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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY

Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 41 - 45


A GENERALIZATION OF THE ISOGONAL POINT
PETRU I. BRAICA and ANDREI BUD
Abstract. In this paper we give a generalization of the isogonal point in
terms of concurrency, starting with the ideea of "breaking" the equilateral
triangles constructed on the sides of one triangle, rotating them with the
same acute angle and compressing with the same ratio the broken sides.
1. Introduction
We will denote by c
2
the euclidean space.
Denition 1.1. For A c
2
xed and c (; ), we call rotation of
center A and angle c of 1 c
2
, the point . = 1
x;
(1 ), having the following
properties:
(i) :(]1 A7) = c;
(ii)

A1 =

A7.
Denition 1.2. Let O c
2
a xed point and / R0. We call homothety
with center O and ratio / an application:
H
0;k
: c
2
c
2
: H
0;k
(') = '
0
with the following properties:
(1) H
0;k
(O) = O;
(2) If ' ,= 0, then the points O, ', '
0
are collinear;
(3) If / 0, then '
0
[O', and if / < 0, then O [''
0
];
(4) O'
0
= [/[ O'.

Keywords and phrases: Triangle, isogonal point


(2010)Mathematics Subject Classication: 51M04, 51M25, 51M30
42 Petru I. Braica and Andrei Bud
2. Main Results
If we consider an arbitrary triangle 1C and the points C
a
= (H
A;k

1
A;
)(1), C
b
= (H
B;k
1
B;
)(),
b
= (H
B;k
1
B;
)(C),
c
= (H
C;k

1
C;
)(1), 1
c
= (H
C;k
1
C;
)(), 1
a
= (H
A;k
1
A;
)(C) with / R

and c (; ) xed.
Lemma 2.1. If C
0
, 1
0
are points in the interior of the triangle 1C with
1C
0
~ C1
0
and CC
0
1 = C
1
, also 11
0
C = 1
1
, then
the following identity is true:
1
0

0
C
=
sinC sin(1 +j)
sin1 sin(C +j)
,
with j
not
= :(]1C
0
) = :(]C1
0
).
Proof. We have
1
1

1
1
C
=
o
4BB
0
C
o
4BAB
0
=
1C 1
0
C sin(C +j)
1 1
0
sin(+r)
=
sinC sinj sin(+r)
sin sinr sin(C +j)
,
where r
not
= :(]1C
0
) = :(]C1
0
) (see Figure 1).
Similarly, we have
C
1

C
1
1
=
o
4ACC
0
o
4CC
0
B
=
C
0
C sin(+r)
1C
0
1C sin(1 +j)
=
sinj sin1 sin(+r)
sinr sin sin(1 +j)
.
Now, using the Cevas Theorem, in the triangle 1C, one obtains

0
C
1
0
=
1
1
C
1
1


C
1

C
1
1
=
sin1 sin(C +j)
sinC sin(1 +j)
.

Theorem 2.1. Let us consider now an arbitrary triangle 1C and the


points C
a
= (H
A;k
1
A;
)(1), C
b
= (H
B;k
1
B;k
)(),
b
= (H
B;k

1
B;
)(C),
c
= (H
C;k
1
C;
)(1), 1
c
= (H
C;k
1
C;
)(), 1
a
= (H
A;k

1
A;
)(C), with / R

, c (; ) xed. Using this points, dened above,


we consider the following intersections: 11
c
CC
b
= 1
a
, 1
a
1C =
1
A
, 11
a

b
= 1
c
, C1
c
1 = 1
C
, CC
a

c
= 1
b
, 11
b

A generalization of the isogonal point 43
C = 1
B
. The concurrency of the cevians 1
A
, 11
B
, C1
C
takes place
in the point T
;k
.
Proof. Applying Lema 2.1 one obtains:
11
A
1
A
C
=
sinC sin(1 +c)
sin1 sin(C +c)
C1
B
1
B

=
sin sin(C +c)
sinC sin(+c)
1
C
1
C
1
=
sin1 sin(+c)
sin sin(1 +c)
.
Now, evaluating the product
11
A
1
A
C

C1
B
1
B


1
C
1
C
1
= 1
and from the reciprocal of Cevas Theorem, we have the concurrency in T
;k
(see Figure 2).
Corrolary 2.1. For c = 60

one obtains the rst Torricelli point, and for


c = 60

one obtains the second Torricelli point, replacing / = 1.


Corrolary 2.2. For / = 1,(2 cos c), one obtains: C
a
= C
b
; 1
a
= 1
c
;

c
=
b
and the 1C
a
, 1
b
C, C1
a
are similar isosceles triangles and
the Theorem of Kiepert takes place.[1].
Corrolary 2.3. From Lemma 2.2 one obtaines that the geometrical locus
of the intersection point CC
0
11
0
is the line
0
, where
1
0
,
0
C =
sinC sin(1 +j)
sin1 sin(C +j)
.
44 Petru I. Braica and Andrei Bud
Theorem 2.2. Let us consider now an arbitrary triangle 1C and the
following points C
a
= (H
A;k
1
A;
)(1), C
b
= (H
B;k
1
B;
)(),
b
=
(H
B;k
1
B;
)(C),
c
= (H
C;k
1
C;
)(1), 1
c
= (H
C;k
1
C;
)(), 1
a
=
(H
A;k
1
A;
)(C) with / R

, c (; ) xed. Using this points, we


consider the following intersections: Q
a
= CC
a
11
a
, Q
b
=
b
CC
b
,
Q
c
= 11
c

c
, Q
a
1C = Q
A
, 1Q
b
C = Q
B
, CQ
c
1 =
Q
C
. The concurrency of lines Q
A
, 1Q
B
, CQ
C
takes place in the point
T

;k
.
Proof. We make the following notations: , = :(]C
a
1) = :(]C
b
1) =
:(]1
a
C) = :(]1
c
C) = :(]
c
1C) = :(]
b
C1).
Applying Lemma 2.1 one obtains:
1Q
A
Q
A
C
=
sinC sin(1 +,)
sin1 sin(C +,)
CQ
B
Q
B

=
sin sin(C +,)
sinC sin(+,)
Q
C
Q
C
1
=
sin1 sin(+,)
sin sin(1 +,)
.
Now, applying again the reciprocal of the Cevas Theorem, one obtains the
required concurrency in the point T

;k
(See Figure 3).
Remark 2.1. The corrolary 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 takes place also for Theorem
2.2.
Remark 2.2. The barycentric coordinates for the points T
k;
and T

k;
can
remain an open problem.
Remark 2.3. For / = 1, Theorem 2.1 become Theorem 1.1 from [4].
A generalization of the isogonal point 45
References
[1] Barbu, C., Fundamental Theorems of Triangle Geometry (Romanian), Ed. Unique,
Bac au, 2008.
[2] Nicolescu, L. and Bosko, V., Practical Problems of Geometry (Romanian), Ed.
Tehnic a, Bucuresti, 1990.
[3] Mathematical Gazette (Romanian), Bucharest.
[4] Braica, P. and Pop, O. T., An Extension of Torricellis Theorem (Romanian).
Received: February 2, 2012.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL "GRIGORE MOISIL"
MILENIULUI 1, 440037 SATU MARE, ROMANIA
E-mail address: petrubr@yahoo.com
ICHB BUCURE STI, ROMANIA
E-mail address: and_rei_95@yahoo.com