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1. Acids form a class of chemical substances which contain hydrogen ions in aqueous
solution, H+ (aq), as the only positive ion.
2. Acids are usually classified into mineral or organic acids.

Mineral Acids
1. generally much stronger
2. most do not occur naturally
3. usually have simpler molecules

Sulphuric Acid
Nitric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Phoshoric Acid
Carbonic Acid

Organic Acids
1. naturally occurring
2. found in vegetables, fruit and other foodstuffs
3. usually weaker and less corrosive

Ethanoic Acid
Citric Acid
Lactic Acid
Tartaric Acid
Acetic Acid

3. Acids are substances that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
4. A hydrogen ion is actually a proton. Therefore, acids are called the proton donors.


The hydrogen ions produced will combine with the water molecule to form hydroxonium
ions (H


Therefore the reaction can also be written as

HCl + H2OH3O++ClHNO3 + H2OH3O++NO3H2SO4 + H2OH3O++SO24
Basicity of Acids
1. Basicity of an acid is the number of hydrogen ions which can be produced by one
molecule of the acid.
2. There are 3 common types of Basicity of an acid
a. monoprotic
b. diprotic
c. triprotic

Monoprotic Acids
The monoprotics acids are the acids that produced 1 H+ ion from each acid molecule.


Diprotic Acids
The diprotics acids are the acids that produced 2 H+ ion from each acid molecule.

H2SO4 H2O2H++SO24H2SO3 H2O2H++SO23H2CO3H2O2H++CO23

Triprotic Acids
The triprotics acids are the acids that produced 3 H+ ion from each acid molecule.

H3PO4 H2O3H++PO34
Physical Properties of Acids
1. Acids have the following physical properties:
a. Tastes sour
b. Turns moist blue litmus to red
c. pH value < 7
d. Can conduct electricity
e. Corrosive
Colour of Litmus in Acids
1. Litmus can be used as acid/alkali indicator.
2. Image below shows the colour of litmus paper when immerse in acid and alkali.
3. The litmus turn red in acids and turn blue in alkali.

pH value of acids
1. pH value is quantity to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The
higher the concentration of hydrogen, the lower the pH value of the solution.
2. Pure water has pH value of 7.
3. All acids has pH value lower than 7.

Electrical Conductivity of Acids
1. Acids are covalent compounds.
2. However, when acids dissolve in water, they ionise to form ions in the solution.
3. Since there are free moving ions in the solution, hence the solution can act as an
electrolyte to conduct electricity.
Chemical Properties of Acids
1. Acids have the following chemical properties:
a. Acid + Reactive Metal Salt + Hydrogen gas
b. Acid + Metal Carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide gas
c. Acid + Base oxide Salt + Water
d. Acid + Alkali Salt + Water

Chemical Properties of Acids - Acid + Reactive Metal
1. Acids react with metals that is more electropositive than hydrogen in the
electrochemical series to produce salt and hydrogen gas.
2. Acids do not react with copper and silver.
3. This is actually a displacement, where the metals that are placed above hydrogen in
Electrochemical Series displace hydrogen from acid.

Acids + Reactive Metal Salt + Hydrogen Gas

Sulphuric acid + Zinc


Nitric acid + Lead


Example of Experiment

1. About 5 cm of dilute sulphuric acid is poured into a test tube.
2. One spatula of zinc powder is added into the acid.
3. A burning wooden splinter is placed at the mouth of the test tube.
4. The observations are recorded.

Colourless gas is released. A "pop" sound produced when the wooden splinter is placed at
the mouth of the test tube.

Hydrogen gas is released

Chemical Equation

Acid + Carbonate
Acids react with metal carbonates produces salt, water and carbon dioxide
Acids + Metal Carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide Gas

Sulphuric acid + Lime Stone


Nitric acid + Copper(II) Carbonate


Example of Experiment

1. About 5 cm of dilute sulphuric acid is poured into a test tube.
2. One spatula of calcium carbonate powder is added into the test tube.
3. The gas released is passed through lime water as shown in the diagram above.
4. The observations are recorded

Colourless gas is released. The gas turn lime water chalky.

1. Sulphuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate.
2. The gas released is carbon dioxide.

Chemical Equation:

Acid + Base Oxide
Acids react with bases produces salt and water
Acids + Base Oxide Salt + Water (Neutralisation)

Sulphuric acid + Iron(II) Oxide


Hydrochloric acid + Magnesium Oxide


Example of Experiment

1. One spatula of copper(II) oxide powders is added to 5cm of hydrochloric acid in a
test tube.
2. The mixture is heated slowly and stirred with a glass rod.
3. The observations are recorded.

1. The black solid dissolves.
2. The colourless solution turns blue.

1. The copper(II) oxide powder (the black powder) has reacted with the hydrochloric
2. The blue colour solution contain copper(II) ions.

Chemical Equation

Acid + Alkali
1. Acids react with alkali produces salt and water only.
2. This is called a neutralisation reaction.

Acids + Alkali Salt + Water (Neitralisation)

Ethanoic Acid + Sodium Hydroxide


Hydrochloric Acid + Ammonia Solution


Write the ionic equations for the following reactions:
a. Acids + Zinc
b. Acids + Metal Carbonate
c. Acids + Base Oxide
d. Acids + Alkali

a. Acids + Zinc
We can use any acid for the reaction, as it will not affect the ionic equation at the end.
In this case, let's use hydrochloric acid for the chemical equation.

Step 1: Writing the Chemical Equation

Step 2: List down the ions

Step 3: Cancel the ions that do not change

Step 4: Rewrithe the equation

b. Acids + Metal Carbonate
Let's use hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate
Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

c. Acids + Base Oxide
Let's use Hydrochloric acid and Zinc Oxide
Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

d. Acids + Alkali
Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:
Role of Water to Show Properties of Acids
1. The presence of water is essential for the formation of hydrogen ions and it is only
the presence of these ions which causes acidity.
2. Without water, an acid wont show the properties of acid.

Without water, the molecules of ethanoic acid do not disassociate to form hydrogen ions.
Without hydrogen ions, ethanoic acid does not shows acidity

With the presence of water, the molecules of ethanoic acid disassociate and form hydrogen
ions. With the presence of hydrogen ions, ethanoic acid shows acidity

Strong Acids and Weak Acids
1. Acids are chemical substances that ionize/dissociate in the presence of water to
produce hydrogen ions (or hydroxonium ions).
2. Acids can be classified into 2 categories:
a. Strong acids
b. Weak acids
3. The strength of an acid depends on the degree of ionization/dissociation of the acid.
Strong Acids

Strong acids are acids that ionise completely to form hydrogen ions in water.
Sulphuric acid
Hydrochloric acid
Nitric acid

Weak Acids

Weak acids are acids that partly ionise to form hydrogen ions in water.
Ethanoic acid
Phosphoric acid
Citric acid

1. Bases are compounds which react with acid to form a salt and water as only products.
2. Bases that soluble in water are called alkalis.

3. In aqueous solution, alkali it produces hydroxide ions (OH
). In short, alkalis are
substances that form hydroxide ions (OH
(aq)) in water
Sodium hydroxide NaOH gives Na
(aq) and OH
(aq) ions,

NaOH Na+ + OH

calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)
gives Ca
(aq) and 2OH
(aq) ions.
+ 2OH

Ammonia give NH
and OH

+ H
+ OH

[Note: an alkali is a base soluble in water.]
4. In alkaline solution there are more OH
ions than H

Physical Properties of Alkali
The following are the physical properties of alkali
1. Alkalis are bitter in taste.
2. Alkalis turn litmus from red to blue.
Like acid, alkali can change the colour of litmus. In alkali solution, the colour of litmus turn
3. Alkalis are soapy to touch.
4. Alkalis has pH value more than 7
pH value is a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. Alkali has
very low concentration of solution hydrogen ion, even lower than water. Hence the pH
value of alkali is higher than 7. (Note: The pH value of water is 7. The lower the
concentration of hydrogen ions, the higher the pH value.
5. Alkalis can conduct electricity
When a base dissolve in water, it will dissociate and form hydroxide ions. The present of
the freely move ions make alkali an electrolyte.
Chemical Properties of Bases/Alkalis
1. Alkalis react with acids to form a salt and water this is a neutralisation reaction:
2. Alkalis, when warmed with ammonium salts, give off ammonia gas:

Reaction between Alkalis and Acids
Acid + Alkali Salt + Water

Potassium hydroxide + Nitric Acid Potassium Nitrate + Water

Alkali heat with Ammonium Salts
Ammonium Salt + Alkali Salt + Ammonia + Water

Ammonium Chloride + Sodium Hydroxide Sodium chloride + Water + Ammonia
NH4Cl + NaOH NaCl + H2O + NH3

More examples:
2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2+2H2O+ 2NH3

(NH4)2SO4+ 2NaOH+Na2SO4+2H2O+ 2NH3

Ammonia as an Alkali
1. By nature, ammonia is a covalent compound.
2. Ammonia exists as gas at room temperature.
3. Ammonia gas is soluble in water.
4. Physical properties of ammonia:
a. Pungent smell
b. Colourless
c. Turn litmus from red to blue
The role of Water in Showing Alkaline Properties
1. Alkali shows alkaline properties only in the presence of water.
2. When water is present, ionisation of alkali produces OH
, ions that are responsible for
the alkali properties
3. Without the presence of water, there are no free-moving hydroxide ions. Therefore,
in the absence of, alkalis do not show alkalinity
4. Diagram below shows the illustration to investigate the role of water in showing
alkaline properties of ammonia.
5. The ammonia dissolve in water can turn red litmus paper to blue whereas the dry
ammonia gas of the ammonia gas dissolve in propanone give no effect to the litmus paper.

Strength of Alkalis
1. Similar to strength of acids, the strength of an alkali is defined by its ability to ionise
and release hydroxide ions (OH
) in the solution.
2. In a solution of strong alkali, all the alkali molecules are ionised in the water to
produce hydroxide ions.
3. In a solution of weak alkali, only small portion of the molecules are ionised to release
hydroxide ions.
4. Table below shows some example of strong/weak alkalis.

Strong Weak

pH Scale
1. pH scale is a measure of acidity and alkalinity. Practically, it is numbered between 0
and 14.
2. Neutral substance has pH of 7.
3. A solution of pH less than 7 is acidic The lower the pH, the more acidic the solution
or the higher the concentration of H
ions in the solution.
4. A solution of pH above 7 is alkaline. The higher the pH, the more alkaline the
solution or higher concentration of OH- ions presence in the solution.
5. The pH of a solution can be measured by using the Universal indicator, pH paper or
with a pH-meter.

Acids / Alkali Indicator
1. An indicator is a substance or mixture of substances that when added to the solution
gives different colours depending on the pH of the solution. Table below shows the colour
of indicators in neutral, acidic and alkaline solution.
Indicator colour in acid pH<7
colour in neutral
colour in alkali pH
litmus red 'purple' blue
phenolphthalein colourless colourless pink
methyl orange pinky red orange about pH 6 yellow
methyl red red orange yellow
bromothymol blue yellow green blue
2. The best indicator of all is the universal indicator.
3. It can be used to show not only whether a substance is acidic or alkaline, but also
whether it is a strong acid or a weak acid.

(Colour of indicator at different pH value)

(Litmus paper. The colour of litmus is blue in alkali and red in acid)

(Colour of phenolphthalein in alkali)

(Methyl Orange: The colour of mthyl orange in acidic and alkaline solution. Left: Acidic; Right: Alkaline. This image is
shared by Rubashkyn in wikipedia)

(Methyl Red: left: acidic, middle: neutral, right: alkaline. This image is shared by LHcheM in Wikipedia)

(Bromothymol Blue pH indicator dye in an acidic, neutral, and alkaline solution (left to right).)

(A roll of universal indicator paper. This image is shared by Bordercolliez in wikipedia)
Solute, Solvent and Solution
If a substance dissolves in a liquid, it is called a solute and the liquid is called the solvent.
The resulting mixture is called a solution.

Solute + Solvent = Solution

Solute Solid which dissolves
Solvent Liquid which does the dissolving
Solution Solute + solvent
A solution which will dissolve no more solute.
A substance that will dissolve in a solvent.
A substance that will not dissolve in a solvent
Concentration of a Solution
1. The concentration of a solution tells you how much solute is dissolved in 1 unit
volume of solution.
2. The volume of a solution is measured in dm (litres). 1 dm = 1000 cm.
3. The amount of solute can be measured in grams or moles.
4. 2 units of concentration used in chemistry are g dm
and mol dm

Concentration in g dm

1. Concentration is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
2. A concentration of 10 g dm
means there is 10 g of solute dissolved in1 dm
Concentration=Mass of solute(g)Volume of solution(dm3)

Example 1:
Calculate the concentration of the solution if 28g of NaOH is dissolve in 250cm
of water.

Mass of solute = 28g
Volume of solvent = 250cm = 0.25dm

Concentration in mol dm
1. Molarity is probably the most commonly used unit of concentration. It is the number
of moles of solute per liter of solution.
2. A concentration of 2 mol dm
means there are 2 moles of solute dissolved in 1
of solution.
Molarity=Mole of solute(mol)Volume of solution(dm3)

What is the molarity of a solution made when water is added to 0.2 mol of CaCl
to make
100 cm of solution? [RAM: Ca = 40; Cl = 35.5]

Number of mole of solute = 0.2 mol
Volume of solvent = 100 cm = 0.1 dm
Molarity = Number of MoleVolume=0.2mol0.1dm3=2mol/dm3

Conversion of Concentration Unit

1. The chart above shows how to convert the units of concentration from g dm
to mol
and vice versa.
2. The molar mass of the solute is equal to the relative molecular mass of the solute.

Example 1:
The concentration of a Potassium chloride solution is 14.9 g dm
. What is the molarity ( mol
) of the solution? [ Relative Atomic Mass: Cl = 35.5; K = 39 ]

Relative Formula Mass of Potassium Chloride (KCl)
= 39 + 35.5 = 74.5

Molar Mass of Potassium Chloride = 74.5 g/mol

Molarity of Potassium Chloride

Example 2
A solution of barium hydrokxide have molarity 0.1 mol dm
. What is the concentration of
the solution in g dm
? [Relative Atomic Mass: Ba = 137; O = 16; H = 1 ]

Relative Formula Mass of barium hydrokxide, Ba(OH)

= 137 + 2(16+1) = 171

Molar Mass of Potassium Chloride = 171 g/mol