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Wind Integration: Whats It All About

NEWEEP Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition


Marlborough, MA
June 7, 2011
J. Charles Smith
Executive Director
UWIG
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Outline of Topics
Overview
Summary of Findings from Recent Studies
Wind Forecasting
Capacity Value
Energy Storage
System Stability
Conclusions and Recommendations
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Its All About Dealing
with Variability and Uncertainty
Variability
Load varies by seconds, minutes, hours, by day type, and with weather
Supply resources may not be available or limited in capacity due to
partial outages
Prices for power purchases or sales exhibit fluctuations
Uncertainty
Operational plans are made on basis of best available forecasts of needs;
some error is inherent
Supply side resource available with some probability (usually high)
Key questions
How does wind generation affect existing variability and uncertainty
What are the costs associated with the changes
What does the future hold
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Sources of Flexibility
Sources of Flexibility
Low
Cost
High
Cost
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Time Scales of Interest
Time (hour of day)
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
S
y
s
t
e
m

L
o
a
d

(
M
W
)
seconds to minutes
Regulation
tens of minutes to hours
Load
Following
day
Scheduling
Days
Unit
Commitment
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ISOs/RTOs in North America
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Increased Balancing Cost
Increase in balancing cost
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
0 % 5 % 10 % 15 % 20 % 25 % 30 %
Wind penetration (% of gross demand)
E
u
r
o
s
/
M
W
h

w
i
n
d
Nordic 2004
Finland 2004
UK
Ireland
Colorado
Minnesota 2004
Minnesota 2006
California
Greennet Germany
Greennet Denmark
Greennet Finland
Greennet Norway
Greennet Sweden
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Forecasting Improves Operations
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ERCOT Wind Generation Feb. 26, 2008
Source: ERCOT
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What If the Wind Stops Blowing
Everywhere at the Same Time?
Large area wind forecasting techniques provide
the answer
Significant benefit to geographical dispersion
Dispersion provides smoothing in the long term
Aggregation provides smoothing in the short term
Extensive modeling studies have shown no
credible single contingency leading to
simultaneous loss of capacity in a broad
geographical region
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The Power of Aggregation
Source: Thomas Ackermann, Energynautics
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What To Do When the Wind Doesnt Blow
Good question!
Must deal with energy resource in a capacity world
Dealt with through probabilistic reliability methods
used to calculate Effective Load Carrying Capability
(ELCC)
Contribution may be large (40%) or small (<5%)
Once the ELCC is determined, get on with the job of
designing a reliable system
And that means adding more flexible capacity in the
future!
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An Energy Resource
in a Capacity World
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
NYSERDA
Onshore
NYSERDA
Offshore
MN/Xcel(1) CO Green MN/Xcel(2)
MN 2006
PacifiCorp CA/CEC
E
L
C
C

a
s

%

R
a
t
e
d

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
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Midwest ISO plant capacity factor
by fuel type (June 2005May 2006)
Fuel Type Number of
Units
Max
Capacity
(MW)
Possible
Energy
(MWh)
Actual
Energy
(MWh)
Capacity
Factor
(%)
Combined Cycle 50 12,130 106,257,048 11,436,775 11
Gas Combustion
Turbine (CT)
275 21,224 185,924,868 14,749,450 8
Oil CT 187 7,488 65,595,756 2,292,288 3
Hydro 113 2,412 21,129,120 5,696,734 27
Nuclear 17 11,895 104,200,200 77,764,757 75
Coal Steam
Turbine (ST;
<300)
230 25,432 222,786,948 137,771,172 62
Coal ST Coal
(300)
113 51,155 448,116,048 320,014,108 71
Gas ST 20 1,673 14,651,976 1,256,756 9
Oil ST 12 1,790 15,676,896 560,910 4
Other ST 10 345 3,021,324 1,722,434 57
Wind 28 1,103 9,658,776 2,882,459 30
Total 1055 136,646 1,197,018,960 576,147,844

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Dedicated Back-up Supply?
No plant needs a dedicated back-up supply!
The aggregate generation capacity needs a system
reserve capacity
A system with many wind plants needs some
additional reserve capacity
The cost of carrying additional reserves is considered
in the wind integration cost
Displaced generation is still available to provide
reserves
40,000 MW of new wind generation, but not 1 MW
of dedicated reserves
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What About Energy Storage?
Valuable component of a power system, can provide
many benefits
Greatest value when operated for benefit of entire system,
not dedicated to a single resource
One of many sources of flexibility available to the system
Expensive, and benefits accrue to different parties, i.e.
generation owner, trans. system operator, power marketer
Seldom sufficient value in revenue stream for any single
party to justify the investment
Integration studies do not show need for storage at 20%
wind except possibly on small, isolated systems
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Wont Too Much Wind Power
Cause the System to Collapse?
Often comes up as a question after a system
disturbance resulting in a blackout
Related questions about system stability are
driving world-wide wind turbine and wind plant
model development and verification efforts (IEEE,
UWIG, WECC, manufacturers, TSOs, utilities)
Detailed simulations show that wind plants can
actually aid system stability by providing low
voltage ride-through and dynamic VAr support to
reduce voltage excursions and dampen swings
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Fault at Marcy 345 kV bus
Severe contingency for overall
system stability
Simulation assumes fast wind
turbine controls
Wind generation improves post-
fault response of interconnected
power grid
Marcy 345kV Bus Voltage (pu)
Total East Interface Flow (MW)
Without Wind
With Wind
With Wind
Without Wind
Impact of Wind
Generation on
System Dynamic
Performance
source:GE/NYSERDA
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Wind Energy Costs and Benefits
Incremental Costs
Integration cost (additional reserves and fuel)
Increased wear and tear on thermal units
Impact on wildlife and viewshed
Incremental Benefits
Fuel cost price hedge
Carbon cost price hedge
Reduction in emissions (less than 1:1 due to inefficiency)
Energy security and economic development
Avoided health costs
You be the judge!
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and the conclusion is
There are no fundamental technical barriers
to the integration of 20% wind energy into
the electrical system, but
It will not be accomplished with a business
as usual scenario.
There needs to be a continuing evolution of
transmission planning and system operation
policy and market development for this to
be achieved.
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As they say in Texas
If all you ever do
is all you ever done,
then all youll ever get
is all you ever got!