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# Page 1 Phys 320 - Demchenko

Relativity
For what has A. Einstein received the Nobel Prize?
a) Brownian motion
b) Photoelectric effect
c) Theory of Relativity
d) E = mc
2

CPS Question:
Page 2 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Topic #1: Special Relativity (Part I)
Transformation of Variables between Reference Frames
Non-relativistic Galilean Transformation.
Relativistic Lorentz Transformations.
Time Dilation and Length Contraction
Time interval measured by observer in moving reference frame
(w/respect to event) is longer than proper time.
Length of object measured in moving reference frame (w/respect
to object) is shorter than proper length.
Simultaneous Events
Two events are only simultaneous in one reference frame.
All other frames will see events at different times.
Doppler Shift
Red shift for receding object; blue shift for approaching.
Page 3 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Special Relativity: History
1879: Albert Einstein born in Ulm, Germany.
1901: Worked at Swiss patent office.
Unable to obtain an academic position.
1905: Published 4 famous papers.
Paper on photoelectric effect ( 1921).
Paper on Brownian motion.
2 papers on Special Relativity.
Only 26 years old at the time!!
1915: General Theory of Relativity published.
1933: Left Nazi-occupied Germany.
Spent remainder of time at Institute of Advanced
Study in Princeton, NJ.
Attempted to develop unified theory of gravity
and electromagnetism (unsuccessful).
Page 4 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Galilean Transformations
Newtons laws of mechanics are invariant (i.e., the same) in all inertial
reference frames (Newtonian principle of relativity or Galilean invariance).
Ball hangs vertically in
both reference frames
S'
S
( )
( )
, ,
, ,
x
y
x
x
y z
x
z
vt
t t
v
x
y z
u
u
x
u
vt
v
x
y z
u
u
x
u
=
'
= = =
=
=
= +
=
'
'
'
'
'
'
+
'
v
Inertial reference frame S' moves at constant velocity v with
respect to stationary frame S.
Time is assumed to be independent of space (absolute time).
Inverse:
Page 5 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Look at the Lorentz applet
ct
x
Past
Future
Now
Worldline
Space-time diagram
Page 6 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Experiment: NO Preferred Ref. Frame for Light!
In 1800s, scientists thought that light
propagated through some type of
ether.
Michelson-Morley Experiment (1887)
Test if ether exists and sets
preferred reference frame.
Measure light speed relative to
earths motion (|| and ) using an
interferometer (fringes).
Result: No detection of ether
No detectable shift in interference
fringes occurred, indicating that light
speed DOES NOT depend on
direction.
Page 7 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Special Relativity: Einsteins Postulates
Principle of Relativity
All the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference
frames, i.e. frames moving at constant velocities w/respect
to each other. There is no preferred inertial system.
Constant Speed of Light
The speed of light, c = 3!10
8
m/s, is equal in all inertial
frames, regardless of the velocity of the observer or the
light source.
Consequences of Special relativity
Time is not absolute (it is different in different inertial
frames). Space and time are not independent.
Observed as slowing down of clocks (time dilation) and
length contraction in moving reference frames as measured by
an observer in another reference frame.
Page 8 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Steep rise for v c
/ 0.85 v c =
/ 0.95 v c =
/ 0.99 v c =
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
,
2
2
,
,
1
1 /
1 /
1 /
x
x
y z
x
x
y z
vt
vx
t t
c
v c
v
v c
x
y z
u
u
x
y z
u
c
u
u
u v

'
' '
=
= =
| |
'
=
|
\ .
=

'
'
=

=
(

Lorentz Transformations
RELATIVISTIC transformations.
Reduce to Galilean transformations
for v << c (i.e., = 1).
Moving frame S' moves at velocity v
with respect to Stationary frame S. At
t = t, the origins of S and S coincide.

v/c
Note: Replace v with -v and replace
prime for inverse transform.
S'
S
v
x
y
x'
z'
y'
z
- relativistic factor
Page 9 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
,
2
2
,
,
1
1 /
1 /
1 /
x
y
z
z
x
x
y
x
vt
v
t t
c
v c
x
y z
u
x
y z
x
u
u
v
v c
v c
u
u
u

=
= =
'
| |
'
=
|
\ .
=

' '
'
'
=
(

( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
,
2
2
,
,
1
1 /
1 /
1 /
x
y
z
z
x
x
y
x
vt
v
t t
c
v c
x
y z
x
u
u
u
x
y z
u
u
v
v c
v c
u

'
' '
= +
= =
| |
'
= +
|
\ .
=

+
=
+
=
(
+
'
'
'
'

'

S'
S
v
x
y
x'
z'
y'
z
As measured in S'
As measured in S
Lorentz Transformations
Page 10 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
,
2
2
,
,
1
1 /
1 /
1 /
z
x
y
y
z
z
x
z
vt
v
t t
c
v c
z
y x
u
z
y x
z
u
u
v
v c
v c
u
u
u

=
= =
'
| |
'
=
|
\ .
=

' '
'
'
=
(

( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
,
2
2
,
,
1
1 /
1 /
1 /
z
x
y
y
z
z
x
z
vt
v
t t
c
v c
z
y x
u
u
u
z
y x
z
u
u
v
v c
v c
u

'
' '
= +
= =
| |
'
= +
|
\ .
=

+
=
+
=
(
+
'
'
'
'

'

S'
S
v
x
y
x'
z'
y'
z
As measured in S'
As measured in S
Lorentz Transformations
Page 11 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Lorentz Transforms: Short Derivation
We require linear transformation
(each event in system S corresponds
to only one event in system S'). For
generality, introduce a factor that
may depend on v.
Speed of light is c in both systems,
and its spherical wavefront is centered
on the systems origin at t = t' = 0.
Substitute x and x' from (4)
and (5) into (1) and (2) and
divide by c
Substitute t from (7) into (6)
and cancel t to find
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
' (1)
' ' (2)
, (3)
(4)
(5)
1
x x vt
x x vt
y' y z' z
x y z c t x ct
x' y' z' c t' x' ct'
v
t' t
c

=
= +
= =
+ + = =
+ + = =
|
=
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
2
2
2
2
(6)
1 (7)
1
' '
' / '
1 /
x
x
x
v
t t'
c
v
-
c
dx vdt
dx
u
dt
dt v c dx
u' v
v c u'

|
|
\ .
| |
= +
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
+
= = =
+
+
=
+
Use (2) into (7) to find u
x
.
Similarly, from (3) and (7) find
u
y
and u
z
.
Page 12 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Derivation (if time permits)
Page 13 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Lorentz Transform: Problem 1
Two spaceships are approaching each other at speeds 0.99c and 0.98c relative
to the Earth. Find the speed of one spaceship relative to the other.
Page 14 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Lorentz Transform: Problem 1

x
y
S = earth
v = 0.99c
S'
u
x
= 0.98c
( )( )
2 2
0.99 1.97
0.99990
1.9702
1 1 0.99
0.98
0.98
x
x
u c
u c
v c c
c
v c c c

= = =

=
x'
u
Two spaceships are approaching each other at speeds 0.99c and 0.98c relative
to the Earth. Find the speed of one spaceship relative to the other.
Let S be the fixed frame of the Earth. Let 1
st
spaceship (speed v from the
Earth) be the moving frame S'. Let 2
nd
spaceship (speed u
x
from the Earth)
be a particle. Now, find the speed u' of this 2
nd
spaceship in the S' moving
frame.
Note that the oncoming spaceship approaches at less than the speed of light, as
must be true.
Page 15 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Lorentz Transform: Problem 2
A spaceship traveling along x axis at speed 0.99c relative to the Earth shoots
vertically (along z axis) with a laser beam (u
z
' = c). Find the speed of the laser
beam relative to the Earth.

Page 16 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Lorentz Transform: Problem 2
( )
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
x
x
z
x
v
c
v u
u
u
u
v c
v c

= =
| |

|
|
\ .
+
= =
+
= =
+
'
'
'
'
x
z
u
u
A spaceship traveling along x axis at speed 0.99c relative to the Earth shoots
vertically (along z axis) with a laser beam (u
z
' = c). Find the speed of one the
laser beam relative to the Earth.
Let S be the fixed frame of the Earth. Let the spaceship be the moving frame
S'. Let the laser beam (speed u
z
=c and u
x
=0 from the spaceship) be a
particle. Now, find the speed of the laser beam relative to the Earth.

x
z

S = earth

S '
u
z
= c
v = 0.99 c
Page 17 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Time Dilation (or Time Stretching)
Proper time T
0
"= t
2
"- t
1
" is the time interval between two events as
measured by an observer who sees the events occur in the same
reference frame (e.g. inside a spaceship).
Time Dilation causes time intervals T= t
2
- t
1
measured in other
reference frames (moving with velocity v relative to the system where
the event takes place) to be longer than the proper time interval T
0
".
A moving clock runs slower than a clock at rest.
All physical processes, including chemical reactions and biological
processes, slow down relative to a stationary clock when they occur
in a moving frame.
( )
2 2
0
0
1 /
T
v
T
T
c

'
= =

'
2
2
vx
t t
c
vx
t t
c

| |
'
=
|
\ .
'
| |
'
= +
|
\ .
Page 18 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Time Dilation: Short Derivation
In S" frame, light travels up/down.
In S frame, light travels a longer
path along hypotenuse.
Solve for At, where At" = 2D/c
(proper time).
Analyze laser beam-bounce in two reference frames.
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2 1
1
2
/
/
2
1
v t
D
t
D
c
D
c t
c
t
v
t t
v c
v c

A
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
| |
A = =
|
\ .
'

= =

A
A
'
A
A
At in S frame
At"

in S"
frame
Pythagorean
Theorem
D
D
2
c t A
2
v t A
Page 19 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
CPS Question
A) In the spaceship because it travels but the
Earth frame is fixed
B) It runs equally because there is no preferred
inertial frame
C) In the spaceship, if after passing the Earth it
will return back.
D) On the Earth, if the Earth can accelerate after
the spaceship and catch up with it.
A spaceship passes the Earth with v = 0.99c. Where
the time runs slower?
Page 20 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Length Contraction
Length contraction causes length L measured in other
reference frames to be shorter than the proper length L
0
".

S Frame
S' Frame
Length contraction distorts 3D shapes
2
' '
0
2
0
1
1
v
c
L L L

= =
Page 21 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2 1
1
2
1
0 0
2 1
'
2
'
1
or
vt
vt
x
x
x x
x
x
x x
L L L L

=
=
=
= =
'
'
' '

Length Contraction: Short Derivation
Write Lorentz transforms
for endpoints of object
in proper S frame.
Solve for proper length Ax'
of object in S frame.
Request t
1
= t
2
(i.e. measured
simultaneously).
Page 22 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Special Relativity: Space-time diagram
Spacetime: our world has four dimensions, not three.
To specify an event, we must denote both space (x, y, z) and
time (ct). For simplicity, lets consider two coordinates: x and ct
ct
x
Nothing can move (transfer
energy or information) faster
than c (i.e. v s c).
The zero-mass particles
(m = 0 for photons) can move
only with the speed c in
vacuum.
Invariant quantity interval:
As
2
=Ax
2
+Ay
2
+Az
2
(cAt)
2
Past
Future
Now
?
Worldline
Elsewhere
s
2
<0
s
2
>0
Events are
not causally
connected
Page 23 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
S'
L = 1
S
D = 1
Time Dilation and Length Contraction: Example
v = 0.9998 c
= 50
f =50 y
-1
(T=0.02y)
L
0
= D
0
= 1 l.y.
Observers in frame
S will measure:
v = 0.9998 c,
D
0
= 1 l.y.
L = 0.02 l.y.
At = 1 y (in S)
At
0
= 0.02 y (in S')
Observers in frame
S' will measure:
v = 0.9998 c,
L
0
= 1 l.y.
D = 0.02 l.y.
At = 1 y (in S')
At
0
= 0.02 y (in S)
Page 24 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
CPS Question
A) In S
'
because we denoted it with prime sign.
B) In S because it is moving.
C) Time runs equally in both systems.
D) This question has no answer.
E) I am confused!
In which frame time runs slower?
Page 25 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Time Dilation and Length Contraction: Example
S'
L = 1
S
D = 1
Clocks run slower in
the frame that moved
fast and returned to
original point.
Low-S
observer will
send 100
flashes during
2 years but
will receive
from top-S'
source only 2
flashes - just
before it
arrives back
to its place.
Top-S' observer
will send 2
flashes during 2
weeks of his
travel and will
receive from S-
low source 1
flash while it
travels up and
99 flashes while
it travels down.
Page 26 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
CPS Question
A) In S because we denoted it with prime sign.
B) In S because it traveled and returned back
B) In S because of the right-hand rule.
C) Time runs equally in both systems.
D) This question has no answer.
In which frame time runs slower?
Page 27 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Twin Paradox Applet
http://www.cabrillo.edu/~jmccullough/Applets/modern_physics.html
If each twin agrees to send a pulse (or his picture) once per year,
How many pulses will each send during the trip?
Page 28 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Time Intervals: Simultaneous Events
Two events simultaneous in one reference frame are not
simultaneous in any other inertial frame moving relative to the first.
Two bolts seen
simultaneously at C
Right bolt seen first at C'
Left bolt seen second at C'
Two lightning bolts strike A,B
Page 29 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Time Dilation/Length Contraction: Muon Decay
Why do we observe muons created in the upper atmosphere on earth?
Given its ~2 s lifetime, it should travel only ~ 600 m at 0.998 c.
Need relativity to explain!
In muons S' frame, it sees a shorter length. (Length contraction)
In our S frame, we see a longer lifetime of t ~ 30 s. (Time dilation)
Proper Lifetime
Contracted Length
Muons S' frame
Earths S frame
Longer Lifetime
Proper Length
~30 s
~2 s
Page 30 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Time Dilation: confirmations
In 1985 atomic clocks were taken to the shuttle Challenger
and stayed on the orbit (v = 7700 m/s) for a week. The time
difference between clocks on the orbit and clocks remaining
on the Earth was about 0.2 ms.
Thousands of experiments verify the relativistic predictions!
Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is based on special relativity
and quantum mechanics. Its accuracy is tested to 10
-12
.
GPS accounts for relativity effects (both special relativity and
general relativity).
Page 31 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Time Dilation/Length Contraction: Problem
A spaceship departs from Earth (v = 0.995c) for a star which is 100 light-years
away. Find how long it takes to arrive there according to someone on earth (t
1
) and
to someone on the spaceship (t
2
).
Page 32 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Time Dilation/Length Contraction: Problem
A spaceship departs from Earth (v = 0.995c) for a star which is 100 light-years
away. Find how long it takes to arrive there according to someone on earth (t
1
) and
to someone on the spaceship (t
2
).
( )
1
100 yr
0.995
where x is measured from the Earth's ref
E
erence frame
arth 10
(S frame
.5 yr
)
0 t
x c
v c
A
= = =
A
For t
2
, remember that the spaceship sees a contracted distance Ax.
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2
1
1 1 100
10.01
1
1 0.995
' 9.99 100.5
or
0.995
10
1
' 9.99 yr
ship 10.04 yr ship 10.04 yr
1
0.01
.0
x c yr
v c
t x c yr yr
v
c
c
x
t t

A
= = = = = =

A
= = = =
A
= =

Note that someone on the ship will feel that only 10 years passed (all clocks
on the ship run slow compared to the clock on the earth).
Page 33 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Doppler Shift
Doppler shift causes change in measured frequency of light.
When a light source moves towards an observer, the light
frequency is shifted higher (i.e. blue shift).
When a light source moves away from an observer, the light
frequency is shifted lower (i.e. red shift).
The difference with classical Doppler shift for sound is the
incorporation of time dilation (causes square root factor).
Approaching - blue shift
( )
( )
1 /
1 /
source
obs source
source
v c
f f
v c
+
=

## Note: For a receding source, switch signs.

obs source
source
c
f f
c v
| |
=
|

\ .
Classical Doppler
shift:
Page 34 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Doppler Shift: Problem
The light from a nearby star is observed to be shifted toward the red by 5%
Is the star approaching or receding from the earth? How fast is it moving?

Page 35 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Doppler Shift: Problem
The light from a nearby star is observed to be shifted toward the red by 5%
Is the star approaching or receding from the earth? How fast is it moving?

The star is receding the earth because the frequency is shifted to a lower value.
(f = 0.95 f
0
).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
7
1
where 0.95 and solve for
1
1 1 1 1
1 1 0.95
0.0975
1.9025
1 1 0.95
(1.54 1 0.0512 0 m/s)
o
o
o o o
o o o
o o o
f v
f f
f c
f f f f f f
f f f f
f f f f
|
|
|
| | |
|
|

= = =
+
(
+ = = +

= = =
+ +
=
Page 36 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Invariant value: Spacetime
Proper Lifetime
Contracted Length
Muons S' frame
Earths S frame
Longer Lifetime
Proper Length
~30 s
~2 s
Space-time interval between two events (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
,t
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
,
z
2
,t
2
): As
2
= A x
2
+A y
2
+A z
2
(c A t)
2
is invariant (the same
value in different reference frames).
8 6
0.998 ( 15)
9000
S (Earth): 0, 9000 m, , 600 m
0.998
S (muon): 0, (3 10 )(2 10 ) 600 m, 600 m
v c
z
x y z c t c s i
v
x y z c t s i

= =
A
A = A = A = A = = A =
' ' ' ' '
A = A = A = A = = A =
Page 37 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Topic #1: Special Relativity (Part II)
Relativistic momentum and energy
p = m u and E = m c
2
E = mc
2
+ E
K
(simple) and E
2
= (mc
2
)
2
+ (pc)
2
(square)
Conserved Quantities
Total energy E and total momentum p have the same value
before and after an interaction in a particular reference frame.
Total rest mass (E
0
= mc
2
) is not conserved (cannot be
obtained from adding up individual rest masses!).
Invariant Quantities
Total rest mass (E
0
= mc
2
) and time-space interval As have the
same value when measured by observers in different
reference frames.
Page 38 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Relativistic Momentum
Relativistic momentum must:
Be consistent with
momentum conservation.
Reduce to classical
expression for u << c.
2 2
1
Definition: with
1 / u c
m =

= p u
Page 39 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
A particle initially has a speed of 0.251 c.
At what speed does its momentum
increase by 35.3 %?
(Problem 12 in your LON-CAPA assignment)
Page 40 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Relativistic Energy: Definition & Simple Equation
Total energy E = Kinetic energy E
K
+ Rest energy mc
2
1/ 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1
Classical Limit: 1 1 ...
2
1 1
1 ... 1
2 2
K
u u
c c
u
E mc mc mc mu
c

| |
= ~ + +
|
\ .
| |
= = + + ~
|
\ .
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1 /
Definition:
1 /
Simple Eqn.
K K
mc
E mc
u c
mc
u c
E mc
E E mc

=
= +
General law of the conservation of mass-energy
(mass and energy are equivalent)
Page 41 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Rest Mass: Basics
E
0
= mc
2
is rest mass (can be expressed in kg or eV).
The mass of a bound system is less than that of the separate particles:
Mc
2
= m
1
c
2
+ m
2
c
2
- E
b
(E
b
is the binding energy).

Example Rest Mass Values
Photon = 0, Electron = 0.511 MeV, Proton = 938.28 MeV

Total rest mass E
0
of a system is NOT CONSERVED, i.e. does not
equal sum of individual rest masses!
Page 42 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
If a particle whose rest-mass-energy is 1 MeV
travels at 5/13 the speed of light, its kinetic
energy is

A. 8/5 MeV
B. 2/3 MeV
C. 1/13 MeV
D. 1/12 MeV
CPS Question
(Problem 8 in your LON-CAPA assignment)
12
13
13
5
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
=

=
c
v

## Page 43 Phys 320 - Demchenko

Relativity
If a particle whose rest-mass-energy is 1 MeV
travels at 5/13 the speed of light, its kinetic
energy is

A. 8/5 MeV
B. 2/3 MeV
C. 1/13 MeV
D. 1/12 MeV
CPS Question
(Problem 8 in your LON-CAPA assignment)
12
13
13
5
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
=

=
c
v

MeV mc mc mc E
mc E
mc E E
K
K
12 / 1 ) 1 (
2 2 2
2
2
= = =
=
+ =

## Page 44 Phys 320 - Demchenko

Relativity
Rest Mass: Example Problem
Compute the rate at which the sun is losing mass, given
that the mean radius R of the Earth's orbit is
R = 1.50!10
8
km, and the intensity of solar radiation at
the Earth is 1.36!10
3
W/m
2

Page 45 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Rest Mass: Example Problem
The answer: The Sun is losing 4.3!10
9
kg of mass every second! (equal to
~10 supertankers). At this rate, the sun would run out of fuel after ~ 10
11
y.
Compute the rate at which the sun is losing mass, given
that the mean radius R of the Earth's orbit is
R = 1.50!10
8
km, and the intensity of solar radiation at
the Earth is 1.36!10
3
W/m
2

Assuming that the sun radiates uniformly over a sphere of
radius R, the total power P radiated by the Sun is given by:
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2 2
26
2
11
26
2
8
9
at Earth Radius at Earth Radius
4 1.5 10 m 1360 W/m (or J/s = kg
per sec
mass per sec 4.3 10
(Total Surface Area ) (Solar I
m /s )
3.85 10 kg
ntensity )
3
m /s
3
.85
10
10 W
m/
kg
s
E
P
c
t = =
=

=
=

## Page 46 Phys 320 - Demchenko

Relativity
Invariant Square Equations
Invariant quantities are equal in all inertial reference frames
All observers will measure the same value for the rest mass mc
2

and for the space-time interval As.
Invariant quantities are called 4-vectors
Rest mass mc
2
is given by four quantities: E, px, py, pz
Space-time interval As is given by four quantities: t, x, y, z
Rest Mass E
o
:
Space-Time Interval:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
(Square Eqn.)
s
mc E
x
c
c t
p
A = A A
=
Page 47 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Invariant Equation: Classical vs. Relativistic
Classical Limit
Very Relativistic Limit
pc
mc
2

E = mc
2

E >> pc gives E ~ mc
2
( ~ 1)
E
K
~ ! mu
2
or p
2
/2m
E >> mc
2
gives E ~ pc
pc
mc
2

E = mc
2

Accurate to 1% or better if
E > 8mc
2

If E
K
/mc
2
~ 1%, then E
K

approximation is accurate to ~1.5%.
Page 48 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
( )
2
0
0
2
1 /
T
T T
v c
' = =

2
' '
0
2
0
1
1
v
c
L L L

= =
2 2
1
with
1 / u c
m =

= p u
2
E mc =
Review: Main Effects
Time runs slower in the
frames moving fast
Momentum (or mass) and
total energy increase with
velocity when v c.
E and p conserve in a
particular reference frame.
Rest Mass E
0
:
Space-Time Interval:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
mc E pc
s x c t A = A A
=
Length contracts in direction
of fast motion
E
0
= mc
2
and As are
Invariant Quantities
(in different
reference frames).
Page 49 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Useful Equations
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
1
1
1
1
K
K
K
mc mc mc
mc mc
mc
mc
pc
pc
pc
pc
E
E
E
E
u c
E
E
u c
u pc
c
u c
E
mc
m
E
c
E
E

= = + +
= =
=
= = = =
= =
= =

Requires mc
2
Requires mc
2
Requires mc
2

Page 50 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find E, p, and E
K
(given u, mc
2
)
Find the total energy E, momentum p (MeV/c), and kinetic energy E
K
for an
electron with rest mass 0.511 MeV and speed u = 0.5c.
Page 51 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find E, p, and E
K
(given u, mc
2
)
Find the total energy E, momentum p (MeV/c), and kinetic energy E
K
for an
electron with rest mass 0.511 MeV and speed u = 0.5c.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
1 1
= 1.155
1 1 0.5
mc 1.155 0.511MeV 0.59 MeV
mu=1.155 0.511MeV/ 0.5 0.295 MeV/c
c 0.59 MeV 0.511MeV 0.079 MeV
0.511 MeV
: 0.25 0.064 MeV
2 2 2
K
K
u c
E
p c c
E E m
mv mc v
Compare E
c

= =

= = =
= =
= = =
| |
= = = =
|
\ .
u gives
Page 52 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find pc and u (given E, mc
2
)
Find the momentum pc (MeV) and speed u of an electron with rest
mass 0.511 MeV and total energy E = 10 MeV.
Page 53 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find pc and u (given E, mc
2
)
Find the momentum pc (MeV) and speed u of an electron with rest
mass 0.511 MeV and total energy E = 10 MeV.
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
mc 10 MeV 0.511MeV 9.987 MeV
10 MeV
19.57 using
0.511MeV
1 1 1
1 1 0.9987 using
19.57
1
pc E
E
E mc
mc
u
c
u
c

= = =
= = = =
= = = =
| |

|
\ .
Use Square Eqn.
Page 54 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find mc
2
and u (given p, E)
Find the rest mass and speed u of a particle with momentum pc = 300 MeV
and total energy E = 3500 MeV.
Page 55 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find mc
2
and u (given p, E)
Find the rest mass and speed u of a particle with momentum pc = 300 MeV
and total energy E = 3500 MeV.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
3500 MeV 300 MeV 3487 MeV
3500 MeV
1.00373 using
3487 MeV
1 1 1
1 1 0.086 using
1.00373
1
mc E pc
E
E mc
mc
u
c
u
c

= = =
= = = =
= = = =
| |

|
\ .
Use Square Eqn.
Page 56 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find E, pc and u (given E
K
, mc
2
)

E
K
= 2 GeV
p
E
K
= 2 GeV
p
A 2-GeV proton hits another 2-GeV proton in a
head-on collision. Find the total energy E, total
momentum pc, and velocity u of each proton.
Page 57 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find E, pc and u (given E
K
, mc
2
)

E
K
= 2 GeV
p
E
K
= 2 GeV
p
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 2
2 2
2 2
1 1 1
2
1 2
1
1
2
1
2 GeV + 938 MeV = 2.938 GeV
2.938 + 2.938 = 5.876 GeV
2.938 GeV 0.938 GeV 2.78 GeV
2.78 GeV ( is vector. Account for its direction!)
2.78 2.78 0
2
K
tot
tot
E E E mc
E E E
p c E m c
p c p
pc p c p c
E
m c

= = + =
= + =
= = =
=
= + = =
= =
( )
2
1 1 2
1 2
2 2
1
.938 GeV
3.13 using (same is )
0.938 GeV
1 1
1 1 0.948 0.948
3.13
E m c
u u
c c

= =
= = = =
A 2-GeV proton hits another 2-GeV proton in a
head-on collision. Find the total energy E, total
momentum pc, and velocity u of each proton.
Page 58 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find mc
2
and E
K

A E particle decays into a neutron (pc = 4702 MeV, mc
2
= 940 MeV) and pion
(pc = 169 MeV, mc
2
= 140 MeV). Find the total rest mass and kinetic energy
of the E particle.

pc =4702 MeV
E
+

n t
= +
pc = 169 MeV
Page 59 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Problem: Find mc
2
and E
K

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
4702 MeV 940 MeV 4795 MeV
169 MeV 140 MeV 219 MeV
4795 MeV + 219 MeV = 5014 MeV
4702 MeV +169 MeV = 4871 MeV (vectors!)
5014 MeV 4871MeV 1189 MeV
n
n
n
n
n
K
E pc mc
E pc mc
E E E
pc pc pc
mc E pc
E
t
t
t
t
t
E
E
E E
E
= + = + =
= + = + =
= + =
= + =
= = =
( )
2
5014 MeV 1189 MeV = 3825 MeV E mc
E
E
E
= =
A E particle decays into a neutron (pc = 4702 MeV, mc
2
= 940 MeV) and pion
(pc = 169 MeV, mc
2
= 140 MeV). Find the total rest mass and kinetic energy
of the E particle.

pc =4702 MeV
E
+

n t
= +
pc = 169 MeV
Page 60 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Rest Mass: Problem
Two identical particles with rest mass 12 kg
approach each other with equal but opposite
velocities u
1
= u
2
= 0.6c. Find the total rest
mass of this system.
x
y
u
1
= 0.6c u
2
= 0.6c
m
1
= 12 kg m
2
= 12 kg
Page 61 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Rest Mass: Problem
Two identical particles with rest mass 12 kg
approach each other with equal but opposite
velocities u
1
= u
2
= 0.6c. Find the total rest
mass of this system.
( )
( )( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
1 2
2 2 2
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
1 1
1.25
1
1 0.6
2 2 1.25 12 30 ;
1.25(12 kg) 0.6 9 kg 0
3
0
0
0 3
tot
tot
tot o
tot
t t
u c
E E E mc kg c kg c
u
p c muc mc c c p
m kg
c
E p kg c
c
c c

= = =

= + = = =
| |
= = = = =
|
\ .
| |
| |
| |
= = = |
| |
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
x
y
u
1
= 0.6c u
2
= 0.6c
m
1
= 12 kg m
2
= 12 kg
Page 62 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
CPS Question
A) 12 kg
B) 24 kg
B) More than 12 kg but less than 24 kg
C) More than 24 kg
What will be the total rest mass of the system shown
below?

x
y u
1
= 0.6c u
2
= 0.6c
m
1
= 12 kg m
2
= 12 kg
Page 63 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Rest Mass: Problem
Two identical particles with rest mass 12 kg
approach each other with equal velocities
u
1
= u
2
= 0.6c. Find the total rest mass of this
system.

x
y u
1
= 0.6c u
2
= 0.6c
m
1
= 12 kg m
2
= 12 kg
Page 64 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Rest Mass: Problem
Two identical particles with rest mass 12 kg
approach each other with equal velocities
u
1
= u
2
= 0.6c. Find the total rest mass of this
system.
( )
( )( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
1 2
2 2 2 2
1
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1 1
1.25
1
1 0.6
2 2 1.25 12 30 ;
1.25(12 kg) 0.6 9 kg 18 kg
30 kg 18
4
kg
c
2
tot
tot
tot
tot tot
u c
E E E mc kg c kg c
u
p c muc mc c c p c
c
E p c c
c
c
m kg
c

= = =

= + = = =
| |
= = = = =
|
\ .
| |
| |
| | | |
= = = |
| | |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
\ .

x
y u
1
= 0.6c u
2
= 0.6c
m
1
= 12 kg m
2
= 12 kg
Page 65 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Rest Mass: Problem
An electron is moving left with velocity 0.995c and a positron is moving right
at velocity 0.9798c. Draw a diagram and find the total rest mass of this system.

u
e-
= -0.995c
e e
+
+
u
e+
= 0.9798c
Page 66 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
Rest Mass: Problem
An electron is moving left with velocity 0.995c and a positron is moving right
at velocity 0.9798c. Draw a diagram and find the total rest mass of this system.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
1 1 1 1
10 ; 5
1 1
1 0.995 1 0.9798
10 0.511MeV 5 0.511MeV 7.67 MeV
10 0.511MeV/c 0.995 c 5 0.511MeV/c 0.9798 c 2.58 MeV/c
7.
e p
e p e e p p
e p e e e p p p
tot
tot
tot tot tot
u c u c
E E E m c m c
p p p m u m u
m c E p c

= = = = = =

= + = + = + =
= + = +
= + =
= =
( ) ( )
2 2
67 MeV 2.58 MeV 7.2 MeV =

u
e-
= -0.995c
e e
+
+
u
e+
= 0.9798c
Page 67 Phys 320 - Demchenko
Relativity
A proton and antiproton collide with equal
and opposite momentum at the SPS collider
in Geneva to form a single massive particle
which is 9 times more massive than a
proton. What is the velocity (as a fraction of
c) of the proton beam?
(A problem 8 in your LON-CAPA assignment)