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A GENERALIZATION OF THE ISOGONAL POINT

PETRU I. BRAICA and ANDREI BUD

Abstract. In this paper we give a generalization of the isogonal point in

terms of concurrency, starting with the ideea of "breaking" the equilateral

triangles constructed on the sides of one triangle, rotating them with the

same acute angle and compressing with the same ratio the broken sides.

1. Introduction

We will denote by c

2

the euclidean space.

Denition 1.1. For A c

2

xed and c (; ), we call rotation of

center A and angle c of 1 c

2

, the point . = 1

x;

(1 ), having the following

properties:

(i) :(]1 A7) = c;

(ii)

A1 =

A7.

Denition 1.2. Let O c

2

a xed point and / R0. We call homothety

with center O and ratio / an application:

H

0;k

: c

2

c

2

: H

0;k

(') = '

0

with the following properties:

(1) H

0;k

(O) = O;

(2) If ' ,= 0, then the points O, ', '

0

are collinear;

(3) If / 0, then '

0

[O', and if / < 0, then O [''

0

];

(4) O'

0

= [/[ O'.

(2010)Mathematics Subject Classication: 51M04, 51M25, 51M30

42 Petru I. Braica and Andrei Bud

2. Main Results

If we consider an arbitrary triangle 1C and the points C

a

= (H

A;k

1

A;

)(1), C

b

= (H

B;k

1

B;

)(),

b

= (H

B;k

1

B;

)(C),

c

= (H

C;k

1

C;

)(1), 1

c

= (H

C;k

1

C;

)(), 1

a

= (H

A;k

1

A;

)(C) with / R

and c (; ) xed.

Lemma 2.1. If C

0

, 1

0

are points in the interior of the triangle 1C with

1C

0

~ C1

0

and CC

0

1 = C

1

, also 11

0

C = 1

1

, then

the following identity is true:

1

0

0

C

=

sinC sin(1 +j)

sin1 sin(C +j)

,

with j

not

= :(]1C

0

) = :(]C1

0

).

Proof. We have

1

1

1

1

C

=

o

4BB

0

C

o

4BAB

0

=

1C 1

0

C sin(C +j)

1 1

0

sin(+r)

=

sinC sinj sin(+r)

sin sinr sin(C +j)

,

where r

not

= :(]1C

0

) = :(]C1

0

) (see Figure 1).

Similarly, we have

C

1

C

1

1

=

o

4ACC

0

o

4CC

0

B

=

C

0

C sin(+r)

1C

0

1C sin(1 +j)

=

sinj sin1 sin(+r)

sinr sin sin(1 +j)

.

Now, using the Cevas Theorem, in the triangle 1C, one obtains

0

C

1

0

=

1

1

C

1

1

C

1

C

1

1

=

sin1 sin(C +j)

sinC sin(1 +j)

.

points C

a

= (H

A;k

1

A;

)(1), C

b

= (H

B;k

1

B;k

)(),

b

= (H

B;k

1

B;

)(C),

c

= (H

C;k

1

C;

)(1), 1

c

= (H

C;k

1

C;

)(), 1

a

= (H

A;k

1

A;

)(C), with / R

we consider the following intersections: 11

c

CC

b

= 1

a

, 1

a

1C =

1

A

, 11

a

b

= 1

c

, C1

c

1 = 1

C

, CC

a

c

= 1

b

, 11

b

A generalization of the isogonal point 43

C = 1

B

. The concurrency of the cevians 1

A

, 11

B

, C1

C

takes place

in the point T

;k

.

Proof. Applying Lema 2.1 one obtains:

11

A

1

A

C

=

sinC sin(1 +c)

sin1 sin(C +c)

C1

B

1

B

=

sin sin(C +c)

sinC sin(+c)

1

C

1

C

1

=

sin1 sin(+c)

sin sin(1 +c)

.

Now, evaluating the product

11

A

1

A

C

C1

B

1

B

1

C

1

C

1

= 1

and from the reciprocal of Cevas Theorem, we have the concurrency in T

;k

(see Figure 2).

Corrolary 2.1. For c = 60

c = 60

Corrolary 2.2. For / = 1,(2 cos c), one obtains: C

a

= C

b

; 1

a

= 1

c

;

c

=

b

and the 1C

a

, 1

b

C, C1

a

are similar isosceles triangles and

the Theorem of Kiepert takes place.[1].

Corrolary 2.3. From Lemma 2.2 one obtaines that the geometrical locus

of the intersection point CC

0

11

0

is the line

0

, where

1

0

,

0

C =

sinC sin(1 +j)

sin1 sin(C +j)

.

44 Petru I. Braica and Andrei Bud

Theorem 2.2. Let us consider now an arbitrary triangle 1C and the

following points C

a

= (H

A;k

1

A;

)(1), C

b

= (H

B;k

1

B;

)(),

b

=

(H

B;k

1

B;

)(C),

c

= (H

C;k

1

C;

)(1), 1

c

= (H

C;k

1

C;

)(), 1

a

=

(H

A;k

1

A;

)(C) with / R

consider the following intersections: Q

a

= CC

a

11

a

, Q

b

=

b

CC

b

,

Q

c

= 11

c

c

, Q

a

1C = Q

A

, 1Q

b

C = Q

B

, CQ

c

1 =

Q

C

. The concurrency of lines Q

A

, 1Q

B

, CQ

C

takes place in the point

T

;k

.

Proof. We make the following notations: , = :(]C

a

1) = :(]C

b

1) =

:(]1

a

C) = :(]1

c

C) = :(]

c

1C) = :(]

b

C1).

Applying Lemma 2.1 one obtains:

1Q

A

Q

A

C

=

sinC sin(1 +,)

sin1 sin(C +,)

CQ

B

Q

B

=

sin sin(C +,)

sinC sin(+,)

Q

C

Q

C

1

=

sin1 sin(+,)

sin sin(1 +,)

.

Now, applying again the reciprocal of the Cevas Theorem, one obtains the

required concurrency in the point T

;k

(See Figure 3).

Remark 2.1. The corrolary 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 takes place also for Theorem

2.2.

Remark 2.2. The barycentric coordinates for the points T

k;

and T

k;

can

remain an open problem.

Remark 2.3. For / = 1, Theorem 2.1 become Theorem 1.1 from [4].

A generalization of the isogonal point 45

References

[1] Barbu, C., Fundamental Theorems of Triangle Geometry (Romanian), Ed. Unique,

Bac au, 2008.

[2] Nicolescu, L. and Bosko, V., Practical Problems of Geometry (Romanian), Ed.

Tehnic a, Bucuresti, 1990.

[3] Mathematical Gazette (Romanian), Bucharest.

[4] Braica, P. and Pop, O. T., An Extension of Torricellis Theorem (Romanian).

Received: February 2, 2012.

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL "GRIGORE MOISIL"

MILENIULUI 1, 440037 SATU MARE, ROMANIA

E-mail address: petrubr@yahoo.com

ICHB BUCURE STI, ROMANIA

E-mail address: and_rei_95@yahoo.com

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