Dilution

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Dilution

© All Rights Reserved

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This lab will refine your laboratory skills, while you practice some useful and important laboratory techniques. When

faced with the need to design an experiment, an experimenter may require that the independent variable be diluted to

different concentrations prior to application to a test system. For example, if an experiment called for solutions of 0.0 M,

0.!0 M, 0."0 M, and 0.#0 M calcium chloride, and only a .0 M solution of calcium chloride could be found, a procedure

for diluting the .0 M $stock% solution would be required.

There is more than one procedure that one can follow to prepare a series of solutions of varying concentrations. &n

this lab, you will complete a dilution using two different procedures, and compare the procedures. Throughout this lab you

will find the following equation helpful'

() * (!)!

Where' ( * the initial concentration +the concentration you have,

) * the initial volume +the volume it takes, +this will usually be the unknown for which you will solve the equation,

(! * the final concentration +the concentration you want,

)! * the final volume +the volume you need,

Materials

-afety .oggles /lastic droppers 000 ppm 0a(l stock solution

1 beakers of various si2es 3istilled Water (onductivity /robe

# graduated cylinders of various si2es )ernier 4ab/ro T&56"7 or T&56# .raphing (alculator

Dilution Procedure #1 (your group may complete procedures 1 & 2 in any order)

&n this procedure you will dilute the stock solution +000 ppm 0a(l,, repeatedly, to make a series of solutions. The

concentrations you will make are !00 ppm, 80 ppm, 00 ppm, 80 ppm, and !8 ppm. 9ou will then measure and record

the conductivity of each solution in a data table.

Always double chec your calculations be!ore beginning to mae a solution"

1. (omplete all calculations for 3ilution /rocedure : as follows' ;se the equation () * (!)! to calculate the amount

of 000 ppm 0a(l stock solution required to make 80 m4 each of !00 ppm, 80 ppm, 00 ppm, 80 ppm, and !8 ppm

0a(l solutions.

2. &n an appropriately5si2ed beaker, obtain the total amount of 000 ppm 0a(l stock solution needed to complete

3ilution /rocedure :.

3. ;se graduated cylinders to prepare the 0a(l solutions by adding the appropriate amount of 000 ppm 0a(l stock

solution to enough distilled water to make 80 m4 of each solution.

4. ;se the procedure below to measure the conductivity of each solution. <ecord the conductivity of the solutions in a

data table labeled $Table ' The (onductivity of -olutions /repared by /rocedure :.%

Dilution Procedure #2 (your group may complete procedures 1 & 2 in any order)

&n this procedure you will dilute the stock solution +000 ppm 0a(l,, serially, to make the same series of solutions. The

concentrations you will make are the same as in /rocedure : and you will again measure and record the conductivity of

each solution.

Always double chec your calculations be!ore beginning to mae a solution"

1. ;se the equation () * (!)! to calculate the amount of 000 ppm 0a(l stock solution required to make 80 m4 of a

!00 ppm 0a(l solution.

2. ;se graduated cylinders to prepare the !00 ppm 0a(l solution by adding the appropriate amount of 000 ppm 0a(l

stock solution to enough distilled water to make up 80 m4 of the solution. 4abel the beaker.

3. ;se the equation () * (!)! to calculate the amount of !00 ppm 0a(l solution required to make 80 m4 of a 80

ppm 0a(l solution.

4. ;se graduated cylinders to prepare the 80 ppm 0a(l solution by adding the appropriate amount of !00 ppm 0a(l

solution to enough distilled water to make up 80 m4 of the solution. 4abel the beaker.

5. ;se the equation () * (!)! to calculate the amount of 80 ppm 0a(l solution required to make 80 m4 of a 00

ppm 0a(l solution.

6. ;se graduated cylinders to prepare the 00 ppm 0a(l solution by adding the appropriate amount of 80 ppm 0a(l

solution to enough distilled water to make up 80 m4 of the solution. 4abel the beaker.

7. ;se the equation () * (!)! to calculate the amount of 00 ppm 0a(l solution required to make 80 m4 of a 80 ppm

0a(l solution.

8. ;se graduated cylinders to prepare the 80 ppm 0a(l solution by adding the appropriate amount of 00 ppm 0a(l

solution to enough distilled water to make up 80 m4 of the solution. 4abel the beaker.

9. ;se the equation () * (!)! to calculate the amount of 80 ppm 0a(l solution required to make 80 m4 of a !8 ppm

0a(l solution.

10. ;se graduated cylinders to prepare the !8 ppm 0a(l solution by adding the appropriate amount of 80 ppm 0a(l

solution to enough distilled water to make up 80 m4 of the solution. 4abel the beaker.

11. ;se the procedure below to measure the conductivity of each solution. <ecord the conductivity in a data table labeled

$Table !' The (onductivity of -olutions /repared by /rocedure :!.%

Procedure !or #sing the $onducti%ity Probe

. -et the switch on the (onductivity /robe box to 05!000 =- +!000 =- * 000 mg>4,.

!. /lug the (onductivity /robe into (hannel of the 4ab/ro interface. ;se the link cable to connect the T& .raphing

(alculator to the interface. Firmly press in the cable ends.

". Turn on the calculator and start the 3?T?@?TA program. To obtain the 3?T?@?TA program, press 4&0B on the

calculator then select <A(A&)A and press T<?0-FA< on the 4ab/ro. &t will take a few minutes to transfer

3?T?@?TA to the calculator.

#. -et up the calculator and interface for the (onductivity /robe.

a. -elect -AT;/ from the main screen.

b. /ress

ENTER

to select (C .

c. -elect (D03;(T&)&T9 from the -A4A(T -A0-D< menu.

d. -elect (D03;(T 000 +@.>4, from the (D03;(T&)&T9 menu.

8. -et up the data5collection mode.

a. To select @D3A, press once and press

ENTER

.

b. -elect -&0.4A /D&0T from the -A4A(T @D3A menu.

c. -elect DB to return to the main screen.

1. (ollect concentration data.

a. /lace the tip of the electrode into a beaker with 00m4 of the sample water you are testing. The hole near the tip of

the probe should be covered completely.

b. When the reading has stabili2ed, select -T?<T

to begin sampling. &mportant' 4eave the probe tip submerged

while data is being collected for the next 0 seconds.

c. ?fter 0 seconds, the conductivity value will appear on the calculator screen. <ecord this value in your data table.

d. /ress

ENTER

to return to the main screen.

e. -elect -T?<T

to repeat the measurement. <ecord this value in your data table.

f. /ress

ENTER

to return to the main screen.

Data Analysis

<eminder' When you draw a graph for a laboratory assignment, be certain to utili2e the extent of the graph paper in

each direction, title the graph, and label each axis with the quantity represented on it along with the units of

measurement in parentheses.

Dn a single graph, plot conductivity vs. concentration for both procedures using a different symbol and line style for

each procedure.

.raphically compare the two procedures of dilution by visually comparing the graphs of the two procedures.

Title the next section of your report $3iscussion.% Write a one or two paragraph 3iscussion in which you fully

differentiate between the two methods +procedures, for diluting a solution. Axplain which method you would prefer to

use if the accuracy of your dilutions is critically important, and why you would select that method. &dentify the method

that you believe will introduce more sources of error into the design of an experiment and Eustify that choice of

methods.

Dilution Lab (rade )heet 0ame

>00 Table of (ontents updated >#00 (alculations shown

>00 4ist of @aterials >800 .raph

>"00 /rocedures listed >800 3iscussion

>00 3ata initialed and dated

>!000 Total

Dilution Lab (rade )heet 0ame

>00 Table of (ontents updated >#00 (alculations shown

>00 4ist of @aterials >800 .raph

>"00 /rocedures listed >800 3iscussion

>00 3ata initialed and dated

>!000 Total

Dilution Lab (rade )heet 0ame

>00 Table of (ontents updated >#00 (alculations shown

>00 4ist of @aterials >800 .raph

>"00 /rocedures listed >800 3iscussion

>00 3ata initialed and dated

>!000 Total

Dilution Lab (rade )heet 0ame

>00 Table of (ontents updated >#00 (alculations shown

>00 4ist of @aterials >800 .raph

>"00 /rocedures listed >800 3iscussion

>00 3ata initialed and dated

>!000 Total

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