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Handbook for Underground Cabling System
Content
Page
1. Introduction of PEA Underground Cable System 1
- Underground cable 1
- Submarine cable 1 - Outdoor Terminator 1
- Creepage distance 2
- GIS Terminator 2
- Cable Joint 2
2. Planning 3
2.1 Engineering Criteria 3
2.1.1 Voltage Criteria 3
2.1.2 Loading Criteria 3
2.1.3 Security Criteria 4
2.2 Type of Planning Area and Area Selection 4
2.3 Reliability of Power System 4
2.4 Medium voltage and Low voltage planning 5
2.4.1 Area 1: Industrial and Real Estate Area 5
2.4.2. Area 2: Municipality Area, Center Business Area 6
and Important Area
2.4.3. General requirement 7
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2.5. Low Voltage Distribution 1.0 kV System configuration 8
Planning
2.5.1. Radial circuit configuration 8
2.5.2. Open loop configuration 8
2.5.3 General Requirement 9
3. Design
3.1 Type of Construction 11
3.1.1 Open Cut Method 11
3.1.1.1 Concrete Encased Duct Bank 11
3.1.1.2 Semi Direct Burial 12
3.1.1.3 Direct Burial 12
3.1.2 Non Open Cut Method 13
3.1.2.1 Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) 13
3.1.2.2 Pipe Jacking 14
3.2 Clearance between underground cable and the other 14
public utilities
3.3 Underground Cable 15
- Underground Cable Structure 15
3.4 Electrical Conduit 16
3.5 Manhole 16
3.5.1 Type of Manhole 17
3.5.1.1 Manhole for distribution construction (22, 33 kV) 17
3.5.1.2 Manhole for transmission construction (115 kV) 18 3.6 Riser Pole 18
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3.7 Underground cable conduit Selection 19
- Spare Conduit 21
3.8 Pulling Tensions for underground cable 21
- Underground Cable Pulling 21
3.9 Grounding 21
3.9.1 Grounding Method of Underground Cable for 22, 33 22
and 115 kV systems
3.9.1.1 Single point bonding of screens 22
3.9.1.2 Both ends bonding of screens 22
3.9.1.3 Middle point bonding of screens 22
3.9.1.4 Multi- points bonding of screens 23
3.9.1.5 Cross-bonding of screens 23
3.10 Underground Cable size Selection 24
3.11 Cable Terminator and Splice Standards 24
3.11.1 Types of Terminator 25
3.11.2 Types of Splicing 28
4. Civil Work Procedures 30
4.1 Introduction 30
4.2. Construction Site Preparation 30
4.3 Duct Bank Construction 34
4.4 Manhole Construction 40
4.5 Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) 48
4.6 Pipe Jacking Method 53
5. Electrical Work Procedures 61
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5.1 Introduction 61
5.2 Cable Pulling 63
5.3 Supporting structure Installation and cable preparation 68
on supporting structure
5.4 Termination 70
5.4.1 Termination for 22, 33 kV Screened Single Core Plastic 70
and Rubber Insulated without Armor Installation
5.4.2 Terminations for 69,115 kV cable with Rubber Stress Cone 78
Installation
5.5 Splicing for 69,115 kV 94
5.5.1 There are two objectives of splicing. 94
5.5.2 Splicing structure has 3 mains parts. 94
5.5.3 Splicing has two mains design 95
6. Cable Testing 99
6.1 Introduction 99
6.2 Factory Testing of New Cables 99
6.2.1 Type Test 99
6.2.1.1 For 22 & 33 kV Cable 99
6.2.1.2 For 115 kV Cable 100
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6.2.2 Routine Test 100
6.2.2.1 For 22 & 33 kV Cable 100
6.2.2.2 For 115 kV Cable 100
6.3 Field Test 102
6.3.1 Megger test 103
6.3.2 DC Hi-Pot test 104
6.3.3 VLF Test 105
6.4 Sample of Document 105
7. Maintenance 106
7.1 Introduction 106
7.2 Preventive maintenance 106
7.3 Corrective maintenance 106
Appendix 108
A.1 Configuration of 22,33 kV Underground Cable 108
A.2 Configuration of 115 kV Underground Cable 111
A.3 Cable Termination Kits for 22, 33 kV XLPE Cable 114
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A.4 Cable Termination Kits for 115 kV XLPE Cable 116
A.5 Splicing kits 22, 33 kV XLPE Cable 117
A.6 Splicing kits 115 kV XLPE Cable 117
A.7 Current Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation 118
A.8 Arrangement of Cable 124
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Chapter 1
Introduction of PEA Underground Cable System
Safety, more density community, complicate electrical network, stability electrical network,
still good landscape are the causes of PEA to change from overhead line to underground cable.
Growing up of population in islands is another cause of PEA to change from mobile generator to
installing submarine cable from main land to island.
PEA underground cable was established before 1980. For submarine cable, the first 33 kV XLPE
submarine was installed in 1986 by NKT. Company, 115kV Paper oil filled submarine cable
installed in 1996 by Alcatel Company and 115kV XLPE submarine cable installed in 2006 by
Nexans Company. All linked installation between Khanom substation to Koh Samui island.
PEA has divided the underground cable in different voltage system follow on table 1.1
Voltage system Insulation type Conductor size
(sq.mm.)
Type
22kV. XLPE 240, 400, 500 1 core
33kV. XLPE 240, 400, 500 1 core
115kV. XLPE 800 1 core
Table 1.1 : Underground cable voltages system
And PEA has divided the Submarine cable in different voltage system follow on table 1.2
Voltage system Insulation type Conductor size
(sq.mm.)
Type
22kV. XLPE 120 3 core
33kV. XLPE 70 3 core
115kV. XLPE 185 3 core
115kV. Paper oil filled 185 3 core
Table 1.2 : Submarine cable voltages system
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1
Outdoor Terminator, Terminators those used in PEA system divided by pollution class as referred
to IEC 60815: Guide to the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions, for outdoor
terminator that installing in high pollution area, example in heavy industrial area, near sea side will
use pollution class IV (31mm/kV) while in normally area use pollution class III (25 mm/kV). In case
of corrective work, PEA prefer silicone rubber housing due to light weight, no need of porcelain
housing lifting instrument or facilities. The table 1.3 shows the creepage distance of each pollution
class in different area.
Voltage system Pollution class Area
22kV. Class III (25mm/kV) Normal
22kV Class IV (31mm/kV) High pollution
33kV. Class III (25mm/kV) Normal
33kV Class IV (31mm/kV) High pollution
115kV. Class III (25mm/kV) Normal
115kV Class IV (31mm/kV) High pollution
Table 1.3 : Creepage distance of each pollution area
The connection of the cables to Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) shall be realized by GIS
Terminators equipped with a single pre-molded stress cone. The pre-molded element shall be
installed in a self-carrying insulator made of silicone rubber or suitable materials, inside the
dedicated GIS cable compartment. The insulator shall be filled with SF6 gas. In order to avoid any
interference between the GIS compartments and the cable compartment, the insulator shall
completely separate the two gas sections. The termination shall be equipped with an insulating
flange, separating electrically the metallic cable sheath from the metallic GIS housing. The
electrical characteristics of this flange shall be the same as those of the outer cable sheath (20 kV
DC withstand voltage for 1 minute). Sheath voltage limiters (ZnO 10kV) shall be installed at each
insulating flange in order to protect the flange and the cable outer sheath from over voltages due
to switching for example. The termination shall be equipped with one connection for 120 mm
copper conductors for the grounding of the metallic sheath.
The stress cone of the cable joint shall be made of a single pre-molded element made of
silicone rubber or other suitable material. The design of the field deflectors shall be suitable in
order to avoid any localized increase of the electric gradient which could lead to erosion of the
pre-molded element or the cable insulation. The joints shall be covered by a suitable housing,
made of metal or synthetic material, ensuring complete radial water tightness and mechanical
protection of the joint core.
In case of straight joints with or without grounding connection and a housing made of
synthetic material, a separate connection of the metallic sheath on both sides shall ensure the
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transmission of the eventual fault current. In case of sectionalizing joints (cross bonding), the
insulation screen and the metallic sheath of both cable parts shall be interrupted. The electric
impulse withstand voltage of this part shall be at least 50 kV. The joint shall be equipped with
suitable connectors for the bonding cables (cross bonding) or the grounding cables (direct
grounding).The connector shall comply with applicable IEC standard. The housing of the joint
shall be covered by a suitable outer protection sheath (PE or other), in order to avoid any
corrosion or mechanical aggression of the joint.
2
Chapter 2
Planning
PEA uses computer software to analyze and prepare the Power Distribution Expansion Plan both
Overhead and Underground System which will consist of five years plan and rolling plan. In this
chapter we will explain only the underground cabling system planning for different voltage level
practically servicing in responsible provincial area.
2.1 Type of Planning Area and Area Selection
PEA customers are serviced by both overhead line and underground cable which covers most of
the area of Thailand, the customers may be allocated into two main areas.
Area 1 : The Industrial and Real Estate Area.
Area 2 : Municipality Area, Center Business Area and Important Area.
For PEA serviced area of underground system has been divided as follow:
(1) Provincial Large Town Central Business District
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(2) Area of Historic and/or Aesthetic Importance
(3) Commercial Tourist Center Area
(4) High Technology Industry Area
(5) Suburban New Housing Development Area
(6) Municipal Policy and Funding, they have ready for
Undergrounding system in their responsibility area.
The power distribution for area (1), (3) and (4) are designed for high stability, reliability and
high quality. For area (2) is historic and aesthetic importance, they need to keep original
environment, landscape etc, to keep original soul. Area (5) is a new high technology area,
undergrounding system will support development plan to make new advanced technological town.
The key success for underground cabling is the closed co-operation between utility power
company and municipal authority with full authorize project committee to support the investment
cost, construction facility permission, etc.
2.2 Reliability of Power System
(1) Security contingency :
N-1 (N minus 1) security contingency means that a power supply system has a reserve
capacity or a configuration such that, in the event of an outage of any single component in
the system, the power supply can be continued or restored without the need to repair the
faulted system component.
N-0 (N minus Zero) security contingency means that a power supply system no reserve
capacity on configuration such that, in the event of an outage of any component in the
system, the power supply cannot be continued
N means a number of feeder, 0 and 1 mean the number of spared feeder
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(2) Security Level : Power systems can be divided into three levels of reliability during N-1
outages as follows :
For Level 1, the power system will provide continuous power, with no loss of supply due to
the fault (no break)
For Level 2, the power system will provide power such that customers will be affected by
power failure of not more than 1 minute after the occurrence of a fault (short break).
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For Level 3, the power system will provide power such that customer will be affected by
power failure of more than 1 minute after the occurrence of a fault (long break).
The table 2.1 below shows sets out the proposed levels of security for the network design defined
area types.
Area
Type
Description
Network Design and Security
Level
1 Provincial large town central
business district
N-1, open loop line, Level 2, or N-1,
closed loop line, Level 1
2 Area of historic and/or aesthetic
importance
N-0, radial line, or
N-1, open loop line, Level 3
3 Commercial tourist centre N-1, open loop line, Level 3
4 High technology industry area N-1, closed loop line, Level 1
5 Suburban new housing
development
N-1, open loop line, Level 3
6 Municipal Policy and Funding, they
have ready for Undergrounding
system in their responsibility area.
N-0, radial line, or
N-1, open loop line, Level 3
Table 2.1: Proposed network design and security level
2.3 Engineering Criteria
Power System Planning Criteria is regulation for power system planning, it consists of
detail of power system equipment characteristic (type, size, number of use, construction structure
and installation position etc.)
2.3.1 Voltage Criteria
Voltage criteria for system planning in each area follow on table 2.1
Rated
Voltage
Normal condition (Volts) Emergency condition(Volts)
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
115,000 109,200 120,700 103,500 126,500
33,000 31,300 34,700 29,700 36,300
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22,000 20,900 23,100 19,800 24,200
380 342 418 342 418
220 200 240 200 240
Table 2.2: PEA voltage criteria for system planning
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2.3.2 Loading Criteria
Load criteria for system planning follow on table 2.2
Equipment Normal condition Emergency condition
Transmission line
- Radial type 80% of rated current 100% of rated current no limit
- Loop type 50% of rated current 100% of rated current no limit
Medium voltage distribution line
- Radial type 80% of rated current 100% of rated current no limit
- Loop type 50% of rated current 100% of rated current no limit
Low voltage distribution line 80% of rated current 100% of rated current no limit
Table 2.3: PEA load criteria for system planning
2.3.3 Security Criteria
Security criteria of each transmission type and restoring time follow on table 2.3
Transmission type Restoring time
Closed Loop < 1 min.
Open Loop with automation control < 3 min.
Open Loop with Manual control < 45 min.
Radial Follow Standard
Table 2.4: PEA security criteria for system planning
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Note: PEA standard can re-energize coverage 90% within 4 hours.
2.4. Medium voltage 22/33 kV system configuration planning
2.4.1 Configuration 1: Area type 1 and 4
The underground system should be coverage for only central business area and industrial
area not to outside and configuration of system should be:
(1) High Stability Case : SAIFI and SAIDI approach zero (zero outage time), the system
shall be closed loop configuration with fully undergrounding in all industrial area, install Ring Main
Unit (RMU) with circuit breaker, detailed in figure 2.1
(2) Medium Stability Case : For areas have limited budgeting, system can interrupt
within service criteria. The system should be opened loop configuration with fully undergrounding
in all industrial area, install RMU with load break switch, detail in figure 2.2
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Figure 2.1: High Stability Closed Loop Configuration
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Figure 2.2: Medium Stability Opened Loop Configuration
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2.4.2 Configuration 2: Area type 2, 3, 5 and 6
System should be coverage for Municipality, Center Business and Important Area. System
should be opened loop configuration (figure 2.3) or Open Loop with Special Spare Feeder
configuration (figure 2.4), each loop loading not exceed 16 MVA for 22 kV system and 20 MVA for
33 kV system, install RMU with load break switch
Figure 2.3: Opened Loop Configuration
Figure 2.4: Opened Loop with special spare feeder Configuration
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2.4.3 General requirement
(1) Underground Cable: Copper conductor 240 sq.mm. Or 400 sq.mm. Current rating
depend on number of circuits and installation dept. Rated current for 22, 33 kV XLPE cable can
be shown in table 2.5
Rated Current per Circuit (amp)
Total No. of
Circuit
Depth from ground level to cable(meter)
Cable 240 mm
2
Cable 400 mm
2
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
1 402 384 374 367 362 510 485 470 462 456
2 342 320 310 302 296 430 402 387 378 370
3 302 280 270 262 257 378 350 336 327 320
4 281 258 246 240 234 350 320 307 297 290
5 260 237 226 220 214 323 295 280 272 265
6 245 223 212 205 200 305 277 263 254 248
7 233 210 200 193 188 290 262 248 240 233
8 221 200 190 183 178 275 248 235 227 220
9 212 190 180 175 170 263 237 224 216 210
10 204 184 174 168 163 253 228 215 207 201
Table 2.5 : Underground cable size, number of circuits and dept selection
Source: Standard and Safety Department, PEA.
(2) Type of cable laying : can be select by project budgeting and soil characteristic.
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(2.1) Open cut : Cable laying should be semi-burial and duct bank installation
(2.2) Non open cut : Cable laying should be Directional Boring or Small Sleeve and Pipe Jacking
installation
(3) Voltage fluctuation : In normal condition should be 5% of nominal voltage and emergency
condition should be 10% of nominal voltage
2.5 Low Voltage Distribution 1.0 kV System configuration Planning
For configuration of underground cable on low voltage level, the power distribution has to
be supplied in radial circuit or open loop line. It should be considered on necessary and technical
criteria :
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2.5.1. Radial circuit configuration shows in figure 2.5. All transformer are operated not
exceed 80% of rated power on general area.
Figure 2.5: Radial configuration for low voltage distribution underground system
2.5.2. Open loop configuration In this case for more than 2 transformers should be
reserve the power from each transformer. Spare circuit of those transformers are installed
together will be able to supply to the load out of service from any transformer in the group. This
configuration is suitable for supply on central business district and historic and/or aesthetic
important area.
(1) For 2 transformer, each transformer is operated not exceed 60% of rated
power. This configuration is shown in figure 2.6.
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Figure 2.6: Open loop configuration for low voltage distribution underground system
(2 transformers)
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(2) For more 3 transformers, each transformer is operated not exceed 80% of
rated power. This configuration is shown in figure 2.7.
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Figure 2.7: Open loop configuration for low voltage distribution underground system
( 3 transformers)
2.5.3 General Requirement
(1) Copper conductor with PVC insulated 750 V (NYY) and Copper conductor with XLPE
insulated 0.6/1.0 kV (CV) for underground cable which sizes considered from load current.
(2) For construction, Should be considered suitable with landscape of the project. There
are two types of construction and separating in 5 methods
(2.1) Open cut method: The cable should be installed within insulated pipe under the
ground
(2.2) Non open cut method: Use the Horizontal Directional Drilling method and pipe
laying under the road by press small steel pipe method.
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Type of Construction Method Suitable
Open cut Concrete Encased
Duct Bank
Many cable circuit (Easy to arrange,
repair and replace the new cable)
Semi Direct Burial
Distribution and transmission line
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Distribution and transmission line
construction (22, 33 kV and 115 kV)
by using the flexible conduit.
Direct Burial
Distribution and transmission line
(22, 33 kV and 115 kV) and a few
circuit (one or two circuit)
constructions.
Non open cut Horizontal Directional
Drilling (HDD)
Distribution and transmission line
construction (22, 33 kV and 115 kV )
having the cable installed in the
High density polyethylene
(HDPE)conduit.congested area or
limited space which we cannot
perform open cut such as high way,
heavy traffic road, hotel and building
etc.
Pipe Jacking Distribution and transmission line
construction (22, 33 kV and 115 kV)
without open cut of road surface.
(3) Cable piping should be selected for suitable construction method.
There are many types of cable pipe that are used for underground cable installation such as
High-Density Polyethylene conduit (HDPE), Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Conduit (RTRC)
Corrugate conduit (easily to bend or curve) as shown on figure 3.6 and Fiberglass conduit or
Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Conduit (RTRC).

Figure 2.8 : High-Density Polyethylene conduit (HDPE) and corrugate HDPE
(4) Amount of insulated pipe has to be reserved for more demand or maintenance in the
future, so that it should have the spare pipe.
(5) Manhole depends on feeder circuit and usage. According to PEA standard, spacing
between each manhole should not be exceeding 250 meters.
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(6) Cable riser depends on feeder and usage.
(7) Cable jointing must be splice in manhole or hand-hole only.
(8) Radial circuit for low voltage distribution underground system without load center board,
low voltage cable size which split must equal main circuit size.
(9) Ground resistance at each point will be not exceed 5 ohm, somewhere difficult to
construct ground resistance may be allow not exceed 25 ohm.
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Chapter 3
Design
Generally, the design of underground cable system is also supported by computer software which
is the same as we have done for overhead line system, to use computer aid design program, it
will save time for us to choose the suitable size of cable which is based on many parameters such
as voltage level, electrical load, the length of installation, temperature, power factor, the depth of
the manhole, soil thermal resistance, type of duct bank, etc. But in this chapter, we will mainly
explain the utilitys typical designs for construction methods both civil works, electrical cabling
facilities, cables and cable accessories.
3.1 Type of Construction
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Normally there are many types of construction, whose types related to cost of construction. So the
designer has to design for suitable method. Factor of design criterion is depend on cost, location,
obstruction object, area of construction, cable protection etc. Practically, we can divide the type of
construction in to two types with 5 different methods.
3.1.1. Open Cut Method
3.1.1.1 Concrete Encased Duct Bank
This construction is used for distribution and transmission line construction (22, 33 kV and 115
kV). The cable is placed in conduit such as HDPE conduit (High Density Polyethylene) or RTRC
conduit (Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Conduit) and cover with the reinforced concrete to
protect the mechanical impact force as shown on Figure 3.1.
Figure 3.1 : Concrete Encased Duct Bank
The method suit for many cable circuit (Easy to arrange, repair and replace the new cable), more
safety but long construction period of time, low heat transfer and the cost of construction is higher
than other methods except pipe jacking method.
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3.1.1.2 Semi Direct Burial
This construction is used for distribution and transmission line construction (22, 33 kV and 115
kV) by using the flexible conduit that is corrugated conduit, HDPE conduit or RTRC conduit. This
construction method needs the concrete spacer block to control distance between each conduits.
The semi-direct burial method is no need to cover with the reinforced concrete but concrete slab
and warning sign strip are needed to cover on the top as shown on Figure 3.2.
This method consumes shorter construction period of time and better heat transfer than Concrete
Encased Duct Bank method, but the cable is easier to be damaged due to the lacking of double
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protection of reinforced concrete.
Figure 3.2 : Cross-section of Semi - Direct Burial
3.1.1.3 Direct Burial
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Direct burial suit for construction of distribution and transmission line (22, 33 kV and 115
kV). Conduit and reinforced concrete are not used in this method. Cable is placed directly in the
soil at the depth as recommended standard normally minimum 1.2 meters. Concrete slab and
warning sign strip are needed to place on the top of cable path. Cable route marker used to show
the path of cable is placed on the pavement to warn the people to be careful about digging and
also convenient for maintenance as shown on figure 3.3.
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Figure 3.3 : Cross-section of Direct Burial
The method suit for a few circuit (one or two circuit) constructions because cable is placed directly
in soil without any conduits. The advantages of this method is shorter construction period of time,
lower cost of construction and better heat transfer than other methods, but cannot or hardly to
replace the damaged cable and the short circuit behavior of one cable may impact the beside
cable.
3.1.2 Non Open Cut Method
3.1.2.1 Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)
Horizontal Directional Drilling is recommended for distribution and transmission line construction
(22, 33 kV and 115 kV ) having the cable installed in the High density polyethylene (HDPE)
conduit. This construction does not need to open cut (open the road surface) and does not use
the reinforced concrete or concrete slab to protect the cable but this construction must has
manhole for drilling and pulling the conduits as shown on figure 3.4. Cable route marker is needed
to show the path of cable.
F
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igure 3.4: Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)
The method does not need to open cut the area of construction and can tap to many section with
different directions from the main route. This method is good for congested area or limited space
which we cannot perform open cut such as high way, heavy traffic road, hotel and building etc.
Another advantage is shorter construction period of time, but the cost of construction is high
because we have to use the imported drilling machine.
3.1.2.2 Pipe Jacking
This construction is suitable for distribution and transmission line construction (22, 33 kV and 115
kV) without open cut of road surface. High density polyethylene conduit (HDPE) or Reinforced
thermosetting resin conduit (RTRC) is placed in the big steel pipe and then concrete cement will
be injected inside the steel pipe as shown on figure 3.5.
Figure 3.5 : Pipe Jacking
The advantage of this method is the same as the horizontal directional drilling method which
requires manhole for pipe jacking installation. And other advantages are more reliability and
safety to the cable because the conduit (HDPE or RTRC) is placed in the big steel pipe with
concrete cement injected inside the steel pipe.
3.2 Clearance between underground cable and the other public utilities
In some cases, the underground cable constructions are in the same route of the other public
utilitys construction. The other public utilitys construction will get some effect of electric field
disturbance from underground cable or form the construction. Then the utility has to design the
underground cable route to keep right of way from the other public utilitys construction. The
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Minimum distance or clearance between underground cable and the other public utilities showed
on table 3.1
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Public Utility
Minimum distance (m)
Parallel path Cross path
Storm Sewer 0.3 0.3
Water Line 0.45 0.45
Gas Line 0.3 0.3 (1.5)
Electrical Duct
Bank
3.0 0.6
Telephone Duct
Bank
0.3 0.3
Steam Line 3.0 1.2
Table 3.1: Minimum distance or clearance between underground cable and the other public utilities
Reference: Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book 1992 Edition Value in ( ) is the
value form PTT Thailand.
3.3 Underground Cable
Underground cable has many types i.e., Paper insulation (Oil filled) type, Paper insulation-Gas
Type, XLPE insulation, PE or EPR insulation type in which XLPE insulation is famous at the
present. The paper insulation (Oil filled) underground cable is proved that it can be used more
than 40 years but for the well proved installation and the expert man power are needed to install
the oil filled cable and oil leakage is the main problem of oil filled cable. That will lead to cable
breakdown and impact to the environment. Then XLPE cable is selected because of the easy
installation, testing and maintenance.
Underground Cable Structure (see Appendix 1,2)
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Conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. In metallic conductors, such as
copper or aluminum have many types as following,
(1) Solid Conductor is used for small cable, not proper for big cable because its
difficult to bending. Conductor having a single solid wire instead of strands of fine
wire twisted together.
(2) Round Strand Conductor is used for general cable and bare conductor.
3. Compact Round Strand Conductor, conductor having strands of fine
wire twisted together.
3. Compact Segmental Strand Conductor is used for high-voltage
underground cable having large size of conductor. The ac resistance of large conductor
cables can be reduced by the special form of construction commonly known as the
segmental conductor. Each segment will be covered with insulation. In these larger
applications, a phenomenon called the skin effect becomes a significant issue as
conventional conductors reach their limits.
4. Hollow Core Conductor is used to be the conductor for Oil Filled Cable. Hollow tube is used
for the flow of oil. In the present, hollow core conductor is used for high capacity solid
dielectric underground cable and use water or air flow inside the hollow tube to release the
heat.
15
4. Electrical Conduit
There are many types of electrical Conduits that are used for underground cable installation
such as High-Density Polyethylene conduit (HDPE), Corrugate conduit (easily to bend or curve)
as shown on figure 3.6 and Fiberglass conduit or Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Conduit
(RTRC).

Figure 3.6 : High-Density Polyethylene conduit (HDPE) and corrugate HDPE
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3.5 Manhole
Manholes are made from reinforced concrete. Generally, the installation of manholes are under
street and can carry weight up to 18 tons with Manhole Frame or Cover that are made from steel.
Type of manholes are depended on the following,
Direction of conduit or cable route
Number of conduit, if the installation has many conduits, consequently size of manhole will
also be large. In case of underground cable has joint, two manhole covers are needed to
release temperature and will be comfortable for working when they maintain the
underground cable.
Future planning for underground cable construction.
Manhole can be divided in to two types depend on the application such as,
(1) Manhole for distribution 22&33 kV
(2) Manhole for transmission 115 kV
Designers should consider the proper location of manhole as follows:
- The manhole should not obstruct the traffic.
- The manhole needs to be installed as close to the base of riser pole as
possible to maintain consistency for troubleshoot.
- The distance between two manholes should not be so close because the cost of one manhole is
very expensive.
- Distance between two manholes should be around 250 meters if the distance is longer
than this, underground cable pulling work will be more difficult.
- Do not change level or bend the direction of manhole because it will be hard for underground
cable laying.
- Should not make impact to the building or the environment.
- Type and pattern of manhole should be proper to the application and location.
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- The distance between manholes should be the same length as much as
possible for the efficient Cross Bonding application.
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3.5.1 Type of Manhole
Each type of manhole is designed for difference purpose, so the utility should decide to choose
the suitable type to follow the design criteria of each utility.
3.5.1.1 Manhole for distribution line construction (22, 33 kV)
(1) Type 2T-1 and 2T-2 these type is used for cable split, cable turn. As shown on figure 3.7.

2T 1 2T - 2
Figure 3.7 : Manhole Type 2T-1 and 2T-2
(2) Type 2T-3 and 2T-4 these types are used for cable joint and split in straight line and
crossroad, cable turn. As shown on figure 3.8.

2T - 3 2T - 4
Figure 3.8 : Manhole Type 2T-3 and 2T-4
(3) Type 2T-8 and 2S-1 these types are used for cable split, joint in straight line and cable turn. As
shown in Figure 3.9.

2T - 8 2S - 1
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igure 3.9 : Manhole Type 2T-8 and 2S-1
3.5.1.2 Manhole for transmission line line construction (115 kV)
(1) Type 2T-5 and 2T-6 these types are used for cable joint and turn in entrance or crossroad. As
shown on figure 3.10.

2T 5 2T - 6
Figure 3.10 : Manhole Type 2T-5 and 2T-6
(2) Type 2S-2 and 2T-7 these types are used for cable joint in straight line, cable turn and cable
split. As shown on figure 3.11.

2S - 2 2T - 7
Figure 3.11. : Manhole Type 2S-2 and 2T-7
3.6 Riser Pole
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Cable Riser Pole was established to facilitate the conversion of existing overhead lines to
underground system. The installation of riser pole for single pole or double poles depended on
type of system configuration. Single cable riser pole is used for underground cable system from
substation to overhead lines. Double cable riser poles are used for avoiding the other public utility
such as transmission line system belong to The Electricity Generation Authority of Thailand
(EGAT). The riser poles of 22, 33 kV and 115 kV are shown in Figure 3.12 and Figure 3.13.
Figure 3.12 : 22, 33 kV Riser pole
Figure 3.13 : 115 kV Riser pole
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3.7 Underground cable conduit Selection
Number and diameter of cable is related to the selection of conduit sizes, we have to
calculate the area of total cross section outside diameter of cable. The outside diameter of cable
following to PEA specification is shown on table 3.2 :
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Outside diameter of cables (mm.)
Size (sq.mm) Rated Voltage
35 50 120 185 240 400 500 800
22 kV 28 30 34 38 42 48 52 -
33 kV - 35 40 44 47 55 58 -
115 kV - - - - - - - 98
Table 3.2: The outside diameter of PEA underground cables
Percentage of total cross-section area of cable by inner conduit cross-section area of conduit
called Percent Area Fill(PAF) is concerned with the criterion as shown on table 3.3 :
Cable type
(%) PAF (total cross-section area of cable / inner conduit cross-
section area of conduit) by number of cable in conduit below
1 cable 2 cables 3 cables 4 cables >4 cables
All type 53 31 40 40 40
Lead sheathed
cable
55 30 40 38 35
Table 3.3: Percent Area Fill (PAF) for number of cables in conduit
Note: PAF = n x (OD/ID)
2
x 100 where:
OD is Outside diameter of cable, ID is Inner diameter of conduit
The other factors which we have to consider are the clearance and jam ratio. Clearance
is the distance between top cable skin in conduit and inside conduit skin. Jam Ratio (JR) is the
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twist cable opportunity in conduit for 3 cables in conduit. JR = 1.05 x (ID/OD),
usually JR more than 3.1 is OK. If we calculate JR = (2.8 3.0), it means the cable may be
twisted in a duct when we pulling these cables. However we can choose proper conduit size as
shown on table 3.4.
Conduit size ID. (mm) Outside Diameter of Cables (3 Cables)
OD ( mm ) PAF ( % ) Clearance Jam Ratio
96.8 102.0 Up To 32 32.78 32.86 3.17
110.0 114.0 Up To 37 33.94 35.92 3.12
123.4 127.0 Up To 42 34.75 39.19 3.1
140.0 - 144.6 Up To 48 35.26 43.67 3.1
150.0 152.0 Up To 50 33.33 50 3.15
177.2 180.8 Up To 60 33.04 60.86 3.16
T
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able 3.4: Guide line for PAF, Clearance and Jam Ratio(JR)
Spare Conduit
When we design underground power cable system, we have to design for future power
expansion demand and easy maintenance. So we have to keep some spare conduits. The table
3.5 shows suggestion number of spare conduits.
No. of design
conduit(s)
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
No. of Spare
conduit(s)
1 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 3 2 4 3
No. of total conduit(s) 3 4 6 6 8 9 10 12 12 15 15 15 18 18
Table 3.5: Suggestion number of spare conduits
3.8 Pulling Tensions for Underground Cable
Due to the pulling cable has a great impact of the conduit, then pulling tensions for underground
cable is important for underground cable installation. The pulling tensions depend on many
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factors such as:
- Diameter of underground cable; the bigger cable will be used more tension
than the small cable.
- Size of conduit; cable can be easily pulled in the bigger conduit.
- Length of conduit; cable will be pulled by more tension for longer conduit.
- Conduit path; cable can be easily pulled in case of straight direction route of conduit.
Underground cable Pulling
Tools which are used for pulling the underground cable shall be divided into 2 types as follows:
(1) Pulling Eye
2. Pulling Grip or Basket Grip
Pulling Eye used for large cable which is more tension, it will be welded to the end of cable.
When we pull the cable, we have to concern maximum pulling tension which will not impact to the
cable. The pulling tension can be calculated from different formula depended on conductor of
cable (Copper or Aluminium), cross section area and number of cables in conduit. However the
pulling tension has to be considered according to the cable manufacturer.
3.9 Grounding
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Ground may be the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are
measured, or a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the
Earth. In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground to prevent
contact with a dangerous voltage if electrical insulation fails. Shield wire of underground cable
must be connected to ground for insulation (XLPE) breakdown protection and safety in case of
touching voltage protection. Normally we connect ground at riser pole and manhole position. For
PEA standard, in normal case, grounding resistance must be less than 2 ohms for 115 kV system
and 5 ohms for 22, 33 kV systems (to allow not more than 25 ohms for the difficult area to made
ground resistance). The
3.9.1 Ggrounding Mmethods of uUnderground Cable for 22, 33 and 115 kV systems shall
be explained as follows:
3.9.1.1 Single point bonding of screens
Mean that the screens of one end of cable are connected and earthed and the other end are
isolated from ground. In this case , there is induced voltage but no current flow this bonding
method is used for short cable route. As shown on figure 3.14.
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Figure 3.14 : Single point bonding
3.9.1.2 Both ends bonding of screens
Mean that the screens connected and earthed at both ends of cable route. In this case ,
circulating current will flow in screens and heat losses occur in cable, which cause the cable
current carrying capacity reduce. As shown on figure 3.15.
Figure 3.15 : Both ends bonding
3.9.1.3 Middle point bonding of screens
This method is modified from the single point bonding by moving the earthing point to the middle
of cable route. As shown on figure 3.16.
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Figure 3.16 : Middle point bonding
3.9.1.4 Multi- points bonding of screens
This method is modified from both ends bonding method by earthing the screens of cable at the
both ends of cable and every splicing point. As shown on figure 3.17.
Figure 3.17 : Multi- points bonding
3.9.1.5 Cross-bonding of screens
Means that the screens of the adjoining cables are connected (phase A connected with phase B ,
phase B connected with phase C and phase C connected with phase A) as shown in the above
figure. In this case , there is induced voltage but no current flow in the screens. The maximum
induced voltage are at the link box. As shown on figure 3.18.
By this method , a current carrying capacity is as high as single point bonding method but
longer cables.
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Figure 3.18 : Cross-bonding
Applications
1. Single point bonding : Used for 115 kV system , route is not exceed 500 m
2. Middle point bonding : Used for 115 kV system , route is more than 500 m but not exceed
1,000 m
3. Cross-bonding : Used for 115 kV system , route is more than 1,000 m
4. Both ends bonding : Used for 22&33 kV system , route is not exceed 500 m
5. Multi - points bonding : Used for 22&33 kV system , route is more than 500 m
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3.10 Underground Cable Size Selection
The selection of cable size depended on current capacity of the cable. Rated current for 22, 33 kV
XLPE cable is shown on table 3.6.
Rated Current per Circuit (amp)
Total No. of
Circuit
Depth from ground level to cable(meter)
Cable 240 mm
2
Cable 400 mm
2
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
1 402 384 374 367 362 510 485 470 462 456
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2 342 320 310 302 296 430 402 387 378 370
3 302 280 270 262 257 378 350 336 327 320
4 281 258 246 240 234 350 320 307 297 290
5 260 237 226 220 214 323 295 280 272 265
6 245 223 212 205 200 305 277 263 254 248
7 233 210 200 193 188 290 262 248 240 233
8 221 200 190 183 178 275 248 235 227 220
9 212 190 180 175 170 263 237 224 216 210
10 204 184 174 168 163 253 228 215 207 201
Table 3.6: Underground cable size, number of circuits and dept selection
3.11 Cable Terminator and Splice Standards
PEA implements the cable terminator based on the international standards and national
standards having equivalent quality of design and testing as shown below:
IEEE 48 1990 USA
CENELEC HD 629.1 S1 Europe
VDE 0287 Part 629-1 German
EDF HN26-E-20, 33-E-01, 41-E-01 France
BS C-89 UK
UNE 21-115-75 Spain
A.B.N.T. 934 Brazil
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3.11.1 Types of Terminator
When underground cable is tapped or terminated, a termination is a way of preparing the
end of a cable to provide adequate electrical and mechanical properties. Whenever a medium or
high voltage cable with insulation shield is tapped or terminated, the end of the cable must be
terminated so as to withstand the electrical stress concentration that is developed when the
geometry of the cable has changed. As long as the cable maintains the same physical
dimensions, the electrical stress will remain consistent. When cable is tapped or terminated, the
shield ends abruptly and the insulation changes from that in the cable air. The concentration of
electric stress is at the conductor and insulation shield. In order to reduce the electrical stress at
the end of cable, the insulation shield is removed for sufficient distance to provide the adequate
leakage distance between the conductor and shield. The distance is dependent on the voltage
involved as well as the anticipated environmental conditions. In most cases, the resulting stresses
are high enough that they cause dielectric degradation of the material at the edge of the shield
unless steps are taken to reduce stress, that why we need to do the terminator and splice.
To produce a termination of acceptable quality for long life, it is necessary to relieve voltage
stresses at the edge of the cable insulation shield or we call stress relief control. The
conventional method of doing this has been solved with stress cone. A stress cone increases the
spacing from the conductor to the end of shield. This spreads out the electrical lines of stress as
well as providing additional insulation at this high stress area.
As in IEEE 48-1990 standard, stress relief control can be divided in to two types as follow,
1. Geometric Cone or Stress Cone
It is built up in the shape of a cone. It has a very high dielectric constant that capacitive changes
the voltage distribution around the shield termination. By changing the electrical field surrounding
the termination, the stress concentration is reduced from several hundred volts per mil to less
than 50 volts per mil. The figures 3.14 shows stress cone and electric field distribution terminator
by stress cone.
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Figure 3.14: Stress cone and electric field distribution terminator by stress cone
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2. High Permittivity Materials (HI-K Material)
The permittivity of a substance is a characteristic which describes how it affects any electric field
set up in it. A high permittivity (It is mean high dielectric constant: K) tends to reduce any electric
field present. Based on different dielectric constant of two materials, the refraction and the
propagation of the electric filed will be occurred. In this case, the stress concentration will be
reduced. The figure 3.14 shows HI-K Material and electric field distribution terminator by HI-K
Material.

Figure 3.15: High permittivity materials and electric field distribution terminator by HI-K Material
a. The Porcelain type terminator is a conventional complete set designed from the manufacturer
and each type can cover many ranges of cables sizes of cable. The main feature of this type is
good for protection from humidity, water and air pollution by compound inside. But the weight is
heavy and breakable, when installation we must be careful because porcelain will be broken
down as shown on figure 3.16.
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igure 3.16: Porcelain type terminator
b. The Slip On type terminator is a complete set designed from the different know how
manufacturer. Normally, each type can be used with only one size of cable and the main feature
is quick installation but we must use active pressure to push or slip on to terminate the cable as
shown on figure 3.17.
Figure 3.17: Slip On type terminator
c. The Cold Shrink type terminator is silicone polymer material, complete set designed from
the different know how manufactures. Each type can be used with many sizes of cable. The main
feature of silicone polymer is quickly installation without any need of special tools (Safety to
terminating installer), good for protection from humidity water and air pollution by itself shrinking
as shown on figure 3.18.
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Figure 3.18: Cold Shrink type terminator
d. The Heat Shrink type terminator is made of polymer and designed from the different know
how manufacturer. Each type can be used with many sizes of cable, during installation, we have
to use fire blower or torch to heat the terminator. The installation of this type is require a skill
worker to heat terminator to shrink constantly and all directions.
27
Nowadays the terminator installation is not complicated because the termination set is
standardized prepared by manufacturer in complete set. The important step is the cable
preparation step which means we have to pencil each layer of the cable carefully. A little scar or
dust in insulation layer may cause to partial discharge and insulation breakdown in finally.
3.11.2 Types of Splicing
Cable splicing is connection between two cables which is also called cable joint. There are many
reasons that why we have to apply cable splicing for each feeder.
Longer standard length: Usually when we transport cable from factory to site which have to
be packed in the wooden or steel drum for conveniently transport and handling. In some
cases, we have to joint that cable longer than the standard length before laying, so that the
cable should be jointed from factory (call factory joint) with the reason of limited standard
length of manufacturing.
Defective in cable during manufacturing or cable damage during installation or after
servicing
Cable Tap (T- Tap Joint or H-Tap)
The ideal joint achieves a balanced match with the electrical, chemical, thermal and
mechanical characteristics of its associated cable. The splicing or joining of two pieces of cable
together can best be visualized as two splicing parts connected together. The most important
deviation from a theoretical view, between joints and terminations is that joints are more nearly
extensions of the cable. The splice simply replaces all of the various components that were made
in to a cable at the factory with field components. Both cable ends are prepared in the same
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manner. At each end of the splice where the cable shielding component has been stopped,
electrical stress relief is required. The figure 3.19 shows cable splicing.
Figure 3.19: Cable splicing
a. Taped splices
For taped splice, the ends of the connector are tapered to provide two functions, the first is a
sloping surface so that the tape can be properly applied and the second is no voids are created.
Sharp edges at the end of the connector are not present to cause electrical stress points.
28
b. Premolded Splices
The premolded splices shall be made of polymer which is designed and premolded splicing
manufactured for easy and quick time consuming than taped splice. It is essential that the
specified type or catalog of the splice is within the specified size ranges of the cable diameter.
The body of the splice must be slide over the cable ends after the conductors being connected
and finally repositioned over the center of the joint. Type of premolded splices can be divided into
3 types as follow:
b.1 Slip On Type
This type is a complete set designed from the different know how manufacturer, each
module type can be used with individual size of cable and with same insulation size. The cable
end at splice position, one side must be peeled more than another side of the cable prior to install
splicing module. Then splicing module will be repositioned to the center of the joint.
b.2 Cold Shrink Type
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This type is a complete set designed from the different know how manufacturer, each
type can be used with many sizes of cable. The feature of this type is good for protection from
humidity, water, air pollution, less time installation, simple installation steps and safety to installer.
b.3 Heat Shrink Type
This type is a complete set designed from the different know how manufacturer, each
type can be used with many sizes of cable. When installation we have to use fire blower or torch
to heat the splice module. The installation requires skill worker to heat the module shrink
constantly in all directions because the fire blower or torch will be endanger to installer.
As we can see that the splicing and terminator are more or less the same installation
technology, we can see installing method from manufacturers manual or instruction sheets which
is not complicate. But the important step is the cable preparation skill to pencil the cable to the
specific size carefully. A little scar or dust in insulation layer may cause partial discharge and
insulation breakdown in finally. So we have to build clean room cover splicing point especially
high voltage level.
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Chapter 4
Civil Work Procedures
4.1 Introduction
There are many types of underground cable construction as we have said in Chapter 3. In this
Chapter we will talk about procedures of construction which can be classified into 2 major works,
one is civil work and the other is electrical work. Then it is so clear that these two main tasks
which are very important due to highly investment and time consuming. Hereafter we will describe
civil construction work procedures and electrical system installation work procedures step by step.
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Nowadays, PEA has two methods for civil work. The first method is trench method which is used
in environments where open trench digging is possible or feasible. The method consists of Duct
Bank and Manhole. The other method is trenchless method which is used in environments where
open trench digging is impracticable or not feasible. The method consists of Horizontal Directional
Drilling (HDD) and Pipe Jacking.
4.2. Construction Site Preparation
Preparation is an initial step to determine construction method and prepare construction
site, before we start the civil work, the following tasks must be performed as follows.
1. Read the cable routing drawings and cross section drawings.
We must study and review the cable routing and cross sectional drawings for
conclusion of the exact location. The cable routing and cross sectional drawings are
shown in Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2
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igure 4.1 : Cable Routing Drawing
Figure 4.2 : Cross Sectional Drawing
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2. Contact road administrator for the start of work
Before we can start the work, we must submit construction drawings, construction
method, traffic management, etc. to road administrator who has authority of the
construction area for approval.
3. On site survey
We must survey for recheck conduit routing and mark the position as reference
locations of the construction as shown in Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3 : Conduit Routing Recheck and Position Marking
31
Cables and other public services laid in the ground can be accidentally destroyed by each
other depending on the type of pipe and construction method that can endanger workers or other
persons. A surveyor is absolutely necessary to check weather other public services lines, facilities
or communication cables are in the ground nearby. The precise location of them must be found
and recorded by the surveyor. In order to avoid any damage or accident to people, distribution
power lines, equipment and environment, each worker is held responsible to recognize such
sources of danger in time.
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There are two methods to search for cables and other public services laid in the ground.
The first method is to use GPR (Ground-Penetrating Radar) machine as shown in Figure 4.4. The
other method is digger as shown in Figure 4.5.
Figure 4.4 : GPR Machine
Figure 4.5 : Digger
4. Work schedule management
We should make work schedule management by using S - CURVE form as shown
in Figure 4.6
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Figure 4.6 : S CURVE
5. Safety management
A construction site must be barricaded in which no unauthorized person may enter
the construction site. Figure 4.7 shows barricade for safety.
Figure 4.7 : Barricade for Safety
6. Make check list for Civil Work Procedure
We should check every step of procedure following in S-Curve form for preparing
in advance.
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4.3 Duct Bank Construction
The first construction method is called Duct Bank. We have to open soil surface. Let
us see the main materials which is used in duct bank construction is HDPE Pipe(High Density
Polyethylene Pipe) , Concrete Spacer Block, HDPE coupling, HDPE 90 degree elbow, round bars
and formworks as shown from Figure 4.8 to Figure 4.12. As Figure 13 shows 2 x 2 cross sectional
drawing of Duct Bank.
Figure 4.8 : HDPE Pipes Figure 4.9 : Concrete Spacer Blocks
Figure 4.10 : HDPE Couplings and Drawing
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igure 4.11 : HDPE 90 degree Elbows and Drawing
Figure 4.12 : Round Bars and Formworks
Figure 4.13 : 2 x 2 crossectionional drawing of Duct Bank
Then we will show step by step of duct bank construction by pictures of current
construction.
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(1) Excavate to the designed size; The trenches are excavated by excavator as shown in Figure
4.14.
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igure 4.14 : Trench Excavation
2. Install HDPE pipes, round bars, concrete spacer block and formworks; Figure 4.15
shows the installation of these materials.
Figure 4.15 : HDPE Pipes, Round Bars, Concrete Spacer Blocks and Formworks Installation
2. Joint HDPE pipe by HDPE coupling; HDPE couplings are used to join HDPE pipes as
shown in Figure 4.16
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Figure 4.16 : Joint by HDPE Couplings
2. Install HDPE 90 degree elbow; This HDPE 90 degree elbows are used to install at the riser
poles. Figure 4.17 shows HDPE 90 degree elbows drawing and construction pictures.
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igure 4.17 : HDPE 90 Degree Elbow Installation
2. Pour concrete; Concrete which is well mixed should have minimum compressive strength
Fc = 180 ksc. At 28 day (cylinder) shall be poured as shown in Figure 4.18.
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Figure 4.18 : Concrete Pouring
2. Dismantle formworks; After formworks are dismantled, we can see the duct bank as shown in Figure
4.19
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Figure 4.19 : Duct Bank after Dismantle Formworks
Backfill and Restore the road surface; Soil is filled back and compacted same condition
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2. Backfill and Restore the road surface; Soil is filled back and compacted same condition
as previous level. The road surface is restored which are showed in Figure 4.20
Figure 4.20 : Soil Backfill and Restore The Road Surface
2. Install cable route markers; Cable route markers are installed for warning the people to
aware of high voltage cable conduit routing on ground surface. Figure 4.21 shows route
marker making and the details of cautions.
Figure 4.21 : Installation of Cable Route Markers
2. Cleaning inside HDPE pipes; The cleaner is used to clear some small particles such as concrete,
waste etc. inside HDPE pipes as shown in Figure 4.22.
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Figure 4.22 : Clean Inside HDPE Pipes
2. Use rod duct (PVC) to insert nylon rope; Nylon rope is inserted in the HDPE pipes by
using rod duct. The nylon is used to pull sling before we can fasten with the cable sealing
end in order to pull the cable as shown in Figure 4.23.
Figure 4.23 : Insert Nylon Rope
2. Check HDPE pipes (Dummy Test); Dummy test is used to test inside HDPE pipes whether
any obstructacle founded in the pipe or not before pulling the cable through the pipe without
difficulties. Figure 4.24 and Figure 4.25 show dummy testing piece inside HDPE pipe and
HDPE 90 degree elbow.
Figure 4.24 : Dummy Test inside HDPE pipe
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F
39
igure 4.25 : Dummy Test inside HDPE 90 Degree Elbow
2. Pour fire proof concrete and install steel guard; Fire proof concrete is poured around the
poles. Steel guards are installed for protect the cables as shown in Figure 4.26.
Figure 4.26 : Before and After the Fire Proof Concrete is poured and Steel Guard is installed
4.4 Manhole Construction
Manhole is required for underground cable connection between duct bank, pipe
jacking and for maintenance purposes. Then we will explain the details of the
construction as follows:
1. Install Sheet Piles to the design dimension; The sheet Piles installation is shown in
Figure 4.27.
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Figure 4.27 : Sheet Piles Installation
2. Pour lean concrete; Lean concrete is poured to level the land as shown in Figure 4.28
F
40
igure 4.28 : Pour Lean Concrete
3. Install formworks for bottom slab and install steel bars for bottom slab and wall;
Formworks of bottom slab are installed first and then steel bars are installed for bottom slab
and wall. The Figure 4.29 shows formworks and steel bars installation for bottom slab and
steel bars installation for wall.
Figure 4.29 : Formwork Installation for bottom slab and Steel bars Installation for Bottom Slab and Walls
4. Install ground rods and pulling irons for bottom slab; Ground rods and pulling iron are installed for
bottom slab reinforcement as shown in Figure 4.30
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Figure 4.30 : Installation of Ground Rods and Pulling iron for Bottom Slab
5. Pour concrete for bottom slab(Fc=210 ksc); Concrete(Fc=210 ksc) is poured for bottom
slab as shown in Figure 4.31
41
Figure 4.31 : Concrete Pouring for Bottom Slab
6. Install formworks for walls and windows; Formworks are installed for walls and windows.
Windows are used for connecting between Duct Bank and Manhole as shown in Figure 4.32
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Figure 4.32 : Walls and Windows Formworks Installation
7. Install pulling irons on the walls; Pulling irons are installed on the walls as shown in
Figure 4.33
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Figure 4.33 : Pulling irons Installation on the Walls
8. Pour concrete for walls; Concrete is poured for manholes walls as shown in Figure 4.34
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Figure 4.34 : Concrete Pouring for Walls
9. Dismantle formworks for walls; After Concrete is set, formworks are dismantled for walls.
As shown in Figure 4.35
Figure 4.35 : Manhole after Dismantle of
Walls Formworks
10. Install end bells at windows; End bells are installed at windows to join HDPE pipes of duct bank and
windows of manhole for preventive obstruction in future cabling. Figure 4.36 shows End bells installation at
manholes windows.
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igure 4.36 : End Bells Installation at Manholes Windows
11. Pour concrete at the windows; Concrete is poured at the manholes windows as shown in
Figure 4.37
Figure 4.37 : Concrete Pouring at the Manholes Windows
12. Install formworks and steel bars for top slab; Formworks and steel bars are installed for
top slab as shown in Figure 4.38
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Figure 4.38 : Formworks and Rebars Installation for top slab
13. Pour concrete for top slab; Concrete is poured for top slab as shown in Figure 4.39
Figure 4.39 : Concrete Pouring for Top Slab
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14. Install formworks ,steel bars, entrance step and manhole frame; Formworks , steel
bars, entrance steps and manhole frames are installed as shown in Figure 4.40
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Figure 4.40 : Formworks, Steel bars, Entrance Steps and Manhole Frames Installation
15. Pour concrete for manhole entrances; Concrete is poured for manhole entrances as
shown in Figure 4.41
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Figure 4.41 : Concrete Pouring for Manhole Entrances
16. Dismantle formworks for manhole entrance; Formworks are dismantled for manhole entrances.
Figure 4.42 shows manhole entrance after dismantled formworks
Figure 4.42 : Manhole Entrances after Dismantled Formworks
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17. Install manhole covers, Backfill and Restore the road surface; Manhole covers are
installed, the soil is filled back and compacted as shown in Figure 4.43. The road surface is
restored as shown in Figure 4.44
Figure 4.43 : Manhole Covers Installation and Backfill
Figure 4.44 : Road surface Restoration
18. Install cable racking poles; Cable racking poles are installed as shown in Figure 4.45. The
span between racking poles should not exceed 1.5 m. or other suitable distance which PEA
had approved. Racking pole is used for cable(s) as follow :
69,115 KV. system, each step is supported for 1 cable.
2
46
2, 33 KV. system, each step is supported for 1 circuit (3 cables).
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Figure 4.45 : Manhole Racking Poles Drawing
Figure 4.46 shows cable racking poles and accessories and Figure 4.47 shows
racking poles and accessories after cable installation in manhole
Figure 4.46 : Cable Racking Poles and Accessories
Figure 4.47 : Racking Poles with Cable Installed in Manhole
19. I
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nstall grounding for manhole; Grounding for manhole is installed by using PVC insulated
copper conductors size 1x50 sq.mm. Figure 4.48 shows grounding installation drawing and
photo as we can see one typical PEA manhole drawing type 2T-3 in Figure 4.49.
Figure 4.48 : Grounding Installation Drawing and Grounding Installation Picture
Figure 4.49 : Manhole Drawing type 2T-3
4.5 Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)
The Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is non open cut method, HDPE Pipe is placed
below the ground surface. The first things before construction is bore line determination. From
cable routing drawing, planer have to make boring plan which have the depth from road surface to
HDPE pipes should exceed three meters which is designed by computer program. We can see
the drill head depth and pitch rod by rod in boring plan report as shown in Figure 4.50
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Figure 4.50 : Boring Plan
The HDD system shall consist of the Main components as shown in Figure 4.51
1 = Drill Rig
2 = Power Unit
3 = Mixing Module(It mix clean water and Bentonite)
4 = Drill Rods and Drilling Tools for
Example Sonde Housing, Drilling
Head, Back Reamer
5 = Accessories for Receiver (It can also
be used as a cable/pipe locator),
Data Sonde or Ground-penetrating radar (it contains
the sensors that measure tilt, roll angle, temperature
and battery life.)
Figure 4.51 : Main Components of HDD System
Then we will consider procedures of Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) which are as
follows.
1. Install drill head, before install drill head, we must calibrate sonde depth. The calibration
have to be performed as a priority for each bore as shown in Figure 4.52, Drill head
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installation drawing is shown in Figure 4.53
Figure 4.52 : Sonde Depth Calibration
Figure 4.53 : Drill
Head Installation
drawing
49
2. Preparation of drilling fluid; In mixing modules, fill the drilling fluid tank with clean water
and suck the required quantity of Bentonite (thixotrope clay mineral) slowly into the drilling
fluid.
3. The pilot bore:Drilling fluid flow test; Before the drill head is entering the ground, the
drilling fluid test flow must be done. Therefore the drilling fluid must flow through all jet
nozzles of the drill head, otherwise the jet nozzles must be cleaned or exchanged as shown
in Figure 4.54
Figure 4.54 : Drilling Fluid Flow Test
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4. The pilot bore : Entering the ground; when starting from the ground surface it is
necessary to open a small starting pit. The front wall of this starting pit must be right-angled
to the drilling axle as shown in Figure 4.55.
Figure 4.55: Drill head Entering into the ground and Cross sectional Drawing
The pilot bore : Locating and directional drilling(changes of direction); An operator who has
a receiver which receives information from the Sonde or Ground-penetrating radar relating to roll,
tilt ,depth ,location. An operator who has a receiver reads the boring plan before he tell another
operator who control Drill Rig how to drill another rod.
Figure 4.56 shows drilling directions, location and crossectional drawing
.
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Figure 4.56 : Locating, directional drilling and Cross sectional drawing
5. Back reaming :Disassembly of drill head; As soon as the drill head has reached the
target, it will be disassembled from the drill rods as shown in Figure 4.57.
Figure 4.57 : Disassembly of drilling head
6. Back reaming :The choice of the back reamer; the pilot bore must be back reamed to pull
in pipe bundles. The back reamer must be larger than the new pipe bundles as shown in
Figure 4.58.
Figure 4.58 : Back Reamer Cross sectional Drawing and Choices of the Back Reamer
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7. Pipe pulling : Immediate pipe pulling(at larger backream diameters); Larger backream
diameters (more than 160-215 mm.,depend on the drilling system)) and/or hard ground
conditions require intermediate backreamings. Additionally the final backream diameter
must be reamed without pipe as shown in Figure 4.59.
Figure 4.59 : Immediate Pipe Pulling Drawing
8. Pipe pulling :Connection between back reamer and expander chuck; A swivel is fitted
between the back reamer and the expander chuck. This swivel avoids rotation of the PE
pipe. Normally the back reamers are equipped with an assembled pulling eye. If not, the
pulling eye must be screwed into the back reamer. It is recommended to assemble a casing
rear of the back reamer to avoid that gravel and stones fall in between the back reamer and
the expander chuck. Figure 4.60 shows connection between back reamer and expander
chuck .
Figure 4.60 : Connection between Back Reamer and Expander Chuck
9. Pipe pulling :End of the pipe pulling; As soon as the pipe or pipe bundle is prepared, the
drill rods are pulled without rotation backwards until the back reamer enters the ground.
Shortly before entering the ground, the feeding of lubricating drilling fluid is carefully
switched on and the drill rod rotation is started. As soon as one drill rod is pulled in, it must
be removed and the next drill rod is pulled in. The back reaming and pipe pulling operation
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is finished when the back reamer reaches the drill rig. Figure 4.61 and Figure 4.62 show
situation before and after Pipe Bundle Pulling.
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Figure 4.61 : Before Pipe Bundle Pulling
Figure 4.62 : After Pipe Bundle Pulling
10. Check HDPE pipes (Dummy Test); Dummy test is used to check HDPE pipes condition as shown in
Figure 4.63.
Figure 4.63 : Dummy Test
4.6 Pipe Jacking Method
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P
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ipe Jacking is non-open cut method like Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD). High density
polyethylene conduit (HDPE) is placed in the rigid steel pipe and then concrete cement will be
injected inside the steel pipe. The method of installing rigid steel pipe horizontally is below the
ground surface. First we have to determine the bore line from cable routing drawing, a planer
make boring plan which have the depth from road surface to steel pipe should exceed 2.50
meters by computer program. Figure 4.64 shows Pipe Jacking configuration.
Figure 4.64 : Pipe Jacking Configuration
Let see main components of Pipe Jacking method. The Pipe Jacking method consists of
the following main components which are jacking pipe, generator, winch, hydraulic machine,
hydraulic jacks, weld components, truck with crane, air blower as shown from Figure 4.65.1 to
Figure 4.65.8
Figure 4.65.1 : Jacking Pipe Figure 4.65.2 : Generator
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Figure 4.65.3 : Winch Figure 4.65.4 : Hydraulic machine
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Figure 4.65.5 : Hydraulic Jacks Figure 4.65.6 : Weld Components
Figure 4.65.7 : Truck with crane Figure 4.65.8 : Air blower
Then we will consider procedures of Pipe Jacking which are as follows.
1. Construct launch pit and reception pit; The launch pit and reception pit are constructed by using
of sheet pile as shown in Figure 4.66
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Figure 4.66 : Launch Pit and Reception Pit Construction with Sheet Pile
2. Set alignment and jacking frame; The alignment and jacking frame are set in launch pit as
shown in Figure 4.67
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Figure 4.67 : Set Alignment and Jacking Frame
3. Weld a jacking pipe; install a jacking pipe on the jacking frame. The edge of the jacking
pipe is scrubbed with machine. Temporarily, the small plates are welded at the jacking pipe
edge because they are used for locking jacking pipe together. A jacking pipe is welded to
another jacking pipe and then the jacking pipe edge is painted with rustproof liquid as shown
step by step from Figure 4.68.1 to Figure 4.68.5
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Figure 4.68.1 : Installing a Jacking Pipe on the Jacking Frame
Figure 4.68.2 : Jacking Pipe Edge Scrubbing Figure 4.68.3 : Small Plates Installation
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Figure 4.68.4 : Welding Jacking Pipe together
Figure 4.68.5 : Painting Jacking Pipe Edge with Rustproof Liquid.
4. Use a hand auger and an air blower inside jacking pipe; A hand auger is used for
penetrate the ground inside jacking pipe and An air blower blows the air for the workers as
shown in Figure 4.69.
Figure 4.69 : Use a Hand Auger and an Air Blower
5. R
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emove the soil; The soil is removed by steel tray and then picked up by using truck with
crane as shown in Figure 4.70
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Figure 4.70 : Soil Removing Solution
6. Push the jacking pipe by hydraulic Jacks; While Hydraulic Jacks push the jacking pipe,
the worker will check the leveling of the jacking pipe as shown from Figure 4.71.1 to Figure
4.71.2
Figure 4.71.1 : Jacking pipe Pushing Figure 4.71.2 : Jacking Pipe Level Checking
7. Recheck the jacking pipe level; The jacking pipe level is checked by the surveyors
telescope as shown in Figure 4.72
Figure 4.72 : Jacking Pipe Level Recheck
8. W
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eld deformed bars, deformed bars are used for HDPE laying. The position of deformed
bars is shown in pipe cross sectional drawing and photo in Figure 4.73.1. and Figure 4.73.2
respectively.
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Figure 4.73.1 : Deformed Bars Position in Pipe Cross Section Drawing
Figure 4.73.2 : Deformed Bars Welding
9. Lay HDPE pipes on deformed bar; HDPE pipes are laid on deformed bars as showed on Figure 4.74
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Figure 4.74 : HDPE Pipes Laying
10. I
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nstall Formworks and Grout Mortar; A steel pipe is installed because it is used for inject
mortar in the jacking pipe as shown in Figure 4.75.1. The formworks are installed at the end
of the jacking pipe as shown in Figure 4.75.2. The mortar is grouted as shown in Figure
4.75.3.
Figure 4.75.1 : Steel pipe Installation Figure 4.75.2 : Formworks Installation
Figure 4.75.3 : Mortar Grouting
11. Dismantle formworks; After mortar is set, the formworks are dismantled as
shown in Figure 4.76
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Figure 4.76 : Cross sectional Pipe after Dismantle the Formworks
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Chapter 5
Electrical Work Procedures
5.1 Introduction
After we had finished civil work procedures, we will continue electrical work procedures.
PEAs Electrical work consists of three sections. The sections are Cable pulling, Termination for
Screened Single Core Plastic and Rubber Insulated Cables 22kV to 33 kV without Armour
Installation and 69,115 kV Terminations with Rubber Stress Cone Installation.
Upon delivery, A cable drum should be visually inspected for damage which may have occurred
during transport. The manufacturers seal on the inner and outer cable ends should be examined
and the condition of armoring, serving and sheath inspected for mechanical damage and
corrosion. If the cable is found defective it shall not be installed and the cable shall be returned to
the supplier for replacement. During installation the cable should be carefully examined for any
sign of damage as it leaves the drum. This is particularly important on the outer layers, where
drum batten nails can cause damage. If it is necessary to roll the cable drum, it should be rolled in
the direction indicated by the arrow on the drum. The drum should be mounted on jacks, cable
trailer or cable stands such that the cable is preferably pulled from the top and always in the
direction opposite to that indicated by the arrow.
Let see electrical work area (as showed on Figure 5.1), preparation is initial step to
determine electrical work and prepare work area. Before you start electrical work, you have to
prepare as follows.
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Figure 5.1 : Electrical Work Area
1. S
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afety management, Electrical work area must be barricaded, that no unauthorized person
may enter the construction site as Figure 5.2 show barricade for safety.
Figure 5.2 : Safety management
2. Set up the cable roll, cable roll shall be positioned in line with the direction of cable pull as
showed on Figure 5.3
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Figure 5.3 : Set up Cable Roll
2. Dummy Test, before pulling cable in conduit we have to make sure that inside conduit is
clean, dummy test is used to test inside HDPE conduit. Figure 5.4 showed dummy test and
drawing
Figure 5.4 : Dummy Test and Dummy Test Drawing
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5.2 Cable Pulling
There are numerous cable pulling methods. Generally, the most economical methods employ
power winches. Let see tools for cable pulling as showed on Figure 5.5.1 to Figure 5.5.10
Figure 5.5.1 : Winch Figure 5.5.2 : Sling
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Figure 5.5.3 : Swivel Figure 5.5.4 : Dynamometer
Figure 5.5.5 : Roller Figure 5.5.6 : Pulling Eye
Figure 5.5.7 : Cable Cutter Saw Figure 5.5.8 : Nozzles,Torch handle,
Compact Gas, Safety Valve and
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High Pressure Hose
Figure 5.5.9 : Cable Lubricant Figure 5.5.10 : Heat Shrinkable Tube
When we pull the cable, we must protect the cables from the damage.
Step by step Procedure of Cable Pulling is following,
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1. Remove jacket and insulator for suitable pulling eye length
as showed on Figure 5.6.
Figure 5.6 : Remove Cable Jacket
2. Install Pulling eye as showed on Figure 5.7.
Figure 5.7 : Install Pulling eye
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Wrap the rubber tape around the Pulling eye and Cable as showed on Figure 5.8.
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2. Wrap the rubber tape around the Pulling eye and Cable as showed on Figure 5.8.
After that tighten heat shrinkable sleeve by heat as showed on Figure 5.9.
Figure 5.8 : Rubber Tape Wrapping around the Pulling eye and Cable
.
Figure 5.9 : Tighten Heat shrinkable Sleeve by Heat.
4. Cover Sleeve with Aluminum tube and Install Swivel between pulling eye and
sling as showed on Figure 5.10.
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Figure 5.10 : Cover Sleeve with Aluminum tube and Install Swivel between
Pulling Eye and sling.
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4. Install Roller and Dynamometer, The trench or duct line should be set out so that
any necessary deviations from a straight line occur over the largest possible radius.
Any winch used to pull cables shall have either a facility to automatically limit the
pulling tension applied to a cable or a continuous reading dynamometer incorporated
in the pulling arrangement to enable the actual pulling tension to be monitored. Figure
5.11 show roller and dynamometer installation.
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Figure 5.11 : Roller and Dynamometer Installation
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4. Pull sling by Winch, When sling is pulled by winch as showed on Figure 5.12, The
cable pulling tensions shall not exceed that specified by the manufacturers for the
particular type and size of cable (or calculated as detail in Chapter 3 ,Pulling Tensions
for underground cable,) being pulled and shall be smoothly and continuously applied.
Pulling Speed, to avoid damage due to overruns, the cable should be pulled just fast
enough to keep the drum rotating smoothly. Higher speeds are possible when pulling
small cables into straight trenches or ducts with good conditions at the feeding and
pulling ends. Drums with long lengths of cable, however, should not be rotated rapidly
as overrun can cause cable damage if pulling is slowed or stopped suddenly. Cable
bending Radius, The permissible bending radius as no twists, knots or kinks are
permitted.
Figure 5.12 : Pull Sling by Winch.
4. Smear the cable with Cable Lubricant for friction reduction, During pulling, We
must avoid the outer sheath damage of the cable which enters and leaves the HDPE
pipe. A cable lubricant should be used to reduce the friction between the cable and the
HDPE pipe . Figure 5.13 show smearing the cable with cable lubricant.
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Figure 5.13 : Smearing the Cable with Cable Lubricant
4. Pull the cable to another riser pole and cut it ; as showed on Figure 5.14
.
Figure 5.14 : Pull the cable to another riser pole and cut it
4. Wrap ends of the cable in plastic wrap and Cover the cable with PVC Tubes as
showed on Figure 5.15.
Figure 5.15 : Wrap ends of the cable in plastic wrap and Cover the cable with PVC Tubes.
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5.3 Supporting structure Installation and cable preparation on supporting structure
After cable pulling procedure has finished, we have to install supporting structure at riser
pole and prepare cable on the supporting structure at right position. Steps are explained as
follows:
1. Supporting structure Installation; We should install supporting structure with balancing as
shown in Figure 5.16
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Figure 5.16 : Supporting structures installation
Cable support clamps for underground cable are shown in Figure 5.17.They fix the
cable onto the pole and fix the cable onto supporting structure. Cable support clamps should be
made from wood or other material that is not the inductance to prevent an occurrence of eddy
current loss. If the eddy current loss occurred, the cable will have the heat storage.
Figure 5.17 : Cable Support Clamps
2. The cable fixed point under supporting structure; The cable must be fixed in the same
line of cable termination and avoid the bending of the cable as shown in Figure 5.18
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Figure 5.18 : Cable fixing point
3. Cable Preparing on the supporting structure; Cable is prepared to fix with the supporting
structure as shown in Figure 5.19. If the cable termination is not installed, the cable ends
should be covered to protect the cable from humidity and water which penetrates inside the
cable.
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Figure 5.19 Protect the cable from humidity and water
5.4 Termination
Now we have two termination types which are termination for 22, 33 kV screened single
core Plastic and rubber insulated without armor installation and termination for 69,115 kV with
rubber stress cone installation. The man who install the cable termination must be trained and
have to do in step by step follow the production manual.
5.4.1 Termination for 22, 33 kV Screened Single Core Plastic and Rubber
Insulated without Armor Installation; Let us see general tools as shown in Figure 5.20
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Figure 5.20 : General tools for 22, 33 kV Termination
Type of terminators and components are shown in Figure 5.21 and Figure 5.22. and
termination kit is shown in Figure 5.23
F
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igure 5.21: Type of Terminators
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Row Spr ing
Packing
Non-tr acking
Sleeve
Cr eepage for Ter minator (skir t) Copper Tape
Gr ound
Sheild
M
oistur e Sealing
Void
Filler
Str ess
Figure 5.22: Components of Terminator
Cable lug
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contr ol
tubing
Figure 5.23: Terminator kit
The Procedure of termination for 22, 33 kV Screened Single Core Plastic and Rubber
Insulated without Armor Installation are as follows:
1. Remove the Jacket; Cable jacket is removed to the dimension L+K in table as shown in
Table 5.1. Figure 5.24shows jacket removing drawing and jacket removing picture.
T
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able 5.1: Dimension L,K
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Figure 5.24: Jacket Removing
2. Install Moisture Sealing as shown in Figure 5.25.
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Figure 5.25: Moisture Sealing Installation
3. Mark and Remove Insulation Screen as shown in Figure 5.26.
Figure 5.26: Marke and Remove Insulation Screen.
4. I
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nstall Cable Lug as shown in Figure 5.27.
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Figure 5.27: Install Cable Lug.
5. Install Void Filler as shown in Figure 5.28.
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Figure 5.28: Void Filler Installation
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6. Install Stress control; as shown in Figure 5.29.
Figure 5.29: Stress control Installation
7. Install Moisture Sealing as shown in Figure 5.30.
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Figure 5.30: Moisture Sealing Installation
8. Install Non-Tracking Sleeve; as shown in Figure 5.31.
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Figure 5.31: Non-Tracking Sleeve Installation
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9. Install Creepage for Terminator as shown in Figure 5.32. The number of Creepage will
depend on voltage level as shown in Figure 5.33.
Figure 5.32: Creepage Installation
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Figure 5.33: Number of Creepage for Terminator
And Minimum Clearances of Terminator is shown in Table 5.2
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Table 5.2: Minimum Clearances of Terminator
10. Before Connect to 22,33 kV Riser pole as shown in Figure 5.34.
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Figure 5.34: 22 kV Riser pole
5.4.2 Terminations for 69,115 kV cable with Rubber Stress Cone Installation
Underground cable has different structure such as wire shield, Al shield, Al corrugate and etc. Then,
we need to check the configuration and structure of underground cables that should be respect to the
cable termination. The following items will be checked include:
For Cable; We check the cable size such as diameter of conductor, roundness of cable insulation,
thickness of the insulation screen should be respect to the size of cable termination. The cable
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insulation will be checked by Megohmmeter or called Megger Test as shown in Figure 5.35, If the
cable insulation shouldnt be found inferior or damage.
Figure 5.35: Megohmmeter or Megger
For cable termination kit ; we check the number of cable termination devices or accessories
according to the kits material list which should be complete with no damage and respect to the
underground cable. Check the expired date of the cable termination kit especially the part of plastic
and rubber.
Tools or equipment are needed for cable termination installation as shown from Figure 5.36.1 to
Figure 5.36.22
Figure 5.36.1 : Cable Heater with Temperature Control
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Figure 5.36.2 : Cable cutter saw Figure 5.36.3 : Screen &
Insulation Removal Tool
Figure 5.36.4 : Sandpaper Tool Figure 5.36.5 : Measuring
Vernier and Tape
Figure 5.36.6 : Coffing Hoist Figure 5.36.7 : Steel Angle
0.75-1.5 ton
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Figure 5.36.8 : Cable Cutter Knifes, Pliers, Screw Drivers,
Hammers, Jacket Removal Tools and Brass Brush
Figure 5.36.9 : Torque Wrench Figure 5.36.10 : Stress coneFitting Tool
Figure 5.36.11 : Hydraulic Crimping Tool with Proper Crimping Dies
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Figure 5.36.12 : Torch Handle, Nozzles, High Pressure Hose, Compact Gas, Safety Valve
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Figure 5.36.13 : Wrench Figure 5.36.14 : Thermometer
Figure 5.36.15 : Heavy-duty Soldering Iron Figure 5.36.16 : Hot Air Gun
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Figure 5.36.17 : Glass Blade Figure 5.36.18 : Glove Figure 5.36.19 : Marker
Figure 5.36.20 : Plastic wrap Figure 5.36.21 : Dust mask Figure 5.36.22 : Cleaning cloth
The main problem of the cable termination installation is the cable skill preparation process such
as Jacket, Insulation Screen and Metal shield that are needed the refinement and must not make
any part caused damage as detailed in chapter 3. Then we will see cable preparation process for
termination.
(1) Procedure from Cable Installation to Top Connector Installation as follow
Install cable to the pole and fix the supporting structures tightly as shown in Figure 5.37.
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Figure 5.37 The Cable Installation
Cut off the end of cable over the installation for approximately 200 mm. as shown in Figure
5.38
Figure 5.38 Cut Off the End of Cable
Heat the cable with cable heater at 80
o
C for 4 hours and after that fix cable with the steel
angle for 24 hours until cool down as shown in Figure 5.39
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Figure 5.39 Heat the cable with cable heater and fix cable with the steel angle
Measure the length of terminator insulator and then record it. Dont forget to mark that which
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Measure the length of terminator insulator and then record it. Dont forget to mark that which
terminator insulator will be installed for which phase because the cutting length of cable
depends on the length of terminator insulator as shown in Figure 5.40.
Figure 5.40: Measure the length of terminator insulator
Install the base plate insulator with the base plate and with supporting structures. In this
process we have to check the level for balancing as shown in Figure 5.41.
Figure 5.41 Level Balancing Check
Measure the length of cable by use terminator insulator length that we had recorded. After
that cut the end of cable by cable cutter saw as shown in Figure 5.42
83
Figure 5.42: Cut the End of Cable
If the cable has the flipper at the outer sheath layer, the flipper and the jacket will be
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If the cable has the flipper at the outer sheath layer, the flipper and the jacket will be
removed for approximately 300 mm. under the point which jacket is opened as shown in
Figure 5.43
Figure 5.43: Flipper Removing
For AL laminated sheath cable, Al laminated sheath has to be connected to the grounding.
Figure 5.44 shows AL laminated sheath cable.
F
84
igure 5.44: AL Laminated Sheath Cable
Remove the jacket in the length as specified in the instruction manual. In this process, we
need the carefulness to prevent the cable damage. For removable jacket, we need the
special tool (Jacket remove tool) and should not use the screw driver to open the jacket
because it will damage the cable as shown in Figure 5.45.
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Figure 5.45: Remove the jacket
Remove the semi conductive W/B as shown in Figure 5.46.
Figure 5.46: Remove the semi conductive W/B.
Fold the metallic shield (copper wires) and cut it in the suitable length as shown in Figure
5.47.
F
85
igure 5.47: Fold the Copper Wire.
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Remove the insulation screen by the Screen & Insulation removal tool as shown in Figure
5.48.
Figure 5.48: Insulation Screen Removing
Pencil the insulation screen in slope shape at the size and length according to the
instruction manual by using the sand paper as shown in Figure 5.49.
Figure 5.49: Pencil the Insulation screen
Rub the conductor insulation by sandpaper tool as showed on Figure 5.50.
F
86
igure 5.50:
Rub the
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Cable
Insulation by
Sandpaper
Tool.
Wrap
insulation
screen and
conductor insulation by the plastic wrap as shown in Figure 5.51
Figure 5.51: Wrap the Insulation Screen and Conductor Insulation.
At the end of the cable will be installed a top connector. We have to remove the conductor
insulation and the conductor screen. We have to make the conductor insulation slope and
rub the conductor insulation by sandpaper. Figure 5.52 shows conductor insulation rub in
slope by sand paper.
Figure 5.52: Make the Conductor Insulation Slope and Rub the Conductor Insulation
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Put the top connector on the conductor and press the top connector by the hydraulic
crimping tool with proper crimping die as shown in Figure 5.53.
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Figure 5.53: Press the Top Connector
Wrap the top connector with tape according to the suggestion in the instruction manual as
shown in Figure 5.54. So Cable is prompt to next step is stress relief control installation
Figure 5.54: Wrap the top connector with tape
(2) Stress control installation
Before installing the stress control we have to know size of stress control because the
stress control should be suitable to the size of cable. Check the stress control that should be
without the scratch or dust inside the stress control. Dont use knife, cutter or sharp tools to open
the stress cone package because it will lead the stress cone damages as shown in Figure 5.55.
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F
88
igure 5.55: Check the Stress Control
Check the cable should not has the scratch that will lead the stress cone damage during the
installation. Clean the cable using cablecleaning solvent. Mark the position that will be
installed stress cone with PVC tape. Figure 5.56 shows position marking.
Figure 5.56: Position Marking
Put the equipments under the base plate such as Heat shrinkable tube, Screen pot, and tall
tube depend on each product as shown in Figure 5.57.
Figure 5.57: Put the Equipments under the Base Plate
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Install the base plate with the insulator on the supporting structures as shown in Figure 5.58
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Figure 5.58: Install the Base Plate with the Insulator
Check stress cone that should be without the scratch. If the stress cone has scratch inside,
it means that this stress cone cannot be used as shown in Figure 5.59.
Figure 5.59: Check Stress Cone
Smear the Silicone grease on the conductor insulation and inside the stress cone as shown
in Figure 5.60.
Figure 5.60: Smear the Silicone grease
Put the stress cone on the cable at correct position as shown in
Figure 5.61.
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F
90
igure 5.61: Put the Stress Cone on the Cable
Clean the silicone grease on the conductor insulation and the stress cone. Clean the cable
with cleaning solvent and remove out of the PVC tape as shown in Figure 5.62
Figure 5.62: Clean the Cable with Cleaning Solvent
Wrap the tape and copper net according to the instruction manual as
shown in Figure 5.63
Figure 5.63: Wrap the Tape and Copper Net
(3) The termination insulator installation and compound filling
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Clean outside and inside the insulator and use plastic wrap cover top and bottom of the
insulator as showed on Figure 5.64
F
91
igure 5.64: Clean Outside and Inside Insulator and Plastic Wraping
Clean the cable and the stress cone with cable-cleaning solvent. Figure 5.65 shows the
position of cable and the stress cone
Figure 5.65: Cable and the Stress Cone
Use the silicone grease coated on O-rings and put them on the base plate at right position.
Install the insulator on the base plate and use bolts to fix the insulator with the base plate as
shown in Figure 5.66.
Figure 5.66: Insulator on the Base Plate Installation
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Boil compound follow the instruction manual after that leave it cool down at the specify
temperature. Pour compound in the insulator at the specify level. (Depend on each product)
Figure 5.67.1-5.67.2
Figure 5.67.1 : Boil compound Figure 5.67.2 : Pour compound in the insulator.
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Wait until compound is cool and no air bubble. Close the top cover of the insulator. Tighten
the bolts of the top cover as shown in Figure 5.68.
Figure 5.68: Tighten the Bolts of the Top Cover
(4) Grounding
Cut the copper wire in the suitable length and Wrap the PVC tape. Tighten Heat shrinkable tube by heat as
shown in Figure 5.69.
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Figure 5.69: Tighten Heat shrinkable tube by heat.
Tight them together with the cable lug and compress the cable lug by the hydraulic crimping
tool with proper crimping die crimp as shown in Figure 5.70.
F
93
igure 5.70: Tight the Copper Wire
Install the cable lug at the grounding position as shown in Figure 5.71.
Figure 5.71: Install the cable lug.
(5) Before Connect to 69,115 kV Riser pole as shown in Figure 5.72.
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Figure 5.72: 69,115 kV Riser pole
5.5 Splicing for 69,115 kV
5.5.1 There are two objectives of splicing.
(1) Extending the cable lines length as your need, generally, cable line manufacture
should be standard 500 meters length. The cable feeder that longer than 500 meters should be
spliced and suitable for cable feeder length. In the splicing process, grounding system will be
connected many ways. For example, connecting the ground line in cross bounding system, in
order to reducing shield voltage and connect the ground in a direct extending.
(2) For repairing damaged cable in case of damaged case, we have to take new cable joint
with old cable by splicing for turn back to the power system.
5.5.2 Splicing structure has 3 mains parts.
(1) Connector is used for connecting both sides of conductor for current flow.
(2) Joint body is used for electrical field control and insulation.
(
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3) Outer jacket is used for protecting water and moisture.
Normally, splicing will be installed in straight line for reducing least torque initial to splicing
point. Location for installing the splicing is manhole, cable trench.
5.5.3 Splicing has two mains design
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First of all is separately ground shield joint body, second is directly ground shield joint
body. Separately ground shield joint body will have small break at outer sheet of joint body for
separating ground shield of both sides as Figure 5.73. Directly ground shield joint body will have a
continued outer sheet. Separately ground shield joint body can be changed to be directly ground
shield joint body by semi conductive taping for connecting both sides of shield ground. Both sides
of cable should be heat at 80 degree C. for 4-6 hours before installation, and 12 hours for being
straight and cool. Be careful that thermostat controller will operate correctly if the thermostat
controller is error, so the cable will conform at 95 degree C. Both coppers shield ground will
completely connect because when a fault occur, the current fault will turn back to substation
through this ground shield. Ground shield connector will not install on joint body because when
the joint body expand with current load, the ground shield connector will press on joint body. Most
importantly, splicing will be installed by only certified jointer.
Figure 5.73: Separately ground shield joint body
S
95
ummary step of splicing installation
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Figure 5.74: Install connector
Figure 5.75: Install joint Body
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Figure 5.76: Lubricant with silicone grease
Figure 5.77: Shield ground install
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Figure 5.78: Outer sheath install
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Chapter 6
Cable Testing
6.1 Introduction
The testing is most important method for approval quality of underground cable. The point of
testing was before installation called factory testing and after installation called field test or
commissioning test. Factory testing is test for new cable before shipping to confirm that these
cables conform to the contracts specification. Field Testing is for cable checking for standard
quality assurance after installation and cable deterioration investigation after service and fault
location analysis.
PEA test requirement for 22, 33 kV and 115 kV underground cables carried out in
accordance with the IEC 60502 and IEC 60840 standards.
6.2 Factory Testing of New Cables
The objective of factory testing is for acceptance the cable and their accessory conforming to
the contracts specification. If there is any deviation from contracts specification, it must be
discussed and corrected as mentioned in the contract before delivery to site or purchasers
warehouse. There are two testing categories for factory test called Type test and Routine test.
Type test shall be carried out on each type and size of cable and routine test shall be carried out
on each drum of cable.
6.2.1 Type Test
6.2.1.1 For 22 & 33 kV Cable
As said previously, Type test shall be carried out on each type and size of cable to
meet IEC 60502 standard. The following test items shall be carried out at manufacturers factory
or testing institution to check that whether the cable shall comply with the requirements mentioned
below:
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Partial discharge test (PD test)
Bending Test followed by Partial discharge test
Tan Measurement
Heating cycle test followed by Partial discharge test
Impulse Voltage Test followed by power frequency voltage test
Voltage test for 4 hours
Resistivity of semi-conducting screens
Conductor and dimensions examination
Test for determining the mechanical properties of insulation before and after ageing
Test for determining the mechanical properties of non-metallic sheath before and after
ageing
Water absorption test on insulation
99
6.2.1.2 For 115 kV Cable
As same as 22, 33 kV cable, Type test for 115 kV Cable shall be carried out on each
type and size of cable to meet the IEC 60840 standard. Before testing, we have to measure
insulation thickness; usually we measure at 6 positions. If average thickness is more than 5% of
specified value, when we test withstand voltage test, we have to adjust testing voltage for electric
stress at conductor screen same as specified stress at specified thickness. If average thickness is
more than 15% of specified value, we cannot use that sample cable for type test. The following
test items shall be carried out at manufacturers factory or testing institution to check that whether
the cable shall comply with the requirements mentioned below:
Bending Test followed by Partial discharge test
Tan Measurement
Heating cycle test followed by Partial discharge test
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Impulse Voltage Test followed by power frequency voltage test
Conductor and dimensions examination
Resistivity of semi-conducting screens
Test for determining the mechanical properties of insulation before and
after ageing
Test for determining the mechanical properties of non-metallic sheath
before and after ageing
Ageing test of compatibility of materials
Pressure test at high temperature on sheath
Hot set test
Carbon black content of PE sheath
Shrinkage test for XLPE insulation
Water absorption test on insulation
6.2.2 Routine Test
6.2.2.1 For 22 & 33 kV Cable
Routine test shall be carried out on each drum of cable. The following test items shall
be carried out at manufacturers factory or testing institution to check that the whole of each drum
complies with the requirements Test items is:
Measurement of conductor resistance
Partial discharge test (PD test)
Voltage test
Sample test (less than 10% of total length)
Conductor and dimensions examination
Voltage test for 4 hours
Hot Set test for XLPE insulation
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6.2.2.2 For 115 kV Cable
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As same as 22, 33 kV cable, Routine test shall be carried out on each drum of cable. The
following test items shall be carried out at manufacturers factory or testing
institution to check that whether the cable shall comply with the requirements
mentioned below:
Measurement of conductor resistance
Partial discharge test (PD test)
Voltage test
Sample test (less than 10% of total length)
Conductor and dimensions examination
Measurement of electrical conductor resistance
Hot Set test for XLPE insulation
Measurement of capacitance
The whole test items above are most likely items which may be different depended on
manufacturer and customer agreement. Then we will explain the details of each test item.
- Partial discharge test (PD test), PD test is allocated dielectric breakdown of a small
portion of insulation under high voltage stress.
- For 22, 33 kV, apply 2U
0
(U
0
is phase to ground nominal voltage) and decrease to
1.73 U
0 .
PD level must not exceed 10 pC.
- For 115 kV, apply 1.75U0

(U
0
is phase to ground nominal voltage) and decrease to
1.5 U
0
. PD level must not exceed 10 pC
- Bending Test, this test is for cable simulation after installation when bent, by bent around a test
cylinder, followed by Partial discharge test.
- Tan Measurement, this test is dielectric loss measurement of cable by apply U
0
at the
temperature 95 to 100 degree Celsius of cable conductor.
- Heating cycle test, this test is for cable simulation after energize, by Current injected by
Current transformer for 8 hours (Conductor temperature shall be 95-100 degree Celsius), then
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release the cable cool down. Do it again until 20 cycle times, followed by Partial discharge test for
verification. There is another heating cycle test process which is different criteria such as heating
cycle test at 1,000 hours apply 2U
0
for 12 hours at 30 cycle times recommended by KEMA.
- Impulse voltage test followed by power frequency voltage test, this test is breakdown
test after apply impulse voltage. The cable must withstand breakdown in process of the test
following:
- For 22 & 33 kV, apply impulse voltage ( 125 kV for 22 kV and 170 kV for 33 kV),
after 3 hours for cable cool down, then apply AC voltage 3.5U
0
for 15 minutes and
then check for cable breakdown.
- For 115 kV, apply impulse voltage ( 550 kV ), after cable cool down then apply AC
voltage 2.5U
0
for 15 minutes and then check for cable breakdown
- Voltage test for 4 hours, perform this test by apply voltage until 4U
0
to sample cable
(more than 5 meters long) until 4 hours. The cable must not breakdown. (This test impact to cable
life so we should not test all of cable)
- Resistivity of semi-conducting screens, this test measures resistance of conductor
screen and insulation screen after apply temperature to 902 degree Celsius for at least 30
minutes. The resistance of conductor screen must be less than 1000 ohms-m., and resistance of
insulation screen must be lower than 500ohms-m.
101
- Conductor and dimensions examination, this test measures insulation thickness and
other dimension of cable composition, all of dimension should be examined to meet specification.
- Test for determining the mechanical properties of insulation before and after
ageing, this test is to prove and compare mechanical properties of insulation (Tensile Strength,
Elongation at break) before and after ageing
- Test for determining the mechanical properties of non-metallic sheath before and
after ageing, this test is to prove and compare mechanical properties of non-metallic sheath
(Tensile Strength, Elongation at break) before and after ageing
- Water absorption test on insulation, this test measures water absorption of
insulation.After insulation immerge to hot water, and then we shall compare the different
weight,before and after immerging,of insulation must be less than specified value
- Measurement of conductor resistance, this test measures conductor resistance
change at environment temperature according to IEC 60228(for conductor) standard.
- Voltage test,
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- For 22 & 33 kV, by apply voltage until 3.5U
0
to all cable until 5 minutes The cable
must be not breakdown.
- For 115 kV, by apply voltage until 2.5U
0
to all cable until 30 minutes. The cable must
be not breakdown.
- Sample test (less than 10% of total length)
- Conductor and dimensions examination, this test measures insulation thickness
and other dimension of cable composition, and all of dimension should be examined
to meet specification.
- Hot Set test for XLPE insulation, this test is XLPE insulation investigation. We
apply temperature at XLPE sample up to 2003 degree Celsius and then we
measure elongation which must be less than specified value.
- Ageing test of compatibility of materials, this test is for compatibility of materials
test, by apply temperature to the cable sample to be 1002 degree Celsius for 168
hours and then we measure tensile strength and elongation which must be less than
specified value.
- Pressure test at high temperature on sheath, this test proves formation change after
apply pressure at high temperature on sheath.
- Carbon black content of PE sheath, this test proves carbon black content of PE sheath,
by burn PE sheath, and check weight of carbon black. That carbon black content must be
conform to specification for UV protection. Another modern tool can measure carbon black
besides burning PE sheath.
- Shrinkage test for XLPE insulation, this test proves XLPE insulation shrinkage when
apply temperature.
- Measurement of capacitance, this test measures capacitance between conductor and
shield.
6.3 Field Test
F
102
ield Testing can be broadly grouped into three categories: acceptance, maintenance and fault
location testing. An acceptance test is conducted on cable after
installation but before energizing, the tests are designed to detect installation or shipping damage
that might affect cable performance. Maintenance test is conducted after the cable energizing or
has been placed in service and are intended to detect in-service deterioration. Fault location test,
on the other hand, is used to pinpoint the exact failure site in a cable that has actually failed.
Knowing exact location where the cable has failed will result the cable to be repaired or replaced
as necessary. The following test items are practically performed by PEA:
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- Megger test by Megohmmeter
- DC Hi-Pot test (DC High Potential test)
- V LF Test (Very Low Frequency Test)
6.3.1 Megger test, this test is an insulation resistance measurement test which is non-
destructive test to the cable, by tool called Megohmmeter (Megger) as shown in Figure 6.1. It is
an insulation property test to verify whether the insulation has been injured, contaminated
(moisture, dust or carbon), in any way to cause a short circuit when normal power is applied to it.
DC voltage is applied to the cable under test by applying the proper voltage is essential not to
damage the cable. The proper voltage for each voltage level showed on Table 6.1
Figure 6.1 : DC Hi-Pot test set (left side) and Megohmmeter (right side)
Voltage Rating of Cables (V) Megohmmeter Voltage (V)
< 300 500
300-600 500-1,000
2,400-5,000 2,500-5,000
5,000-15,000 5,000-15,000
>15,000 10,000-15,000
Refer to Electrical Power Equipment Maintenance and Testing
Table 6.1 : Proper Megohmmeter Voltage for Each Voltage Level
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There are four steps for Megger test as shown below:
1. Release cable to de-energize
2. Discharge cable be connected to ground
3. Connect conductor of cable to L point of Megohmmeter (See figure 6.2)
4. Connect sheath to E point of Megohmmeter and connect to ground
Figure 6.2 : Conductor Connection of Megohmmeter Drawing
Normally resistant value is not less than 2,000 M for 22, 33 kV and 115 kV.
6.3.2 DC Hi-Pot test (DC High Potential test)
This test is called dielectric strength of insulation test or leakage current measurement
technique. The test is a diagnostic test which involves the measurement of leakage current when
a high voltage is applied to the conductor while the metallic shield of the cable is grounded. The
elevated voltage levels place more electric stress on the dielectric. The behavioral characteristics
of the leakage current are evaluated to determine the dielectric strength of insulation. DC Hi-Pot
test testing is commonly applied at much higher voltage levels than megger testing. The applied
voltage level can be seen in Table 6.2, both installation test and maintenance test.
Uo /U (Um) (kV)
Installation Test

4Uo
Maintenance Test
75% of installation test
3.6/6(7.2) 14.4 10.8
6/10(12) 24 18
8.7/15(17.5) 34.8 26.1
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12/20(24) 48 36
18/30(36) 72 54
36/60-69(36) 108 81
64/110-115(64) 192 144
Uo is phase to ground voltage,
U is phase to phase voltage,
Um is Maximum system voltage
T
104
able 6.2 : Voltage level applied of DC Hi-Pot test for Installation and Maintenance Test
PEA recommends DC high voltage test in medium voltage underground cable accordance
with IEC standard.
6.3.3 VLF Test(Very Low Frequency Test)
The purpose of VLF Test is the same as DC Hi-Pot test and VLF testing is very simple. It is just
an AC Hi-Pot but with lower frequency ranging from 0.01-0.1 Hz. VLF test is to check the quality
of cable installation and accessories such as joint or splice. Many failures are due to damages
during installation and/or defective of workmanship. VLF test is the method that for reducing
harmful that may happen from DC High voltage test. Now we can use for field testing cable at site
by VLF test set as shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3 : VLF test Set
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After installation, PEA require commissioning test by AC withstand 24hrs test is applied for
assurance that the underground cable can be reliable and safety service in power system
distribution.
6.4 Sample of Document
6.4.1 Type Test Report of 123 kV XLPE Underground Cable (for 115 kV System)
6.4.2 Type Test Report of 33 kV XLPE Underground Cable
6.4.3 Routine Test Report of 36 kV XLPE Underground Cable (for 33 kV System)
105
Chapter 7
Maintenance
7.1 Introduction
After the underground cable is energized into service in power distribution system, PEA keeps
maintenance for underground cable in 2 main types. First is preventive maintenance which is one
of the planned maintenances carried out in predetermined time intervals to prevent any possible
fault. Preventive maintenance includes routine monitoring, repair of cable, or part replacement
when incipient faults are detected by routine monitoring or predicted by estimation. Second is
corrective maintenance which is correction after fault took place.
7.2 Preventive maintenance, every year after underground cable is put into service in power
distribution system. The Preventive maintenance items are as follows:
7.2.1 Thermal viewer check at all electrical joints, We divide period of maintenance plan to
3 periods which is depend on value or figure of temperature as shown below:
Below 30
o
C we recommend to keep normal maintenance plan
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30 to 60
o
C we recommend perform maintenance plan in 1 month
More than 60
o
C we recommend to perform maintenance plan in 1 week
In case of (2) and (3), it is known that there is some bad electrical contact of that
joint, so it needs to clean to get back a good contact.
7.2.2 Visual check, check grounding connection and corrosion.
7.2.3 Cleaning all part of terminator for cleaning the pollution at the terminator
surface.
7.2.4 Contact resistant test for all electrical connector, the value must be less than 75
micro Ohm for 100A DC.
7.2.5 Megger test for safety before back to the system.
If preventive maintenance detecting any incipient failure, we have to repair, or replace some
deteriorated parts of cable or cable accessories based on investigation report.
7.3 Corrective maintenance, in case there is a fault occurs which may be caused by human or
other unforeseen natural disaster, after fault has occurred in the underground cable system. The
corrective maintenance process for each step is explained below.
Visual check, we have to check and find the fault location along underground cable feeder.
Analyze problem, usually most of the problem of fault in underground shall be caused by
two main cases.
First problem is from workmanship and the second problem is from the underground cable
quality.
I
106
n case of workmanship problem that means improper operation or operate deviation from
specification provided, we have to check all other underground cable feeders those performed by
this team too.
In case of underground cable problem that means the cable is overloaded or normal wear
and tear after service.
Repair after analyze and solve the problem, if the fault in cable line or cable termination and
jointing founded, the re-terminating and splicing must be done as soon as possible.
Megger test and AC withstand 24 hrs, after solved the problem, is done to make sure before
re-energize.
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Follow up after re-energize the power distribution system.
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107
Appendix
A.1 Configuration of 22,33 kV Underground Cable
These specifications cover 22 kV and 33 kV single-core underground power cables with
copper conductor, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation, copper wire screen, and
polyethylene (PE) sheath The cable shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with the
latest IEC Publication 228, IEC Publication 502, and IEC Publication 540; unless otherwise
specified in these specifications.
The underground power cables shall be designed, constructed, and installed for operation
under the following conditions.
System voltage : 3-phase, 22 kV and 33 kV
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Rated frequency : 50 Hz
Conductor temperature
for normal operation : continuously 90 C
for emergency overload condition : 130 C
for short-circuit condition : 250 C
The structure of 22, 33 kV underground cable show in Figure A.1. And the construction of the
underground power cables shall be according to the following requirements and technical data as
shown in Table A.1 and Table A.2. Table A.1 show technical data of 22 kV XLPE underground
cable. And Table A.2 show technical data of 33 kV XLPE underground cable.
Figure A.1 : 22, 33 kV Underground Cable Structure
108
Nominal cross-
sectional area of
conductor (mm
2
)
35 50 95 120 185 240 400 500
Min. number of wires
in conductor
6 6 15 18 30 34 53 53
Diameter of
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Diameter of
conductor + 1%
(mm)
6.95 8.33 11.45 12.95 15.98 18.47 23.39 26.67
Thickness of
conductor screen,
approx. (mm)
0.5
Thickness of
insulation (mm)
5.5
Diameter over
insulation, approx.
(mm)
19.0 20.5 23.5 25 28 30.5 35.5 39.0
Thickness of
insulation screen,
approx. (mm)
0.5
Total cross-
sectional area of
copper wire screen,
minimum (mm
2
)
10 10 10 10 25 25 25 25
Number of wire
screen, minimum
20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30
Thickness of non-
metallic sheath
(mm)
1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.6
Overall diameter,
approx. (mm)
28 30 33 34 38 42 48 52
Max. d.c. resistance
of conductor at 20
C (/km) 0.524 0.387 0.193 0.153 0.0991 0.0754 0.0470 0.0366
Table A.1 : Technical Data of 22 kV XLPE Underground Cable
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109
Nominal cross-sectional area of
conductor (mm
2
)
50 95 120 185 240 400 500
Min. number of wires in
conductor
15 18 30 30 34 53 53
Diameter of conductor + 1%
(mm)
8.33 11.45 12.95 15.98 18.47 23.39 26.67
Thickness of conductor
screen, approx. (mm)
0.5
Thickness of insulation (mm) 8.0
Diameter over insulation,
approx. (mm)
25.5 28.5 30.0 33.0 35.5 40.5 44.0
Thickness of insulation
screen, approx. (mm)
0.5
Total cross-sectional area of
copper wire screen, minimum
(mm
2
)
10 10 10 25 25 25 25
Number of wire screen,
minimum
20 20 20 30 30 30 30
Thickness of non-metallic
sheath (mm)
2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.7
Overall diameter, approx.
(mm)
35 38 40 44 47 55 58
Max. d.c. resistance of
conductor at 20 C (/km)
0.387 0.193 0.153 0.0991 0.0754 0.0470 0.0366
Table A.2 : Technical Data of 33 kV XLPE Underground Cable
The detail of underground cable each layer as shown in figure A.1 is
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1. Conductor
The conductor shall be plain annealed copper and compact round concentric lay stranded
construction conformable to IEC Publication 228.
2. Conductor Screen
Over the conductor, semi-conductive XLPE shall be extruded as conductor screen layer.
The average thickness of the conductor screen shall be as the value specified in Table A.1 and
Table A.2 for 22 kV and 33 kV accordingly.
3. Insulation
The insulation shall be unfilled, no carbon black, XLPE. The conductor screen layer, the
insulation layer and the insulation screen layer shall be provided by tandem extrusion or
simultaneous extrusion and continuous vulcanizer. Only the dry curing process is required.
Conventional steam or hot water curing processes are not accepted. The average thickness of
the insulation shall not be less than the nominal value specified in Table A.1 and Table A.2 for 22
kV and 33 kV accordingly. The minimum thickness of the insulation shall not be less than 90 per
cent of the nominal value.
110
4. Insulation Screen
Over the XLPE insulation, semi-conductive XLPE shall be extruded as insulation screen
layer. The average thickness of the insulation screen shall be as the value specified in Table A.1
and Table A.2 for 22 kV and 33 kV accordingly.
5. Metallic Screen (Grounding Screen)
The metallic screen shall be a concentric layer of copper wires which is electrically
continuous and bonded together throughout the cable length with copper contact tape. The total
cross-sectional area and minimum number of wires of the metallic screen shall not be less than
the value specified in Table A.1 and Table A.2 for 22 kV and 33 kV accordingly.
6. Synthetic Water Blocking & Cushioning Tape
A non-conductive non-biodegradable water blocking tape shall be applied either under or
over the metallic screen to provide a continuous longitudinal watertight barrier throughout the
cable length. The tape shall have sufficient thickness to perform well as a thermal stress relief
layer and shall be served as cushioning and bedding. The tape shall be compatible with other
cable materials and shall not create corroding effect on adjacent metal layer during heat ageing of
the cable.
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7. Non-metallic Sheath
The sheath shall be black PE suitable for use with the cable having maximum conductor
temperature of 90 C and 130 C under normal and emergency condition respectively. The
average thickness of the sheath shall not be less than the nominal value specified in Table A.1
and Table A.2 for 22 kV and 33 kV accordingly. The minimum thickness of the sheath shall not be
less than 80 per cent of the nominal value.
A.2 Configuration of 115 kV Underground Cable
These specifications cover 115 kV single-core underground power cable with copper
conductor, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation, copper wire screen, and polyethylene
(PE) sheath. The cable shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with the latest IEC
Publication 228 and IEC Publication 840; unless otherwise specified in these specifications.
The underground power cable shall be designed, constructed, and installed for operation
under the following conditions.
System voltage : 3-phase, 115 kV, solidly grounded neutral
Rated frequency : 50 Hz
Conductor temperature
for normal operation : Continuously 90 C
for emergency overload condition : 130 C
for short-circuit condition : 250 C
111
The structure of 115 kV underground cable show in Figure A.2. And the construction of the
underground power cables shall be according to the following requirements and technical data as
shown in Table A.3. Table A.3 show technical data of 115 kV XLPE underground cable.
Figure A.2 : 115 kV Underground Cable Structure
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Descriptions Unit Data
Conductor
Material - Copper
Nominal cross-sectional area
mm
2 800
Shape - Circular compact
stranded
Diameter of conductor mm 34.0 1%
DC resistance at 20 C (Max.) /km 0.0221
Conductor Screen Thickness (Approx.) mm 1.0
Insulation
Material - XLPE
Thickness mm 16.0
Thickness, at any place (Min.) mm 14.4
Insulation Screen Thickness (Approx.) mm 1.0
Synthetic Water
Blocking Layer
Thickness (Approx.) mm 0.5
Copper Wire
Screen
Total cross-sectional area
(Min.)
mm
2 95
Number of wire (Min.) - 50
Synthetic Water
Blocking &
Cushioning Tape
Thickness (Approx.) mm 1.0
Aluminium Tape
as Radial
Water barrier
Thickness (Nominal) - 0.19
Thickness at any place (Min.) mm 0.17
Sheath Ribbed
Material - PE
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Sheath Ribbed
type
Thickness excluding rib
(Nominal)
mm 3.5
Thickness at any place (Min.) mm 3.0
Table A.3 : Technical Data of 115 kV XLPE Underground Cable
112
The detail of underground cable each layer as shown in figure A.2 is
1. Conductor
The conductor shall be plain annealed copper and compact round concentric lay stranded
construction conformable to IEC Publication 228.
2. Conductor Screen
Over the conductor, semi-conductive XLPE shall be extruded as conductor screen layer.
The average thickness of the conductor screen shall be as value specified in Table A.3
3. Insulation
The insulation shall be unfilled, no carbon black, XLPE, tandem or simultaneously extruded
with the semi-conductive conductor screen layer and insulation screen layer. Only the dry curing
process is required. Conventional steam or hot water curing processes are not accepted. The
average thickness of the insulation shall not be less than the nominal value specified in Table A.3.
The minimum thickness of the insulation shall not be less than 90 per cent of the nominal value.
4. Insulation Screen
Over the XLPE insulation, semi-conductive XLPE shall be extruded as insulation screen
layer. The average thickness of the insulation screen shall be as value specified in Table A.3
5. Synthetic Water Blocking Layer
A semi-conductive non-biodegradable water blocking layer shall be provided under the
metallic screen to provide a continuous longitudinal watertight barrier throughout the cable length.
This layer shall be compatible with other cable materials and shall not effect corroding acting on
adjacent metal layers during heat aging of the cable.
6. Metallic Screen (Grounding Screen)
The metallic screen shall be a concentric layer of copper wires which is electrically
continuous and bonded together throughout the cable length with copper contact tape. The total
cross-sectional area and minimum number of wires of the metallic screen shall not be less than
the value specified in Table A.3
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7. Synthetic Water Blocking & Cushioning Tape
A non-conductive non-biodegradable water blocking tape shall be applied over the metallic
screen to provide a continuous longitudinal watertight barrier throughout the cable length. The
tape shall have sufficient thickness to perform well as a thermal stress relief layer and shall be
served as cushioning and bedding. The tape shall be compatible with other cable materials and
shall not create corroding effect on adjacent metal layer during heat ageing of the cable.
8. Radial Water Barrier
As a protection against formation of water trees in the insulation, a traverse water barrier
consisting of laminated aluminum tape having average thickness at least 0.19 mm coated on both
sides with an ethylene acrylic adhesive copolymer or polyethylene shall be incorperated under the
nonmetallic sheath.
113
9. Non-metallic Sheath
The sheath shall be black PE suitable for use with the cable having maximum conductor
temperature of 90oC and 130o C under normal and emergency condition respectively. The
sheath shall be of ribbed type having crest width and depth of approx. 2.5 mm each and center to
center distance between crests shall be approx. 7 mm. The average thickness of the sheath
(excluding rib) shall not be less than the nominal value specified in Table A.3. The minimum
thickness of the sheath shall not be less than 85 per cent of the nominal value.
A.3 Cable Termination Kits for 22, 33 kV XLPE Cable
Outdoor and indoor cable termination kits to be used with underground cable 22 , 33 kV
single-core copper conductor, cross-linked polyethylene insulated, copper wires screen and
polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride sheath shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with the
latest revision of IEEE standard 48, DIN 57278/VDE 0278 or equivalent; unless otherwise
specified in these specifications. The cable termination kits conforming to other national standards
having similar characteristics and quality may be proposed.
The cable termination kits shall be suitable for use in tropical climatic area and highly
contaminated atmosphere and shall be capable of operating at its full ratings in the following
conditions mentioned. Termination housing, modules or skirt shall be made of non-tracking,
weather and ultra violet resistant materials. Stress control for cable shield terminus may be
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molded stress cone, voltage gradient tube, or stress grading pad. Stress control by tape wrapping
shall not be accepted.
The cable termination kits shall be designed and manufactured for installation and
operation under the following conditions :
Altitude : up to 1,500 m above sea level
Ambient air terperature : 70 C, maximum
: 35 C, average on one (1) day
System voltage : 3-phase, 22 kV & 33 kV solidly grounded neutral
Rated frequency : 50 Hz
Cable termination kit shall conform physical dimensions of 22 kV and 33 kV single-core
XLPE underground cable as shown in Table A.4 and Table A.5
Nominal cross-sectional
area of conductor
mm2 35 50 95 120 185 240 400 500
Diameter of conductor
1%
mm
6.95 8.33 11.45 12.95 15.98 18.47 23.39 26.67
Diameter over insulation,
approx.
mm
19.0 20.5 23.5 25.0 28.0 30.5 35.5 39.0
Total cross-sectional
area of copper wire
screen, minimum
mm2 10 10 10 10 25 25 25 25
Overall diameter,
approx.
mm
28 30 32 34 38 42 48 52
T
114
able A.4 : Physical Dimensions of 22 kV Single-core XLPE Underground Cable
Nominal cross-sectional
area of conductor
mm2 50 95 120 185 240 400 500
Diameter of conductor 1% mm 8.33 11.45 12.95 15.98 18.47 23.39 26.67
Diameter over insulation,
approx.
mm
25.5 28.5 30.0 33.0 35.5 40.5 44.0
Total cross-sectional area
of copper wire screen,
mm2 10 10 10 25 25 25 25
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minimum
Overall diameter, approx. mm 35 38 40 44 47 55 58
Table A.5 : Physical Dimensions of 22 kV Single-core XLPE Underground Cable
A3.1 Outdoor cable termination kit, the outdoor cable termination kit shall be Class 1 in
accordance with IEEE Standard 48 or equivalent, and housing materials shall be Silicone rubber
or EPDM rubber of premolded slip-on type, premolded shrinkable type (cold shrinkable), or heat
shrinkable tubing type.
The termination kit shall be provided with :
1) The cable lug at underground copper cable side, compression type, two-hole NEMA pad, made
of copper or copper alloy with tin plated, suitable for connecting to copper conductor having
diameter as specified in Table A.4 and Table A.5 for 22 kV and 33 kV cable accordingly. The
connector shall be furnished with mounting hardware : two (2) bolts, two (2) nuts, two (2) flat
round washers, and two (2) spring lock washers of stainless steel.
2) Termination mounting bracket, for cross-arm section range of 100 mm x 100 mm to 120 mm x
120 mm (with carriage bolts of not less than 150 mm long). The bracket shall be similar to NEMA
type, and hot-dip galvanized conforming to ASTM Designation A 153 or equivalent.
3) Installation materials ; such as :
- clamping device for fixing the cable and termination to the mounting bracket, if any,
made of non-magnetic corrosion resistant material.
- grounding device for earthing.
- seal to prevent the entrance of the foreign particle and moisture into the cable.
- instruction and accessories.
A3.2 Indoor cable termination kit, The indoor cable termination kit shall be in accordance with
IEEE standard 48, DIN 57278/VDE 0278, or equivalent, and may be premolded slip-on type,
premolded shrinkable type (cold shrinkable) or heat shrinkable tubing type. Each termination kit
shall be provided with :
1) The cable lug at underground copper cable, compression type, 1-hole NEMA pad.
2) Grounding device for earthing, instruction, and accessories.
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115
A.4 Cable Termination Kits for 115 kV XLPE Cable
The termination kits to be used with underground cable 115 kV, single-core, copper
conductor, cross-linked polyethylene insulated, copper wires screen and polyethylene sheath
cable shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with the international latest revision of
standard of IEEE 48 or IEC 60840 or the later version of the mentioned standards; unless
otherwise specified in these specifications.
The cable termination kits shall be designed and manufactured for installation and operation in
tropical climatic area and highly contaminated atmosphere and shall be capable of operating at its
full ratings in the following service conditions mentioned :
Altitude : up to 1,000 m above sea level
Ambient air temperature : 40 C, maximum
: 35 C, average on one (1) day
System voltage : 3-phase, 115 kV solidly grounded neutral
Rated frequency : 50 Hz
Cable termination kit shall conform physical dimensions of 115 kV single-core XLPE
underground cable as shown in Table A.6
Nominal cross-sectional area of conductor mm2 800
Diameter of conductor 1% mm 34
Thickness of insulation Mm 16
Diameter over insulation, approx. mm 68
Total cross-sectional area of copper wire screen,
minimum
mm2 95
Overall diameter, approx. mm 86
Table A.6 : Physical Dimensions of 115 kV Single-core XLPE Underground Cable
A4.1 Outdoor cable termination kit, The housing type must be porcelain or polymer. Stress
control for cable shield terminus may be of molded stress cone or voltage gradient tube. Polymer
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housing type Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) tube must be made of uncut glass fibre epoxy
composite. Insulators shed must be made of hydrophobic Silicone rubber.
The termination kit shall be provided with :
1) The connection to underground cable conductor. The connection by exothermic welding
method shall not be accepted.
2) The connector shall be furnished with mounting hardware, bolts, nuts washers and spring lock
washers of stainless steel.
3) Grounding device for earthing the copper wire shield including earthing terminal shall be
furnished.
4) Terminators and earthing terminal shall be electrically separate from support frames by suitable
insulators. The supporting insulators shall be furnished by supplier.
5) Special tools needed to install the proposed termination as mentioned in the installation
instruction.
116
A.5 Splicing kits 22, 33 kV XLPE Cable
These specifications cover splicing kits to be used with underground cable 22 kV & 33 kV, single-
core, copper conductor, cross-linked polyethylene insulated, copper wires screen and
polyethylene sheath. The splicing kits shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with the
latest revision of IEEE standard 404, DIN 57 278/VDE 0278, or equivalent; unless otherwise
specified in these specifications.
The splicing kits shall be suitable for use in tropical climatic area and highly contaminated
atmosphere and shall be capable of operating at its full ratings in the following condition
mentioned. The splicing kits shall be designed and constructed for direct burial installation and
operation under the following conditions :
Ultitude : up to 1,500 m above sea level
Ambient air temperature : 40o C, maximum
Maximum soil temperature : 35o C, average on one (1) day
System voltage : 3-phase, 22 ,and 33 kV solidly grounded neutral
Rated frequency : 50 Hz
The splicing kit shall be premolded slip-on type, cold shrinkable type, or heat shrinkable type
Splicing method with tape wrapping shall not be accepted. Stress control for the cable shield
terminus may be molded stress cone or voltage gradient tube. Outer covering of splicing kit shall
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be semiconductive having grounding eye to provide a dead front ground shield for the insulation
body. Ground screen connection device shall be provided; and the connector for ground screen
connection, if necessary, shall also be provided. The splicing kits shall be suitable for cable
having diameter over insulation and overall diameter as specified in Table A.4 and Table A.5 for
22 kV and 33 kV cable accordingly. Also provided connector shall be suitable for copper
conductor having diameter as specified in Table A.4 and Table A.5. Outer sheath of shrinkable
tube for protecting from mechanical and humidity, and sealing for preventing water entering into
the cable when earthing the joint shall be provided. Each splicing kit shall be supplied with parts
ready for earthing in order to reduce the induced voltage at the joint.
A.6 Splicing kits 115 kV XLPE Cable
These specifications cover splicing kits to be used with underground cable 115 kV, single-core,
copper conductor, cross-linked polyethylene insulated, copper wires screen and polyethylene
sheath. The splicing kits shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with the latest revision
of standard IEEE 404, IEC 60840, or equivalent; unless otherwise specified in these
specifications.
The splicing kits shall be installed in the manhole which is subject to immerse in dirty water all the
year round and shall be capable of operating at its full ratings in the following condition
mentioned.
117
The splicing kit shall be premolded slip-on type, or heat shrinkable type. Splicing method with
tape wrapping shall not be accepted. Ground screen connection device shall be provided; and the
connector for ground screen connection, if necessary, shall also be provided.The splicing kits for
115 kV cable shall be suitable for operating on 115 kV system of 550 kV BIL. The splicing kits
shall be suitable for cable having the range
of diameter over insulation and the range of overall diameter as specified in Table A.6. Also
provided compression connector shall be suitable for copper conductor having diameter as
specified in Table A.6. Outer sheath for protecting from mechanical and humidity, and sealing for
preventing water entering into the cable when earthing the joint shall be provided. Each splicing
kit shall be supplied with parts ready for earthing in order to reduce the induced voltage at the
joint.
A.7 Current Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation
Table A.7.1 Operating condition, installation in ground
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118
Table A.7.2 Operating condition, installation in air
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119
Table A.7.3 Load capacity, installed in ground
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120
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121
Table A.7.4 Load capacity, installed in air
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123
A.8 Arrangement of Cable
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If two busbar systems are coupled by a number of single-core cables in parallel, the inductance of
each of the parallel cables should be equal as far as is possible to ensure equal current load
sharing between the cables. This inductance is most unbalanced when cables of one phase are
grouped and laid side by side next to one another. A preferred arrangement is for the cable of
different phase to be grouped into systems such that the spacing of cable within one systems. A
fully symmetrical load sharing can be more readily achieved by the use of three-core cables
because here, due to the uniformly laid-up cores, in normal operation there is no inductive
reaction with neighbouring cable.
The clearance between two systems of single-core cables should be approximately twice
the axial spacing of individual cables in a systems. In addition the sequence of phases within a
systems is most important. Depending on the number of three-phase systems the following phase
relationship is recommended:
A B C C B A A B C C B A ect.
With this arrangement the conductor inductances of the paralleled cables within a phase
are approximately equal. The inductances of the phases A, B and C are however different. This is
less of a disadvantage than unequal inductances between the parallel connected cables in any
one phase. The following arrangement is most unfavourable
A B C A B C A B C
Since this results not only in unsymmetrical phase inductances between A, B and C but also
unbalanced inductances of the paralleled cables in any phase.
In installations on racks or cable trays the cables of the same phase must not be arranged
side by side but on different platforms. Between the racks a distance of 300 mm or more should
be maintained. On each platform room should be given to allow two different systems with
opposing phase sequences to be installed.
ABC CBA
ABC CBA
ABC CBA etc.
With this arrangement the inductances of the paralleled cables is reasonably equal. The
inductances of the phases , however, differ room from one another but this is not so important as
these busbar linking cable runs are normally short .Should only one system be necessary the
triangular (trefoil) arrangement
B
A C
Will result in equal phase inductances. Where several systems are installed each in trefoil
grouping it is of advantage to arrange the rotation
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B B B B
A C C A A C C A etc.
The trefoil arrangement of several systems above one another is not recommended since
the inductances of the paralleled cables differ greatly one from another.
W
124
ith single-core cables installed in air particular attention must be given to adequate fixing at short
intervals so that the cables are not , in the event of a short circuit , because of the force
developed by the high peak short-circuit, hurled from their Position.
PEA STAFF
1. Mr. Sompong Duangkaewmanee Director of Construction and Maintenance Department
2. Mr. Geerawat Longampai Professional level. 8
3. Mr. Titti Trakulsinthong Engineer level. 8
4. Mr. Songwut Khandee Head of Section
5. Mr. Watchara Panchang Head of Section
6. Mrs. Nongluk Suvanjumrat Assistant of Section
7. Mr. Phisutthisak Dulyapaphat Engineer level. 6
8. Mr. Komkrish Dornpromyung Assistant of Section
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