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Burmei ster & Wai n Energy A/S
Burmeister & Wain Energy A/S is a Danish company with many
years of experience as a supplier of high-tech solutions for the
power generation industry.
The company dates back to a period when Denmarks industrial
development had not yet gained momentum. The history of the
company began in 1843 when a young and enterprising engineer,
Hans Heinrich Baumgarten, was awarded a royal license to establish
a machine shop in Copenhagen.
In 1846 he went into partnership with Carl Christian Burmeister.
Baumgarten retired in 1861 and was succeeded in 1865 by William
Wain, and the company Burmeister & Wain was fnally founded in
1872 soon becoming the largest and most important enterprise in
the iron industry of Denmark.
In 1980 Burmeister & Wain Energy A/S (BWE) was established as
an independent company, and in 2002 it was acquired by the Italian
company STF SpA.
The boiler history of Burmeister & Wain has its origins in the
second half of the 19
century when the company supplied steam
for the industrial revolution in Denmark in the shape of marine
boilers, industrial boilers and power station boilers. Throughout
the following century, the company continued to develop the boiler
technology and in 1955 a Benson license for once-through boilers
was acquired.
. . . . . . . i t al l began i n 1843
The frst once-through Benson boiler was supplied to Masned
Power Station in 1960 and in 1997 the frst Ultra Supercritical (USC)
boiler in Europe was supplied to Skrbk Power Station unit 3.
This was followed by the second USC boiler in 1998, Nordjylland
Power Station unit 3 - with a net effciency above 47% establishing
a world record. In 2001 the frst USC Boiler with a unique multi-fuel
fring system was supplied to Avedre Power Station unit 2. The
boiler can utilize coal, HFO, NG and wood pellets as fuel. With the
possibility of operating at full load on 73% biomass as fuel input,
the unit is the largest biomass boiler in the world.
To remain a leading supplier of boiler and
environmental technology through technology
supply and engineering services to national
and international clients.
To be a signifcant international player in
the upgrading of existing boilers for higher
effciencies, lower emissions or for conversion
to alternative fuels.
To be a signifcant European player providing
services and maintenance to utilities directly
or through alliances.
. this to ensure and
enjoy a better future
Advanced Clean Technology in
Boiler Design
Fossil fuels and especially coal will be the
main energy source to cover the increased
demand for power generation for many years
to come in a growing world.
The BWE Advanced Clean Technology in
boiler design is an important factor in meeting
the worlds CO
reduction target.
By introducing the best available technology
both in new power plants and when retroftting
existing, the plant effciency is increased
and consequently the CO
emissions are
The BWE Ultra Super Critical Flex Boiler is
a solution to utilize fossil and biomass fuels
in USC boilers maximizing effciency, fuel
fexibility and use of renewables.
The frst step to make Carbon Capture
and Storage (CCS) viable is to maximize
The BWE USC Flex boiler and its
high effciency makes the subsequent
implementation of the CCS technology
BWE benets from being part of the history of
power generation in Denmark
Since the energy crisis of the early 70s, Danish power industry has been focusing on the
environment, fuel fexibility and effciency.
The collaboration of BWE with local utilities has allowed our company to acquire direct
experience with different fuels, biomass combustion, co-combustion, high effciency and load
BWE is ready to export the Danish example in power generation to the worldwide market.
Sub, Super and Ul tra Supercri ti cal Boi l ers
The background for the USC process is the well-known Rankine
steam cycle which was further developed by BWE during the 1980s
and 90s in the form of the Benson, once through principle, from
the subcritical through the supercritical to the ultra supercritical
Skrbk Power Station owned by DONG Energy
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020




* Natural gas/HFO firing
** Partial scope
During the transition period from subcritical to USC, the net
electrical effciency has increased from 40% to 49%. This transition
process itself has been a step-wise progress and the outcome is
now a success on all major technical features, i.e. the water/steam
process, pulverized fuel combustion and heat transfer.
During the period the steam temperature has increased from
540 C to 600 C and the pressure from 200 bar to 305 bar.
The hi story of the Benson once-through
boi l er system -suppl i ed on a l i cense from Si emens si nce 1955
Operational exibility in modern coal red power stations
Modern coal fred power stations should be able to follow demand changes rapidly and at the same time ensure reliability and availability
The Benson Technology and the developed control philosophy follow this need.
Nordjylland Power Station unit 3
415MWe, 1998
Fyn Power Station unit 7
400MWe, 1991
Asns Power Station unit 3
250MWe, 1967
Asns Power Station unit 2
150MWe, 1961
Decades of experi ence desi gni ng and manufacturi ng
once-through USC boi l ers
The main design features of the Ultra Supercritical boiler are:
One pass tower type design
Superheaters and economizers in horizontal tubing
Tangential fring system with circular burners
This design is chosen because it gives the most compact,
material-saving design. Process and operational wise, it also gives
the advantage of a symmetrical and well defned fue gas fow,
which will lead to a more homogeneous temperature profle of the
fue gas and of the water/steam.
In order to control the steam outlet temperatures in an economical
way, an FGR (Flue Gas Recirculation) system can be installed.
The BWE design consists in a fully drainable tower type boiler for
Ultra Supercritical installations adaptable both for the single and for
the double reheat water/steam cycle. For effciency reasons BWE
recommends the single train air/gas fue gas path.
The boilers are equipped with a complete BWE multi-fuel Low-NOx
fring system and an SCR system capable of bringing the NOx
emission as far down as 50 mg/Nm
Avedre Power Station, owned by DONG Energy
Standard si ze BWE USC boi l ers
BWE has three 400 MWe size USC references.
Using the design and operation experience from these, BWE has
developed a standard coal fred 400 MWe net USC Boiler.
BWE has also developed a standard 660 MWe size boiler.
Due to its long experience with USC boiler design and available
engineering resources, the company is also qualifed for the supply
of larger size boilers, such as the 800 and 1100 MWe class
3D model of a standard
660 MWe size boiler island.
3D model of a standard
400 MWe size boiler island.
The plant efciency can be increased by:
raising live steam parameters (temperature and pressure)
reducing the condenser pressure by means of a cold and effective cooling
media - preferably sea water
using reheat or maybe double reheat
optimizing the feed water temperature
selecting the single train mono component solution for the air/fue gas path
and thereby reducing the auxiliary power
increasing the boiler effciency
The boiler efciency can be increased by:
reducing the fue gas exit temperature by means of an effective air preheater
reducing Unburned Carbon (UBC) in the fy ash by an effective combustion
reducing the air excess and thereby obtaining a reduced fue gas loss
reducing the leakage in the air preheater
reducing the pressure loss of the water/steam cycle
The USC boiler with a PF combustion system will still be the simplest and most
effcient way of using coal for power generation.
Best Avai l abl e Technol ogy
Combusti on system
Tangential fring
Up to 6 burner levels
n*4 Low NOx BWE Circular Burners (3 air stages)
Single Burner Concept (full control of coal / air ratio)
Low Air Excess 1.15 (full load)
OBA (protection of membrane walls)
OFA (air staging)
The design idea of the combustion system is to establish the best possible
conditions for Low NOx combustion. The circular burners are placed in
the corners of the furnace. Above each burner are OBA (Over Burner Air)
openings, and at the top of the furnace OFA (Over Furnace Air) openings,
which together with the air split in the burners establish the air staging.
Low NOx Combusti on and a wi de range of fuel s
The BWE Low NOx burner can be applied for fuels in fuid,
gaseous and pulverized form.
One burner may operate on any of the 3 types of fuels.
BWE has references on hard coal, HFO, NG, pelletized peat
& biomass (wood & straw).
I mproved SCR bui l t i n
The installation of an SCR becomes mandatory. Tower type boilers are
suitable for easy installation of SCR.
The split ECO improves SCR operation (320 to 400 C) in full load range.
The design of an SCR without bypass prevents leakage in bypass dampers
and results in proper heating of SCR during start up.
In addition a fue gas recirculation system improves SCR operation at low
Regenerati ve Ai r-preheaters and Gas-Gas heaters
Regenerative heat exchangers play an important role in fossil fuels
steam power plants as air preheaters (APH) and as gas-gas heaters
(GGH) in emission control plants such as FGD plants and tail-end
SCR plants.
The BWE APH and GGH heat exchangers operate according to the
rotating, regenerative, counterfow principle. Heat transfer elements
placed as a matrix in an open rotor transfer heat from one gas
sector to another when slowly rotating.
The heaters are equipped with various sealing systems in order to
minimize the leakage of air to fue gas or untreated gas to treated
Quad sector type APH and single train solution
The secondary air section is divided into two sections embracing
the primary air section which reduces the air leakage.
This single train train design can improve the overall effciency of
approximately 0.2%.
Improved seal i ng system for APH & GGH
Automati c l eakage control system
In order to minimize the leakage between the gas
fows which is not benefcial for the overall plant
effciency, BWE has developed a highly effcient
sealing system for the radial sector seal plates.
The Active Leakage Control is an important feature
for rotating regenerative heat exchangers and BWEs
inductive system has proved to be particularly
suited for this application.
The system:
is insensitive to gas properties and fy ash content
requires very little maintenance being a none contact system
has proved to have a very high reliability
has been in continuous development since 1978
Cold condition Hot condition
BWE has a long-standing experience in design, manufacturing and
delivery of high pressure piping systems including spherical TEEs
and hangers.
Highly sophisticated software tools with integration between 3D
modeling (PDMS) and pipe stress analysis (RORHII) ensure an
effcient and reliable design according to state-of-the-art design
codes like EN 13480-3 and ASME B31.1.
Hi gh pressure pi pi ng desi gn
Pipe routing in 3D system (PDMS)
Safety val ve arrangement
The boilers are equipped with safety valve arrangements according to EN 12952-10
2 x HP combined controlled bypass and safety valve (Hydraulic Spring loaded)
2 x RH safety valves (Hydraulic Spring loaded)
The 100% combined HP bypass and safety valves secure suffcient cooling of the RH
heating surfaces during turbine trip. Furthermore, the arrangement of the steam lines
is simplifed.
The LP-bypass valves dumping the steam to the condenser normally have a capacity
of 60-70%.
Spherical TEE
The improvements in the steam cycle and the related development of
new materials have also been accompanied by major improvements
in the design of boilers, turbines and other main components of the
power plant.
The main design challenge in USC boilers can be found in the thick
walled steam headers, the superheaters and the furnace walls.
The challenges are connected with the selection of materials and
manufacturing methods. In drum boilers, it is possible to make
the boiler pressure system in normal ferritic materials. For the
higher pressures and temperatures in the USC boiler, new ferritic/
martensitic high-temperature steels like the P91 and P92 have been
developed for commercial use.
For the fnal stages in the superheaters, a line graine austenitic
material like TP347HFG or Super304 has been selected as having
the necessary creep rupture strength and high temperature corrosion
resistance. By only using the austenitic materials in the relatively
thin walled tubes, the problem with thermal fatigue is minimized.
I mproved desi gn and
materi al devel opment
USC Coal fred Boiler - double RH 415 MWe
Nordjylland Power Station near Aalborg (Denmark), owned by
Vattenfall, represents the latest technological development with
respect to coal fred units and consists of an Ultra Supercritical
(USC) boiler with full fue gas cleaning, i.e. NOx, dust and SO2
removal. In addition to producing electricity to the public grid,
the plant also supplies heat to local district heating companies.
The plant was put into commercial operation in 1998.
Nordj yl l and Power Stati on Uni t 3 -1998
State of the art Cl ean Coal Technol ogy
More than 65,000 of operational hours have proven: Plant effciency > 47% Availability > 98%
Operational results:
RH Cycle
FW temperature
298 C
HP pressure
290 bar
HP/RH temperature
Plant effciency
The boiler of Nordjylland Power Station unit 3 is a supercritical,
once-through tower boiler of the Benson type with double reheat.
The furnace walls are designed as membrane walls with helical
tubing. By using special materials, it has been possible to design
the boiler to very advanced steam data.
A fue gas recirculation system (FGR), including reheat of the fue
gas in a special sector in the quad sector air heater, is installed as
part of the control of the IP outlet temperature.
Low-NOx tangential fring system single train solution
The USC boiler of Unit 3 was designed with special attention to
minimizing the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The tangentially
fred boiler with four levels of burners includes Over Burner Air
(OBA) nozzles above each burner and Over Fire Air (OFA) nozzles
above the upper level of burners. This concept of air staging brings
the NOx level below 475 mg/Nm
USC Multi fuel Boiler 415 MWe
Avedre Power Station Unit 2, owned by DONG Energy, is one of
the most effcient, fuel fexible, and environmentally friendly power
plants in the world. In addition to generating electricity, the plant
supplies heat to the Copenhagen district heating network as well.
The main plant of Avedre Power Station is the Ultra Supercritical
(USC) unit incorporating a BWE once-through, Benson, tangentially
fred boiler.
The plant has a total output of 415 MWe. Of these more than 300
MWe can be achieved by biomass fring (wood pellets).
Avedre Power Stati on Uni t 2 - 2001
Operational results:
RH Cycle
FW temperature
320 C
HP pressure
305 bar
HP/RH temperature
Plant effciency
The boiler of Avedre Power Station unit 2 is a supercritical,
once-through tower boiler of the Benson type with single
reheat. The furnace walls are designed as membrane walls with
helical tubing. By using special materials, it has been possible
to design the plant to the very advanced steam data (HP: 305
bar, 582 C and RH: 74 bar, 600 C with the biomass boiler
in operation).
Multi Fuel Firing System
The USC boiler of Unit 2 has been designed with a unique
multi-fuel fring system which makes it possible to utilize: coal,
HFO, NG and wood pellets as fuels.
All these fuels can be burned in the same burners. These are
placed at four levels in the corners of the large furnace, having
a low thermal loading. The air staging is carried out through
the burners as primary, secondary and tertiary air and above
the burners as Over-Burner-Air (OBA) as well as Over-Fire-Air
(OFA). This concept of air staging ensures the low primary
formation of NOx.
STF S.p.A.
Via Robecco, 20
20013 Magenta (MI) Italia
Tel: +39 02 972091
Fax: +39 02 9794977
Burmeister & Wain Energy A/S
Lundtoftegrdsvej 93A
DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby - Denmark
Tel: +45 39 45 20 00
Fax: +45 39 45 20 05
BWE Energy India Pvt. Ltd
No. 43, KB Dasan Road
Chennai - 600 018
TamilNadu, India
Tel: +91 44 24 32 8101/2
Fax: +91 44 24 32 8103