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CHAPTER

NO 1
INTRODUCTION
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STRESS MANAGEMENT
Stress management can be defined as interventions designed to reduce the impact of stressors
in the workplace. These can have an individual focus, aimed at increasing an individual
ability to cope with stressors. The goal of Stress Management is to help you to manage the
stress of everyday life. Many different methods may be employed, such as biofeedback,
meditation and massage. Counselors work with individuals in order to determine what stress
management program will work best for that person.
Tips to stress management include calm, clear thoughts and quiet confidence in yourself and
your ability to accomplish the goals set for yourself.
What is Stress?
The word stress is derived from the atin word !stringi!, which means, !to be drawn tight!.
Stress can be defined as follows"
#n medical terms stress is described as, !a physical or psychological stimulus that can
produce mental tension or physiological reactions that may lead to illness.! $hen you are
under stress, your adrenal gland releases corticosteroids, which are converted to cortisol in
the blood stream. Cortical have an immune suppressive effect in your body.
DEFINITIONS:
%ans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. %is view in 1&'( was that
!stress is not necessarily something bad ) it all depends on how you take it. The stress of
e*hilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or
infection is detrimental.! Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be
e*perienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative.
Since then, a great deal of further research has been conducted, and ideas have moved on.
Stress is now viewed as a !bad thing!, with a range of harmful biochemical and long+term
effects. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations.
The most commonly accepted definition of stress ,mainly attributed to -ichard S a.arus/ is
that stress is a condition or feeling e*perienced when a person perceives that !demands
e*ceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobili.e.! #n short, it0s what
we feel when we think we0ve lost control of events.
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This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools, although we also recogni.e
that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to une*pected events. The stress
response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. Stress has
been called 2the invisible3. #t is a disease that may affect you, your organi.ation, and any of
the people in it, so you cannot afford to ignore it.
EVALUATION OF STRESS:
The 4arden of 5den began as a tranquil stress environment. %owever when 6dam was given
the tantali.ing chance to eat the forbidden fruit, he was trust into mankind7s first stressful
situation. 6dam was offered a choice and, as we know, decision+making is the breeding
ground for conflict, frustration and distress. Stress in individual is defined as any interference
that disturbs a persons7 healthy mental and physical well being. #t occurs when the body is
required to perform beyond its normal range of capabilities.
Stress is the way that you react physically, mentally and emotionally to various conditions,
changes and demands in your life. %igh levels of stress can affect your physical and mental
well being and performance. The results of stress are harmful to individuals, families, society
and organi.ations, which can suffer from 2organi.ation stress3. #vancevich and Matteson
define stress as individual with the environment.
8ehr and 9ewman define :ob stress as 2a condition arising from the interaction of people and
their :obs and characteri.ed by changes within people that force them to deviate from their
normal functioning3. Stress is a dynamic condition, which an individual is confronted with
an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the
outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is associated with constraints
and demands. The former prevent you from doing what you desire, the latter refers to the loss
of something desired. Stress is highest for those individuals who perceive that they are
uncertain as to whether they will win or lose and lowest for those individuals who think that
winning or losing is certainty.
;
6ccording to Selye, the 4eneral 6daptation Syndrome consists of three phases.
Alar Rea!ti"#"
The first is the alarm phases. %ere the individual mobili.es to meet the threat. The alarm
reaction has two phases. The first phases includes in initial 2stock shock phase3 in which
defensive mechanism become active. 6larm reaction is characteri.ed by autonomous
e*citability< adrenaline discharges< increase heart rate, ulceration. =epending on the nature >
intensity of the threat and the condition of the organi.ation the period of resistance varies and
the severity of symptoms may differ from 2mild invigoration3 to 2disease of adaptation3.
Resista#!e"
The second is the phase of resistance. The individual attempts to resist or cope with the
threat. Ma*imum adaptation occurs during this stage. The bodily signs characteristic of the
alarm reaction disappear. #t the stress persist, or the defensive reaction proves ineffective, it
may overwhelm the body resources. =epleted of energy, the body enters the phase of third.
E$ha%sti"#"
6daptation energy is e*hausted. Sings of the alarm reaction reappear, and the resistance level
begins to define irreversibly. The organism collapses.
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@eston:ee has attempted A identified three important sectors of life in which Stress originates.
These are
Bob and the organi.ation
The social sector
#ntra psychical sector
&"' a#( "r)a#i*ati"#+
#t refers to the totality of the work environment ,task, atmosphere, colleagues, compensation,
policies, etc./. The social sector refers to the other such factors. The #ntrapsychicesector
encompasses those things, which are intimate, and persona, like temperament, values,
abilities and health. #t is contended that stress can originate in any of these sectors or in
combinations thereof.
#n the figure below it can be seen that the magnitude of stress emanating from the stress to
learner limit of the individual to handle these stress. This indicates a balanced state.
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MINOR SURFACE CHANGES
A(a+tati"# atte+t
a/ 5*tra effort
b/ 5*cessive concern of task
c/ $orries
d/ 6n*iety
#n the stage three and the figure below, we find that :ob and organi.ational loads have
become unmanageable and interact with intrapsychic loads. This is the stage at which he
negative consequences of the stress become apparent. Most of the stress related diseases
emerge at this point. $hen the situation persists we move into the ne*t stage in which we
start operating beyond the 2stress tolerance limit3.
(
MA&OR SURFACE DISFIGURATION
Fra#ti! !"+,i#)
1. 5*tra ordinary effort
1. $orry and an*iety about the self
;. Cnset of physiological symptoms
?. 6ggressive tendencies
Several types of breakdowns and cracks are observable in this stage i.e., fourth stage. #f
unchecked the situation may culminate into the last and most intense phase wherein complete
disintegration of personality takes place. 6t this stage, the individual requires proper
psychological and medical care. The figure below depicts the fourth and fifth stage.
STRESSORS OR LOADS
D
E
-REA.DOWNS AND CRAC.S: FAILURE IN COPING
W"r/ relate( s,+t"s
ack of concentration
6ffected clarity of thinking > decision ) making
Frequent absenteeism
6ffected team work
6ggressive behavior
Ph,si"l")i!al s,+t"s
%eadache A Migraine
#nsomnia
ack of appetite
=igestive disorders
Se*ual disorders
Temperamental changes.
@eston:ee has also developed a model to e*plain how we cope with stress reactions. #t is
called the 8CG9C5 model because the behavioral decomposition taking place due to stress
tense to get reflected in interpersonal reactions. The reactions are received > analy.ed by the
environment, which in turn, bounce back signals to the individuals to bring about a change
either at the orgasmic level or at the response level.
-ORNOUT STRESS S0NDROME 1-OSS2:3
8oss can lead to at least four types of stress related consequences such as, depletion of
energy reverses, lowered resistance to illness, increased dissatisfaction and pessimism and
increased absenteeism and inefficiency at work.
Heningle and spradley have identified five distinct stages of 8CSS.
&
14 HONE0MOON STAGE:3
This stage can be describe as accounting for the euphoric feeling of encounter with the new
:ob such as e*citement, enthusiasm, challenge and pride. =ysfunctional features emerge in
two ways first< the energy reverses are gradually depleted in coping with the demands of a
challenging environment. Second, habits and strategies for coping with stress are formed in
this stage which is often not useful in coping with later challenges.
54 FUEL SHORTAGE STAGE:3
This stage can be identified as composed of the value feelings of loss, fatigue and confusion
arising from the individual7s overdraws on reverses of adaptation energy. Cther symptoms
are dissatisfaction, inefficiency, and fatigue and sleep disturbances leading to escape activate
such as increased eating, drinking > smoking.
64 CRISIS STAGE:3
$hen these feelings and physiological symptoms persist over period of time, the individual
enters the stage of crisis. 6t this stage he develops 2escape mentality3 and feels oppressed.
%eightened pessimism, self+doubling tendencies, peptic ulcers, tension headaches, chronic
backaches, blood pressure.
74 HITTING THE WALL STAGE:3
This stage of 8CSS is characteri.ed by total e*haustion of one7s adaptation energy, which
may mark the end of one7s professional career. $hile recovery from this stage elude may be
resourceful to tide over the crises.
T0PES OF STRESS:3
#t the stress for the day to day adaptability of man to his environment and results in the
maintenance of internal steady state ,homeostasis/ it is known as neustress. For e*ample, one
produces neustress in order to breath, work.
Stress is through of in negative terms. #t is thought to be caused by something bad ,for
e*ample the boss gives a formal reprimand for poor performance/. #t the stress response is
unfavorable and potentially disease producing, this is known as distress. Constant worry in a
susceptible individual can lead to ulcers.
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DEFINING STRESS AT WOR.
Change in working practices, such as the introduction of new technology or the alternation of
new technology or the alternative of targets, my cause stress, or stress may be built into an
organi.ations7 structure. Crgani.ational stress can be measured by absenteeism and quality or
work.
ORGANI8ATIONAL STRESS:3
Stress affects as well as the individual within them. 6n organi.ation with a high level of
absenteeism, rapid staff turnover, deteriorating industrial and customer relations, a worsening
safety record, or poor quality control is suffering from organi.ational stress.
FOLLOWING THE PATH OF STRESS THROUGH IN ORGANI8ATION:3
The below chart shows one e*ample of the structure of a department in an organi.ation,
indicating typical causes of stress that may affect stress at certain levels in the structure, and
particular.
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POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRESS:
There are three categories of potential stressors"
5nvironmental factor
Crgani.ation factor
#ndividual factors
14 E#9ir"#e#tal :a!t"rs:
Bust as environmental uncertainty influences the design of an organi.ation. Changes in
business cycle create economic uncertainties.
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a4 P"liti!al %#!ertai#ties:
#f the political system in a country is implemented in an orderly manner, there would not be
any type of stress.
'4 Te!h#"l")i!al %#!ertai#ties:
9ew innovations can make an employee7s skills and e*periences obsolete in a very short
period of time. Technological uncertainty therefore is a third type of environmental factor
that can cause stress. Computers, robotics, automation and other forms of technological
innovations are threat to many people and cause them stress.
54 Or)a#i*ati"# :a!t"rs:
There are no storages of factors within the organi.ation that can cause stress< pressures to
avoid error or complete tasks in a limited time period, work overload are few e*amples. Task
demands are factors related to a person7s :ob. They include the design of the individual7s :ob
working conditions, and the physical work layout.
-ole demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or
she plays in the organi.ation. -ole overhead is e*perienced when the employees is e*pected
to do more than time permits. -ole ambiguity is created when role e*pectations are not
clearly understood and employee is not sure what he A she is to
#nterpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. ack of social support from
colleagues and poor. #nterpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially
among employed with a high social need.
Crgani.ational structure defines the level of differentiation in the organi.ation, the degree of
rules and regulations, and where decisions are made. 5*cessive rules and lack of
participation in decision that affect an employee are e*amples of structural variables that
might be potential sources of stress.
P"te#tial s"%r!es C"#se;%e#!es
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Crgani.ational leadership represents the managerial style of the organi.ations senior
e*ecutive. Some e*ecutive officers create a culture characteri.ed by tension, fear, and
an*iety. They establish unrealistic pressures to perform in the short+run impose e*cessively
tight controls and routinely fire employees who don7t measure up. This creates a fear in their
hearts, which lead to stress.
Crgani.ations go through a cycle. They are established< they grow, become mature, and
eventually decline. 6n organi.ation7s life stage i.e .where it is in four stage cycle+creates
different problems and pressures for employees. The establishment and decline stage are
particularly stressful.
64 I#(i9i(%al :a!t"rs:3
The typical individual only works about ?I hrs a week. The e*perience and problems that
people encounter in those other 11E non+work hrs each week can spell over to the :ob.
a4 Fail, +r"'les:
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9ational surveys consistently show that people hold family and discipline, troubles with
children are e*amples of relationship problems that create stress for employee and that aren7t
at the front door when they arrive at work.
'4 E!"#"i! +r"'les:
5conomic problems created by individuals overe*tending their financial resources are
another set of personal troubles that can create stress for employees and distract their
attention from their work.
CAUSES OF STRESS
Society the working world and daily life have changed almost beyond recognition in the past
'I years. These changes have contributed to a ma:or increase in stress. Stress is caused
from both outside > inside the organi.ation > from groups that employees are influenced by
> from employees themselves.
a4 Stress"rs:
The agents or demands that evoke the potential response are referred to as stressors.
6ccording to S,ele a stressors is 2$hatever produces stress with or without functioning
hormonal or nervous systems3.
'4 E$tra "r)a#i*ati"#al stress"rs:
5*tra organi.ational stressors have a tremendous impact on :ob stress. Taking an open system
perspective of an organi.ation, it is clear that :ob stress is not :ust limited to things that
happen inside the organi.ation, during working hours. 5*tra organi.ational stressors include
things such as social A technological change, the family, relocation, economic > financial
conditions, race > class, residential or community conditions.
!4 Or)a#i*ati"#al stress"rs:
8esides the potential stressors that occur outside the organi.ation, there are also those
associated with the organi.ation itself. 6lthough the organi.ation is made up of groups >
individuals, there are also more macro+level dimensions unique to the organi.ation that
contains potential stressors.
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MACRO3LEVEL ORGANI8ATIONAL STRESSORS:
POLICIES
Gnfair, arbitrary performance reviews.
-otating works shifts.
#nfle*ible rules.
Gnrealistic :ob descriptions.
STRUCTURES
Centrali.ation< ack of participation in decision making.
ittle opportunity for advancement.
6 great amount of formali.ation.
&O-
#nterdependence of departments.
ine+Staff conflicts.
PH0SICAL CONDITIONS
Crowding > lack of privacy.
6ir pollution.
Safety ha.ards.
#nadequate lighting.
5*cessive, heat or cold.
PROCESS
@oor communication.
@oor A inadequate feedback about performance.
#naccurate A ambiguous measurement of performance.
Gnfair control systems.
#nadequate information.
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GROUP STRESSORS:
The group can also be a potential source of stress. 4roup stressors can be categori.ed into
three areas.
14 La!/ ": )r"%+s< !"hesi9e#ess:3
2Cohesiveness3 or 2togetherness3 is a very important to employees, especially at the lower
levels of the organi.ations. #f the employee is denied the opportunity for this cohesiveness
because of the task design, because the supervisor does things to prohibit or limit it, or
because the other members of the group shut the person out, this can be very stress
producing.
1. La!/ ": s"!ial s%++"rt:3
5mployees are greatly affected by the support of one or more member of a cohesive group.
8y sharing their problems > :oys with others, they are much better off. #t this type of social
support is lacking for an individual, it can be very stressful.
64 I#tra3I#(i9i(%al= i#ter+ers"#al > i#ter3)r"%+ !"#:li!t:3
Conflict is very closely conceptually or hostile acts between associated with in compatible or
hostile acts between intra+individual dimensions, such as personal goals or motivational
needs A values, between individuals within a group, > between groups.
INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS:
In a sense, the other stressors ,5*tra organi.ational, organi.ational, > 4roup stressors/ all
eventually get down to the individual level. For e*ample, role conflict, ambiguity, self+
efficacy > psychological hardiness may all affect the level of stress someone e*periences.

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CONSE?UENCES OF STRESS
The effect of stress is closely linked to individual personality. The same level of stress affects
different people in different ways > each person has different ways of coping. -ecogni.ing
these personality types means that more focused help can be given.
Stress shows itself number of ways. For instance, individual who is e*periencing high level
of stress may develop high blood pressure, ulcers, irritability, difficulty in making routine
decisions, loss of appetite, accident proneness, and the like. These can be subsumed under
three categories"
#ndividual consequences
Crgani.ational consequence
8urnout
a4 I#(i9i(%al !"#se;%e#!es
#ndividual consequences of stress are those, which affect the individual directly. =ue to this
the organi.ation may suffer directly or indirectly, but it is the individual who has to pays for
it. #ndividual consequences of stress are broadly divided into behavioral, psychological and
medical.
8ehavioral consequences of stress are responses that may harm the person under
stress or others. 8ehaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity,
turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of
alcohol, paid speech, and sleep disorders.
@sychological consequences of stress replace to an individual mental health and well+
being from or felling depressed. Bob related stress could cause dissatisfaction, infact it
has most psychological effect on the individual and lead to tension, an*iety
irritability, and boredom.
Medical consequences of stress affect a person7s well being. 6ccording to a research
conducted, it revealed that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart
and breathing rates, increases blood pressure bring out headaches and induce heart
attacks.
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'4 Or)a#i*ati"#al !"#se;%e#!es
Crgani.ational consequences of stress have direct affect on the organi.ations. These include
decline in performance, withdrawal and negative changes in attitude.
=ecline in performance can translate into poor quality work or a drop in productivity.
@romotions and other organi.ational benefits get affected due to this.
$ithdrawal behavior also can result from stress. Significant form of withdrawal
behavior is absenteeism.
Cne main affect of employee stress is directly related to attitudes. Bob satisfaction,
morale and organi.ational commitment can all suffer, along with motivation to
perform at higher levels.
!4 -%r#"%t
6 final consequence of stress has implementation for both people and organi.ations.
8urnout is a general feeling of e*haustion that develops when an individual simultaneously
e*periences too much pressure and few sources of satisfaction.
Ma#a)i#) stress i# the @"r/ +la!e
5very responds to stress in a different way, it is only by understanding the nature of
individual responses that you can start fighting stress yourself and others. -eduction or
elimination of stress is necessary for psychological and physical well being of an individual.
5fficiency in stress management enables the individual to deal or cope with the stressful
situations instead of avoidance. Strategies like tie management, body+mind and mind+body
rela*ation e*ercise, seeking social support help individual improve their physical and mental
resources to deal with stress successfully.
6part from helping employees adopt certain coping strategies to deal with stress providing
them with the service of counselor is also useful. Many strategies have been developed to
help manage stress in the work place. Some are strategies for individuals, and other is geared
toward organi.ations.
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I#(i9i(%al !"+i#) strate)ies:
Many strategies for helping individuals manage stress have been proposed.
#ndividual coping strategies are used when an employee under stress e*hibits undesirable
behavior on the :obs such as performance, strained relationship with co+workers, absenteeism
alcoholism and the like. 5mployees under stress require help in overcoming its negative
effects. The strategies used are"
a4 E$er!ise:3
Cne method by which individual can manage their stress is through e*ercise. @eople who
e*ercise regularly are known to less likely to have heart attacks than inactive people are.
-esearch also has suggested that people who e*ercise regularly feel less tension and stress
are more conflict and slow greater optimism.
'4 Rela$ati"#:3
6 related method individual can manage stress is rela*ation. Copying with stress require
adaptation. @roper rela*ation is an effective way to adopt.
-ela*ation can take many forms. Cne way to rela* is to take regular vacations< people can
also rela* while on the :ob ,i.e. take regular breaks during their normal workday/. 6 popular
way of resting is to sit quietly with closed eyes for ten minutes every afternoon.
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Other te!h#i;%es that !a# 'e %se( t" a#a)e stress are3
a4 Tie a#a)ee#t
Time management is an often recommended method for managing stress, the idea is that
many daily pressures can be eased or eliminated if a person does a better :ob of managing
time. Cne popular approach to time management is to make a list, every morning or the thins
to be done that day. Then you group the items on the list into three categories" critical
activities that must be performed, important activities that should be performed, and optimal
or trivial things that can be delegated or postponed, then of more of the important things done
every day.
'4 P"siti9e thi#/i#)
-educe stress by breaking bad thinking habits4 #t can sometimes be easy to get into a
negative frame of mind ) in fact when confronted with unrelenting stress a negative outlook
can feel like the norm. Cne important way that you can reduce the impact of stress on
yourself is to flip your negative thinking and develop positive thinking habits. -ecogni.ing
that stress is about how you view the situation, you can increase your abilities to cope with
stress.
!4 Mai#tai# the stress (iar,
-ecogni.e what causes you stress. Maintain a stress diary and keep a stress log today. 8y
understanding what pushes your buttons and how you react to work stress you can develop
strategies to prepare for events that cause you stress at work.
s by changing the way that you view certain situations.
(4 R"le a#a)ee#t
Somewhat related to time management in which the individual actively works to avoid
overload, ambiguity and conflict.
e4 S%++"rt )r"%+s
This method of managing stress is to develop and maintain support group. 6 support group is
simply a group of family member or friends with whom a person can spend time. Supportive
family and friends can help people deal with normal stress on an ongoing basis. Support
groups can be particularly useful during times of crisis.

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:4 -eha9i"ral sel:3!"#tr"l
#n ultimate analysis, effective management if stress presupposes e*ercise of self+control on
the part of an employee. 8y consciously analy.ing the cause and consequences of their own
behavior, the employees can achieve self+control. They can further develop awareness of
their own limits of tolerance and learn to anticipate their own responses to various stressful
situations. The strategy involves increasing an individual7s control over the situations rather
than being solely controlled by them.
)4 C")#iti9e thera+,:
The cognitive therapy techniques such as 5lli7s rational emotive model and Meichenbaum7s
cognitive strategy fir modification have been used as an individual strategy for reducing :ob
stress.
h4 C"%#seli#):
@ersonal counseling help employees understand and appreciate a diverse workforce, the
holistic approach adopted by the counselor gives him a comprehensive view of the employee
as client and enable him to deal the issues of work related problems in a larger conte*t with
his awareness of the inter+relationship among problems in ad:ustment with self, other and
environment and that a work concern will effect personal life and vice+versa, the employee
would receive help regarding the problem in all life.
Cne of the advantage of the individual interventions is the individual can use these skills to
improve the quality of life in offer domains like family, social support and self, thus reducing
the negative carry of e*periences in these domains into the work life which might effects his
occupation mental health.
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ORGANI8ATIONAL STRATEGIES:3
The most effective way of managing stress calls for adopting stressors and prevent
occurrence of potential stressors. 7Two basic organi.ational strategies for helping employees
manage stress are institutional programs and collateral programs.
I#stit%ti"#al +r")ras:3
#nstitutional programs for managing stress are undertaken to established organi.ational
mechanism for e*ample, a properly designed :ob and word schedules can help ease stress.
Shift work in particular can constantly have to ad:ust their sleep and rela*ation patterns.
Thus, the design of work schedules should be a focused of organi.ational efforts to reduce
stress. The organi.ation7s culture can also used to help to manage stress. The organi.ation
should strive to foster a culture that reinforces a healthy mi* of work and nonworking
activities.
Finally, supervision can play an important institutional role in overload. #n managing stress.
6 supervisor is a potential manager source of overload. #f made aware of their potential for
assigning stressful amounts of work, supervisors can do a better :ob keeping workloads
reasonable.
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C"llateral +r")ras:3
#n addition to their institutional efforts aimed at reducing stress, many organi.ations are
turning to collateral programs. 6 collateral stress program in an organi.ational program
specifically created to help employees deal with stress. The organi.ations have adopted stress
management programs, health promotion programs and other kinds of programs for this
purpose.
Ta/i#) !are ": ,"%rsel::3
$hen stressed, we don7t always take care of ourselves. For e*ample, in a national poll of
6mericans, 2?;J said they eat too much or eat unhealthy foods because of stress.3 %ere are
a number of stress management tips that you can use to take care of yourself to build your
resilience to cope with stress.
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145 INTRODUCTION TO MAHINDRA > MAHINDRA LTD4
1SWARA& DIVISION2
Mahindra > Mahindra is the flagship company of the Mahindra 4roup. 5stablished in 1&?',
their core automotive and farm equipment businesses have grown into market leaders whose
triple bottom line ethic is driving industry trends towards technological innovation, social
responsibility, and constantly improving customer satisfaction.

Cver the years, they7ve spun off into new ventures in order to better meet the needs of their
customers, e*panding into automotive and non+automotive components, information
technology, financial services, and energy. They operate in a federated structure so that each
business can take risks and grow on its own and simultaneously leverage synergies across the
entire 4roup7s competencies.

Mahi#(ra > Mahi#(ra<s Far E;%i+e#t (i9isi"# is the t"+3selli#) tra!t"r !"+a#, i#
the @"rl(, with annual sales over 1'I,III, a presence in more than ?I countries and more
than 1,III dealers worldwide. They manufacture their tractors at four state+of+the+art plants
in #ndia, two in China, three in the GS, and one in 6ustralia, grounding them in four ma:or
agricultural hubs to give them close on+the+ground understanding of what farmers need from
their tractors. Their strong ->= team of more than (II engineers constantly pushes their
technology forward.

Their constant commitment to deliver more to their customers has brought them 1D years of
sustained market leadership and a ?1 percent share of the domestic market. They7ve ear#e( a
!%st"er satis:a!ti"# i#(e$ 1CSI2 ": AA +er!e#tBthe hi)hest i# the i#(%str,4

Their GS subsidiary, Mahindra GS6, sells thousands of tractors each year to farmers across
the country. They also manufacture in 6ustralia and entered the Chinese market through a
:oint venture in 1IID. =espite stagnation in the Chinese farming sector, Mahindra ,China/
Tractor Company recorded growth of 11 percent from 1II& to 1I1I. They7ve also
undertaken a :oint venture with the Biangsu Kueda 4roup, creating the Mahindra Kueda
,Kancheng/ Tractor Company to sell 1(+11' %@ tractors under the Binma brand.

1D
Their hard work has attracted several accolades. I# 5CCD= the Wall Street &"%r#al :eat%re(
the i# its list ": the t"+ 1C "st i##"9ati9e I#(ia# !"+a#ies i# its s%r9e, ": Asia<s 5CC
"st a(ire( a#( i##"9ati9e !"+a#ies4 They received the prestigious G"l(e# Pea!"!/
A@ar( 5CCA i# the I##"9ati9e Pr"(%!tESer9i!es !ate)"r, for their in+house development
of a load car, the first of its kind in the #ndian tractor industry. A#( i# 5CCF= the, 'e!ae
the "#l, tra!t"r !"+a#, t" @i# the Dei#) A++li!ati"# Pri*e a#( the &a+a# ?%alit,
Me(al :"r T"tal ?%alit, Ma#a)ee#t e$!elle#!e i# their e#tire '%si#ess "+erati"#sB
t@" ": the hi)hest )l"'al ;%alit, a@ar(s4
A'"%t The Mahi#(ra Gr"%+
The Mahindra 4roup focuses on enabling people to rise. Mahindra operates in the key
industries that drive economic growth, en:oying a leadership position in tractors, utility
vehicles, information technology and vacation ownership. Mahindra has a presence in
the automotive industry, agribusiness, aerospace, components, consulting services, defense,
energy, financial services, industrial equipment, logistics, real estate, retail, steel and two
wheelers.
6 GS= 1'.? billion multinational group based in Mumbai, #ndia, Mahindra employs more
than 1??,III people in over 1II countries. #n 1I11, Mahindra featured on the Forbes 4lobal
1III list, a listing of the biggest and most powerful listed companies in the world. =un >
8radstreet also ranked Mahindra at 9o. 1 in the automobile sector in its list of #ndia0s Top 'II
Companies. #n 1I1I, Mahindra featured in the Credit Suisse 4reat 8rands of Tomorrow. #n
1I11, Mahindra acquired a ma:ority stake in Lorea0s SsangKong Motor Company.
A'"%t Far E;%i+e#t Se!t"r
Mahindra > Mahindra0s Farm 5quipment Sector ,F5S/ is part of the M1'.? billion Mahindra
4roup. 6s the market leader in #ndia for the past 1& years, F5S has helped bring agri tech
prosperity to the #ndian farmer, with technologically superior affordable solutions. Mahindra
has achieved the distinction of being the largest tractor company in the world by volume and
sells tractors in more than ?I countries.
The F5S vision is to deliver Farm Tech @rosperity through a variety of e*isting and new agri
) initiatives to impact the lives of farmers, enabling them to -#S5 above their current realm
of possibility.
1E
#n its quality :ourney F5S has won the =eming 6pplication @ri.e in 1II;, and was the second
company in #ndia to win the Bapan Nuality Medal in 1IID, followed by the T@M 5*cellence
6ward in 1I11.
#n 1IID, the Farm 5quipment Sector, Mahindra > Mahindra td. took over @un:ab Tractor
td. and added Swara: to its brand stable. F5S has ' state+of+the+art manufacturing plants in
#ndia located in Mumbai, 9agpur, -udrapur, Baipur and Mohali ,Swara:/.
F5S has a presence in around ?I countries, across si* continents with more than 1,III
dealers world+wide. F5S has a subsidiary agricultural tractor manufacturing company in
#ndia known as Mahindra 4u:arat Tractor imited ,M4T/.
#n order to enhance FarmTech @rosperity, F5S offers services beyond tractors such as agri+
mechani.ation solutions under Mahindra 6ppliTrac, Seeds, and Crop care solutions and
market linkages to high value markets through Mahindra Shubhabh and energy solutions
through Mahindra @owerol.
A'"%t S@araG
#n 1&DI, the 4overnment of @un:ab acquired the Swara: tractor0s design and established
@un:ab Tractors imited ,@T/. The tractors were produced and sold under the brand name
0Swara:0. #n 1IID, Mahindra > Mahindra td. 6cquired a ma:ority stake in @T, and in Feb
1II&, it was merged into M>M as the Swara: =ivision of Mahindra > Mahindra.
The Swara: =ivision of Mahindra > Mahindra td. ,M>M/, Farm 5quipment Sector ,F5S/,
a part of the M1'.? billion Mahindra 4roup. The brand is known for producing tractors that
are powerful and reliable. $ith over (II dealers across #ndia, Swara: today is a -s. 1'II
crore company with over ',III employees. The Swara: 4roup has achieved #SC 1?II1"1II?
> C%S6S 1EII1"1IID Certification and TS 1(&?& certification for Swara: 6utomotives td.
The Swara: =ivision of Mahindra > Mahindra td. ,M>M/, Farm 5quipment Sector ,F5S/,
a part of the M1'.? billion Mahindra 4roup has won the prestigious =eming 6pplication @ri.e
for 1I11. The Farm 5quipment Sector ,Mahindra Tractors Farm =ivision/ is the first tractor
company in the world to win the prestigious =eming @ri.e in 1II;, and then successfully
competed for the Bapan Nuality Medal in 1IID.
1&
HISTOR0

#n the mid+si*ties, with the 4reen -evolution triggering large+scale tractor usage, there was
a need for the country to build sufficient indigenous capacity to meet this growing demand.
#n 1&(', the Central Mechanical 5ngineering -esearch #nstitute ,CM5-#/, =urgapur initiated
design and development of Swara: Tractor based on indigenous know how. That is how the
idea for development of what was to become Swara: was initiated. The first prototype was
ready in May 1&(D and by 6pril 1&DI< field e*perience of over 1,'II hours had been gained.
6t that point, it was decided to christen a name for the product ) signifying #ndian, easy to
pronounce and signifying power and grace. The name 2Swara:3,was approved by the then
@rime Minister, Mrs #ndira 4andhi.
#n 1&DI, the 4overnment of @un:ab acquired the Swara: tractor0s design and established
@un:ab Tractors imited ,@T/. The tractors were produced and sold under the brand name
of Swara:. #n 1IID, Mahindra > Mahindra td. acquired ma:ority stake in @T, and in Feb
1II&, it was merged into M>M as the Swara: =ivision of Mahindra > Mahindra.
OVERVIEW
Swara: has become synonymous with tractors that are powerful and reliable because of their
long term e*pertise in delivering such products consistently. $e have been manufacturing
tractors that serve the need of our buyers in agricultural as well as commercial operations.
Cur product range starting from a 11 %@ category tractor to a D1 %@ category tractor straddles
every %@ category requirement of our customers.
The brand en:oys a strong equity in the market and commands a market share of close to
11J. The brand is known for producing tractors that are powerful and reliable. @resently,
there are more than D,II, III satisfied customers of Swara: in the country. Swara: tractors are
also e*ported to various countries including 8angladesh, 9epal, Sri anka, 9igeria, 4hana,
4ambia, Oimbabwe, Oambia, Tan.ania and the GS6.
;I
MILESTONES
1&DI" 5stablishment of @T for making Swara: brand of tractors
1&D?" Commercial production started with 1 models" D1? F5 > D;' F5
1&EI" Swara: E1II, #ndia7s first self+propelled combine harvester launched
1&E;" Swara: E'' launched in the 'I hp category
1&&'" 5stablish of the 1nd plant for manufacturing Swara: tractors in Chhaparchhedi
1&&&" aunch of Swara: D??
1II1" Cummulative sales of Swara: tractors ,till date/ touches ',II,III
1IID" M>M ,the leaders in domestic tractor industry/ acquires ma:ority stake in @T
1II&" Merger of @T into M>M and subsequent transformation as the Swara: =ivision of
Mahindra > Mahindra td.
1II&" aunch of D;' PM ) the first of the PM series of models
1II&" aunch of E?;PM ) building on the PM series
1I11" -ated %ighest #n #ndustry for Customer Satisfaction #nde* ,CS#/, Sales Satisfaction
#nde* ,SS#/ > Ca@S
1I11" Swara: =ivision achieved Stage+' in MN$ 6ssessment
1I11" aunch of E1'PM, E?1PM, D??PM, E''PM + strengthening the product portfolio
with PM Series
1I11" Swara: becomes the second tractor company in the world to win the prestigious
=5M#94 @ri.e
1I11" -ated %ighest #n #ndustry for Customer Satisfaction #nde* ,CS#/
1I1;" Swara: =ivision @lant 1 and @lant 1 $on T@M 5*cellence 6ward From B#@M
;1
VALUES AND ETHICS
8onding and #ntegrity
5thical conduct
@eriodic disclosure
Confidentiality and fair dealing
AWARDS AND DISTINCTION
K56- 1I11
S@araG Lea(s I# C%st"er Satis:a!ti"# I#(e$ 1CSI2 S!"re Se!"#( Tie i# a R"@
#n an annual Customer Satisfaction Study conducted by MAs T9S #ndia, Swara: has topped
for second time in a row > scaled new heights by achieving score of 1I( on Customer
Satisfaction #nde* ,CS#/. ast year0s high score of &( on CS# challenged the team to set a
new benchmark for the industry. #n the same study apart from CS#, Swara: scored 1I' on
Sales Satisfaction #nde* ,SS#/ and 1I' on @roduct Satisfaction #nde* ,@S#/. The scores are on
a scale" +(( to Q1;?.
S@araG @i#s the +resti)i"%s Dei#) Pri*e
The Swara: =ivision of Mahindra > Mahindra td. ,M>M/, Farm 5quipment Sector ,F5S/,
won the prestigious =eming 6pplication @ri.e for 1I11. The =eming @ri.e is awarded by the
Gnion of Bapanese Scientists and 5ngineers ,BGS5/ > is considered as one of the highest
awards on TNM ,Total Nuality Management/ in the world. Mr. 8ishwambhar Mishra, Chief
5*ecutive, Tractor > Farm Mechani.ation 8usiness, Farm 5quipment Sector, accepted the
=eming @ri.e on behalf of the Swara: division on 9ovember 1?, 1I11 in Tokyo, Bapan.
-est E$+"siti"# A@ar( at CII A)r"te!h
Sardar Shri Sukhbir Singh 8adal, %onb0le =eputy Chief Minister, 4ovt. of @un:ab accredited
the 85ST 5P@CS#T#C9 6$6-= to F5S at the closing ceremony of C## 64-CT5C%+
9orthern #ndia0s @remier 6gri Fair on ? =ecember 1I11 held in Chandigarh.
;1
S@araG (i9isi"# Pla#t II @i#s Gree#te!h E#9ir"#e#t GOLD A@ar(
Swara: =ivision @lant+## received 4reentech 5nvironment 4old 6ward, for its environment
management system on ;I Cct 1I11.
K56- 1IIE
?%alit, E$!elle#!e A@ar(
Swara: =ivision of M>M F5S, Mohali received the Nuality 5*cellence 6ward. The 9ational
evel 6ward Function was organi.ed at 9ew =elhi on &th 6pril, IE. #T#= Nuality 5*cellence
is presented every year to organi.ations in recognition of the quality e*cellence of their
products.
Sil9er A@ar(
Swara: =ivision of M>M F5S was awarded with RSilver 6ward7 in the 5ngineering Sector
for its outstanding achievement in 5nvironment Management. This award was bestowed to us
in the &th 6nnual 4lobal 5nvironment Conference on ' September 1IIE in 4oa ,#ndia/ by
Sh. =igambar Lamat ,Chief Minister+4oa/. This award has been certified by 4reentech
Foundation, a non+profit organi.ation, to recogni.e, reward and promote e*ceptional goals in
the field of safety and all positive aspects of environmental responsibilities. 4reentech
Foundation 6ward is a unique form of benchmarking the stringent quality standards,
credibility and honoring the proactive practices of the awardees enhancing their global
stature.
ISO 17CC1:5CC7 > OHSAS 1ACC1:5CCF Certi:i!ati"#
Swara: =ivision of M>M F5S was recommended for #SC 1?II1"1II? > C%S6S
1EII1"1IID Certification by MAs 8S# Management Systems in =ecember, 1IIE.
HR Di9isi"#al A@ar(
%- =ivisional 6ward presented to the Swara: %- Team for being the best %- Team in F5S
=ivision for the year FKI&. The award was presented at the %- Meet for the Mahindra >
Mahindra td., Farm 5quipment Sector.
;;
CHAPTER NO 5
REVIEW OF
LITERATURE
;?
14 Ma(eli# Weiss= Mar!h 1DA6
E::e!ts ": W"r/ Stress a#( S"!ial S%++"rt "# I#:"rati"# S,stes
Ma#a)ers
This study investigates the sources of organi.ational stress among information systems ,#S/
managers, the resulting symptoms of strain, and whether social support can reduce symptoms
of strain. 6 field study comprised of a survey questionnaire was chosen as the most
appropriate design for this investigation. The respondents were #S managers, ranging in the
organi.ational hierarchy from vice president or director to pro:ect manager, in both
governmental and private sector organi.ations of varying si.es. The study reveals that :ob
stresses among #S managers are positively related to psychological and physiological strains.
$hile all of the stressors included in this investigation are significantly related to strain
symptoms, certain stressors emerge as having the greatest impact. ikewise, certain strains
that result from these stressors are more prevalent than others. Concerning social support, the
study reveals that the level of social support among #S managers is lower than among other
managers. $hen social support e*ists, strain among these managers is significantly lower.
The implications of the study0s findings are considerable both for the health prognosis of #S
managers and for their :ob performance.
54 Da9i( Friese# AND Mar, &" Willias
Or)a#i*ati"#al stress a"#) Tea!hers 1DAH
The ma:or purpose of this study was to obtain from teachers their perceptions of ma:or
sources of work+related stress and to assess the degree to which these stressors accounted for
the overall stress on the :ob. 5ven though the concept of stress has received much attention in
the popular press, in research, and in teacher workshops, the actual sources of work+related
stress among Canadian teachers remain far from clearly established.. This was achieved by
controlling for the selected background variables of se*, age, level of education, grade level
taught, years of teaching e*perience, si.e of the school, and perceived personal+life stress.
Ma:or findings showed that four identifiable :ob+related factors accounted for a significant
;'
part of teacher work+related stress, and that the selected background variables failed to
account for significant variation in :ob+related stress levels.
64 0"ra Ne%a## a#( E(ith Fi#al, Ne%a##
The S%++"rt3Stress Para(i) a#( Fa!%lt, Resear!h P%'li!ati"# 1DDC
#nfluential in physics and the least influential in education and that different indicators play
important roles in determining faculty research publication in hard and soft sciences. This
study develops and tests a model that e*amines the relative powers of support and work
stress indicators in e*plaining faculty research productivity. The empirical e*amination
indicates that the model is the most influential in physics and the least influential in
education and these different indicators play important roles in determining faculty research
publication in hard and soft sciences
74 &"h# F4 Ta##er= &r4= Mar/ G4 D%## a#( La@re#!e -4 Ch"#/" 1DD6
Verti!al E$!ha#)e a#( Sales+ers"# Stress 1DD6
This study reveals that the salespeople are susceptible to stress by the very nature of their :ob.
Sales managers may be in a position to alleviate some of the causes of stress. This paper
presents results from a study that e*amines the nature of Hertical 5*change relationships and
stress. The findings indicate that the quality of e*change relationship does affect the level of
felt stress and stress due to role conflict and role ambiguity. The influence of situational
stressors is also affected by the quality of e*change relationship.
H4 N"ra H4 Marti#e*= A+ril 1DD7
M,th a#( Cere"#, i# Fi#a#!ial De!isi"# Ma/i#) %#(er Stress: Case
St%(ies :r" Me$i!a# U#i9ersities
8ased on case studies of a private and a public Me*ican university, this research studied the
economic strategies adopted by institutions of higher education to respond to financial stress.
-ather than assuming that these strategies were selected primarily on the basis of their
economic efficiency, the social processes that led to their adoption were e*plored. 5conomic
development theory was employed to describe and conceptuali.e the universities0 responses
to financial difficulties. The concepts of institutional rules and rational myths in the
environment and the processes that lead organi.ations to become similar to their environment
;(
were utili.ed to e*plore the role of the institutional environment on decision+making in times
of fiscal uncertainty. -esults indicate that financial stress was managed through economic
measures< however the universities0 institutional environment filtered and gave specific
meaning to particular decision strategies. #nstitutional rules in the environment, acquiring the
character of rationali.ed myths, permeated and determined decision+making choices, and
were evidenced in and sustained by mimetic, normative and coercive processes. #n this light,
the institutional environment pervaded and predicted rational decisions.
I4 &ia Li# Jie a#( Gar, &"h#s O!t 1DDH
&"' S!"+e a#( Stress: Ca# &"' S!"+e -e T"" Hi)h
This study e*amined relationships among :ob scope, perceived fit between :ob demands and
ability, and stress. =ata on scope and stress were provided by ?1E full+time employees.
-atings of :ob comple*ity from the =ictionary of Cccupational Titles ,=CT/ and the
Cccupational @restige #nde* ,C@/ also measured :ob scope. 6ll three :ob scope measures had
a G+shaped curvilinear relationship with emotional e*haustion. 6n*iety had a negative
association with incumbent+reported :ob scope but none with the =CT and C@ measures.
@erceived demands+ability fit moderated the relationship between the =CT and C@ measures
and stress. @eople with comple* :obs who perceived fit e*perienced less e*haustion and
an*iety than those perceiving misfit.

F4 Vi!t"ria &4 D"', a#( R"'ert D4 Ca+la#= A%)%st 1DDH
Or)a#i*ati"#al Stress as Threat t" Re+%tati"#: E::e!ts "# A#$iet, at W"r/
a#( at H"e
This study0s premise is that :ob stressors that threaten an employee0s reputation with his or
her supervisor are particularly likely to generate an*iety symptoms that carry over from work
to home. Thirty si* rates, primarily working accountants, identified :ob stressors as high or
low on threat to reputation. #ndependently, 1I1 accountants rated their own e*posure to these
stressors and their an*iety at work and home. 6s predicted, the high+threat stressors were the
most likely to generate home+e*perienced an*iety, and work+e*perienced an*iety served as a
key mediator. #mplications relating to models of work and family well+being are discussed.
;D
A4 Ra,"#( M4 A)i%s= Harriet -le#/i#= Hele# E4 8ealle, a#( R"'ert A4
W""(= A+ril 1DDI
S%r9e, ": Per!ei9e( Stress a#( W"r/ Dea#(s ": C"#s%lta#t D"!t"rs
The ob:ectives of this study were to assess the work demands as potential stressors of health
service consultants, and to describe the development of tools for measuring stress
e*periences of consultants. For this a stratified random sample of 'II 9%S consultants in
Scotland was targeted by a postal questionnaire and ;D' returned a valid response. They
completed questionnaires, including information on demographic factors, work demands,
occupational stressors, and burnout. The result shows that the principal components analysis
showed that professional work demands of consultants fell into three categories" clinical,
academic, and administrative. Their perceived stressors separated into four main factors"
clinical responsibility, demands on time, organi.ational constraints, and personal confidence.
These were assessed by 1' questions in the specialist doctors0 stress inventory. Specific
questions about perceived stressors which resulted in a high positive response included
questions about demands on time, and organi.ational change in the 9%S. These self reported
data characteri.e and measure the consultants0 work demands and their role as potential
stressors. These measurements could form the basis for strategies to reduce occupational
stress in these workers.
D4 Paela M4 R"se= .risti# St"/l"sa a#( Shar"# A4 Gra,= 1DDA
A F"!%s Gr"%+ A++r"a!h t" Assessi#) Te!h#" stress at the Re:ere#!e Des/
6s in many academic libraries, reference desk service at the %ealth Sciences ibrary of the
State Gniversity of 9ew Kork at 8uffalo involves an increasing number and comple*ity of
automated systems. 6s such, e*pectations of those who staff the reference desk to have
technical facility have increased along with e*pression of an*iety about staffing the desk. To
test the assumption that technology is the cause of this an*iety, the investigators conducted a
focus group with segments of the reference desk staff who seemed to e*perience the most
strain. This qualitative study resulted in the identification of technological and other factors
that contribute to the an*iety and makes recommendations to resolve such stress.
;E
1C4 Theresa -4 Flahert,= R"'ert Dahlstr" a#( Ste9e# &4 S/i##er= 1DDD
Or)a#i*ati"#al Val%es a#( R"le Stress as Deteri#a#ts ": C%st"er3
Orie#te( Selli#) Per:"ra#!e
6s the customer+oriented selling has been promoted to salespeople as a way to influence the
service and quality goals of an organi.ation. %owever, little is known about the factors
influencing the e*tent to which salespeople actually engage in it. This research e*amines
whether organi.ational values and role stress influence customer+oriented selling
performance. To test our hypotheses and model, ?I1 national sales representatives completed
a self+administered mail questionnaire. -esults indicated that the salesperson0s perceived
customer value orientation of the firm increases customer+oriented selling performance. -ole
conflict and role ambiguity constrain customer+oriented selling performance. imitations, as
well as practical and theoretical implications, are discussed.
114 Caer"# M"#t)"er, a#( A#(rK A4 R%++= 5CCH
A Meta3A#al,sis :"r E$+l"ri#) the Di9erse Ca%ses a#( E::e!ts ": Stress i# Tea!her
This study provides a correlation meta+analysis of (' independently written or published
studies on teacher stress between 1&&E and 1II;. $e measured the relationships between
teacher stress and numerous other constructs including coping, burnout, emotional responses,
personality mediators, personal support, environmental structure, and background
characteristics. 6 theoretical+empirical model of construct relationships investigated across
studies was developed and n S 1,'1D correlation effect si.es were used to estimate the
empirical relationships between the operational .ed theoretical constructs. -esults showed
that the strongest association of teacher Stressors e*ists with negatively oriented emotional
responses confirming the central role of teachers0 coping mechanisms, personality mediators,
and burnout potential according to our model of the stress cycle.
;&
154 M"#i(ee+a Tara:(ar= ?ia#) T%= -ha#% S4 Ra)%3Natha# a#( T4 S4 Ra)%3
Natha#= 5CCF
The I+a!t ": Te!h#" stress "# R"le Stress a#( Pr"(%!ti9it,
8ased on empirical survey data, this paper uses concepts from socio+technical theory and role
theory to e*plore the effects of stress created by information and computer technology ,#CT/
Tthat is, !technostress!Ton role stress and on individual productivity. #t first e*plains
different ways in which #CTs can create stress in users and identify factors that create techno
stress.. The results show support for them and the paper contributes in three ways. First, the
different dimensions of technostress identified here add to e*isting concepts on stress
e*perienced by individuals in organi.ations. Second, by showing that technostress inversely
affects productivity, the paper reinforces that failure to manage the effects of #CT+induced
stress can offset e*pected
164 C"#) Li%= Pa%l E4 S+e!t"r a#( Li# Shi= Fe'r%ar, 5CCF
Cr"ss3Nati"#al &"' Stress: A ?%a#titati9e a#( ?%alitati9e St%(,
Gsing both quantitative and qualitative methods, this study contrasted employees0 :ob stress
perceptions and their relationships to strains in China and the Gnited States. Significant :ob
stressor+strain correlations were found in both countries. %owever, hierarchical regression
analyses revealed significant interactions of country by :ob stressors in predicting :ob strains,
indicating the unique patterns of stressor+strain relationships in China and the Gnited States.
#n the qualitative analyses, 6merican employees reported significantly more incidents of lack
of :ob control, direct interpersonal conflict and lack of team coordination, anger, frustration,
feeling overwhelmed, and stomach problems than the Chinese. Chinese employees reported
significantly more incidents of :ob evaluations, work mistakes, indirect conflict, employment
conditions, lack of training, an*iety, helplessness, sleep problems, and feeling hot than the
6mericans. The qualitative approach contributed above and beyond the quantitative results in
that it revealed culture+specific :ob stressors of :ob evaluations, work mistakes, and indirect
conflict that had been overlooked in western+based stress research.
?I
174 &a#i R%"tsalai#e#= C"#s"l Serra= Al'ert Mari#e a#( &"s Ver'ee/= &%#e
5CCA
S,steati! re9ie@ ": i#ter9e#ti"#s :"r re(%!i#) "!!%+ati"#al stress i#
health !are @"r/ers
This study evaluated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing stress at work among
health care workers. For this a systematic search was conducted of the literature on reducing
stress or burnout in health care workers. The quality of the studies found was then appraised
and the results combined. 6 meta+analysis was performed when appropriate. -esults
6ltogether 1? randomi.ed controlled trials, three cluster+randomi.ed trials, and two
crossover trials, comprising 1E11 participants, were included. Cnly two trials were of high
quality. The following comparisons were possible" person+directed interventions versus no
intervention, person+work interface interventions versus no intervention, and organi.ational
interventions versus no intervention. @erson+work interface interventions can reduce burnout,
measured as depersonali.ation 9o harmful effects were reported and imited evidence is
available for a small, but probably relevant reduction in stress levels from person+directed,
person+work interface, and organi.ational interventions among health care workers. Theses
finding should lead to a more+active stress management policy in health care institutions.
8efore large+scale implementation can be advised, larger and better quality trials are needed.
1H4 Th"as D4 Flet!her= De'ra A4 a#( D"#al( D4 Da9is= O!t"'er 5CCA
The I#tera!ti9e Relati"#shi+ ": C"+etiti9e Cliate a#( Trait
C"+etiti9e#ess @ith W"r/+la!e Attit%(es= Stress= a#( Per:"ra#!e
There has been a considerable debate about the individual and organi.ational benefits of
competition. 6dopting a person+environment fit perspective this research e*amined the
influence of competition as an interaction between trait competitiveness and competitive
climate. Gsing a sample of information technology workers, competitive climate was
considered as both an individual level variable and a workgroup variable. -esults show that
the effect of competitive climate depended on trait competitiveness and the level at which
climate was assessed for four of the outcomes assessed" :ob satisfaction, organi.ational
commitment, :ob dedication, and supervisor+rated task performance. #n general, the effect of
competitive climate was more negative for individuals lower in trait competitiveness.
?1
Competitive psychological climate was associated with greater stress regardless of the level
of trait competitiveness but was not directly related to self+rated task performance. Findings
suggest that managers should be cautious in encouraging competitive climate.
1I4 Christia# Va#(e#'er)he= Ale$a#(ra +a#a!!i"= .athlee# 'e#tei#= Ma,
5C11
Assessi#) l"#)it%(i#al !ha#)e ": a#( (,#ai! relati"#shi+s a"#) r"le
Stress"rs= G"' attit%(es= t%r#"9er i#te#ti"#= a#( @ell3'ei#) i# #e"+h,te
#e@!"ers
Gsing a latent growth modeling ,4M/ approach, this paper e*amines the tra:ectories of
change in role Stressors ,ambiguity, conflict, and overload/, :ob attitudes ,affective
commitment and :ob satisfaction/, and turnover intention and psychological well+being
among neophyte newcomers, as well as the relationships among these changes. 8ased on a
sample of 1DI university alumni surveyed three times during the first months of employment,
it was found that role conflict and role overload increased, affective commitment and :ob
satisfaction declined, and turnover intention increased over the course of the study. -ole
ambiguity and wellbeing did not change. The initial levels of affective commitment, :ob
satisfaction, and well+being were positively related to the increase in role overload, while the
initial level of turnover intention was related to a reduced increase in role overload over time.
#t was also found that the increase in role overloads and role conflict was associated with a
decline in affective commitment and :ob satisfaction, respectively, and that the decrease in
affective commitment and satisfaction was related to an increase in turnover intention.
?1
CHAPTER NO 6
NEED= SCOPE AND O-&ECTIVES
OF THE STUD0
?;
1411 .E0 ASSUMPTIONS:
U #t has been assumed that sample of 'I represents the whole employees of the
organi.ation.
U The information given by the employees is proper, means free from biasness.
U The whole research material is appropriate in nature
O-&ECTIVES OF THE STUD03
ist > recogni.e ma:or symptoms > behavior related to too much stress.
To outline the stress management strategies that help to cope with stressors more
effectively
To know the various strategies that the staff use during work shifts to reduce their
stress level.
To recogni.e the impact of stress on the employee7s life.
SCOPE OF THE STUD03
The scope of research e*tended up to the region of 2P%#Ga' 1&ala#(har23 and it is done
under 2Mahi#(ra > Mahi#(ra Lt(4 1S@araG Di9isi"#2L.
??
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUD03
6lthough the study was carried out with e*treme enthusiasm and careful planning there are
several limitations, which handicapped the research via,
14 Tie C"#strai#ts:
The time stipulated for the pro:ect to be completed is less and thus there are chances that
some information might have been left out, however due care is taken to include all the
relevant information needed.
54 Sa+le si*e:
=ue to time constraints the sample si.e was relatively small and would definitely have been
more representative if # had collected information from more respondents.
64 A!!%ra!,: #t is difficult to know if all the respondents gave accurate information< some
respondents tend to give misleading information.
74 #t was difficult to find respondents as they were busy in their schedule, and collection of
data was very difficult. Therefore, the study had to be carried out based on the availability of
respondents.
?'


CHAPTER NC 7
RESEARCH METHODOLG0
?(
RESEARCH METHODOLOG0:3
-esearch means search knowledge or gain some new knowledge and methodology can
properly refer to the theoretical analysis of the method appropriate to a field of study or to the
body of methods and principles particular to a branch of knowledge. Therefore research
methodology means"
2=efine the problem, defining the research ob:ective, developing the research plan, collecting
the information and presentation of findings 2such framework called< research design7.
Resear!h Desi)#:3
6 research design is the arrangement of condition for the collection and analysis of data in
manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with economy in procedure3. My
research is descriptive in nature. So after carful relocation # interviewed the bank manger of
various banks in Chandigarh. This step of the study consists of developing the most efficient
plan for gathering the relevant data.
T,+e ": Resear!h: +
Survey is best suited for descriptive and analytical research. Survey are undertaken to learn
about people7s knowledge, beliefs, performance, satisfaction and so on and to measure these
magnitudes in the general public. Therefore, # have done this survey for descriptive and
analytical research process. =escriptive research includes and fact and findings inquiries of
different kinds. The main purpose is description of the state of efforts is noted down and
analytical research analy.es the material and facts.
Sa+le Desi)#:3#t is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. #t refers
to the technique or the procedure, the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the
sample. The sampling plan or design calls for the following decision.
Sa+le %#it:3
$ho is to be surveyedV The target population must be defined that will be sampled. it is a
necessary to develop a sampling frame so that everyone in the target population has an equal
chance of being sampled. The sample unit pertaining to my study of banks employee
?D
Sa+le Si*e:3
%ow many people will be surveyedV
This refers to the number of respondents to be selected from the universe to constitute a
sample. 6n optimum is one that fulfills the requirements to efficiency, reliability and
fle*ibility. The sample si.e of 'I surveyed the purpose my study.
Sa+le eth"(:3
The sampling method used is non probability convenience sampling ,where the researcher
selects the most accessible population which one obtain information/.
Meth"("l"),:3
The methodology of this pro:ect is based upon data collection through various sources such
as primary sources and secondary sources.
S"%r!es ": (ata"
a4 Priar, Data
Method of collection of primary data"+
Dis!%ssi"#"+#n order to have a grasp over the sub:ect, the investigator has had a discussion
with the company7s employees.
I#ter9ie@"+6fter discussion, the investigator has interviewed the employee of 2Mahindra >
Mahindra td. ,Swara: =ivision/3
?%esti"##aire"+Most of the information was collected by the way of filling the questionnaire
by the banker.
'4 Se!"#(ar, Data
Secondary data collect from internet. #t has been used to better understand the concept, nature
and even application of the problem so as to derive fruitful result. 5ven the literature,
@amphlets, past reports and the website of the company provided valuable inputs.
?E
CHAPTER NO H
DATA ANAL0SIS
AND
INTERPRETATION
?&
Statee#t 1: D" ,"% :eel a#, stress "# ,"%r @"r/4
Ta'le 1:3
Parti!%lars N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
Kes ?1 1IIJ
9o E IJ
Total 'I 1II
I#ter+retati"#3
From the data collected, it was found ma:ority of company7s employee feel stress on work.
'I
Statee#t 5: I: ,es the#= @hat is the reas"# :"r ,"%r stress:3
Ta'le 5:3
Parti!%lar N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
5*cessive work load ;' DIJ
Competition at work E 1(J
ong working hours ? EJ
@ressure from department
managersAheads
; (J
Cthers ,specify/ I IJ
Total 'I 1II
I#ter+retati"#3
Ma:ority of employee said that the e*cessive work load is the main reason of stress.
'1
Statee#t 6: H"@ @"%l( ,"% (es!ri'e ,"%r le9el ": stress?
Ta'le 6:3
Parti!%lar N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
I+; 11
;+( E
(+& 1'
1I '
Total 'I
Statee#t 7: D"es ,"%r "r)a#i*ati"# hel+ ,"% t" re(%!e the stress?
Ta'le 7:3
'1
Parti!%lars N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
Kes ;E ;EJ
9o 11 11J
Total 'I 1II
I#ter+retati"#3
6bove data says that most of the respondents said yes that their organi.ation is doing something to
reduce their stress.
Statee#t H: I: ,es the# @hi!h ree(, the, are %si#) t" re(%!e stress?
Ta'le H:3
';
Parti!%lar N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
Financial motivation 11 1?J
@romotion 1' 'IJ
8onus 1I 1IJ
Cther ; (J
Total 'I 1II
I#ter+retati"#3
6bove data says that most of the employees are saying that their organi.ation use promotion as a tool
to reduce employees stress and some says they use financial motivation.
Statee#t I: Other tha# this= @hi!h ree(, ,"% %se t" re(%!e ,"%r stress?
Ta'le I:3
Parti!%lar N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
4oing holidays 1( '1J
'?
Taking leave from work 1? 1EJ
Spend time with love one D 1?J
others ; (J
total 'I 1II
''
Statee#t F: @hat /i#( ": stress ,"% are s%::eri#) :r"?
Ta'le F3
Parti!%lar N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
=epression 11 11.??J
%igh bp 1? 1?.1EJ
5motional change ' '.1IJ
%eart problem & &.1EJ
total 'I 1CC
I#ter+retati"#3
6bove table states that most of the employees are suffering from depression due to stress and other
high 8@ and emotional change and some heart problems.
Statee#t A: D" ,"% thi#/ stress a::e!t ,"%r @"r/?
Ta'le A:3
'(
Parti!%lar N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
Kes ;D D?J
9o 1; 1(J
Total 'I 1II
I#ter+retati"#3
6bove table states that D?J employees said that their stress affects their work at :ob4
'D
Statee#t D: D"es ,"%r G"' a::e!t ,"%r +ers"#al li:e?
Ta'le D"+
Parti!%lar N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
Kes ;' DIJ
9o 1' ;IJ
Total 'I 1II
I#ter+retati"#3
6bove table says that most of the employees i.e. DIJ employees say that stress at :ob affects their
personal life also.
'E
Statee#t 1C: Ha9e ,"% e9er th"%)ht ": !ha#)i#) ,"%r G"'?
Ta'le 1C:3
Parti!%lar N%'er ": res+"#(e#ts Per!e#ta)e
Kes 1E 1E.'(J
9o 11 11.??J
Total 'I 1II
I#ter+retati"#3
6bove table states that most of the employees i.e. '(J employees want to change their :ob
due to stress.
'&
CHAPTER NO I
FINDINGS
AND
SUGGESTIONS
(I
FINDINGS3
The problem of stress is inevitable and unavoidable in the service sector. 6 ma:ority
of the employees face severe.
Stress in this sector is mostly due to e*cess of work pressure and work life imbalance
in the organi.ation.
The organi.ations take several initiatives in helping their employees to overcome its
disastrous effect.
Crgani.ation gives promotion and financial motivation to employee to reduce stress.
Many of employees going for holidays to reduce the stress,
Stress is also reason for some kinds of disease like depression.
Stress also affects the organi.ation work.
Stress also affects the personal life of employees.
(1
SUGGESTIONS3
To reduce the stress, improve the level of performance at the organi.ation.
There should be some organi.ational activities which could help to reduce stress of
the employees.
There should be stress management program in the organi.ation.
-emove the sources of stress at work place.
Crgani.ation should define the individual goals.
5mployees should make the relation with co+worker.
There should be proper communication in the organi.ation.
-ight person at the right :ob.
Crgani.ation should take the feedback from the employee.
=evelop the skills of employee and give them proper training.
=ecrease the workload of employee.
To identify stress areas, carry out stress audit at all levels in the organi.ation to
improve conditions of :ob and alleviate :ob stress.
4ive the reward for good work.
6 regular check up program should be organi.ed by companies and stress
management process for those found suffering from very high stress.
(1
CONCLUSION
Stress is the adverse reaction people have to e*cessive pressures or other types of demand
placed on them at work. Stress is not an illness ) it is a state. %owever, if stress becomes too
e*cessive and prolonged, mental and physical illness may develop.
$orkplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional responses that can happen when there
is a conflict between :ob demands on the employee and the amount of control an employee
has over meeting these demands. #n general, the combination of high demands in a :ob and a
low amount of control over the situation can lead to stress.
Stress in the workplace is a commonality throughout the world in every business. Managing
stress in the workplace is therefore an essential part of both individual and corporate
responsibility in order to keep up :ob performance as well as relationship with co+workers
and employees.
=eveloping a healthy workplace can pay off in reversing this trend. #nviting employees to
have a say about their work environment in an honest and open fashion can change the
workplace culture and reduce stress. Cther successful management practices include
improving communication, increasing staff members7 decision making, offering fle*ible :ob
scheduling, encouraging breaks and working in team toward a common goal, and leadership
and professional development opportunities. @roviding such services as language classes,
child care, health screening, and tuition reimbursement programs also help balance work)life
issues thus reducing stress.
(;
-I-LIOGRAPH0
We'sites3
@@@4ahi#(ras@araG4!"E:iles
htt+EEe#4@i/i+e(ia4"r)E@i/iEMahi#(ra > Mahi#(ra
@@@4s!ri'(4!"
@@@4sil(eshare4!"
@@@4st%(,"(e4!"
@@@4Gst"re4!"
(?

ANNEJURE

('
?%esti"##aire
Nae: MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
Desi)#ati"#: MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
E3ail: MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
?1: D" ,"% :eel a#, stress "# ,"%r @"r/?
a/ Kes
b/ 9o
?5: I: ,es the#= @hat is the reas"# :"r ,"%r stress?
a/ 5*cessive work load
b/ Competition at work
c/ ong working hours
d/ @ressure from department managersAheads
e/ Cthers ,specify/
?6: H"@ @"%l( ,"% (es!ri'e ,"%r le9el ": stress?
a/ I+;
b/ ;+(
c/ (+&
((
d/ 1I
?7: D"es ,"%r "r)a#i*ati"# hel+ ,"% t" re(%!e the stress?
a/ Kes
b/ 9o
?H: I: ,es= the# @hi!h ree(, are the, %si#) t" re(%!e stress?
a/ Financial motivation
b/ @romotion
c/ 8onus
d/ Cthers
?I: Other tha# this= @hi!h ree(, ,"% %se t" re(%!e ,"%r stress?
a/ 4oing on holidays
b/ Taking leave from work
c/ Spending time with loved ones
d/ Cther ,please specify/
?F: D"es ,"%r G"' a::e!t ,"%r +ers"#al li:e?
a/ Kes

b/ 9o
?A: What /i#( ": stress ,"% are s%::eri#) :r"?
a/ =epression
b/ %igh 8@
(D
c/ 5motional change
d/ %eart problem
(E
?D: D" ,"% thi#/ stress a::e!t ,"%r @"r/?
a/ Kes

b/ 9o
?1C: Ha9e ,"% e9er th"%)ht ": !ha#)i#) ,"%r G"'?
a/ Kes

b/ 9o
(&