame; (3) presence of
intervening factors; and (4) purpose of conduct. These are the
same basic factors used to determine whether oral or written
statement is tainted.
4
Opinions From The 14 th Court of Appeals
by Henry L. l>urkholder III
Riascos   state, 14-88-1060-Cr, Junell, J., 5/31/90
ATTORNEY AT TRIAL HELD INEFFECTIVE FOR FAILURE TO STOP STATE FROM
INTRODUCING EXTRANEOUS DRUG TRANSACTIONS, AND INFLAMING THE JURY
WITH TESTIMONY AND ARGUMENTS THAT THE DEFENDANT WAS A COLOMBIAN.
Defendant was convicted of murder and received life. The Court of
Appeals held the attorney ineffective for (1) not stopping the
state from introducing and then using in argument, extraneous
dope offenses; (2) suggesting to the jury that the killing was
dope related, when in fact there was no evidence of this; and (3)
stopping the State from inflaming the jury with the fact that the
defendant was a Colombian.
This reversal is notable since the opinion reflects there was
sufficient evidence to sustain a conviction for the murder as
alleged in the indictment. However, the Court of Appeals, after
finding counsel deficient, applied the "cannot say beyond a
reasonable doubt that the error did not contribute to the result"
test. Thus, the State can have sufficient evidence to convict,
and yet the case is reversed because either (a) the lawyer did
not know when to object or (b) the State mowed the defense lawyer
down with inadmissible evidence and improper arguments.
Burgess   state, 14-89-490-Cr, Junell, J. 5/31/90
As the old country western song goes:
STAND BY YOUR MAN, (AND SIGN ALL THE FORMS YOU CAN.) DEFENDANT
DID HAVE COUNSEL WHEN HE WAIVED JURY.
Defendant ran through two court-appointed attorneys (and untold
pairs of socks and underwear) before going to trial pro se. Trial
court appointed "standby" counsel to assist defendant if he
needed. "Standby" counsel is an often approved method of insuring
that pro se defendants get the best of both worlds.
Defendant argues on appeal that his jury waiver on appeal is no
good, since under CCP 1.11 he must have counsel to waive the
right to jury in felony cases, NO EXCEPTIONS. (This is such a
neat argument, I wish I had thought of it). Indeed, the presence
of counsel at a felony jury waiver is one of the few state rights
that cannot be waived, and is fundamental error.
Alas, the last attorney stood by his man, and signed that waiver
before withdrawing. The Court of Appeals applied the "If he's
going out the door, he ain't out yet" doctrine, and held that
defendant had counsel at the time of the jury waiver.
NOTE: Exactly what standby counsel can and cannot do, and what
his duties and responsibilities are, is far from clear.
5
Preserve Me Please! by Allen C. hlbell
"IRRELEVANT" OBJECTION AND "IMPROPER USE OF CHARACTER EVIDENCE"
OBJECTION ARE NOT THE SAME-DON'T SAY ONE WHEN YOU MEAN THE OTHER.
We "long-in-the-tooth" lawyers find it difficult to object on the ground of
"irrelevant" because we cut our teeth on the long-held tenet that such
objection preserved nothing for Appellate review. The Texas Rules of
Criminal Evidence changed this notion. See Rule 402. Newer lawyers find it
easier to say, "objection, irrelevant."
In reading appellate records, I find lawyers substituting this universal rule
for a more specific objection, also found in the Texas Rules of Criminal
Evidence. That is, the rule against improper use of character evidence. See
Rule 404.
A typical example is a murder case in which a family member is describing the
deceased as peaceful, hard-working, married for twenty years, a good father
and loving husband, a person with many friends, and the father of five small
children.
The proper objection is that this is incompetent character
testimony in violation of Rule 404(a) (2).
Before the rule was codified, the Court of Criminal Appeals made clear that
it is never competent for the State to introduce evidence of the deceased's
character traits, unless his character has somehow been placed in issue by
the Defendant. The leading case is Armstrong v. State, 718 S.W.2d 686 (TCA
October 22, 1986 Rehearing Denied).
On appeal, the court is likely to consider the error not preserved by an
"irrelevant" objection because character evidence has a certain degree of
probative value. The, Courts have traditionally limited the use of character
evidence because it may be more persuasive to jurors than it should be. See
James v. State 772 S.W.2d 84 (T.C.A. Rehearing Denied June 7, 1989, Remanded
for further consideration in light of Penry v. Lynaugh, 109 S. ct. 2934
(1989) .
6
The Federal Roundup by Qobert S.Bennett (1$  Jules L. Laird
WHAT  YOU  NEED  TO  KNOW 
ABOUT 
THE  S  & L  BUSINESS 
Last  year,  the    o u s ~ o n
United  states Attorney's Office 
had  eight  fraud  prosecutors  and 
a  backlog  of  200  cases.  With 
the  clamor  over  the  5  &  L 
debacle,  15  new  Assistant  U.S. 
Attorneys  are  being  hired  to 
concentrate  on  the  financial 
aspects  of  criminal  matters. 
Houston  Grand  Juries  are 
returning  more  and  more 
indictments  alleging  financial 
fraud. 
THINK  BIG 
To  understand  the 
magnitude  of  the  situation,  you 
must  think  Rig.  In  May, 
Treasury  Secretary  Nicholas  F. 
Brady  testified  that  more  than 
1,000  S  & L's,  approximately 
40%  of  the  industry,  may  have 
to  be  seized.  The  General 
Accounting  Office  estimates 
that  the  costs  of  the  bailout 
could  be  more  than  $500 
billion. 
The  New  York  Times  stated 
the  roots  of  the  problem:  "The 
oil  boom  in Texas,  the  get-
rich-quick  atmosphere  on  Wall 
Street,  the  Reagan 
Administration's  philosophy  of 
keeping  business  free  of 
government  intrusion  and 
lawmaker's  need  for  money  to 
run  their  ever-more-expensive 
campaigns  laid  the  groundwork 
for  disaster. 
OPPORTUNITY  ABOUNDS 
Some  5  & L' s  failed 
because  of  bad  business 
decisions:  bad  real  estate 
investments  and  believing  the 
price  of  oil  would  always  go 
up.  Others  were  plundered. 
L.  William  Seidman,  who  is 
responsible  for  the  federal 
government's  clean-up  of  the  S 
&  L'S,  said  that  fraud  is 
involved  with  60%  of  the 
institutions  that  failed,  and 
in  half  of  those,  it  was  the 
major  factor.  In  Houston,  J.R. 
McConnell  is  remembered  for 
getting  $162  Million  in loans 
from  S  &  L's  with  some  highly 
questionable  practices.  These 
transactions  were  very  slick 
and  very  complicated. 
A  common  practice  was  for 
an  S  & L  (let's  call  this  First 
5  &  L)  to  set  up  a  joint 
venture  and  take  the  position 
as  a  limited  partner  with  other 
investors  as  joint  partners. 
First  S  &  L  would  issue  a 
letter  of  credit  to  another 
financial  institution on  behalf 
of  the  general  partners  in the 
joint  venture.  First's  letter 
of  credit was  backed  by  its  own 
mortgage  backed  securi ties. 
The  joint  venture's  general 
partners  would  use  First's 
letter  of  credit  as  collateral 
to  enable  another  financial 
institution  to  arrange  a  loan. 
The  general  partners  would  take 
the  land  proceeds  and  buy  raw 
land  for  residential 
development  with  the  joint 
venture  holding  title  to  the 
land. 
Because  the  joint 
venture's  only  asset  was  the 
land  for  residential 
development  a  new  and  much 
larger  loan  to  build  houses  on 
the  land  could  be  arranged. 
An  analysis  of  this  very 
common  "deal"  shows  that  the 
joint venture  arranged  by  First 
S  &  L  has  plenty  takes  a 
portion  of  the  profits  without 
having  to  make  any  loans.  The 

resul t  of  this  "deal"  is  that 
First  S  &  L,  by  using  a  joint 
venture  and  partnership 
structure,  maneuvers  around  the 
federal  regulations  limiting 
the  percent  of  S  & L  assets 
that  can  be  invested  in real 
estate. 
Often,  the  structural 
gyrations  used  by  the  5  & L 
were  not  criminal ,  despite 
violating  the  spirit  of  the 
federal  rules.  In  the  above 
example,  however,  the  acts  with 
criminal  consequences  would  be 
inflated  appraisal  figures  and 
possible  kickbacks  to 
individuals  involved  in the 
financing.  Also,  First  may 
have  committed  criminal  acts  by 
using  circular  transactions  in 
making  or  arranging  loans  with 
the  proceeds  being  directed 
back  to  First  S  & L  to  give  the 
appearance  that  First  S  & L 
looked  wealthier  than  it  was. 
Other  institutions  falsified 
entries  in their  books,  made 
insider  deals  with  friends  and 
relatives,  e.g.  Charles  H. 
Keating,  Jr.,  and  gave  and 
received  kickbacks.  Once  the 
regulators  started  close 
scrutiny  of  S  &  L  books,  they 
found  that  documentation  for 
many  deals  was  incomplete  or 
missing. 
THE  CALL  TO  ARMS 
On  June  22,  1990, 
President  Bush  called  a 
conference  of  all  the  nation's 
U.S.  Attorneys  to  urge  active 
prosecution  of  5  &  L  failures. 
He  announced  a  new  Justice 
Department  strike  force  to 
attack  S  & L  fraud  with 
hundreds  of  additional  F.B.I. 
agents  and  federal  prosecutors. 
One  hundred  million  dollars  is 
to  be  authorized  for  the  new 
strike force.
The Democratic Party has
asserted that the President has
not vigorously pursued S & L
crimes. Senator Charles
Schumer, D-N-Y, said, "There
are still 21,000 referrals (of
S & L cases) lying on someone's
desk and gathering dust because
there aren't enough people to
work on the cases."
The President, maybe with
his youngest son, Neil, in
mind, stated in his speech to
the federal prosecutors, "It
takes a discerning mind and a
determined spirit to
distinguish the incompetent
from the fraudulent and the
unlucky from the unlawful."
You may want to use that
in final argument at your next
S & L fraud case.
Hearsay... 
by Allen  C.  IAbeli 
~   Gringo Y..1,ili. I
love it when an "old guy" does
good. Nolan Ryan (43) pitches
his sixth no-hitter & extends
his all-time record. He is the
oldest man to throw a no-hitter
and is baseball's all-time
strike-out king •... And speaking
of "old guys" - Hal Hudson (53)
won his 6th National Masters
Powerlifting Championship in
San Bernardino California on
May 6th. Hudson's lifts were
567 Ibs. in the full squat, 347
1bs. in the bench press, and
611 pounds in the deadlift.
Subsequently, Hudson was
selected to represent the
United States at the World
Masters Powerlifting
Championships to be held in
Perth, Australia October 13-
14 .... "It's Bold to be Old" -
my new motto.
Gloria Briseno got a "Not
Guilty" on a resisting arrest
in C.C.#8 on 5/15/90 ... Enid
Williams got a "Not Guilty" in
the 262 ... Charlie Medlin and
Rick Reed got a "Not Guilty" on
a D.W.I ...
Judge Mary Bacon will run
under the Republican banner in
1992.
Leslie & Colin Amann are
expecting a baby.
congratulations to the
following who were elected by
the membership to office or to
the board to serve along with
our new president, Rick Brass.
Mary Conn (President-elect);
Denise Collins (Vice-
president): Board Members are
Allen C. Isbell, Kristine C.
~   Rosemary Garza, R2n
~   Angel Z. Fraga, Richard
Frankoff, Douglas M. Durham, ~
Randolph Bates. Jr., Jack
Millin, Phyllis R. Frye, ~
Logan Dietz, J.M. Mike Monks,
Joe W. Varela, Loren A.
Detamore, Willie J. Rhodes,
Robert Fickman, Jim E. Lavine.
John Ackerman and Barbara
Baruch have taken up a new
hobby - walking tours. They
belong to an international
walking club.
Overheard in the Hon.
Harrison Gregg. Jr. 's
courtroom. Attorney General
had brought in a burly
Respondent for back child
support. (Looked like a
former/present Hell's Angels.)
A four-year old boy who sat
with him was fussy. Respondent
told him to be quiet, that this
is a courtroom. Then, he added
his view of the legal system:
"A courtroom is where people
rip off other people." with
this, he glared at us who sat
across the rail.
8
Have You tried a case with a
prosecutor who lays his file on
the counsel table for the jury
to see: a file with words in
fluorescent lettering that a
legally blind person could
read, such as: "CAREER
CRIMINAL", "HABITUAL OFFENDER" ,
"HOT CHECK WRITER", "SPECIAL
CRIMES", "ORGANIZED CRIME",
"CONSUMER FRAUD" etcetera?
Perhaps we should adorn our
files with messages for the
jury to "inadvertently" read:
"FRAME UP", "INNOCENT CLIENT",
"CROSS-EXAM FOR STATE'S
PERJURED TESTIMONY", "POLITICAL
PROSECUTION", "ACCIDENT", or
"MISTAKEN IDENTITY".
Glad to see Brenda Palmer
back at work. Am 0 n 9 the
recently injured have been Gene
Gundersen (foot) and .fQ.Jmy
Northcutt (arm).
$50.00 for a six-pack!
That is what beer sells for in
Iceland. Also, the bars close
at 9:00 p.m. on Saturday night.
And, the natives are not
friendly. Before you take that
dream vacation to Iceland, talk
with John Egbert, AKA "Sleepy
John."
Belated congratulations to
~ & Connie Sims on the birth
of a son, James Jefferson Sims.
Named after Jefferson Davis.
~ & Connie won a big reversal
out of the 14th Court recently
on the airport search issue.
Glad to see several judges
telling the coordinators to
give H.C.C.L.A.'s referral
number to defendants who have
not retained a lawyer. Almost
all judges do this, but mostly
recently saw Judge Mark
Atkinson do it. Saw the cards
on Marv Coppa's desk (she is
Judge Thomas Routt's
coordinator) .
Madeline D. Sitzes saved a
woman's life on the 6th floor
of the Criminal Court House.
The woman collapsed with a
Paralegal Externship Program
stroke and stopped breathing.
Madeline used the training from
her pre-lawyer days when she
worked for Delta Airline. She
rescued several while in flight
during her airline career.
Did you know that Randy
M!;;QQnalg's real name is
BS,\OQol:g1l A. McQoQal.g.
ilydge Ihomas Routt
received the 1990 Amicus award
from M.A. B.A. at annual
reception honoring newly
licensed Hispanic lawyers.
iludge Felix SalSlozS,\r presented
the award; Judge CS,\rl Walker
accepted it for Judge Routt I
whose health prevented his
attendance.
Certified Paralegal
Seeks Position
CEDRIC EVANS
9845 Bamboo Road
Houston, Texas 77041
(713) 462-1960
Paralegal students at Texas
School of Business offer a free
  to attorne ys while they
gain to the legal world.
The Paralegal Program,
initiated at the school in 1988,
includes an Externship Program as
the final phase of a student's
training. It was designed as
part of the Paralegal Program to
enable the students to broaden
their knowledge o f the responsi-
bilities of the legal profession.
The l60-hour externship begins
onl y after a student has satis-
factorily completed all required
class work.
Students receive no renumera-
tion although they earn valuable
experience.
Before a student can become
an extern, he / she must have
completed a comprehensive para-
legal program designed to blend
paralegal training with computer
and office skills. Students are
taught all phases of the law
criminal, family, civil litiga-
tion, real estate, personal
injury and estate planning.
There is an emphasis on writing
skills. The program also in-
cludes an introduction to compu-
ter assisted research. Students
have opportunities to apply these
skills throughout the classroom
program.
Work can be done at private
law firms, government agencies,
legal aid offices, insurance
companies or in other businesses
with a legal department.
Anthon y Wi 11 iams, Paralegal
Coordinator at the southwest
by Gwen Teague
campus, feels that the program
gives the students "exposure to
paralegalism".
Williams said that because
the program is so successful,
most firms that have had externs
request others. In fact, some
extern sites are continuing to
utilize new students every six
weeks. Graduates of the program
have been placed with government
agencies and some of Houston's
largest law firms.
Externs work the same hours
and are expected to maintain the
same level of professionalism as
the staff.
Externs are evaluated on
their research and writing skills
as well as their ability to
develop a rapport with their co-
workers. Their work record and
progress is monitored weekly by
the school.
Both campuses of Texas School
of Business place student
externs. Williams handles the
placement at the southwest
school, located at 10250
Bissonnet. Del'Ynda Wadsworth is
the Paralegal Coordinator at the
711 Airtex location in north
Houston.
Williams and Wadsworth work
with firms interested in using
the Extern Program. Interviews
can be arranged, if desired.
Agencies or firms interested
in participating in the Extern
Program may call Williams at 771-
1177 or Wadsworth at 376-2888.
Texas School of Business is
state certified and a member of
the Association of Independent
Colleges and Schools.
OWl 1990 VIDEO TAPES AVAILABLE 125.
PRINTED MATERIAL - BOO PAGES 50.
CALL HeCLA 227- 2404
9
Spontaneous Exclamations ...
WalLer Boyd
There  is  a  rather 
eccentric  fellow  roaming  the 
political  streets  in pursuit of 
a  judicial  bench.  His  name, 
Lee  Burroughs.  His  format  is 
to  stir up  controversies  as  any 
good  Democrat  is  obliged  to  do. 
He  is  engaging  and  interesting 
to  say  the  least  and  attracts 
some  attention  by  those  funny 
looking  sparkling  things 
sticking  out  of  his  earlobes. 
His  opponent  is  the  Hon. 
Michael  McSpadden,  a  non-
conformist  Republican,  who  has 
become  pretty  well  known  for 
getting  himself  all  worked  up 
emotionally  over  this  or  that 
issue  and  writing  vitriolic 
letters  to  the  newspaper. 
Don  Rogers  makes  a  good 
point:  Let  the  Courts  of 
Appeals  make  the  appellate 
attorney  appointments  rather 
than  the  trial  courts.  His 
main  reason  is  that  the  trial 
courts  have  a  built-in  bias  to 
appoint  those  lawyers  who  will 
be  the  least  effective  in 
embarrassing  the  trial  judges 
by  getting  the  convictions 
reversed.  Maybe,  but  it  seems 
to  me  that  by  and  large  the 
trial  judges  simply  appoint  on 
appeal  whoever  are  their 
financial  and  personal  friends 
just  as  they  do  at  trial 
without  considering  too  much 
one  way  or  another  the  quality 
of  representation.  Certainly 
the  appellate  courts  are  in  a 
much  better  position  to 
determine  which  attorneys  on 
appeal  are  the  more  qualified 
brief  writers  and  make  the 
better  arguments  and  are  more 
punctual  in  getting  their 
,
appellate  work  done.  However, 
it  might  take  a  wrecking  ball 
to  dislodge  the  trial  courts  of 
this  power,  which  of  course 
translates  into  political 
power.  A  related  problem  is 
the  number  of  ghost-written 
briefs.  This  is  not  bad  in 
itself  but  what  is  bad  is  the 
number  of  lawyers  who  get 
appointed  on  appeal  who  do 
nothing  more  than  sign  the 
briefs  submitted  to  them  by  the 
ghost  writers  and  then  split 
the  fee  with  the  authors. 
Ray  Hill  challenged  me  on 
my  contention  last  issue  that 
he  sometimes  engages  in 
"leftist  rhetoric."  He 
contends  that  he  prides  himself 
on  not  being  an  ideologue.  I 
pointed  out  on  his  radio 
program  that  the  operative  word 
in  my  article  was  rhetoric  not 
ideology.  There  was  some 
discussion  from  Ray  about 
Marxism  but  I never  said 
anything  about  Marxism  in  my 
article.  Someone  else  from 
another  perspective  questioned 
my  conclusion  that  Ray  has  done 
more  for  the  good  of  the  system 
than  just  about  anyone  I  know. 
That  is  simply  my  opinion  and 
it  is  still  my  opinion. 
The  following  appeared  in 
"The  Bondsmen's  (sic) 
Perspective",  a  publication  of 
the  bonding  industry  of  Harris 
County:  "Attorney  Walter  Boyd, 
distinguished writer for Harris 
County  Criminal  Lawyer's 
Association  Magazine  recently 
wrote  he  hated  judges.  He  has 
been  a  long  time  supporter  of 
the  Pre-trial  Release  Agency. 
I  take  the  position  I  love  all 
10 
judges  and  do  not  find  Pre-
trial  Release  Agency  to  my 
liking."  The  same  newsletter 
also  proudly  published  an 
article  by  former  President  of 
HCCLA  in  opposition  to  the 
Pre-trial  Release  Agency.  May 
I  remind  everyone  who  does  not 
recall,  the  hard  and  courageous 
fight  that  Charles  Orsborne  and 
Jim  Greenwood  and  others  waged 
against  the  bond  people  to  even 
get  pre-trial  release 
established.  But  what  I really 
appreciated  about  the  remarks 
in  the  bondsmen-women 
newsletter  is  that  it is  giving 
me  an  out  tQ  the  awful 
predicament  I got  myself  into 
with  the  judges.  So  from  now 
on  I  do  not  hate  judges  at  all. 
I  HATE  BONDSMEN.  (You  notice  I 
am  purposefully  not  including 
the  women.  You  hear  that, 
Skelton?) 

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Let's "ear  From  You! 
-----------------------------------
---------------------------------
,.-exas  Institute  of Crimina(  taw ana  Aavocac1f 
Yresents 
,.-fie  4tfi  Annua(  Crimina(  taw Seminar 
at    3foteC in (fruveston,  exas 
When:  August  3-4,  1990 
Friday  - Noon to  5:00 p.m. 
Saturday  - 9:00 a.m.  to  5:00  p.m. 
Early  Registration:  $75.00 
Registration  at  the  Door:  $90.00 
Friday  Night  Party:  at  Allen  Isbell's 
Galveston  Home 
Discount available  for Cruise  on  Gambling  Ship 
Saturday  Night Cruise:  7:30  p.m.  to 2:00  a.m. 
Special  Discount on  Rooms  at the  Flagship 
$60.00  per  room  if reserved  by July  27,  1990 
Name: 
Address: 
Telephone:  T.B.N.  ______ 
Please  reserve  _  rooms  for  Aug.  3-4.  ($30.00  deposit  required) 
My  check for  $  is  enclosed. 
Please  return  to:  Texas  Institute  of Criminal  Law  &  Advocacy 
c/oMark Goldberg,  216  Stratford 5,  Houston, Texas  77072 
Or for immediate registration, call 713/224-6719 
Editor's  Note; 
David  Suhler  has  drafted  a  motion  for  an  uncommon  circumstance,  but  if  you 
have  one  similar,  you  can  benefit  from  his  work  product.  The  statues 
involved  are  Arts.  24.28  &  35.27  V.A.C.C.P. 
APPLICATION  FOR  CERTIFICATE  TO  SECURE 
ATTENDANCE  OF  WITNESS  FROM  ANOTHER  STATE 
TO  THE  HONORABLE  JUDGE  OF  SAID  COURT; 
Comes  now  Defendant  in  the  above  entitled  and  numbered  cause,  and 
makes  application  for  a  certificate  to  secure  the  attendance  of 
Identification  and  Jail  Records  CUstodian  for  the  ____  Police  Department,  to 
testify  in  the  above-entitled  and  numbered  cause,  and  in  support  of  such 
application  shows; 
I. 
Said  witness  is  presently  located  in  the  City  of  ____  State  of 
II. 
This  witness  is  a  material  and  necessary  witness  in  the  prosecution  that 
is  the  subject  of  this  cause  in  that  the  records  requested  by  the  Defendant 
in  his  subpoena  application  filed  on  provide  necessary  and  material 
proof  of  Defendant's  physical  condition  and  description  immediately  prior  to 
his  presence  in  this  County  at  the  time  of  the  alleged  offenses  herein.  The 
presence  of  this  witness  is  required  for  five  (5) days,  commencing  on  ___  at 
the  District  Court  in  Houston,  Harris  County,  Texas. 
III. 
It  will  not  cause  undue  hardship  to  the  witness  to  be  compelled  to 
attend  and  testify  in  the  prosecution  that  is  the  subject  of  this  cause. 
IV. 
The  laws  of  the  State  of  Texas  as  well  as  the  laws  of  the  States  of 
give  the  witness  protection  from  arrest  and  the  service  of  criminal  and  civil 
process  in  connection  with  matters  arising before  the  entrance  of  the witness 
into  these  states. 
WHEREFORE,  the  defendant  prays  the  court  grant  this  application  and 
issue  a  certificate  to  secure  the  attendance  of  Identification  and  Jail 
Records  Custodian  for  the  Police  Department. 
Respectfully  submitted, 
Attorney  for  Defendant 
o  R  D  E  R 
On  this  date  the  Court  heard  Defendant's  Application  For  Certificate  To 
Secure  Attendance  Of  Witness  From  Another  State.  After  considering  such 
Application  and  argument  of  counsel,  the  Court  finds  that  such  Application 
should  be; 
Denied 
Granted.  IT  IS  THEREFORE  ORDERED  that  this  Court's  Certificate 
Requesting  Attendance  Of  Witness  In  state  of  Texas  shall  be  issued  by  the 
Clerk  of  the  Court  who  will  also  issue  a  summons  to  appear  to  the 
Identification  and  Jail  Records  Custodian  for  the  ____  Police  Department,  _ 
_ st.,  ____  County,  ____ .  IT  IS  FURTHER  ORDERED  that  the  Clerk  of  the  Court 
shall  present  such  certificate,  summons  and  this  order  to  Judge  ___  or  other 
Judge  of  a  court  of  record  of  County, 
----,
District  Court  Building,  _ 
St.,  ____. 
SIGNED  on 
JUDGE  PRESIDING 
12 
CERTIFICATE REQUESTING ATTENDANCE
OF WITNESS IN STATE OF TEXAS
This is to certify that:
I.
A prosecution iscurrently pending against the above-named defendant for
the crime of
II.
The Identification and Jail Records custodian for the Police
Department is currently residing or located in the city of ____ state of
_ The attendance of such person as a witness in the above-mentioned
prosecution is material and necessary in that the content of those records
provide material proof of the Defendant's case in the above entitled and
numbered causes.
III.
The presence of the records custodian and the records requested are
needed for five (5) days, commencing on in the Judicial District
Court in Houston, Harris County, Texas.
SIGNED on ________________________
JUDGE PRESIDING
Editor's Note: At the Nuts & Bolts seminar on pre-trial motions, Joe W.
Varela said that he subpoenas pen packets himself in advance of trial. I
asked him to share what he files to obtain these documents - Allen C. Isbell
APPLICATION AND AFFIDAVIT OF DEFENDANT
To the Clerk of ____ District Court of Harris County, Texas: Comes now the
Defendant and makes application for issuance of subpoena for the herein below
named person. IN THE CASE OF THE STATE OF TEXAS VB. . BART BLACKHART; No.
90-0000 charged with Murder, you will please issue this subpoena in
accordance with law, for the following named witness residing in the State of
Texas, as below set out:
S.O. woods, Jr.
Records Clerk, Texas Department of Corrections
P.O. Box 99, Huntsville, Walker Co., Texas 77342-0099
DUCES TECUM:
All penitentiary packets, fingerprints, photographs,
indictments, ordersgrantingor revoking probation, judgments,
sentences and commitments, in certified and exemplified form,
of the following inmates(s):
[Name, Date of Birth, TDC# (if known) of inmate)
Send to:  Joe W. Varela, Suite 275, 5100
Westheimer, Houston, Texas 77056-5507
(713) 968-6549
The testimony of said witness is believed to be material to the defense on
the trial case.
Returnable on the 1st day of September, A.D., 1990, at 9 o'clock a.m.
Joe W. Varela Attorney for Defendant
Bar No. 20496400
5100 Westheimer, suite 275
Houston, Texas 77056-5507
(713) 968-6549
13
Preserve  Me  Please!  by  Allen  C.   ~ b e l l
"AN  EXPERT  AIN'T  NO  EXPERT  ON  WHETHER 
A  COMPLAINANT  IS  TELLING  THE  TRUTH" 
Because  the  Rules  of  Evidence  allow  a  more  liberal  use  of  "expert"  testimony, 
a  trial  lawyer  may  relax  his  guard  when  the  state  puts  forward  a  "highly 
credentialed  expert"  in  child  abuse  or  sexual  assault  cases  and  may  allow 
this  expert  to  express  an  "opinion"  that  the  complainant  is telling the  truth 
or  to  state  that  the  witness  believes  the  egregious  event  happened.  Object! 
These  are  proper  grounds  for  objecting: 
1. A  witness,  including  an  "expert",  may  not  give  an  opinion  concerning  the 
truth  or  falsity  of  another's  witness's  testimony; 
2.  Such  testimony  is  impermissible  bolstering. 
See  Kirkland  v.  State,  747  S.W.2d  833  (Tex.App.  - Dallas  1987,  P.D.R.R.); 
Miller  v.  State,  757  S.W.2d  880  (Tex.App.  - Dallas  Rehearing  Denied  Oct.  12, 
1988,  P.D.R.R.);  Ayala  v.  State,  352  S.W.2d  955  (Tex.Crim.App.  1962);  Black 
v.  state,  634  S.W.2d  356  (Tex.App.  - Dallas  1982,  No  Pet.);  Farris  v.  state, 
643  S.W.2d  694  (Tex.Crim.App.  1982). 
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14 
, . 
Is Pre-trial  Release Agency the .evil empire in the criminal justice system? 
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES should pre-trial release be a"owed·to interview defendants witho"t their attorney present! 
Spc:.ciaj p.;:rmiwl>u hJ article;; givclJ by 
Obituaries, 2 m
New readers's digest, 4 •
C\assilied ads, 8
L OCALisTATE 
ACLU  protests procedure at Leon jail 
Motion aims at pre-trial release 
By Melissa V. Leon
 
A Tallahassee lawyer filed a
f-' 
rootion Thursday on behalf of the
lJ1 
American Civil Uberties Union 10
t.ave Leon Cowlly's pre·lOaJ re-
lease progl"llm modJned 01" dlml.
Dated, sayiD g It violatestberlghts
or dereodants.
Sonia  Crockea. presidenl of
the Tallahassee Chapler of the
AUUofRarida, said the county's
pre-trial release program, which is
intended 10 relieve jail crowding,
needs  10 be refined 10 ensun: that
defendanl's rights are nOi violated
Crockeasaid theAa..U agreed 
10 challenge the program when a
complainl came in froma man who
wa.s urestcd in January andchazged
with poesession of less than 20
gnuns of marijuana and rolling
papcn.
After spending silt hoW'S in Ihe
Leon County Jail, Crockell said,
Thomas A. Scon, a prinl-shop
owner, wu given Jelease forms 10
sign if he wanted 10 go home.
Alihal poinl he was wiUing 10
a1mc.1 anything 10 gel 001 of jail,
and he signed Jeleasc paper> with-
00I reading them or agreeing 10any
ronditions, Crockea said. "Also,
he wu never told he had •  cl10ice
of paying a bondsman $100 10 gel
001 or waiting 10 see ajudge in the:
morning."
lau;r, Scou wuordc:n:d lO&ui>-
mil 10 urinalysis and made 10 pay
for the telLS, at a 00di1 of $46.
"The major problem with the
program is  that il punishes those
am:sted before they have been coo-
victcd ofany.mnc," Crockett laid
"Defendants Jelcued uoda the
program have losubmillo urina\y-
sis, counseling and  eltlenDve &u-
pervision while awaiting trial -
roDditions often worse than those
imposed on convicted criminab 
on probation."
According 10 Crockell and
Danni Vogl who is  the anomey
handling theAa..U 's casc, forcing
adefendanllO pay any roSIll before
ronviclion vialale. provisions in-
dieated in the ROOda Constitution.
"The Rorida Constilution
Slates tha1 no person clwged with
crime shall be compeUed \0  pay
rosll bef..., • judgemenl of COII-
I 'The major problem
with the program Ls
thaI It  pun Lshes those
arrested berore they
bllve been cODvtctedof ,
IIDY crime.
-SonlaCrockett,ACLU
viclion become. final," \q:1 said
"'The defendanl has nol been COlI·
victcd in this case, and rc<juiring
him 10 pay the costs ofhis urinaly-
sis under the pre-trial release pro-
gram is improper." 
Acconling 10 Crockea, defen-
danllllre nOI told tha1  they have a
choice of paying a money bond 10
gel Oul of jail or tha1  they have a
righl \0 ICC a judge wilhin 24 houn 
of their am:sl
"They are told 10 rign the pre-
tri.a.I Jelease papers iflhey wanl oul
of jail, and  mOOI people sign them
becAwetheywanlouluquicklyu
possible," Crockea said
However, Jerry Hendry, dircc-
lOr of the Leon County Probation
Di ruion and manager of the pre-
trial release program, denied
Crockett'. clairna.
"I'm proud of the pugram."
Hendry said "It'. a good program
and I would like 10 lhink ihal the
rights of defendants aren 'I violated
because pre-trial relcaseisa vol un-
tary thing," Hendry said. "When a
person rc<juests 10 be released
through the program, the person is
saying thaI he accepts the rondi·
lions ofthaI release, which in some
rc<juire random urinalysis
\Csting."
Hendry said that COOl upltid by
the defendant
Overall, Hendry said, the pro-
gram does what i I is designed 10 do
- allow some people who don'l
need 10 bekcptinjail until theirfirsl
appearance hearing dale 10 go
horne.
"WeprobablyinlerviewSOOIO
l,<XXl people a moo th," Hendry
Kid. "and approximate1 y one-Ihird
of them are rdeased on their own
lI:(;()jInizance with the undenlAnd-
ing IMI they musl comply with the
conditions of their Jelease."
TheAa..U motion was filed in
Leon County Court
A hearing on the mailer is
lCheduled for March 28 before
Leon Counly Judge Kathleen
Dekkn
1990, tk


  'D.e. a<lu/4d tk

tU eiid
Mt tk fuNn


- 'Pre-6U4t


Z'atteu -

Sue - ArlUat 
be uUbuJ

A  pa i  d  announcement  from your Professional Bondsmen of Harris County 
__________________________________  __ 
WHAT IS  THE HARRIS COUNTY 
CRIMINAL  LAWYERS 
ASSOCIATION? 
The  HCCLA  is  a  non-
profit,  tax  exempt, 
professional  Association 
made  up of lawyers  from 
Harris  County,  Texas,  who 
are  working  to  promote 
excellence  and  high  ideals  in 
the  practice  of Criminal 
Law. 
Any  lawyer  in  good 
standing  with  the  State  Bar 
of Texas,  who  is  endorsed 
by a  member  of 
HCCLA  is  eligible  to  join. 
The endorsement  recom-
mends  the  applicant  as  a 
person  of professional 
competency,  integrity  and 
good  moral  character  who  is 
actively  engaged  in  the 
defense  of criminal  cases. 

WHAT  DOES  HeCLA  DO  FOR 
THE  DEFENSE  BAR? 
Referrals  Ihrough  our  Lawyer  RefefTai  Ser -
vice  and  Ihrough  OUI  membership  dire<:-
wry .
HCCLA  publicalions  including  DOCKET
CALL.  a  monlhly  newsleuer  summarizing 
significanl  decisions  of the  Texas  Coun  of 
Criminal  Appeals  and  Texas  COWlS  0 f  Ap-
peals  and  lopies  of local  inleresl  10  Ihe 
criminal  defensc  bar . 
Regula!  Momhly  Luncheon  general 
membership  meetings  featuring  slX3kers 
on  subjects  of lopical  imeresl. 
Provides  a  responsive  local  forum  for 
lawyers  actively  engaged  in  Ihe  practice 
of criminal  law. 
Opposes  legislalion  and  local  rules  whi ch 
infringe  on  individual  rights  protected  by 
conslilutional  guaranl=. 
Promotes  a  productive  exchange  of ideas 
and  encourages  beller  communication 
wilh  prosecutors  and  Ihe  judiciary, 
Provides  cominuing  legal  educalion  pro-
grams  for  improving  advocacy  skiUs  and 
knowledge. 
Promotes  a  jusl  application  of  Ihe  COWl 
appointed  lawyer  system  for  indigent  per-
SOns  cha!ged  with  a  criminal  oHenS<', 
Amicus  Curiae  Briefs  where  ap-
propriale, 
WHAT  DOES  A  MEMBER  DO? 
PaJ1icipalt and  exchange  infonn3110n  and 
skill  in  our  e  lE programs. 
Co mribule  10  OUI  Brief  Bank  Service. 
Perform  agreed  Pro  Bono  services. 
aring  10  Ihe  Associalion ' s  alienI ion  prolX

grievan=  in  :he  practice  which  meril 
responS<'  and  act ion , 
Sha!e  in  the  co mma!aderie  at  our  monthly 
luncheons  and  annual  social   
Take  call s  on  our  RefefTal  Service. 
Justice 
Duty 
Freedom 
FeUowship 
-
66 
Professional  Organizations  in  which  your  are  a  member  in  good 
______________________________________ 
Admess:  ____________________________ 
Telephone: _______________________________________ 
Have  you  ever  been  disbarred  or disciplined  by any bar association 
or are you the subject of disciplinary action now pendinlS-g_______ 
F' IJ1Tl Narne: 
Date admitted to Bar: ______ Law SChool_____________ 
For  Regular  Membership  enclose  S 100.00  annual  fee, 
Sustaini ng Membership $200.00
Date,  Degree  rrom Law SchoolL______________ 
TYPE  MEMBERSHIP  __  Student 
(Expected  graduation  clate____) 
date  signature  of applicant 
__  Advisory 
__  Honorary  Endorsement on reverse  must  be signed by  HCCLA MEMBER IN 
__  Regular  GOOD  STANDING 
ENDORSEMENT 
I,  a  member  in  good  standing  of HCCLA  believe  this  applicant  10  be  a  person  of professional  compelency,  integrilY  and  good 
moral  character.  The  applicant  is  actively  engaged  in  the  defense  of criminal  cases,
MAIL THIS  APPLICATION TO: 
Harris  County Criminal 
Lawyers  Association 
signature  of memlxr 
P.O.  Box  '12773 
Houston,  Texas 77007 
7131227-2A04 
Editor's Note: After Richard Prinz's speech at our noon luncheon, several
requested a form motion for a Judicial Recommendation Against Deportation.
He has provided one. - Allen C. Isbell
REQUEST FOR JUDICIAL RECOMMENDATION AGAINST DEPORTATION
Defendant requests this Court enter a judicial recommendation against
his deportation under 8 U. S. C. 1251 (b) at the time of his sentencing on
November 30, 1987.
Defendant has been found guilty of possession of stolen credit cards.
Defendant has been a lawful permanent resident of the United States
since 1981 and this is his first encounter with the law.
He is married to a U.S. citizen and the father of a ten year old boy and
a six year old boy who are U.S. citizens. The presentence investigation in
this case shows that the family is intact.
Defendant is currently pursuing a degree at Texas Southern University
and has continuously been employed in order to support his family. This
offense occurred in an attempt to gain money for his children.
He bought each of six credit cards involved here for $50.00 and used
only one to buy lunch.
No violence was involved in this offense and this Court has heard
testimony concerning the circumstance of Defendant's arrest. The fact that
he did not consent to be searched does not in any way imply that he resisted
arrest or in any other manner obstructed or injured the arresting officers.
It is true that Defendant lied to U.S. Postal inspectors upon his arrest
but he was unrepresented at the time and has never made a false statement to
this Court and has been forthright about his crime as well as providing
details as to how he obtained the stolen credit cards with the Probation
Office.
Proper
Attorney
service.
co
notice
ncerning
has
this
been
re
given
quest
to
as
the
is r
INS
efle
and
cted
the
in
Ass
the
istant
certif
Distr
icate
ict
of
Defendant requested this Court enter a recommendation against his
deportation at the time of his sentencing or any time thirty days thereafter.
Respectfully submitted,
RICHARD PRINZ
Admission ID No. 3255
333 Clay, suite 3030
Houston, Texas 77002
(713) 651-9111
ATTORNEY FOR DEFENDANT
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
I hereby certify that a true and correct copy of the foregoing has been
Hand Delivered to Assistant District Attorney, Federal Building, 515 Rusk,
Houston, Texas 77002; and sent by Messenger to Mr. Gary Holdman, Chief Legal
Officer, U.S. Immigration Service, Office of the Trial Attorney, 4th floor,
509 North Belt, Houston, Texas 77060 this ____ day of November, 1987.
17
Atto Girl/Atto Boy  by  Mary  E. Conn 
ATIAGIRL Gloria  Briseno  - who,  having  just entered  the  wonderful 
world  of  criminal  law,  obtained  a  not  guilty  in  cca  on  a  resisting 
arrest charge in  her first criminal  jury trial.  Ms.  Briseno  also  caused 
a stink  sufficient  in  the  county  jail  to  get her client  some  medical  at 
Methodist  Hospital.  Her  client  had  been  injured  during  arrest  and 
incarcerated for  over one  year.  She  points  out that the  Fifth  Circuit 
distinguished  between  cruel  and  unusual  Eighth  Amendment  rights 
of convicted  persons and the  dur process protection  guaranteed to 
pre-trial detainees.  Congratulations Gloria! 
ATIABOY  Danny  Easterling  - who  recently  spent two  long  weeks 
C:l  one  !lour ~ 2 1 1 for ~ r b   on  a BMV in  Judge Shipley's  court,  only to 
have  his  client's  case  dismissed  when  finally  called,  due  to 
insufficiency  of  identification  evidence  Danny  had  been  urging  for 
nine  months.  Talk  about your  intestinal fortitude!  Then,  two  weeks 
later  Danny  got  a  one  day  trial!  Not  Guilty  jury  verdict  on  another 
BMV.  This  time  the  cop found  his  client  in  the  car tearing  the  radio 
out  of  the  dash.  The  wrench  allegedly  used  to  remove  the  radio 
was  never tagged  nor found  in  the  C/W's  vehicle.  Danry says  it's 
justice;  seems more like sheer guts and good work 011  his part. 
CARLOS  T.  CONDE 
Spanish  Judiciary  Interpreter 
Experienced in: 
County Criminal Courts at Law 
Criminal District Courts at Law 
Civil District Courts at Law 
Civil District Courts - Family 
Civil District Courts - Juvenile 
Municipal Courts 
Depositions 
3m Kelley Drive 
Houston, Texas 77009 
(713)  864-9629 
Beeper  765-5678 
References 
JEFF ROSS 
Attorney at Law 
A Legal Practice Dedicated to
HOT CHECK DEFENSE 
•  Former Harris Co . Asst.  District Attorney 
•  Former Chief  Prosecutor Check Fraud Division 
•  Member Harris  Co.  Crim. Lawyers Assn. 
759-1055 
.

1301 Lee/and, Suite 300 Houston, Tx. 77002
18 
PLEA BARGAINING
by  Will OIlLlIlW
1.  The  Primary Concept of Plea  Bargain-
ing  is  to  Obtain  the  Best  Possible  "Deal" 
For  Your  Client. 
Without plea  bargaining,  the  Judi-
cial  System  would  break  down  because 
there  are  not  enough  prosecutors,  judg-
es,  bailiffs,  court  reporters  or  clerks  to 
afford  every  criminal  defendant  a trial. 
The  opportunity  to  negotiate  his 
case  often  works  to  the  Defendant's 
advantage.  In  exchange  for  waiving  his 
constitutional  right  to  a  trial,  he  may 
obtain  a lighter sentence.  This depends, 
in  part,  on how equipped  his lawyer is to 
negotiate the  case. 
2.  A  Defense  Lawyer  Should  Always 
Negotiate  From  a Position  of Strength. 
No prosecutor respects  a defense 
lawyer  who  does not know the  law,  who 
is  unfamiliar  with  the  facts  of  his  case, 
and  who  sheepishly  begs  for  a deal.  A 
lawyer  who  is  100%  prepared  is  100% 
more  likely  to  persuade  his  opponent  to 
make  his  client  the  best  offer  or  bottom 
line  deal. 
How  do you  bargain  from  a posi-
tion  of  strength  when  you're  handling  a 
"dog case"?  The  most lay-down  case  for 
the  State,  can  have  factors  weighing  in 
your client's  favor  that  you  can  use.  For 
example,  if the  State's  witness  lives  out-
of-state,  an  overnight  stay  in  Houston 
may greatly inconvenience or disrupt that 
witness'  life.  Use  that  as  a  bargaining 
Chip. 
Do  not  overlook  the  possibility  of 
bluffing.  Sometimes  an  experienced 
prosecutor will  rethink  his  or her position 
when a defense lawyer suggests,  artfully, 
that  a  strong  case  is  less  that  perfect, 
and  the  defense  is  ready  for  trial.  Be-
ware!  bluffing  can  backfire,  and  leave 
your  client  in  an  even  worse  position. 
Aside  from  your  advocacy  skill,  a 
number of factors  may  determine wheth-
er  your  client  will  receive  a  "sweetheart" 
deal: 
1.  The  strength  or weakness 
of the  State's  case. 
2.  Your  potential  legal  defense. 
3.  The  overall  strength  of  your  case. 
4.  The  reluctance  of  witnesses  to 
testify. 
5.  Any  sympathy  factors  or  human 
factors  involving  your  client,  e.g. 
age,  family  tragedy. 
6.  Your  relationship  with  the  prose-
cutor. 
7.  The  average  punishment  for  the 
offense. 
8.  The criminal  history  of your client. 
9.  The  attitude  of the  Judge. 
10.  The  prosecutor's  autonomy  to 
make a decision. 
11.  The current public opinion regard-
ing  the  offense. 
12.  The  media  attention  surrounding 
the  case. 
13.  The  length  of a potential  trial. 
14.  The  Court's  docket. 
3.  Bargaining  For  A  Reduced  Sentence 
Or  Dismissal  Contract 
Your  client  may  have  knowledge, 
connections  or  skills  which  the  State 
wants,  and  for  which  the  State  may 
agree  to a reduced  sentence or dismiss-
al.  Usually,  drug  cases  reqUire  that  you 
negotiate  with  a  prosecutor  from  the 
Special  Crimes  Division. 
It is  of paramount importance that 
you  negotiate  for  terms  that  your  cl ient 
19 
can  satisfy.  Unrealistic  terms,  in  light  of 
your  client's  knowledge  or  abilities,  will 
provide  your  client  with  few  or  no  ben-
efits.  You  can  not rely  upon the  fact that 
your  client  tried  his  best  to  meet  the 
terms,  or  that  he  substantially  complied, 
to enforce the  contract that you negotiat-
ed  with  the  State. 
A  classic  example  of  how  "best 
effort"  will  not  confer  upon  the  State  a 
duty  to  abide  by  a contract  arose  out  of 
Harris County.  In  Swanson v.  State,  692 
S.W.  2d  548  (Tex.App.-Houston  14th 
Dist.  1985 no writ),  a defendant contract-
ed  with  the  District  Attorney's  Office  to 
provide  information  leading  to the  arrest 
and  indictment  of  four  separate  people 
engaged  in  four  separate  drug  activities. 
He  was  unable  to  comply  with  all  the 
speCific terms of the agreement.  After he 
pled  guilty  to  his  pending  case,  he  ap-
pealed,  arguing  that  he  substantially 
complied  with  the  terms  and  that the  law 
enforcement  agency  involved  prevented 
him from fulfilling the contract.  Therefore, 
he  should  have  been  allowed  to  enjoy 
the  fruits  of  his  work  (i .e.  a  dismissal). 
The  Court held that the terms were clear, 
that  he  did  not  strictly  comply  with  the 
terms,  and  that  there  was  no  evidence 
that he was prevented from satisfying the 
contract.  Therefore,  he  could  not  hold 
the  State  to  its  promise  to  dismiss.lQ.  at 
550. 
As  a  rule  of  thumb,  negotiate  for 
several  "partial  performance"  conditions 
to  minimize  the  chance  that  your  client 
will  incur  risks  without  receiving  any 
benefits. 
4.  Negotiating  For  Promises  From  The 
State  Absent  A Formal  Contract. 
Negotiations that involve oral
promises or assurances from the State
must be unequivocally clear. In JOiner v.
~   578 SW. 2d 739 (Tex.Cr.App.
1979), the defense and State entered into
a plea agreement whereby the State
would dismiss all pending cases against
the defendant, reduce his delivery case
to possession and offer him ten years
probation. After he accepted the offer
and pled guilty, the State filed two drug
cases against him which existed at the
time of the plea. The defendant was
then sentenced to 60 years. On appeal,
he complained that the State either knew
of the two unfilled cases, or should have
known, that filing the cases after his plea
breached their agreement. The State
responded that at the time of the agree-
ment they did not know about the two
unfiled cases. The Court articulated that
the State did not enter into an agreement
that would have given a carte blanche re-
lease from any and all other offenses
which he may have previously commit-
ted, but which were then unknown to the
prosecutor. To avoid the problems in
~   a lawyer might negotiate for a
promise that no more cases of the type
to which your client is pleading be filed.
5. The State's Obligation To Abide By Its
Plea Bargaining Agreements.
The leading case involving a
prosecutor's duty to abide by a plea
agreement is Santobello v. New York,
404 U.S. 257 (1971). In that case, the
defendant pled to a reduced gambling
offense, with the understanding that the
prosecutor would make no recommenda-
tion to the Court on the issue of punish-
ment. At sentenCing, a new prosecutor,
asked the Court to give the Defendant
the maximum. When the defense object-
ed, the Judge indicated that the State's
position would not influence him. The
defendant was sentenced to the maxi-
mum! The Supreme Court held that the
prosecutor breached the agreement and
remanded the case to the State Court to
decide whether specific performance or
a withdrawal of the plea would best rem-
edy the situation.
A defendant's plea lacks
voluntariness if the State breaches it plea
agreement. Ex Parte Rogers, 629 SW.
2d 741 (Tex.Cr.App 1982); Ex Parte
~   682 SW. 2d 581 (Tex.Cr.App.
1985); Ex Parte Perkins, 706 SW. 2d
320 (Tex.Cr.App. 1986); Ex Parte Austin,
746 SW. 2d 226 (Tex.Cr.App. 1988)
In Ex Parte Austin, supra, the
defendant pled guilty to attempted mur-
der with an affirmative finding of a deadly
weapon. The State agreed to recom-
mend shock probation. Later, defendant
learned that shock probation was un-
available. The Court ruled that because
the State could not fulfill its agreement,
the defendant's plea was invalid.
Ex Parte Steohenson, 722 SW. 2d
426 (Tex.Cr.App. 1987), involves a
breach of a tacit agreement by the State.
In that case, the defendant was charged
with aggravated sexual assault. He pled
guilty and received 40 years. He was
concerned that he would have to serve
one-third flat calendar time; the State
agreed to waive the deadly weapon find-
ing. The defense lawyer mistakenly told
the defendant that he would not have to
serve the one-third flat time. The Court
held that the State was aware of the
defendant's concern, and when the State
waived the affirmative finding of a deadly
weapon, the State induced the defendant
to believe that he would not have to
serve the flat time. Therefore. through
the State's actions there was an indirect
promise made to the defendant. Be-
cause the promise could not be carried
out, the defendant's plea was invalid.
20
6. A Lawyer Must Protect Himself From
Accusations That He Failed To Commu-
nicate The Plea Offer,
Remember that you have an
lute duty to communicate each and every
offer from the State to your client, includ-
ing a ridiculous offer. A defense lawyer
must be mindful that the client makes the
ultimate decision to accept or reject a
plea bargain offer.
In Ex Parte Wilson, 724 SW. 2d
72 (Tex.Cr.App. 1987), the defendant's
counsel failed to communicate that the
State offered him 13 years on a plea.
The defendant proceeded to trial, and
received a life sentence. In a post-con-
viction writ, the defendant claimed that
had he known about the 13 year offer he
would have accepted it. The Court ruled
that the defendant's counsel was ineffec-
tive in failing to communicate the offer.
It is a good practice to have your
client reject on the record the State's last
offer before trial. If that approach makes
you feel uncomfortable, have your client
sign a written rejection statement prior to
trial and file that document with the
Court. Either approach will eliminate the
possibility that the client will prevail in a
claim against you alleging that you failed
to communicate the State's offer.
Announcement
JUDGE SYLVIA R. GARCIA IS NEW
PRESIDENT OF TEXAS MUNICIPAL
COURTS ASSOC.
Judge sylvia R. Garcia,
Presiding Judge of the City of
Houston Municipal Courts, has
been elected President and
Chair of the Board of Directors
of the Texas Municipal Courts
Association (TMCA) and will
serve in that capacity through
June 30, 1991.
TMCA is a statewide
organization with nearly 1,000
members composed of municipal
court judges, court clerks and
other court related personnel.
Its primary purpose is to
provide Municipal Courts in
Texas with a mechanism to
advance the judicial systems of
its municipalities in
accordance with state and
federal laws.
TMCA oversees the
operation of the Texas
Municipal Courts Training
Center with facHities and a
fulltime professional and
support staffin Austin, Texas.
The  Training Center conducts
judicial education classes and
seminars year round throughout
the state and has an operating
budget of about one million
dollars a year.
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