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String o’ Beads Project

WOODHOUSE MOOR BOWLING GREENS
Science Without Borders
Researchers: Gabriela Otremba | Jullyana Menezes
Supervisor/Editor: Tom Bliss
June-September, 2014
Introduction
String o’Beads | Leeds Edible Garden | Feed Leeds
Research
Permaculture | Forest Gardens | Urban Agriculture | Pollination
Survey
Woodhouse Moor | Bedford Fields | Leeds University Sustainable Gardens | Others
Short List Concepts
Why the Bowling Greens | Burle Marx
Sketch Designs
Bowling Greens
String o’Beads (SoB) is a project aiming to develop a
chain of Permaculture pocket forest gardens,
orchards, food planting and wild/pollinator flower
patches in target sites across the Woodhouse Moor,
to link - literally and conceptually - the permaculture
garden at Bedford Fields in the North with the
University of Leeds Sustainable Garden, in the south.
String o’Beads was proposed as a potential addition
to the Leeds Edible Campus, which exists to connect,
celebrate and ideally enhance all the existing food-
growing and biodiversity projects in, initially, the
Woodhouse Moor and the City Centre area, by
creating a themed ‘edible corridor.’ (Leeds Edible
Campus is a Feed Leeds co-managed project - Feed
Leeds being a network of organizations and
individuals involved with sustainable local food and
related issues).
After the SoB idea was floated, a seminar was held to
explore the possibilities, with a wide range of
university departments, local community groups and
national organisations contributing ideas and
suggestions.
Although the SoB ranges from Bedford Fields to
Sustainable Garden, in this report we address
only the potential sites on Woodhouse Moor. We
also do not consider issues of access, resources,
ownership or management, which would have
been addressed in the next stage of the project.
INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
String o’Beads | Leeds Edible Campus | Feed Leeds - www.leedsediblecampus.co.uk
yesterday today tomorrow
Leeds Edible Campus, available on:
http://www.leedsediblecampus.co.uk/
01
• Permaculture is a system by which we can exist on
the earth by using energy that is naturally in flux and
relatively harmless, and by using food and natural
resources that are abundant in such a way that we
don’t continually destroy life on earth;
• In permaculture, we embrace a threefold ethic:
• Care of Earth: care of all living and non living
things – soil, species and their varieties,
atmosphere, forests, micro-habitats, animals
and water;
• Care of People: our basic needs for food,
shelter, education, satisfying employment,
and convivial human contact are taken care
of;
• Contribution of Surplus Time, Money and
Energy: that means that after we have taken
care of our basic needs and designed our
systems to the best of our ability, we can
extend our influences and energies to helping
others achieve that aim;
• Some ways we can implement the Earth care ethics
on our own lives:
• Where possible, use species native to the
area, or those naturalised species known to
be beneficial. The thoughtless introduction of
potentially invasive species may upset
natural balances in your home area;
• Cultivate the smallest possible land area –
plan for small scale, energy-efficient intensive
systems rather than large-scale, energy-
consuming extensive systems;
• Be diverse, policultural;
• Bring food-growing back into the cities and
towns, where it has always traditionally been
in sustainable societies;
• We can base our linking strategies to these
questions:
• “Of what use are the products of this
particular element to the needs of other
elements?”
• “What needs of this element are supplied by
other elements?”
• “Where is this element incompatible with
other elements?”
• “Where does it benefit other parts of the
system?”
• Each element in the system should be chosen and
placed so that it performs as many functions as
possible;
• Each important function is supported by many
elements;
PERMANENT + AGRICULTURE = PERMACULTURE
• Cultures cannot survive for long without a sustainable
agriculture base and ethic land use;
• Permaculture deals with plants, animals, buildings,
and infrastructure (water, energy, communications);
• Permaculture is about the relationships we
can create between these elements by the
way we place them in the landscape;
• Permaculture uses the inherit qualities of plants and
animals combined with the natural characteristics of
landscapes and structures to produce a life-supporting
system for city and country, using the smallest practical
area;
• It has the philosophy of working with, rather than
against nature; of protracted and thoughtful
observation rather than protracted labour; and of
looking at plants and animals in all their functions, rather
than treating elements in a single product system;
• These 12 principles are seen as universal, although
the methods used to express them will vary greatly
according to the place and situation;
1. Observe and Interact;
2. Catch and store energy;
3. Obtain a yield;
4. Apply self regulation and accept feedback;
5. Use and value renewable resources and
services;
6. Produce no waste;
7. Design from patterns to details;
8. Integrate rather than segregate;
9. Use small and slow solutions;
10. Use and value diversity;
11. Use edges and value the marginal;
12. Creatively use and respond to change;
02 Permaculture | Forest Garden | Urban Agriculture | Pollination
INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Permaculture
What is Permaculture? Available on: Shades of Green,
http://shadesofgreeninc.org/about/what-is-permaculture/
Permaculture Design Principles. Available on: Permaculture Principles,
http://permacultureprinciples.com/principles/
Forest Garden
• Forest gardening is an important element of
permaculture. It is a food-producing garden, based on
the model of a natural woodland or forest, and because
it is a copy of a natural ecosystem, it is perhaps the
most ecologically friendly way of gardening opened to
people;
• A forest garden is made up of fruit and nut trees, fruit
bushes, perennial vegetables and herbs, and to work
well it has to be carefully layered
• Seven layers of the Edible Forest Garden:
1. Canopy / Tall tree;
2. Sub-canopy / Large Shrub;
3. Shrub;
4. Herbaceous;
5. Ground cover creeper;
6. Underground;
7. Vertical / Climber;
• Impacts:
• Economic: creation of jobs and reducing food
costs;
• Social: well-being, health and nutrition,
employment, social relationships, community
pride, social networks, livelihood, physical
activity;
• Energy: less food transportation;
• Carbon footprint: less transport and carbon
sequestration;
• Reduction in ozone;
• Soil decontamination: phytoremediation
(reduce pollution) / Used in standing and grey
water;
• Noise pollution: plants absorbing sound
waves;
• Nutrition and quality food: active role in
planting and dietary knowledge for people;
• Environmental justice: reduce class/racial
disparities, at affordable prices and creation
of a local food system infrastructure;
• Implementation:
• Garden sharing;
• Food processing: seeds, tools transplants,
education;
• Farmer's Market;
• Examples (case studies):
• P-Patches – Seattle
• Open space for the community;
• Optional individual garden rentals
with some collectively gardened
space;
• Vegetables, small fruits, flowers or
herbs;
• Todmorden – Yorkshire – UK
• Market town and civil parish;
• Incredible edible Todmorden Project:
Urban gardening Project – Local
food;
Urban Agriculture
• Cultivating, processing and distributing food in/around
a village;
• Reasons:
• Social movement for sustainable
communities: organic growers. This would
take park in transition cities, with this way of
town planning;
• Food security and nutrition;
• Creation of the Victory Gardens (war
gardens, food gardens for defense) after
the World War I and II in the UK, US,
Canada and Germany (and at the Great
Depression). This happened to reduce
pressure on the public food supply;
• Community gardens concept;
• Urban Agriculture Concepts:
• The Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations (FAO): it is an industry
that produces, processes and markets food
and fuel, largely in response to the daily
demand of consumers, applying intensive
production methods, using and reusing
natural resources and urban wastes;
• The Council of Agriculture, Science and
Technology: Complex system
encompassing a spectrum of interests, from
a traditional core of activities associated
with the production, processing, marketing,
distribution and consumption, to a
multiplicity of other benefits and services
that are less widely acknowledged and
documented. The include recreation and
leisure economic vitality and business
entrepreneurship, individual and community
health and well-being, landscape
beautification and environmental
restoration;
• Food security: livestock production (influx of
world population to urban areas);
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Permaculture | Forest Garden | Urban Agriculture | Pollination
Forest Gardening. Available on: Ecovillage Charlottesville,
http://ecovillagecharlottesville.org/site-plan/
Pollination
• Transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a
flower to the female stigma;
• Creating offspring to next generation;
• Flowers = tools that plants use to make their seed:
pollen transferred between flowers of the same species;
• Vectors: pollinators (Wind, water, birds, insects,
butterflies and successful fertilization);
• Pollinator friendly practices:
• Foraging habitat;
• Reproduction;
• Shelter;
• Chemical use – management;
• Monitoring;
• Use of a wide variety of plants that bloom from early
spring into late fall;
• Avoid modern hybrid flowers;
• Eliminate pesticides;
• Larval host plants;
• Damp salt lick;
• Spare that limb (bee hotel, condo);
• Nectar resources;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Permaculture | Forest Garden | Urban Agriculture | Pollination
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Woodhouse Moor: History | Uses | Surroundings
History Summary
• The Woodhouse Moor is one of the most importante
parks at Leeds, being the closest one to the city
centre;
• Once it was connected to countryside and was
occupied by parliamentiary forces around the middle of
the seventieth century;
• It used to contain a water reservoir built after the
cholera epidemics;
• Its current design comes from the Victorian period,
with remarkable characteristcs that can still be noticed
there;
Uses Throughout Time
Hyde Park Unity Day Image, available on:
http://www.theguardian.com/leeds/2010/apr/27/community-
celebrates-unity-day-and-city-of-leeds-school
• Reservoir (1837);
• Public Speeches;
• Tank (after First World War);
• Pleasure Gardens;
• Air-rade shelters and allotments (after World War II);
• Festival of Britain (1951);
• Unity Day (nowadays);
Surroundings
• Closest park to the city centre;
• Next to the main road Woodhouse Lane;
• Ajacent to the Leeds University Campus;
• Supermarkets and bars at the Northeast side;
• Residential houses at the Southwest side;
1866 Leeds Map, available on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodhouse_Moor
Google Street View images of the Surrounding Areas of the Park;
To help develop a robust framework for future design proposals, a process of surveying, walking the sites, conducting
theoretic research, exploring other forest garden projects, and talking to interested people who are partners in the project
is being conducted. This will develop understanding of the characteristics of the landscape, the processes involved, the
needs of the community and how the design aesthetic should best be developed.
The first step was an initial walk to explore potential sites, followed by a scoping meeting on the 11th of June.
Sites are numbered in accordance with definitions created later in the project.
02 Bedford Fields (Meeting Point) 03 !"#$ &'() *+# ,#&-'"& ./#0&1 *+$*
21#& *' 3# $ 40$56"'2)&
04 7'")#" 3#*(##) 8''&+'21# 9$)#
$)& *+# 70/: ;'$&
11 Former wildflower strip 13 Woodhouse Moor Bowling Greens 15 Woodhouse Moor Flower Meadow
16 St Georges Field Pocket Forest
Garden
17 Fruit Trees on UoL Campus
18 UoL Sustainable Garden
(Final Point)
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Scoping Meeting, June 11th
1
9
Area 02
Bedford Fields (Meeting Point)
• What is a forest garden?
• It represents a whole new way of gardening;
• It mimics a woodland edge ecosystem, one filled with a mix of both common and unusual edible
plants, trees, shrubs...;
• This forest garden is an open access garden for the community to enjoy;
• It is quite reclusive and you hardly know that you’re in the middle of the city when you’re on it;
• The aim of this project is to demonstrate a forest garden in an open access community setting;
• 3 basic layers of a forest garden: trees / shrubs / ground cover (7 in a fully developed project);
• It is very important to provide high biodiversity;
• The Bedford Fields has got about an acre of land in total;
• It is very important to have a good ground cover - including barrier planting where necessary;
• Some of the plants do give some edible fruits and leaves, but have a primary function of balancing the
nitrogen level;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Scoping Meeting, June 11th
NB Pages 07 to 18 should be read in conjunction with the group Research and Survey Document available
from www.ediblecampus.co.uk
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Scoping Meeting, June 11th
Area 03
Abandoned Playground between the Woodhouse Cliff and
the Woodhouse Street
• This area used to be a playground, but it hasn’t been accessible since
around 2007;
• Maybe we can create an edible playground here, so children can come
and learn about edible plants;
Area 04
Area right before the Woodhouse Moor, on the corner
between the Woodhouse Lane and the Cliff Road
• This is a potential area around the moor to create a forest garden;
• It is too shady to create an edible garden, due to the quantity of big
canopy trees;
• Maybe we can get rid of a tree or two to create a appropriate land;
Area 11
‘Buffer Strip’
• Area formerly planted with wild flowers which have not survived;
• It has advantages as a potential orchard, but could be more diverse;
• Species planted to reduce footballs entering the allotment include:
• Apple trees / Peach trees / One plum tree;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Scoping Meeting, June 11th
Area 15
Woodhouse Moor Flower Meadow
• This is a quite isolated area in the Woodhouse Moor;
• It used to be a reservoir;
• Probably this meadow is not natural, since we can find some rare
species on it;
Area 13
Woodhouse Moor Bowling Green
• There are three bowling green areas in the Woodhouse Moor;
• One of them will keep this use, but we could use the other two to create
two different examples of forest gardens: one more ornamental and the
other more productive;
Area 16
Leeds University
St. George’s Field
• This is one example of an already existing pocket garden in Leeds
University;
• It has a very natural aspect, due to the use of wild flowers;
• In the middle of the flowers, it is possible to see a bee hotel;
Area 17
Leeds University Little Orchard
• After the sustainable garden was developed last year in the Leeds Uni
Campus, the University started to make use of some fruit trees instead
of non-fruit ones throughout the campus;
• In this area we can see some examples of apple, cherry and other fruit
trees;
• One great initiative is to indicate the tree species on the area;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Scoping Meeting, June 11th
Area 20
Leeds Sustainable Garden
• This sustainable garden in Leeds Uni Campus was implemented on last year’s summer (2013);
• It was developed as a green roof;
• It was created a good signalisation to indicate when and what plants people can harvest:
• Red: indicates that people can never pick (it is not edible or it is private);
• Orange: indicates that the plants will soon be ready to be harvested;
• Green: indicates that the plants are ready to be harvested;
• This is a highly designed area;
• It is ornamental and productive;
• They’ve made use of a recycled glass floor, and it works very well;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Scoping Meeting, June 11th
00 Meeting point:
Duke of Wellington Statue,
Woodhouse Moor
15 Woodhouse Moor
flower meadow
14 Woodhouse Moor
grass land, flooded area
13 Woodhouse Moor
Bowling Green
10 Woodhouse Moor
central hub
11 Woodhouse Moor
Buffer Strip
07 On the Leeds New
Generation Transport
plan, there is a possibility
of a line passing by this
area, connecting it with
the city centre. The NGT
provide an opportunity for
research into traffic
contamination of food
plots
04 Abandoned playground
next to the Bedford Fields;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Woodhouse Moor, June 16th
Area 15
Woodhouse Moor Flower Meadow
This corridor between the flower
meadow and Clarendon Road is a
great area to develop some fruit
trees;
There already are some (we found
a few apple trees in there), but we
could make use of some more;
Under this small cliff there is a
reservoir that used to occupy this
big area in which the flower
meadow lays nowadays;
Some fruit trees on this area
wouldn’t make any harm. On the
opposite, it would be of great
advantage to the park;
This is a completely artificial site.
We can notice that by the quantity
of rare species that we can find
between the flowers;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Woodhouse Moor, June 16th
Yellow Rattle and Silver Weed
leaves;
Pictures of the few fruit trees we
found on the area;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Woodhouse Moor, June 16th
Area 15
Woodhouse Moor Flower Meadow
This small spot on a grass land of
the Moor normally floods every
time that it rains. It could be a great
area to develop a wet garden;
Bicycles passing on the wrong
side of the sidewalk have been
damaging the grass;
This is the area in which annually
happens the Bonfire on the 5
th
of
November.
Area 14
Woodhouse Moor Grass Land / Dew Pond
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Woodhouse Moor, June 16th

This rose garden is nothing but
ornamental. We could plant
some edible plants on the
corridors between the flowers;
This area would be kept as a
game spot, but the other two
could be used as lands to develop
experimental forest gardens;
There are two bowling green
areas available: one of them
could be about ornamental and
the other about productive forest
gardens;
Area 13
Woodhouse Moor Bowling Green
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Woodhouse Moor, June 16th

Area 10
Woodhouse Moor Central Hub
In this area at the heart of the
Moor there are four green lands,
and one of them is quite empty.
The empty one is the only well
lighted area, and we could use it
as a spot for a forest garden
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Woodhouse Moor, June 16th

Area 11
Woodhouse Moor Buffer Strip
This is the Woodhouse Moor
orchard, a recent intervention;
It represents a very good initiative,
but the orchard could be more
diversified;
In the area there are some apple
trees, some peach trees and one
plum tree;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Woodhouse Moor, June 16th

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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Why the Bowling Greens?
The Survey walk through Woodhouse Moor (Hyde Park), helped to
define which areas might most easily be developed as Forest
Gardens. The strongest contenders for consideration were the
Buffer Strip (which had been already identified by Parks and
BugLife as a potential target), the Wildflower Meadow (which is
already providing ample support for pollinators, though some
additional planting for human foraging might be appropriate in the
margins), and the three Bowling Greens.
These grass squares (used to play a traditional British ball game,
which used to be more popular in the 20th Century) were installed
in 1922, so were not part of the original layout of the park in 1857.
We had been informed by Parks that two of the three greens were
being decomissioned because the high level of maintainance could
not be financially justified for relatively few active players.
The Friends of Woodhouse Moor also provided insight into the
preferences of this group for historic preservation and potential
restoration to the 1857 design.
Although not part of the original design, keeping the shape of the
greens was suggested as a way to increase the likelihood of the
park being accepted for listing on the Register of Historic Parks
and Gardens, (as desired by the Friends).
We therefore developed our ideas based on a concept of growing
edible species inside the squares, making the most of
permaculture/forest garden principles, which a majority of the
group endorse, and which would also be fundable by Grow Wild
funding (from Kew Gardens), while developing bold designs
appropriate for an urban park.
With two greens available, two low-maintenance and sympathetic
designs could be developed
Version 1: A formally designed garden, in which the
aesthetic priority comes above productivity;
Version 2: A more conventional Forest Garden, as
organic as possible, in which the productivity and the
aesthetic are balanced.
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Bowling Greens
Relevant quotations 1
From Broeckel (2013)
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Bowling Greens
From Broeckel (2013)
Relevant quotations 2
From group Research and Survey Report (Bliss et al 2014): “The existing Crown greens slope slightly down to the sides of 35m
squares of close-cropped grass. Intense maintenance means that only short lawn species survive. Two greens are being
decommissioned, and Parks are open to suggestions for what to do with them, with a stipulation that any designs should retain
the quiet contemplative feel of the existing enclosure. Two designs by LMU MA student JIll Broeckel for Healing and Productive
gardens (rather than Forest Gardens) on the bowling greens can be found on the LEC Ideas page. Jill writes:
"Converting bowling green lawns into edible gardens will require some adjustment to the soil and structure of bowling green
lawns. As afore mentioned, bowling greens are treated with chemical fertilizers. To ensure that edible plants grown on these sites
do not contain harmful residual chemicals, the existing soil ought to be either removed and replaced with soil appropriate for
vegetable growing or remediated by growing cover crops - such as peas - which can soak up harmful chemicals and trace metals.
The former may be more expensive, whereas the latter may take more time. Other alternative solutions might be proposed, but
regardless of which action taken, before an edible garden can be grown the site soils must be tested and prepared for growing
vegetables and fruit.
Soil depth is another factor which must be addressed in altering bowling green sites to be suitable for growing edible plants.
Bowling green thatch (organic matter just below turf surface) is kept at a depth of only about 25-50 mm. In order for vegetables to
have healthy or effective root depth, the thatch depth would need to be increased.” (Broeckel 2013)
Normal conversion of lawns to forest gardens would, however, suggest planting through the existing sward. From Permies.com:
“You already have grasses that are less aggressive than pasture grasses so DO NOT change them. You can plant your fruit trees
and shrubs right into the grass AS LONG as you ALSO MULCH well. Cardboard - then lot's of mulch. Cardboard will smother the
grass so it gets no sun and mulch does it's job. DON'T add amendments into the hole. Add them ON TOP of the soil.”
http://www.permies.com/t/36649/forest-garden/quickest-cheapest-convert-lawn-forest
From group Research and Survey Report (Bliss et al 2014): “The fact that this area is open but surrounded by, effectively, a 'wall'
of mature trees and shrubs, means that there is a lot of scope for creating the equivalent of a woodland edge ecotone (the
environment that forest gardens seek to mimic). The more naturalistic appearance of this might not be appropriate for the whole
perimeter but would help enhance biodiversity e.g. of pollinators.
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Inspiration: Roberto Burle Marx
Roberto Burle Marx picture. Available on:
http://www.jblog.com.br/hojenahistoria.php?itemid=31358
Sidewalks at Copacabana Beach, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – Burle
Marx, 1970. Available on: http://www.themilanese.com/?p=1616
Safra Bank Roof Garden, São Paulo, Brazil – Burle Marx, 1980.
Available on: http://www.gardendesign.com/ideas/s-o-paulo-brazil-
gardens
Design Inspiration
Merging the naturalistic design philosophy of permaculture with a stylistic desgin philosophy appropriate to the formal areas of an urban park requires an equanimity of strength between
the two approaches. In otherwords - a bold design easthetic is called for.
In discussion with other memebrs of the group, it was decied that it would be appropriate and inspirational for us to showcase the iconic design approach of our compatriot landscape
architect - one of the most important in the modernist movement, and one with considerable influence on park design in the UK: Roberto Burle Marx
Roberto Burle Marx
São Paulo, 1909 – Rio de Janeiro, 1994
Brazilian Architect, Landscape Architect, Artist
Burle Marx was a Brazilian Landscape Architect whose designs of parks and gardens made him world famous. He was able to transfer traditional artistic expressions such as
tapestry and folk art, as well as cubism and abstractionism, into his avant-garde and modern Landscape designs.
Some of the main characteristics of his designs were:
• Never mixing flower colours;
• Utilization of big groups of the same speciment;
• Using native plants;
• Attention to the effect of each plant’s character on the whole garden;
Burle Marx’ projects were chosen as influence to the style of the design we’re going to create in our own project. However, there’s a characteristc that we can see in almost all of his
projects that is the opposite of one of the main characteristics of a proper forest garden: the utilization of big groups of the same speciment couldn’t happen in a garden which main
principle is the naturality and the diversification of species and layers. Thus, in our designs there will be great defined shapes, but this will happen on a way in which we can create a
natural project, both on the formal and on the organic versions.
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Bowling Greens
Formal Version – defined shapes;
Organic Version – proper forest garden;
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Bowling Greens
Formal Versions
Organic Version
In this version, we have created two different
options, as illustrated in the sections (Right):
•The first would use only groundcover planting - to
maximise the formaility, and to respect the
horizonatal nature of the former greens. However,
edible plants in a ‘forest garden’ layer could not on
their own deliver Marx’s maxim of large blocks of
single species, because ecological design requires
intermixed species. So the shape requirement is
delivered by Chamomile paths, which also provide
access.
• The second option uses the same ground plan,
but introduces three forest garden layers: the
Groundcover layer, the Medium Shrubs layer and
the Big Shrubs/Small Trees layer. This option
would be closer to the principles of a proper Forest
Garden - but again with formality provided by
Chamomile paths, to define the shapes.
•Both schemes use a moat as a design feature,
and to help restrict the ingress of pests.
This version representes a more conventional
forest garden, albeit with some Marx-inspired
formality. It features most of the Forest Garden
layers: Groundcover Plants, Small Shrubs (Shade
Tolerant Edible Perennials and Sun Loving Edible
Perennials), Medium Shrubs, Small Trees and
some Canopy Trees, as well as a big Feature Tree
on the Southest corner of the Bowling Green.
All three versions ‘borrow’ ecological
finctionality from the mature trees and shrubs
around the site
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INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Bowling Greens
Formal Version – Option 1 (Groundcovers)
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
W
W
W
W
P
C1
C1
C1
C1
W – Water Path around the Bowling Green (to
isolate the Garden from pests / can be replaced by
sand);
P – Solid Material Main Path;
C – Groundcovers: up to 30cm. These will also be
used on Option 2. In this option they’ll be divided
according to their flower colors) – Options:
C1 – WHITE FLOWERS
•Strawberry, Arbutus unedo;
•Nepalese Raspberry, Rubus nepalensis;
•Wild Garlic, Allium ursinum;
•Siberian Purslane, Claytonia sibirica;
•Garlic Cress, Peltaria alliacea;
•White Clover, Trifolium repens;
•Partridge Berry, Mitchella repens;
C2 – YELLOW FLOWERS
•Golden Saxifrage, Chrysosplenium alternifolium;
•Mock Strawberry, Potentilla indica;
•Barren Strawberry, Waldsteinia fragarioides;
•Creeping Jeny, Lysimachia numulária;
C3 – PINK/PINKISH-WHITE/PINKISH-VIOLET
FLOWERS
•Wood Sorrel, Oxalis acetosella;
•Redwood Sorrel, Oxalis oregana;
•Rock Cranesbell, Geranium macrorrhizum;
Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile will be planted
around the shapes to better define them, and to
provide walkable access for maintenance and
harvesting.
26
INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Bowling Greens
Formal Version – Option 2 (3 Layers)
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
W
W
W
W
P
C
C
C
C
W – Water Path around the Bowling Green (to
isolate the Garden from pests / can be replaced by
sand);
P – Solid Material Main Path;
A (Large Shrubs/Small Trees: 3-5m) – Options:
•Chokeberries, Aronia arbutifolia;
•Highbush Cranberry, Viburnum trilobum;
•European Bladdernut, Staphylea pinnata;
•Chaste Tree, Vitex agnus-castus;
•Cabbage Palm, Sabal palmetto;
B (Small/Medium Shrubs: 0,5-2m) – Options:
•Redcurrant, Ribes rubrum;
•Gooseberry, Ribes uva-crispa;
•Japanese Wineberry, Rubus phoenicolasius;
•Oregon Grapes, Mahonia aquifolium;
•Buffalo Currant, Ribes odoratum;
•Northern Bayberry, Myrica pensylvanica;
•Sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata;
•Tree Lupin, Lupinus arboreus;
C (Groundcovers: up to 30cm / as specified on the
Groundcover Option, previous page);
Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile will be planted
around the shapes to better define them, and to
provide walkable access for maintenance and
harvesting.
Organic Version
27
INTRODUCTION RESEARCH SURVEY SHORT LIST CONCEPTS SKETCH DESIGNS
Bowling Greens
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
B B
B B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
C
C
C
C
D2
D1
E
W – Water Path around the Bowling Green (to isolate
the Garden from pests / can be replaced by sand);
P – Solid Material Main Path;
A (Canopy Trees) – Options:
•Apple Bramley, Malus domestica;
•Quince, Cydonia oblonga;
•Apricot Goldcot, Prunus armeniaca;
•Japanese Plum Methley, Prunus salicina;
•Almond Princess, Prunus dulcis;
•Apple Greensleeves, Malus domestica;
•Pear Beth, Pyrus communis;
•Medlar Royal, Mespilus germanica;
•Fig Brown Turkey, Ficus carica;
•Cherry Plum, Prunus cerasifera;
•Cherry Summer Sun, Prunus avium;
B (Small Trees / Large Shrubs) – Options (for
coppicing):
•Chestnut Marigoule, Castanea marigoule;
•Red Filbert 'Rote Zellernuss' Corylus maxima
C (Medium Shrubs) – Options:
•Blackcurrant Ebony, Ribes nigrum;
•Raspberry Glen Ample, Rubus idaeus;
•Raspberry Polka, Rubus idaeus;
•Blackberry Reuben, Rubus fruticosus;
•Blueberry Duke, Vaccinium corymbosum;
•Blue Honeysuckle Kamstschatica, Lonicera caerulea;
•Goosebery Hinnomaki Green,
D1 (Shade Tolerant Edible Perennials) – Options:
•Big Daddy, Hydrangea macrophylla;
•Ostrich Fern, Matteuccia struthiopteris;
•Giant Solomon’s Seal, Polygonatum biflorum var.
commutatum
•Sweet Cicely, Myrrhis odorata;
D2 (Sun Loving Edible Perennials)
•Daylily, Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus;
•Daubenton Kale, Brassica oleracea;
•Good King Henry, Blitum bonus-henricus
•Ice Plant, Carpobrotus edulis;
P
W
W
W
pond
Secure shed and materials store