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1

:

Suppose you have a system of equations that can be represented in matrix form

as

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

x

y

z

A

B

C

x =

A a

1,2

a

1,3

B a

2,2

a

2,3

C a

3,2

a

3,3

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

y =

a

1,1

A a

1,3

a

2,1

B a

2,3

a

3,1

C a

3,3

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

z =

a

1,1

a

1,2

A

a

2,1

a

2,2

B

a

3,1

a

3,2

C

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

Theres nothing special about three equations and three unknowns - the tech-

nique can be extended to solve any system of equations.

Solving for Nothing

Suppose the system of equations looks like

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

x

y

z

0

0

0

x =

0 a

1,2

a

1,3

0 a

2,2

a

2,3

0 a

3,2

a

3,3

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

y =

a

1,1

0 a

1,3

a

2,1

0 a

2,3

a

3,1

0 a

3,3

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

z =

a

1,1

a

1,2

0

a

2,1

a

2,2

0

a

3,1

a

3,2

0

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

1

This installment of Corbins notes is supposed to provide a little perspective on common

features that tie some relatively disparate topics together

1

x

y

z

0

0

0

unless

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

= 0

This is important.

An equation in the form

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

x

y

z

0

0

0

x

y

z

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

= 0

Eigen-Math

Suppose you have a system of equations that can be represented in matrix form

as

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

x

y

z

x

y

z

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

x

y

z

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

x

y

z

2

and collect terms on the left-hand side

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

x

y

z

0

0

0

x

y

z

a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

= 0

Eigen-trivia

The set of values for that solve this determinant relationship. {

i

}, are

known as eigenvalues.

For each eigenvalue

i

, there is an eigenvector

x

i

y

i

z

i

that satises

a

1,1

i

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

2,1

a

2,2

i

a

2,3

a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

i

x

i

y

i

z

i

0

0

0

all be mutually orthogonal. If there is any degeneracy, the eigenvectors

may be chosen to be orthogonal.

Eigenvectors span the vector space they occupy - which is to say, any vector

in that space may be formed from a superposition of the eigenvectors.

Normalized, the set of eigenvectors forms an orthonormal basis.

3

Applications

Rotational Inertia

If one nds the rotational inertia for a body about some arbitrary point in some

arbitrary frame of reference, the result is not, in general, a simple scalar (as was

usually the case in introductory physics), but rather, a 33 tensor. This means

the angular momentum of a body doesnt have to point in the same direction

as its angular velocity.

L = I

The angular momentum doesnt have to point in the same direction as the

angular velocity. But it could. Are there axes about which we could spin an

object and nd that

L and are parallel?

Along these hypothetical axes where

L is parallel to , life is simple, and the

rotational inertia can be represented with a scalar:

L = I

So were looking for s that satisfy

I = I

Insert the Identity matrix 1 on the right-hand side

I = I

1

Collect terms on the left-hand side

(I I

1) = 0

and observe that this is one of those systems of equations that equate to zero.

Non-trivial solutions for the axes require

Det[I I

1] = 0

so the (scalar) moments of inertia (I

values of the rotational inertia tensor. The axis of rotation about which each of

these moments is relevant lies along the eigenvector associated with the moment

(

).

We call those special axes about which

L is parallel to principle axes, and the

rotational inertias about each of these axes principle moments of inertia.

4

Coupled Oscillations

Start with a system of coupled oscillators. Write out the kinetic and potential

energies in coordinates tied to some inertial frame of reference, then convert

those coordinates to a more convenient set of generalized coordinates. At this

point, the kinetic and potential energies are likely to look like

T =

1

2

i,j

m

i,j

q

i

q

j

V =

1

2

i,j

k

i,j

q

i

q

j

and the Lagrangian like

L =

1

2

i,j

m

i,j

q

i

q

j

k

i,j

q

i

q

j

r

. . .

m

i,r

q

i

+ k

i,r

q

i

= 0

Now, in general, the components of the system will oscillate and the specic

solution for each q

r

will depend on the initial conditions for the system. Lets

put that aside for the moment and go for something a little more interesting.

Is it possible to nd solutions (normal modes) in which each of the systems

components is oscillating with the same characteristic frequency?

To nd out, lets write the equation of motion for each component in the form

q

i

= A

i

e

it+

(where A

i

is real)

Plug these into the Euler-Lagrange equation we wrote for q

r

and you get

m

i,r

2

+ k

i,r

A

i

= 0

a single linear equation in A

i

s. But, theres one such equation for each value of

r, so we really have a system of linear equations that can be written in matrix

form!

KM

2

A = 0

Non-trivial solutions for the coecients {A

i

} require

Det[KM

2

] = 0

The characteristic frequencies of the system are obtained from the eigenvalues

of the matrix K M

2

. The eigenvectors associated with each characteristic

5

frequency will, ultimately, determine the relative motions of the components in

these special normal modes.

But wait - theres more! The eigenvectors form a basis set. We can, in principle,

go back and construct the solution specic to our given initial conditions using

a superposition of these normal modes. If youre not so interested in a specic

solution, studying the (unnormalized) normal modes is usually sucient to get

an idea of what the system is capable of.

Quantum Mechanics

In a quantum mechanical system, every measurement you can make on a system

is represented by a mathematical operator (M) that acts on the function rep-

resenting the state of the system (). Now, in general, operating on a function

will change that function - in quantum mechanics, its no dierent; making a

measurement on a system can/will/does change the state of the system! Usually.

Meaningful measurements must be repeatable. If the very act of measuring

somethings length changes that length, you cant know the length and its

really not observable. Meaningful measurements must leave the system in a

state where an immediate repeat of the measurement would obtain the same

result.

Suppose a system is in some general state , and we measure some quantity

represented by the operator M. If has no special relationship to M, measuring

this quantity is likely to change the state of the system:

M =

But it needs to put the system in a state in which repeated measurements of

the quantity associated with M yield consistent results, so must satisfy

M = m

For convenience, lets assume that M is a matrix operator, and the state is a

vector (what follows can be generalized to non-matrix operations, too).

Insert an identity operator and collect terms on the left

Mm1

= 0

will have non-trivial solutions if

Det[Mm1] = 0

6

Though it wont be so obvious from our simple treatment, the eigenvalues of

M, {m

i

}, represent the values one may obtain when one measures the quantity

associated with the operator M. The eigenvectors (or, more generally, eigen-

functions) of M, namely {

i

}, represent the set of states a measurement of the

quantity associated with M can leave you in.

Like any set of eigenvectors, the set {

i

} forms a basis in the space of quantum

mechanical solutions for a system. Any state may be represented as a sum over

eigenfunctions of the operator M.

=

i

a

i

i,j

a

i

a

j

i

j

Assume the states have all been normalized. . .

1 =

i

a

i

a

i

The quantity a

i

a

i

represents the probability with which a measurement of the

quantity associated with M on a system in state will yield a value m

i

and

leave the system in the

i

eigenstate of M.

7

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