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Malayan Law Journal Reports/1962/Volume 1/CHAN CHWEN KN! " #$%L&C #R'EC$(R ) *1962+ 1
MLJ ,-. ) , May 1962
2 pa/es
*1962] 1 MLJ 307
CHAN CHWEN KONG v PUBLIC PROSECUTOR
CA PENANG
THOMSON CJ, HILL AND GOOD JJA
M CRIMINAL APPEAL NO 13 O 1962
3 M!" 1962
Criminal Law and Procedure -- Murder -- Circumstantial evidence -- Child evidence -- Misdirection
(0e appellant was 1on"21te3 4or t0e mur3er o4 a woman an3 0er 102l3 an3 was senten1e3 to 3eat05 &t was
ar/ue3 on appeal t0at6 728 t0e e"23en1e was ent2rely 12r1umstant2al9 7228 t0e tr2al :u3/e 3ealt w2t0 t0e nee3 4or
1orro;orat2on o4 t0e e"23en1e o4 t0e 102l3 w2tnesses unsat2s4a1tor2ly9 72228 t0e tr2al :u3/e m2s32re1te3 t0e :ury ;y
su//est2n/ to t0em t0at t0e e"23en1e o4 t0e 3e4en1e 2s to ;e re/ar3e3 an3 e"aluate3 2n 2solat2on an3 t0at 24
t0at 4a2ls to 1ome up to some stan3ar3 proo4 2s to ;e 32s1ar3e35
H#$%&
1) 2n 1ases w0ere t0e e"23en1e 2s w0olly 12r1umstant2al< w0at 0as to ;e 1ons23ere3 2s not only t0e
stren/t0 o4 ea10 2n32"23ual stran3 o4 e"23en1e ;ut also t0e 1om;2ne3 stren/t0 o4 t0ese stran3s
w0en tw2ste3 to/et0er to ma=e a rope9
1) alt0ou/0 t0e tr2al :u3/e 323 not a3m2n2ster t0e ne1essary 1aut2on to t0e :ury as su//este3 2n
Chao Chong v Public Prosecutor *196-+ MLJ 2,>< ne"ert0eless t0e Court was not prepare3 to
say t0at t0e terms 2n w0210 0e 323 a3m2n2ster t0e 1aut2on was wron/9
1) t0e su//est2on o4 t0e learne3 tr2al :u3/e t0at t0e e"23en1e 4or t0e 3e4en1e 2s to ;e e"aluate3 2n
2solat2on an3 t0at 24 2t 4a2ls to 1ome up to some stan3ar3 proo4 2t 2s to ;e 32s1ar3e3 2s ;eyon3 t0e
aut0or2t2es5 Howe"er 2n t02s 1ase 24 t0e :ury 0a3 ;een properly 32re1te3 t0ey woul3 0a"e
2ne"2ta;ly 1ome to t0e 1on1lus2on t0at t0e pr2soner was /u2lty o4 ;ot0 mur3ers an3 t0ere4ore t0e
1ase was one w0210 1ame w2t02n t0e s1ope o4 se1t2on 29728 o4 t0e Court r32nan1e< 19?>< an3
t0e appeal s0oul3 ;e 32sm2sse35
C!'#' (#)#((#% *+
Chao Chong v Public Prosecutor *196-+ MLJ 2,>
Miller v Minister of Pensions *19?.+ 2 All ER ,.2
Woolmington v Director of Public Prosecutions *19,@+ AC ?62 ?>1?>2
Murtagh and Kennedy ,9 Cr App R .2
COURT O APPEAL

Lee Kok Liang 4or t0e appellant5
H ankey 7Aeputy #u;l21 #rose1utor8 4or t0e respon3ent5
,
THOMSON CJ
73el2"er2n/ oral :u3/ment86 (02s appellant was 1on"21te3 at Jo0ore on 22n3 Apr2l t02s year 4or t0e mur3er o4 a
woman an3 0er 102l3 an3 was senten1e3 to 3eat05 He 0as appeale3 a/a2nst 02s 1on"21t2ons5
We 0a"e 0a3 t0e ;ene42t o4 l2sten2n/ to a "ery t0orou/0 an3 "ery persuas2"e ar/ument 4rom 1ounsel 4or t0e
appellant 4or w0210 we are /rate4ul ;e1ause we 0a"e 3er2"e3 mu10 ass2stan1e 4rom 2t5 & trust 2t w2ll not ;e
ta=en as 3etra1t2n/ 4rom t0at 2n any way 24 & say t0at 2n our op2n2on all t0e /roun3s o4 appeal t0at 0a"e ;een
ur/e3 upon us are w2t0 one eB1ept2on o4 l2ttle su;stan1e5
&n t0e 42rst pla1e we 0a"e l2stene3 to a 1are4ul< a11urate an3 3eta2le3 analys2s o4 t0e e"23en1e a/a2nst t0e
appellant5 (0at e"23en1e was ent2rely 12r1umstant2al an3 w0at t0e 1r2t212sm o4 2t amounts to 2s t02s< t0at no
s2n/le p2e1e o4 t0at e"23en1e 2s stron/ enou/0 to susta2n t0e 1on"21t2ons5 (0at 2s "ery true5 &t must< 0owe"er<
;e ;orne 2n m2n3 t0at 2n 1ases l2=e t02s w0ere t0e e"23en1e 2s w0olly 12r1umstant2al w0at 0as to ;e
1ons23ere3 2s not only t0e stren/t0 o4 ea10 2n32"23ual stran3 o4 e"23en1e ;ut also t0e 1om;2ne3 stren/t0 o4
t0ese stran3s w0en tw2ste3 to/et0er to ma=e a rope5 (0e real Cuest2on 2s6 2s t0at rope stron/ enou/0 to 0an/
t0e pr2sonerD
A/a2n t0ere 0as ;een some 1r2t212sm< not ent2rely w2t0out :ust2421at2on< o4 t0e way 2n w0210 t0e tr2al Ju3/e 3ealt
w2t0 t0e nee3 4or 1orro;orat2on o4 t0e e"23en1e o4 two 102l3 w2tnesses5 &t 2s un4ortunate per0aps t0at 0e 323
not see 42t to a3m2n2ster t0e ne1essary 1aut2on to t0e :ury 2n t0e way su//este3 ;y us 2n t0e 1ase o4 Chao
Chong v Public Prosecutor *196-+ MLJ 2,>5 Ne"ert0eless we are not prepare3 to say t0at t0e terms 2n w0210
0e 323 a3m2n2ster t0e 1aut2on were wron/5
& now 1ome to t0e /roun3 o4 appeal w0210 2n our "2ew 2s o4 some su;stan1e an3 w0210 0as 1ause3 us a
1erta2n amount o4 324421ulty5
(0e tr2al Ju3/e 1ommen1e3 02s summ2n/)up w2t0 1erta2n o;ser"at2ons re/ar32n/ t0e onus o4 proo4 w0210<
w2t0 respe1t< we woul3 3es1r2;e as uneB1ept2ona;le5 He po2nte3 out t0at t0e :ury must ;e sure o4 t0e /u2lt o4
t0e a11use3 person5 He po2nte3 out t0at t0e onus o4 pro"2n/ /u2lt lay upon t0e prose1ut2on an3 t0at t0at
meant t0e prose1ut2on must sat2s4y t0e :ury so t0at t0ey were sure t0at t0e a11use3 was /u2lty
!"#$ ! ML% &'( at &')
o4 t0e o44en1es w2t0 w0210 0e stoo3 10ar/e35 He went on to 32s1uss t0e 3e/ree o4 proo4 t0at was ne1essary
an3 3es1r2;e3 2t as proo4 ;eyon3 reasona;le 3ou;t an3 2llustrate3 w0at 0e 0a3 to say on t0e po2nt ;y rea32n/
to t0e :ury t0e well)=nown passa/e 4rom Lor3 Aenn2n/Es :u3/ment 2n t0e 1ase o4 Miller v Minister of Pensions
*19?.+ 2 All ER ,.25 All t0at< as 0as ;een sa23< was uneB1ept2ona;le5
At a later sta/e< 0owe"er< 7an3 2t 2s to ;e remem;ere3 t0at t0e summ2n/)up laste3 4or o"er two 0ours8 w0en
0e 1ame to 3eal w2t0 t0e 3e4en1e< 0e ma3e use o4 an eBpress2on w0210< 2n our "2ew< was not ;eyon3
1r2t212sm5 (02s eBpress2on was use3 on a lar/e num;er o4 o11as2ons< & t02n= n2ne 2n all5 &t w2ll ;e su44212ent 24 &
re4er to one o4 t0ese5 &n 32s1uss2n/ t0e e"23en1e /2"en ;y t0e appellant w0210 was e"23en1e o4 an alibi 0e
1on1lu3e36)
F555 24 you t02n= t0at t0e e"23en1e /2"en ;y t0e a11use3 2s 1ons2stent w2t0 t0e trut0 t0en< e"en t0ou/0 you 3o not ;el2e"e
2t< t0at 2s su44212ent to ;r2n/ 2n a "er321t o4 a1Cu2ttal5F
We are not at all 1lear as to w0at t0ese wor3s mean5 &n3ee3 & t02n= t0e only po2nt on w0210 we 3244er 2s t0at
amon/ oursel"es we ta=e 3244erent "2ews as to t0e poss2;le mean2n/ o4 t0ese wor3s5 (0at lea3s to our 42rst
1r2t212sm w0210 2s t0at t0ey are not 1al1ulate3 to 2llum2nate t0e m2n3s o4 a lo1al :ury5 W0en we oursel"es< w0o
0a"e spent our wor=2n/ l2"es 3eal2n/ w2t0 t0e mean2n/ o4 wor3s< 42n3 324421ulty 2n a/ree2n/ as to t0e 2ntent2on
an3 mean2n/ o4 t0ese part21ular wor3s 2t 2s 324421ult to 2ma/2ne :ust w0at 2mpress2on t0ey woul3 ma=e on t0e
1olle1t2"e m2n3 o4 a :ury5
&n t0e se1on3 pla1e< 0owe"er< an3 t02s 2s a mu10 more 4un3amental 1r2t212sm< we are o4 t0e op2n2on t0at
w0ate"er t0ey mean t0ey are 1al1ulate3 to 1on"ey an 2mpress2on t0at t0e onus ly2n/ on t0e 3e4en1e 2n a
1r2m2nal 1ase 2s /reater t0an 2t truly 2s5 &n most 1r2m2nal 1ases t0ere 2s at some sta/e an onus o4 a sort upon
t0e a11use3 person5 n1e t0e prose1ut2on pro3u1es e"23en1e w0210 24 ;el2e"e3 woul3 support a 1on"21t2on
?
t0ere 2s a ta1t21al onus on t0e a11use3 person e2t0er to pro3u1e e"23en1e o4 02s own or to po2nt to somet02n/
2n t0e prose1ut2on e"23en1e t0at at t0e "ery lowest ma=e t0e tr2er o4 4a1t less t0an sure o4 any 1on1lus2ons 0e
m2/0t ot0erw2se ;e prepare3 to ;ase upon t0e prose1ut2on e"23en1e5 &4 0e 4a2ls to 32s10ar/e t0at ta1t21al onus
0e w2ll ;e 1on"21te35 (0at 2s "ery true5
(o su//est< 0owe"er< t0at e"23en1e 4or t0e 3e4en1e 2s to ;e re/ar3e3 an3 e"aluate3 2n 2solat2on an3 24 2t 4a2ls
to 1ome up to some stan3ar3 proo4 2s to ;e 32s1ar3e3 2s 2n our "2ew to /o ;eyon3 t0e aut0or2t2es5
n t0at & 3o not t02n= 2t 2s ne1essary to 3o more t0an Cuote t0e well)=nown passa/e 4rom Lor3 'an=eyEs
spee10 2n t0e 1ase o4 Woolmington v *he Director of Public Prosecutions *19,@+ AC ?62 ?>1?>26)
F(0rou/0out t0e we; o4 t0e En/l2s0 Cr2m2nal Law one /ol3en t0rea3 2s always to ;e seen< t0at 2s t0e 3uty o4 t0e
prose1ut2on to pro"e t0e pr2sonerEs /u2lt su;:e1t to w0at & 0a"e alrea3y sa23 as to t0e 3e4en1e o4 2nsan2ty an3 su;:e1t
also to any statutory eB1ept2on5 &4< at t0e en3 o4 an3 on t0e w0ole o4 t0e 1ase< t0ere 2s a reasona;le 3ou;t< 1reate3 ;y
t0e e"23en1e /2"en ;y e2t0er t0e prose1ut2on or t0e pr2soner< as to w0et0er t0e pr2soner =2lle3 t0e 3e1ease3 w2t0 a
mal212ous 2ntent2on< t0e prose1ut2on 0as not ma3e out t0e 1ase an3 t0e pr2soner 2s ent2tle3 to an a1Cu2ttal5 No matter
w0at t0e 10ar/e or w0ere t0e tr2al< t0e pr2n12ple t0at t0e prose1ut2on must pro"e t0e /u2lt o4 t0e pr2soner 2s part o4 t0e
1ommon law o4 En/lan3 an3 no attempt to w02ttle 2t 3own 1an ;e enterta2ne35
555
W0en e"23en1e o4 3eat0 an3 mal21e 0as ;een /2"en 7t02s 2s a Cuest2on 4or t0e :ury8 t0e a11use3 2s ent2tle3 to s0ow< ;y
e"23en1e or ;y eBam2nat2on o4 t0e 12r1umstan1es a33u1e3 ;y t0e Crown t0at t0e a1t on 02s part w0210 1ause3 3eat0
was e2t0er un2ntent2onal or pro"o=e35 &4 t0e :ury are e2t0er sat2s42e3 w2t0 02s eBplanat2on or< upon a re"2ew o4 all t0e
e"23en1e< are le4t 2n reasona;le 3ou;t w0et0er< e"en 24 02s eBplanat2on ;e not a11epte3< t0e a1t was un2ntent2onal or
pro"o=e3< t0e pr2soner 2s ent2tle3 to ;e a1Cu2tte35F
(0ese o;ser"at2ons< 2n our "2ew< are as appl21a;le to a 1ase l2=e t0e present w0ere t0e 3e4en1e was an alibi
as t0ey were to t0e 1ase 2n w0210 t0ey were use3 w0ere t0e 3e4en1e was t0at t0e =2ll2n/ must 0a"e ;een
e2t0er a1123ental or t0e result o4 pro"o1at2on5
Mu10 t0e same t02n/ was sa23 2- years later ;y t0e Court o4 Appeal 2n t0e 1ase o4 Murtagh and Kennedy ,9
Cr App R .25 (0ere 2t was sa23 t0at t0e 1ase was one w0ere 2t 0a3 ;een essent2al 4or t0e Ju3/e to ma=e 2t
1lear to t0e :ury w0at were t0ree poss2;le pos2t2ons 2n w0210 t0ey m2/0t 42n3 t0emsel"es F;ear2n/ 2n m2n3
t0rou/0out t0at 2t was not 4or t0e a11use3 to esta;l2s0 t0e2r 2nno1en1eF5 ne o4 t0ese pos2t2ons was t0at 24
t0ey a11epte3 t0e eBplanat2on o4 t0e a11use3 t0ey must a1Cu2t5 (0e se1on3 was t0at 24 t0at eBplanat2on Fle4t
t0em 2n 3ou;t t0ey must a1Cu2tF5 (0e t02r3 was t0at on t0e w0ole o4 t0e e"23en1e t0ey must ;e sat2s42e3 o4 t0e
/u2lt o4 t0e a11use35
&n ot0er wor3s t0e test 2s not6 F2s t0e 3e4en1e e"23en1e 1ons2stent w2t0 t0e trut0DF< w0ate"er t0at may mean<
;ut 3oes 2t lea"e t0e :ury 2n 3ou;t as to t0e /u2lt o4 t0e a11use3 personD &4 t0e answer to t0at Cuest2on ;e
FyesF t0e pr2soner 2s ent2tle3 to ;e a1Cu2tte35
Ha"2n/ ma3e t0ese o;ser"at2ons t0e Cuest2on t0en ar2ses on t0e2r appl21at2on to t0e present appeal5 (02s
was not a 1ase 2n w0210 t0e 1re32;2l2ty o4 t0e prose1ut2on w2tnesses was o4 ma:or 2mportan1e5 (0e w2tnesses
w0ose 1re32;2l2ty 0a3 to ;e e"aluate3 w2t0 one eB1ept2on spo=e to matters o4 somew0at m2nor 2mportan1e5
(0e real Cuest2on 2n t0e 1ase was not w0et0er t0e w2tnesses were to ;e ;el2e"e3 ;ut w0et0er
!"#$ ! ML% &'( at &'"
t0e "ar2ous 12r1umstan1es to w0210 t0ey spo=e po2nte3 2rres2st2;ly 2n one 32re1t2on an3 one 32re1t2on only<
t0at 32re1t2on ;e2n/ t0e /u2lt o4 t0e pr2soner5 (0e e"23en1e was 32s1usse3 at /reat len/t0 an3 w2t0 su;stant2al
a11ura1y ;y t0e tr2al Ju3/e 2n 02s 10ar/e5 We oursel"es 0a"e rea3 t0e e"23en1e5 We 0a"e rea3 2t w2t0 1are
an3 we 0a"e 1ome to t0e 1on1lus2on t0at we 1an say t0at 0a3 t0e :ury ;een properly 32re1te3 t0ey woul3<
an3 0ere & return to Cuote t0e wor3s o4 Lor3 'an=ey< F0a"e 2ne"2ta;ly 1ome to t0e same 1on1lus2onF t0at 2s
t0at t0e pr2soner was /u2lty o4 ;ot0 t0e mur3ers 4or w0210 0e was tr2e35
We are a11or32n/ly sat2s42e3 t0at t0e 1ase 2s one w0210 1omes w2t02n t0e s1ope o4 t0e pro"2so to se1t2on
29718 o4 t0e Courts r32nan1e an3 we 32sm2ss t0e appeals5
+,,eal dismissed-