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# Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

Thermodynamics Assignment 1
Question 1 part A,
Pressure loss in a heat exchanger Δρ(PA)

## Pressure loss = wf=2fLU2DH

So knowing that;
A= 0.52m2
U= 0.00192m/s
L= 2.300m
Ρ=1Kg/m3
DH= 0.0015m
F=?

To work (U) out I used the equation of u=mρA but first calculating the Area.
So U= (0.0042xπ) x 1000
= 0.05026548246
=0.250.05026548246
= 4.97m/s
U=4.97 m/s

## To work (f) out the (Re) number has to be calculated

Re=ρxuDH
Re=1000x4.97x0.0080.0015
Re= 26525.82

## To work (F) out it can be calculated by using as the flow is turbulent

F=0.079xRe0.25
F= 0.079x26525.820.25
F= 0.00619032

So now all the values have been worked out (Wf) can now be calculated.
Wf = 2fLU2DH
Wf = 2x0.00619032x6.9x4.9720.008
Wf = 264.14 J/Kg
Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

## Adding the pressure loss due to the bends in the pipe/tube is

Wf+(0.9x4)x4.4722
= 246.14+(0.9x4)x4.9722
= 308.6063 J/Kg

So ρxWf = 1000x308.6063
Δρ= 0.30860 MPa

Part 2,

Thermal resistance for the waste air, wall, and coolant flow, R(K/W)

R = 1HA

## To calculate (H), (Pr) and (Nu) have to be calculated. To get (Pr)

Pr = CpxμK
Pr = 4206x0.00150.578
Pr = 10.92
With the (Pr) number the (Nu) can now be calculated to then get (H) for the
coolant

To calculate (Nu)
Nu = 0.023xRe0.8xNu0.4
Nu = 0.023x10.260.8x10.920.4
Nu = 0.385

## So (H) can now be calculated using

H = NuxkD
H = 206.99x0.5780.008
H = 14955.19
Now knowing the values of (H) and (A). The value of (R) can be calculated using
Rcoolant = 1HA
Rcoolant = 114955.19x5.62
Rcoolant =1.2858x10-4 K/W

The thermal resistance for the wall thickness can be calculated using Rwall = tKA
where
T = 0.0015m
A = 0.52m
When (K) can be presented as the materials thermal heat conductivity, This is
found to be for the materials heat properties to be = 21.
Rwall = tKA
Rwall = 0.001521x0.52
Rwall = 1.373x10-4 K/W
Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

Then to calculate the value of (R) for the air when (h) is given and the area is the
same
Rair = 1hxA
Rair = 1134x0.52
Rair = 0.0144 K/W

## So Rtotal is equal to (R1+R2+R3) R1 R2 R3

Rtotal = 1.2858-4 x10-4+1.373x10-4+0.00144
Rtotal = 0.01467 K/W

Part 3,

## Heat recovery rate can be calculated Q

Q=εxQmax
Qmax =(THi-Tci) Cmin
Thi =50˚C + 273 to get into Kelvin
Tci=5˚C + 273 to get into Kelvin

ΔT = 45˚C this is the change in temperature and from this CH and Cc can be
calculated

CH= mCP
CH = 3.237x1005
CH =3253.185 K/W

Cc= mCP
Cc= 1x4206
Cc=4206 K/W

## Where the Air mass flow rate = m=v x ρ

m =1.079x3
m = 3.237Kg/s

Cmin= CH
Q max = Cminx45
Q max = 3253.185x45
Q max = 146393.325 or 146.4 K/W

Q=Qmaxε
ε = 1-e-NTU
NTU = UACmin
NTU=4.97359x0.523253.185
NTU = 7.94995x10-4

ε = 1-e-7.94995x10^-4
ε = 7.9467x10-4
Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

Q = Qmaxxε
Q = 146393.325x7.9467x10-4
Q= 116.334

Part 4,
Q = εxQ
Water exit temperature = Tc,e ˚C
Q=mCP(Te-Ti)

Te= Qmax+mCPTimCP
Te=116.334+1x4206x51x4206
Te= 5.027˚C
So the temperature has gone up in the heat exchanger by 0.027˚C this is a low
value but I think this is due to the velocity at which the coolant is travelling.

Question 2 part 1,
In Series

## Calculating the pressure loss in the heat exchanger

P = Wf x 
Wf =2fLU2DH
ρ = 1000 kg/m3

-0.25
f = 0.079 Re turbulent flow as I expect the flow at this velocity to be
turbulent
Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

## f = 0.079 x (17683.88257) -0.25 = 6.850664288 x 10 -3

L = (72 x 2.3) due to there being 24 tubes in the heat exchanger as there are 3
passes
(24 x 3 = 72)

## The pressure losses in pipe with the bends is equal

Wf + (0.9 x 96) x 3.322 2= 17615.25052

(0.9 x 96) 24 tubes in the heat exchanger that have 4, 90° bends. (24 x 4 = 96)
∆ P = wf x ρ
∆ P = 17615.25052 x 1000
∆ P = 17615250.52 Pa

With this calculating the heat recovery rate the following need to be changed
into Kelvin.

Q =  x Q max
Q max = (T Hi – T Ci) Cmin
T Hi = 323 K
T Ci = 278 K
Q max = (323 – 278) x 3253.185
Q max = 146393.325 K/W

## Cmin =C H = m.Cp =3.237 x 1005

Cmin = 3253.185 K/W

## Cmax =CC = m.Cp =1 x 4206

Cmax = 4206 K/W

 = 1 – e - NTU
NTU = U Ai = 3.32 x 0.52 x 243253.185
NTU = 0.01271992992

 = 0.01263937353
Q = 0.01263937353 x 146393.325 = 1850.319917
Q = 1850.32W
The water exit temperature is equal to
Q = m Cp (T e – T i)
Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

## T e = Q + m Cp Ti mCP= 1850.32 + (1 x 4206 x 5)1x4206 = 5.439923898C

T e = 5.44°C this is the new exit temperature, this heat has increased but only by
0.4˚C this hasn’t really made much of a difference but I feel that if a slower
velocity of the coolant flowing through the pipe this would allow the coolant to
heat up and transfer the heat. To then calculate in parallel

In parallel,

u =m ρ A
u = 0.04/[1000 x π (0.004) 2] = 0.8289 m/s

## Re = 1000 x 0.8289 x 0.008 0.0015= 4420.965

f = 0.079 Re – 0.25
f = 0.0096

Wf =2 f L u2DH
Wf= 2 x 0.0096 x (3 x 2.3) x (0.8289) 20.008=
Wf = 11.37796548

## Adding the pressure losses in pipe bends,

Wf + (0.9 x 4) x (0.8289) 2 2=
Wf = 12.61470086

∆ P = 12.61470086 x 1000
∆ P = 12614.7 Pa
Heat recovery

## Q = ε x Q max Q max = (T Hi – T Ci) Cmin

T Hi = 323 K Q max = (323 – 278) x 3253.185
T Ci = 278 K Q max = 146393.325 W

## Cmin = C H = m.Cp = 3.237 x 1005

Cmin = 3253.185 K/W
Cmax = CC = m. Cp = 1 x 4206
Cmax = 4206 K/W
 = 1 – e - NTU

## NTU = U Ai = 0.8289 x 0.523253.185 NTU = 1.3249 x 10 – 4

Cmin
ε = 1.3248 x 10 - 4
Q = 146393.325 x (1.3248 x 10 – 4) = 19.395
Q = 19.395 W
The water exit temperature
Jonjo Carruthers A8037900 Thermo

T e = T w + (T I + T w) exp( - LA)mCP
Q = m Cp (T e – T i)
T e = Q + m Cp Ti mCP= 19.3949 + (1 x 4206 x 5) 1x4206 = 5.0046C

T e = 5.01°C this is the new exit temperature for the coolant exiting the parallel
heat exchanger, as I have calculated the new temperature, as it shows this
makes no difference.

Question 3
To improve on the design of the heat exchanger I would recommend slowing the
velocity down to more like a quarter of what it is at the moment and then this
will allow time for the heat to transfer into the water making the heat exchanger
more efficient. I would also consider using Copper piping as copper has good
properties for holding heat this would therefore allow the water to heat up and
transferring the heat again from the hot air.

References
www.wikapedia.com stainless steel properties (K)
www.my.shu.ac.uk blackboard/ mechanical engineering/ thermo/ lecture and
tutorial notes