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Dialect: mutually intelligible regional or social varieties, differing in lexical, phonological,

syntactic, and/or semantic ways (Wolfram 1997, Burton 2007)

Connection: In Malaysia, we all speak Malay but due to regional differences, it creates different
speech community. This can be seen when a Kelantanese and a Johorian interact with one
another. A Kelantanese might think that Johorian speaks harshly by the choice of words and the
intonation used. Dialect also been associated with politeness, this is due to when we go to certain
region or city in Malaysia, for example, Terengganu, we tend to speak in their dialect when we
are in their place to show respect and to be able to gain their trust. We dont speak in English as
it is not their attitude to use them in their daily life.
Accent: Phonetics, the sub-area of linguistics that studies the sounds of speech, defines an accent
as a specific pronunciation which is determined by the phonetic habits of the speaker's native
language carried over to his or her use of another language (OGrady, Archibald, Aronoff, Rees-
Miller, 2005)
Connection: Some accents, for instance, are believed to be more attractive than others, and in this
sense these judgments of value affect our way of perceiving people. Impression that each person
have towards every accent is different. For example, I might think that British accent is the most
beautiful accent due to the influence of handsome British actor and my attitudes towards British
people are biased towards my fondness of their accent although not all British people have the
same physical attributes. Accent also can be associated with social class where standard accent
are usually associated with higher status, power and the media; whereas nonstandard accents are
usually associated with lower levels of socioeconomic success.

Code switch: the use of two languages varieties in the same conversation, Myers-Scotton's
(2006, p. 239)
Connection: Best example is of code switching is in classroom where language learning happens.
A teacher would resort to code switch to complete the delivery of information easily but a
teacher would also code switch to fill the gap in their language to save themselves from
embarrassment. Code switching can also use to express identity and communicate friendship, to
ease tension and inject humor into a conversation but this function can be misinterpret as a
person with lower class of English as most of the time, code switch is used to substitute a word
in place of unknown word in the target language.