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Thermodynamics Assignment 1

Question 1 part A,

Pressure loss in a heat exchanger Δρ(PA)

So knowing that;

A= 0.52m2

U= 0.00192m/s

L= 2.300m

Ρ=1Kg/m3

DH= 0.0015m

F=?

To work (U) out I used the equation of u=mρA but first calculating the Area.

So U= (0.0042xπ) x 1000

= 0.05026548246

=0.250.05026548246

= 4.97m/s

U=4.97 m/s

Re=ρxuDH

Re=1000x4.97x0.0080.0015

Re= 26525.82

F=0.079xRe0.25

F= 0.079x26525.820.25

F= 0.00619032

So now all the values have been worked out (Wf) can now be calculated.

Wf = 2fLU2DH

Wf = 2x0.00619032x6.9x4.9720.008

Wf = 264.14 J/Kg

Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

Wf+(0.9x4)x4.4722

= 246.14+(0.9x4)x4.9722

= 308.6063 J/Kg

So ρxWf = 1000x308.6063

Δρ= 0.30860 MPa

Part 2,

Thermal resistance for the waste air, wall, and coolant flow, R(K/W)

R = 1HA

Pr = CpxμK

Pr = 4206x0.00150.578

Pr = 10.92

With the (Pr) number the (Nu) can now be calculated to then get (H) for the

coolant

To calculate (Nu)

Nu = 0.023xRe0.8xNu0.4

Nu = 0.023x10.260.8x10.920.4

Nu = 0.385

H = NuxkD

H = 206.99x0.5780.008

H = 14955.19

Now knowing the values of (H) and (A). The value of (R) can be calculated using

Rcoolant = 1HA

Rcoolant = 114955.19x5.62

Rcoolant =1.2858x10-4 K/W

The thermal resistance for the wall thickness can be calculated using Rwall = tKA

where

T = 0.0015m

A = 0.52m

When (K) can be presented as the materials thermal heat conductivity, This is

found to be for the materials heat properties to be = 21.

Rwall = tKA

Rwall = 0.001521x0.52

Rwall = 1.373x10-4 K/W

Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

Then to calculate the value of (R) for the air when (h) is given and the area is the

same

Rair = 1hxA

Rair = 1134x0.52

Rair = 0.0144 K/W

Rtotal = 1.2858-4 x10-4+1.373x10-4+0.00144

Rtotal = 0.01467 K/W

Part 3,

Q=εxQmax

Qmax =(THi-Tci) Cmin

Thi =50˚C + 273 to get into Kelvin

Tci=5˚C + 273 to get into Kelvin

ΔT = 45˚C this is the change in temperature and from this CH and Cc can be

calculated

CH= mCP

CH = 3.237x1005

CH =3253.185 K/W

Cc= mCP

Cc= 1x4206

Cc=4206 K/W

m =1.079x3

m = 3.237Kg/s

Cmin= CH

Q max = Cminx45

Q max = 3253.185x45

Q max = 146393.325 or 146.4 K/W

Q=Qmaxε

ε = 1-e-NTU

NTU = UACmin

NTU=4.97359x0.523253.185

NTU = 7.94995x10-4

ε = 1-e-7.94995x10^-4

ε = 7.9467x10-4

Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

Q = Qmaxxε

Q = 146393.325x7.9467x10-4

Q= 116.334

Part 4,

Q = εxQ

Water exit temperature = Tc,e ˚C

Q=mCP(Te-Ti)

Te= Qmax+mCPTimCP

Te=116.334+1x4206x51x4206

Te= 5.027˚C

So the temperature has gone up in the heat exchanger by 0.027˚C this is a low

value but I think this is due to the velocity at which the coolant is travelling.

Question 2 part 1,

In Series

P = Wf x

Wf =2fLU2DH

ρ = 1000 kg/m3

-0.25

f = 0.079 Re turbulent flow as I expect the flow at this velocity to be

turbulent

Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

L = (72 x 2.3) due to there being 24 tubes in the heat exchanger as there are 3

passes

(24 x 3 = 72)

Wf + (0.9 x 96) x 3.322 2= 17615.25052

(0.9 x 96) 24 tubes in the heat exchanger that have 4, 90° bends. (24 x 4 = 96)

∆ P = wf x ρ

∆ P = 17615.25052 x 1000

∆ P = 17615250.52 Pa

With this calculating the heat recovery rate the following need to be changed

into Kelvin.

Q = x Q max

Q max = (T Hi – T Ci) Cmin

T Hi = 323 K

T Ci = 278 K

Q max = (323 – 278) x 3253.185

Q max = 146393.325 K/W

Cmin = 3253.185 K/W

Cmax = 4206 K/W

= 1 – e - NTU

NTU = U Ai = 3.32 x 0.52 x 243253.185

NTU = 0.01271992992

= 0.01263937353

Q = 0.01263937353 x 146393.325 = 1850.319917

Q = 1850.32W

The water exit temperature is equal to

Q = m Cp (T e – T i)

Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

T e = 5.44°C this is the new exit temperature, this heat has increased but only by

0.4˚C this hasn’t really made much of a difference but I feel that if a slower

velocity of the coolant flowing through the pipe this would allow the coolant to

heat up and transfer the heat. To then calculate in parallel

In parallel,

u =m ρ A

u = 0.04/[1000 x π (0.004) 2] = 0.8289 m/s

f = 0.079 Re – 0.25

f = 0.0096

Wf =2 f L u2DH

Wf= 2 x 0.0096 x (3 x 2.3) x (0.8289) 20.008=

Wf = 11.37796548

Wf + (0.9 x 4) x (0.8289) 2 2=

Wf = 12.61470086

∆ P = 12.61470086 x 1000

∆ P = 12614.7 Pa

Heat recovery

T Hi = 323 K Q max = (323 – 278) x 3253.185

T Ci = 278 K Q max = 146393.325 W

Cmin = 3253.185 K/W

Cmax = CC = m. Cp = 1 x 4206

Cmax = 4206 K/W

= 1 – e - NTU

Cmin

ε = 1.3248 x 10 - 4

Q = 146393.325 x (1.3248 x 10 – 4) = 19.395

Q = 19.395 W

The water exit temperature

Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

T e = T w + (T I + T w) exp( - LA)mCP

Q = m Cp (T e – T i)

T e = Q + m Cp Ti mCP= 19.3949 + (1 x 4206 x 5) 1x4206 = 5.0046C

T e = 5.01°C this is the new exit temperature for the coolant exiting the parallel

heat exchanger, as I have calculated the new temperature, as it shows this

makes no difference.

Question 3

To improve on the design of the heat exchanger I would recommend slowing the

velocity down to more like a quarter of what it is at the moment and then this

will allow time for the heat to transfer into the water making the heat exchanger

more efficient. I would also consider using Copper piping as copper has good

properties for holding heat this would therefore allow the water to heat up and

transferring the heat again from the hot air.

References

www.wikapedia.com stainless steel properties (K)

www.my.shu.ac.uk blackboard/ mechanical engineering/ thermo/ lecture and

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