This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Peter Chang December 10, 2009 USD 35.00
“I am in. Are you?”
[Hide] [Show] Wikipedia Forever Our shared knowledge. Our shared treasure. Help us protect it. [Show] Wikipedia Forever Our shared knowledge. Our shared treasure. Help us protect it. Communication theory From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2008) Currently, many definitions of communication are used in order to conceptualize the processes by which people navigate and assign meaning. Communication is also understood as the exchanging of understanding. Additionally the biocommunication theory investigates communicative processes within and among non-humans such as bacteria, animals, fungi and plants. We might say that communication consists of transmitting information from one person to another. In fact, many scholars of communication take this as a working definition, and use Lasswell's maxim, "who says what to whom in what channel with what effect," as a means of circumscribing the field of communication theory.
A simple communication model with a sender transferring a message containing information to a receiver. Other commentators suggest that a ritual process of communication exists, one not artificially divorcible from a particular historical and social context. There is an additional working definition of communication to consider that authors like Robert A. Lanham (2003) and as far back as Erving Goffman (1959) have highlighted. This is a progression from Lassell’s attempt to define human communication through to this century and revolutionized into the constructionist model. Constructionists believe that the process of communication is in itself the only messages that exist. The packaging can not be separated from the social and historical context from which it arose, therefore the substance to look at in communication theory is style for Robert Lanham and the performance of self for Erving Goffman.
Lanham chose to view communication as the rival to the over encompassing use of CBS model (which pursued to further the transmission model). CBS model argues that charity, brevity, and sincerity are the only purpose to prose discourse, therefore communication. Lanham wrote, “If words matter too, if the whole range of human motive is seen as animating prose discourse, than rhetoric analysis leads us to the essential questions about prose style” (Lanham 10). This is saying that rhetoric and style are fundamentally important; they are not errors to what we actually intend to transmit. The process which we construct and deconstruct meaning deserves analysis. Erving Goffman sees the performance of self as the most important frame to understand communication. Goffman wrote, “What does seem to be required of the individual is that he learn enough pieces of expression to be able to ‘fill in’ and manage, more or less, any part that he is likely to be given” (Goffman 73) Goffman is highlighting the significance of expression. The truth in both cases is the articulation of the message and the package as one. The construction of the message from social and historical context is the seed as is the pre-existing message is for the transmission model. Therefore any look into communication theory should include the possibilities drafted by such great scholars as Robert A. Lanham and Erving Goffman that style and performance is the whole process. Communication stands so deeply rooted in human behaviors and the structures of society that scholars have difficulty thinking of it while excluding social or behavioral events. Because communication theory remains a relatively young field of inquiry and integrates itself with other disciplines such as philosophy, psychology, and sociology, one probably cannot yet[update] expect a consensus conceptualization of communication across disciplines. Currently, there is one paradigm from which communication scholars may work, a universal law, posited by S. F, Scudder (1900). "The Universal Law of Communication states that, "All living entities communicate." All living entities communicate via movements, sounds, reactions, physical changes, gestures, languages, breath, etc. Communication is primarily used as a means of survival. Examples such as the cry of a hungry infant (communication that it is hungry), the browing a leaf (communication that it is dehydrated), the cry of an animal (communication that it is injured) falls under the Universal Law of Communication. Everything living must communicate, primarily as a means of survival." Contents [hide] 1 History of Communication Theory 2 Communication Theory Framework 3 Mapping the theoretical landscape 3.1 Contexts 3.2 Assumptions 4 Some realms of communication and their theories 5 More information 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links  History of Communication Theory The Academic Study of Communication Communication has existed since the beginning of human beings, but it was not until the 20th century that people began to study the process. As communication
technologies developed, so did the serious study of communication. When World War I ended, the interest in studying communication intensified. The social-science study was fully recognized as a legitimate discipline after World War II. Before becoming simply communication, or communication studies, the discipline was formed from three other major studies: sociology, psychology, and anthropology. Sociology is the study of human behavior, psychology is the study of society and social process, and anthropology is the study of communication as a factor which develops, maintains, and changes culture. Communication studies focus on communication as central to the human experience, which involves understanding how people behave in creating, exchanging, and interpreting messages. Communication Theory is based on one universal law posited by S. F. Scudder (1900). "The Universal Communication Law states that, "All living entities communicate." All living entities communicate via movements, sounds, reactions, physical changes, gestures, languages, breath, etc. Communication is a means of survival. Examples such as the cry of a hungry infant (communication that it is hungry), the browing a leaf (communication that it is dehydrated), the cry of an animal (communicating that it is injured falls under this universal communication law. Everything living must communicate as a means of survival."  Communication Theory Framework It is helpful to examine communication and communication theory through one of the following viewpoints: Mechanistic: This view considers communication as a perfect transaction of a message from the sender to the receiver. (as seen in the diagram above) Psychological: This view considers communication as the act of sending a message to a receiver, and the feelings and thoughts of the receiver upon interpreting the message. Social Constructionist (Symbolic Interactionist): This view considers communication to be the product of the interactsnts sharing and creating meaning. The Constructionist View can also be defined as, how you say something determines what the message is. The Constructionist View assumes that “truth” and “ideas” are constructed or invented through the social process of communication. Robert T. Craig saw the Constructionist View or the constitutive view as it’s called in his article, as “…an ongoing process that symbolically forms and re-forms our personal identities.”(Craig, 125). The other view of communication, the Transmission Model, sees communication as robotic and computer-like. The Transmission Model sees communication as a way of sending or receiving messages and the perfection of that. But, the Constructionist View sees communications as, “…in human life, info does not behave as simply as bits in an electronic stream. In human life, information flow is far more like an electric current running from one landmine to another”(Lanham, 7). The Constructionist View is a more realistic view of communication because it involves the interacting of human beings and the free sharing of thoughts and ideas. Daniel Chandler looks to prove that the Transmission Model is a lesser way of communicating by saying “The transmission model is not merely a gross oversimplification but a dangerously misleading representation of the nature of human communication”(Chandler, 2). Humans do not communicate simply as computers or robots so that’s why it’s essential to truly understand the Constructionist View of Communication well. We do not simply send facts and data to one another, but we take facts and data and they acquire meaning through the process of communication, or through interaction with others.
Systemic: This view considers communication to be the new messages created via “through-put”, or what happens as the message is being interpreted and re-interpreted as it travels through people. Critical: This view considers communication as a source of power and oppression of individuals and social groups. Inspection of a particular theory on this level will provide a framework on the nature of communication as seen within the confines of that theory. Theories can also be studied and organized according to the ontological, epistemological, and axiological framework imposed by the theorist. Ontology essentially poses the question of what, exactly, it is the theorist is examining. One must consider the very nature of reality. The answer usually falls in one of three realms depending on whether the theorist sees the phenomena through the lens of a realist, nominalist, or social constructionist. Realist perspective views the world objectively, believing that there is a world outside of our own experience and cognitions. Nominalists see the world subjectively, claiming that everything outside of one’s cognitions is simply names and labels. Social constructionists straddle the fence between objective and subjective reality, claiming that reality is what we create together. Epistemology is an examination of how the theorist studies the chosen phenomena. In studying epistemology, particularly from a positivist perspective, objective knowledge is said to be the result of a systematic look at the causal relationships of phenomena. This knowledge is usually attained through use of the scientific method. Scholars often think that empirical evidence collected in an objective manner is most likely to reflect truth in the findings. Theories of this ilk are usually created to predict a phenomenon. Subjective theory holds that understanding is based on situated knowledge, typically found using interpretative methodology such as ethnography and also interviews. Subjective theories are typically developed to explain or understand phenomena in the social world. Axiology is concerned with what values drive a theorist to develop a theory. Theorists must be mindful of potential biases so that they will not influence or skew their findings (Miller, 21-23).  Mapping the theoretical landscape A discipline gets defined in large part by its theoretical structure. Communication studies often borrow theories from other social sciences. This theoretical variation makes it difficult to come to terms with the field as a whole. That said, some common taxonomies exist that serve to divide up the range of communication research. Two common mappings involve contexts and assumptions.  Contexts Many authors and researchers divide communication by what they sometimes called "contexts" or "levels", but which more often represent institutional histories. The study of communication in the US, while occurring within departments of psychology, sociology, linguistics, and anthropology (among others), generally developed from schools of rhetoric and from schools of journalism. While many of these have become "departments of communication", they often retain their historical roots, adhering largely to theories from speech communication in the former case, and from mass media in the latter. The great divide between speech communication and mass communication becomes complicated by a number of smaller sub-areas of communication research, including intercultural and international communication, small group communication, communication technology, policy and legal studies of communication, telecommunication, and work done under a variety of other labels.
Some of these departments take a largely social-scientific perspective, others tend more heavily toward the humanities, and still others gear themselves more toward production and professional preparation. These "levels" of communication provide some way of grouping communication theories, but inevitably, some theories and concepts leak from one area to another, or fail to find a home at all.  Assumptions Another way of dividing up the communication field emphasizes the assumptions that undergird particular theories, models, and approaches. While this approach also tends to have as its basis institutional divisions, theories within each of the seven "traditions" of communication theory that Robert Craig suggests tend to reinforce one another, and retain the same ground epistemological and axiological assumptions. His traditions include: rhetorical - practical art of discourse semiotic – intersubjective mediation through signs in order to mediate between different perspectives phenomenological - experience of otherness, dialogue cybernetic - information processing and explains how all kinds of complex systems, whether living or nonliving, macro or micro, are able to function, and why they often malfunction sociopsychological - expression, interaction and influence critical - discursive reflection sociocultural - reproduction of social order (Miller, 13) Craig finds each of these clearly defined against the others, and remaining cohesive approaches to describing communicative behavior. As a taxonomic aid, these labels help to organize theory by its assumptions, and help researchers to understand why some theories may seem incommensurable. While communication theorists very commonly use these two approaches, theorists decentralize the place of language and machines as communicative technologies. The idea (as argued by Vygotsky) of communication as the primary tool of a species defined by its tools remains on the outskirts of communication theory. It finds some representation in the Toronto School of communication theory (alternatively sometimes called medium theory) as represented by the work of Innis, McLuhan, and others. It seems that the ways in which individuals and groups use the technologies of communication — and in some cases are used by them — remain central to what communication researchers do. The ideas that surround this, and in particular the place of persuasion, remain constants across both the "traditions" and "levels" of communication theory.  Some realms of communication and their theories universal communication Law: Universal Theory, Universal Theory message production: Constructivist Theory, Action Assembly Theory message processing: Elaboration Likelihood Model, Inoculation theory discourse and interaction: Speech Acts Theory, Coordinated Management of Meaning developing relationships: Uncertainty Reduction Theory, Social Penetration Theory ongoing relationships: Relational Systems Theory, Relational Dialectics organizational: Structuration Theory, Unobtrusive and Concertive Control Theory small group: Functional Theory, Symbolic Convergence Theory media processing and effects: Social Cognitive Theory, Uses and Gratifications Theory media and society: Agenda Setting, Spiral of Silence, Symbolic Convergence Theory
culture: Speech Codes Theory, Face-saving Theory making social worlds: Coordinated Management of Meaning  More information There is a wealth of information available about communication and communication theory. Included here are some examples of texts, journals, and organizations focusing on communication theory. The following list is a survey of Communication Theory texts: Communication Theory: Epistemological Foundations by James A. Anderson Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media (5th Edition) by Werner J. Severin and James W. Tankard Theories of Human Communication (9th Edition) by Stephen W. Littlejohn and Karen A. Foss Communication: Theories and Applications by Mark V. Redmond Communication Theories: Perspectives, Processes, and Contexts by Katherine Miller Communication Theory: Media, Technology and Society by David Holmes Building Communication Theory by Dominic A. Infante, Andrew S. Rancer, and Deanna F. Womack The Communication Theory Reader by Paul Cobley Clarifying Communications Theories: A Hands-On Approach by Gerald Stone, Michael Singletary, and Virginia P. Richmond An Introduction to Communication Theory by Don W. Stacks, Sidney R. Hill, and Mark, III Hickson Scholarly journals are also a great source for recent research and academic discussion of theory. Some communication journals that emphasize theory are as follows: Argumentation Asian Journal of Communication China Media Research Communication Abstracts Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies Communication Education Communication Monographs Communication Quarterly Communication Research Reports Communication Research Communication Studies Communication Theory Communications and the Law Continuum - Journal of Media and Cultural Studies Critical Discourse Studies Critical Studies in Media Communication Discourse Studies Howard Journal of Communications Human Communication: A Journal of the Pacific and Asian Communication Association Human Communication Research Intercultural Communication Studies Journal of Applied Communication Research Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media Journal of Communication Journal of Communication Inquiry
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research Journal of Language Identity and Education Journal of Mass Media Ethics Journal of Multicultural Discourses Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development Journal of Public Relations Research Journal of Technical Writing and Communication Journalism - Theory Practice and Criticism Journalism History Journalism Studies Keio Communication Review Language in Society Listening - Journal of Religion and Culture Mass Communication and Society Media Asia Media, Culture and Society Multilingua - Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication New Media and Society Philosophy and Rhetoric : Paper for Muse Participants Political Communication PR Reporter Public Relations Quarterly Qualitative Research Reports in Communication Review of Communication Rhetoric and Public Affairs Rhetorica Southern Communication Journal Studies in Communication Sciences Text - Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse Vital Speeches of the Day Western Journal of Communication Women's Studies in Communication Word and Image Written Communication Finally, there are many Communication Organizations that create a network of scholars who actively pursue and test theories. These organizations usually hold an annual conference showcasing the latest and best research in the field, as well as publish scholarly Journals. Examples of Communication Organizations with contact information are: American Communication Association Central States Communication Association Eastern Communication Association International Communication Association National Communication Association Southern States Communication Association Western States Communication Association  See also List of basic communication topics Metacommunicative competence Rogerian argument
Time- and space-bias and Harold Innis's communications theories Tetrad of media effects Communication Theory Wikibook  References ^ Littlejohn, S.W. and Foss, K.A. (2008). Theories of human communication, 9th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.  Bibliography Chandler, Daniel. Transmission Model of Communication (1994). Http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/trans.html. Daniel Chandler, 1994. Web. 10 Oct. 2009. Goffman, Erving. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1959. 73. Lanham, Richard A. Analyzing Prose' 2nd (2003): 7, 10. Littlejohn, S. W.,Theories of human communication. 7th edition, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2002. Emory A Griffin, A first look at communication theory. 3rd edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997. ISBN 0-07-022822-1 Miller, K., Communication Theories: Perspectives, processes, and contexts. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Werner, E., "Cooperating Agents: A Unified Theory of Communication and Social Structure", Distributed Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 2, L. Gasser and M. Huhns, eds., Morgan Kaufmann and Pitman Press, 1989. Abstract Werner, E., "Toward a Theory of Communication and Cooperation for Multiagent Planning", Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge: Proceedings of the Second Conference, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 129–143, 1988. Abstract PDF Witzany, G, "The Logos of the Bios 2. Bio-Communication", Helsinki, Umweb, 2007. Robert , Craig T. "Communication." Encyclopedia of Rhetoric (2001): 125.  External links Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Communication Theory Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication_theory" Categories: Communication | Communication theory Hidden categories: Articles lacking sources from January 2008 | All articles lacking sources | Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2006 | All articles containing potentially dated statements | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009 Views Article Discussion Edit this page History Personal tools Try Beta Log in / create account Navigation Main page Contents
Featured content Current events Random article Search Top of Form
Bottom of Form Interaction About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Cite this page Languages
Dansk Deutsch Español Français 한국어 Italiano Português Slovenčina Svenska