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Section 1: The nature and variety of living organisms

a) Characteristics of living organisms

b) Variety of living organisms
a) Characteristics of living organisms
1.1 recalls that living organisms share the following basic characteristics:
They require nutrition
They respire
They excrete their waste
They respond to their surroundings
They move
They control their internal conditions
They reproduce
They grow and develop

Nutrition: Taking in nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials
and energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them.
Excretion: Removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism and substances
in excess.
Respiration: Chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy.
Sensitivity: The ability to detect or sense changes in the environment and to make responses.
Reproduction: Progresses that make more of the same kind of organism
Growth: The permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in number of cells, cell size, or
Movement: An action by an organism or part of an organism that changes position or place.
The seven characteristics could be memorized by the term Mrs. Gren:
b) Variety of living organisms

1.2 describe the common features shared by organisms within the following main groups, plants,
animals, fungi, bacteria, protoctists and viruses, and for each group describe examples and their
features as follows (details of life cycle and economic importance are not required).

Plants: These are multicellular organisms; they contain chloroplasts and are able to carry out
photosynthesis; they have cellulose cell walls; and they store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose.

Examples include flowering plants, such as a cereal (for example maize) and a herbaceous legume (for
example peas or beans).

Animals: These are multicellular organisms; they do not have chloroplasts and are not able to carry out
photosynthesis; they have no cell walls; they usually have nervous coordination and are able to move
from one place to another; they often store carbohydrates as glycogen.

Examples include mammals (for example humans) and insects (for example housefly and mosquito).

Fungi: These are organisms that are not able to carry out photosynthesis; their body is usually organised
into a mycelium made from thread-like structures called hyphae, which contain many nuclei; some
examples are single-celled; they have cell walls made of chitin; they feed by extracellular secretion of
digestive enzymes onto food material and absorption of the organic products; this is known as
saprotrophic nutrition; they may store carbohydrates as glycogen.

Examples include Mucor, which has the typical fungal hyphal structure, and yeast which is single-celled.

Bacteria: These are microscopic single-celled organisms; they have a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm
and plasmids; they lack a nucleus but contain a circular chromosome of DNA; some bacteria can carry
out photosynthesis but most feed off other living or dead organisms.

Examples include Lactobacillus bulgaricus, a rod-shaped bacterium used in the production of yoghurt
from milk, and Pneumococcus, a spherical bacterium that acts as the pathogen causing pneumonia.

Protoctists: These are microscopic single-celled organisms. Some, like Amoeba, that live in pond water,
have features like an animal cell, while others, like Chlorella, have chloroplasts and are more like plants.
A pathogenic example is Plasmodium, responsible for causing malaria.

Viruses: These are small particles, smaller than bacteria; they are parasitic and can reproduce only inside
living cells; they infect every type of living organism. They have a wide variety of shapes and sizes; they
have no cellular structure but have a protein coat and contain one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or

Examples include tobacco mosaic virus that causes discolouring of the leaves of tobacco plants by
preventing the formation of chloroplasts, the influenza virus that causes 'flu' and the HIV virus that
causes AIDS.
1.3 Recall the term pathogen and know that pathogens may be fungi, bacteria, protoctists or viruses.

Section 2: Structures and functions in living organisms
a) Levels of organisation
b) Cell structure
c) Biological molecules
d) Movement of substances into and out of cells
e) Nutrition
f) Respiration
g) Gas exchange
h) Transport
i) Excretion
j) Coordination and response
a) Levels of Organisation
2.1 describe the levels of organisation within organisms: organelles, cells, tissues, organs and systems
b) Cell Structure
2.2 recognise cell structures, including the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplast
and vacuole
2.3 describe the functions of the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplast and vacuole
2.4 describe the differences between plant and animal cells

Animal cell
1. A cell membrane is like a sieve, it controls what goes in and out of the cell.
2. The cytoplasm is where the chemical reactions take place, the mitochondria in the cytoplasm is
where respiration takes place to release energy. The cytoplasm also contains enzymes that
control the chemical reactions.
3. The nucleus is like the 'brain' of the cell, it controls the cell, telling it what to do. It also contains
DNA which is important when the cell reproduces.

Plant cell
Plant cells have extra features:
1. They have a cell wall, this is made of cellulose. It gives the cell shape and structure and provides
support. It also means the cell can't burst, it becomes turgid when it is full of water. (The cell
walls are actually impermeable to water, which is why they have small gaps in them called
plasmodesmata which allow water to enter via osmosis...)
2. They have chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll-the green pigment that allows it to absorb
light energy and convert it to chemical energy during photosynthesis. Plants are autotrophs-they
can make their own food.
3. Plant cells have a permanent vacuole that contains cell sap, it provides support. It is also
basically a storage and removes waste, and provides/maintains the cell structure.
Feature Animal Cell Plant Cell
Nucleus Yes Yes
Cytoplasm Yes Yes
Cell Membrane Yes Yes
Mitochondria Yes Yes
Vacuole No Yes
Cell Wall No Yes
Chloroplasts No Yes
c) Biological molecules
2.5 recall the chemical elements present in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (fats and oils)
Carbs and lipids: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
2.6 describe the structure of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids as large
molecules made up of smaller basic units: starch and glycogen from simple
sugar; protein from amino acids; lipid from fatty acids and glycerol
Simple sugars e.g. glucose, maltose, galactose --> Starch, glycogen
Amino acids --> Protein
Fatty acids + glycerol --> Lipids
2.7 describe the tests for glucose and starch
Test for glucose
Benedict's solution-blue solution containing copper (II) sulphate.
Reducing sugars such as glucose, maltose, fructose and lactose can reduce the copper (II) in Benedict's
solution to copper (I).
-produce a brick-red precipitate of copper (I) oxide when boiled with Benedict's solution.
Benedict's test:
1. Add 2 cm
of Benedict's solution to 2 cm
of glucose solution in a test tube and shake the
mixture. Leave the test tube in a beaker of boiling water for five minutes.
2. As a control experiment, repeat step 1 using 2 cm
of distilled water in place of glucose solution.
3. What do you observe after five minutes for both experiments? Is glucose a reducing sugar?
4. Yes, we already know that, but this test just proves it. The colour change seen is the blue
Benedict's solution turning brick-red or orange-red precipitate.
Test for starch
Iodine test:
Starch can be detected by the iodine test. A few drops of iodine solution added to any substance
containing starch will produce a blue-black colour.
5. Add a few drops of iodine solution to a piece of potato on a white tile.
6. What do you observe?
Plants store glucose in the form of starch. For example, starch is abundant in vegetable such as potato
and tapioca.
2.7 describe the tests for glucose and starch
Test for glucose
Benedict's solution-blue solution containing copper (II) sulphate.
Reducing sugars such as glucose, maltose, fructose and lactose can reduce the copper (II) in Benedict's
solution to copper (I).
-produce a brick-red precipitate of copper (I) oxide when boiled with Benedict's solution.
Benedict's test:
1. Add 2 cm
of Benedict's solution to 2 cm
of glucose solution in a test tube and shake the
mixture. Leave the test tube in a beaker of boiling water for five minutes.
2. As a control experiment, repeat step 1 using 2 cm
of distilled water in place of glucose solution.
3. What do you observe after five minutes for both experiments? Is glucose a reducing sugar?
4. Yes, we already know that, but this test just proves it. The colour change seen is the blue
Benedict's solution turning brick-red or orange-red precipitate.
Test for starch
Iodine test:
Starch can be detected by the iodine test. A few drops of iodine solution added to any substance
containing starch will produce a blue-black colour.
5. Add a few drops of iodine solution to a piece of potato on a white tile.
6. What do you observe?
Plants store glucose in the form of starch. For example, starch is abundant in vegetable such as potato
and tapioca.
2.8 understand the role of enzymes as biological catalysts in metabolic reactions

Enzymes are biological catalysts made of proteins that speed up chemical reactions without being used
up/chemically altered. They lower activation energy-which is the energy needed to start a chemical
2.9 understand how the functioning of enzymes can be affected by changes in temperatures
High temperatures denature enzymes so they do not function anymore.
To explain this in more detail:
The chains of amino acids are coiled/folded up to give the protein a three-dimensional shape. The coils
are held in place by weak bonds (hydrogen bonds).
An increase in temperature increases vibrations in the atoms of the enzyme. At high temperatures
(Above 65C for many human proteins), the vibrations are so violent that they break the hydrogen
bonds in the enzyme, causing it to lose its shape.
When the active site changes shape, the substrates cannot fit into it anymore, so enzyme-substrate
complex cannot form. So the enzyme stops building up/breaking down substrates, and the rate of
reaction slows down.
(Beyond the optimum temperature for an enzyme, the rate of reaction graph would just slope
downwards as the enzymes loses its ability to catalyse the reaction.)
2.10 understand how the functioning of enzymes can be affected by changes in pH
2.11 describe how to carry out simple controlled experiments to illustrate how enzyme activity can be
affected by changes in temperature
1. Put starch solution in 3 test tubes.
2. Put 2 test tubes containing amylase solution into an ice bath and a warm water bath separately.
3. Have a control at room temperature.
4. Put the amylase solution into the test tubes containing starch solution.
5. Pipette drops of the mixture onto white tiles, and test with iodine solution every 30 seconds.
6. See which one doesn't give a blue-black result the fastest (When you pipette iodine onto the
mixture and it doesn't turn blue-black, it means that there is no starch present. So the amylase
has digested it into maltose already. Count the number of holes in the white tile it took for the
amylase to digest the starch-each hole is 30 seconds.)
7. Of course, you can have more data collected by having more water baths prepared at different
temperatures. For example at 10C, 20C, 30C etc. until a certain point, and then you can plot a
more accurate graph of the results. You should see that the rate of reaction increases up to
about 35-40C, which is the optimum temperature, and then decreases as denaturation occurs.
Or, you can just add iodine solution straight to the mixtures and see how fast the blue-black colour
disappears--> Easier experiment, make sure if you mix/shake the mixture in one test tube, you did it for
all of them too to be fair.
You can draw up a results table for this, for example:
Tube Temperature Time for blue colour to disappear Speed of reaction (fast, medium slow)
1 10oC
2 20oC
3 35oC
d) Movement of substances into and out of cells
2.12 recall simple definitions of diffusion, osmosis and active transport
Diffusion: this is the net movement of fluid molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of
low concentration. i.e down a concentration gradient. The steeper the gradient, as in the bigger the
difference in concentration, the faster diffusion will occur. Examples include if you spray perfume in a
corner of the room, it will slowly spread out until you can smell it from the opposite side of the room.
This is because the particles move randomly and continuously collide with each other until they spread
out evenly. In our body, diffusion occurs when oxygen from the alveolus in the lungs diffuses into the
red blood cells which have a lower concentration of oxygen, since it transports it to body cells and 'gives
it away'.
Osmosis: this is like diffusion, except it involves water molecules. So again, water molecules move via
osmosis from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration, through a partially
permeable membrane. In our body cells, the cell surface membrane is partially permeable, its function is
to control what is allowed to enter the cell.
Sometimes you read a definition on osmosis regarding water potential. And this confuses a lot of
people. People think that it's from a region of low water potential to high water potential, since a region
without much water should have water going to it right? Wrong.

Water potential is a measure of the tendency of water to move from one place to another. So a place
without much water would have a low water potential, it's not going anywhere. So the definition is still
the same, just switch 'concentration' for 'water potential'.
So osmosis is the movement of water molecules from high to low water potential i.e. down a water
potential gradient, through a partially permeable membrane.
So a high concentration of water would be a dilute salt solution, and a low concentration of water would
be a concentrated salt solution.
Likewise, a dilute salt solution has a higher water potential, and a concentrated salt solution has a lower
water potential.
Active transport: This is the active uptake of molecules against a concentration gradient using ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) or if you don't think you can remember this, just say using energy. Against a
concentration gradient just means from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration-
unlike diffusion/osmosis. Carrier proteins transport the molecules from one side of the membrane to
the other side .
This occurs in root hair cells when they actively uptake mineral ions from the soil even though there is a
greater concentration in the root hair cells.
2.13 understand that movement of substances into and out of cells can be by diffusion, osmosis and
active transport
Diffusion: e.g. oxygen diffusing into red blood cells, or carbon dioxide diffusing into leaves for
Osmosis: e.g. when water diffuses into plant cells it makes the cells turgid, which provides the plant with
support so it can stand upright. If water diffuses out of the cell, it becomes flaccid and wilts. The cell is
turgid because the water entering the cell makes the cytoplasm and the vacuole push against the cell
wall, exerting turgor pressure. In animal cells, there isn't a cell wall so if too much water enters the cell,
it may burst-called lysis.
Active transport: e.g. root hair cells actively uptaking mineral ions such as magnesium for chlorophyll. In
humans, in our kidneys, salts are actively uptaken into the blood.
2.15 understand the factors that affect the rate of movement of substances into and out of cells to
include the effects of surface area to volume ratio, temperature and concentration gradient
Surface area to volume ratio: root hair cells have a high surface area to volume ratio, so it increases the
rate of diffusion/osmosis.
Temperature: temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles, so diffusion occurs quicker.
Concentration gradient: The steeper it is, i.e. the greater the difference in concentration between 2
regions, the faster the rate of diffusion/osmosis.
2.16 describe simple experiments on diffusion and osmosis using living and non-living systems
Put a drop of food dye into a beaker of cold water, and a beaker of hot water.
In which one does the food colouring spread fastest?
There are loads of experiments out there. Google it!
Osmosis experiment with potatoes in sucrose solution:
Cut two strips of potatoes of roughly equal size, shape and thickness. Weigh them.
Put one into a test tube of concentrated salt water solution and the other into pure water.
Leave the strips in the test tubes for half an hour (you decide the time), afterwards, dry them
and weight them again.
The potato strip in the salt water solution should have lost mass since water diffuses out of the
potato cell into the surrounding solution, since the potato cell had a higher concentration of
water/higher water potential.
The potato strip in pure water should have gained mass as water diffused into it, the semi-
permeable membrane is the potato skin.
Of course, you can also do this with other solution like sucrose solution, with varying
concentrations to get more data and see the mass difference. You can plot a graph showing
mass difference against the sucrose concentration, which is your independent variable as you
are changing it.
If the medium is hypertonic-a dilute solution, with higher water concentration than the cell, the cell will
gain water through osmosis.
If the medium is isotonic-a solution with the same water concentration as the cell-no movement.
If the medium is hypotonic-a concentrated solution, with a lower concentration than the cell, the cell
will lose water by osmosis.
e) Nutrition
2.17 describe the process of photosynthesis and understand its importance in the conversion of light
energy to chemical energy
2.18 recall the word equation and the balanced chemical symbol equation for photosynthesis

Overall equation for photosynthesis:

*Ignore the second equation!! It is unbalanced, and is there just to illustrate the thought process as
you convert from a word equation to a symbol equation.*
What conditions are essential for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide
a suitable temperature
Photosynthesis depends on enzyme reactions in the chloroplasts. Remember the effect of temperature
on enzyme activity-enzymes have optimum temperatures that vary between different organisms.
(Optimum temperature=this is the temperature at which the enzyme is most active, catalysing the
largest number of reactions per second.) --Certain enzymes in plants have a high optimum temperature.
E.g. the optimum temperature of the enzyme papain found in papaya is about 65C.
How do guard cells control the size of stomata?
In sunlight:
The concentration of potassium ions (K
) increases in the guard cells
Chloroplasts in the guard cells photosynthesise. The light energy is converted into chemical
energy used to pump potassium ions into the guard cells from neighbouring epidermal cells.
This lowers the water potential in the guard cells.
Water from neighbouring epidermal cells enters guard cells by osmosis so that they swell and
become turgid.
The guard cells have a thicker cellulose wall on one side of the cell (the side around the stomatal
pore). Hence, the swollen guard cells become more curved and pull the stoma open.
At night:
The potassium ions accumulated in the guard cells during the day diffuse out of the guard cells.
This increases the water potential in the guard cells and water leaves them by osmosis.
The guard cells become flaccid and the stomatal pore closes.
2.19 understand how carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity and
temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis
2.20 explain how the structure of the leaf is adapted for photosynthesis
2.21 recall that plants require mineral ions for growth and that magnesium ions
are needed for chlorophyll and nitrate ions are needed for amino acids
2.22 describe simple controlled experiments to investigate photosynthesis,
showing the evolution of oxygen from a water plant, the production of starch and
the requirements of light, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll Humans
2.23 understand that a balanced diet should include appropriate proportions
ofcarbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamins, minerals, water and dietary fibre
2.24 recall sources and describe functions of carbohydrate, protein, lipids (fats and oils), vitamins A, C
and D, and the mineral ions calcium and iron, water and dietary fibre as components of the diet
Carbohydrate (including dietary fibre)
There are actually 3 main types of carbohydrates: sugar, starch and fibre
Sugar source: found naturally in fruit and vegetables, processed sugars such as granulated sugar is
found in cakes, biscuits, desserts etc.
Starch source: starchy foods like pasta, rice, potato and bread
Fibre source: fruit and vegetables (if you want to know, there are 2 types of fibre. soluble fibre is found
in the flesh of the fruit and veg, insoluble fibre is found in their skins-all that indigestible cellulose that
helps push the food along in the intestines and you eventually egest it.)
provides energy (sugar and starch)
aids digestion (fibre)
helps to lower blood cholesterol levels (fibre)
Animal Sources: Meat, poultry, fish, eggs
Plant Sources: Nuts, beans, pulses, lentils
to aid in building and repair of muscle tissue
is used as a secondary source of energy if the body receives insufficient energy from
carbohydrate and fat sources
promotes the manufacture of enzymes, vital for metabolism
Lipids (fats and oils)
Fats are solid at room temperature whilst oils are liquid at room temperature.
Animal sources: Meat, lard, dairy products and oily fish
Plant sources: Nuts, pulses, some fruits (e.g. avocado and olives)
forms and insulating layer under the skin
protects and surrounds vital organs in the body
provides energy
is a source of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K
Vitamin A
Animal source: liver, oily fish, egg
Plant source: carrots, green leafy vegetables
maintenance and health of the skin
produces a substance called 'visual purple' which helps night vision and keeps eyes healthy
Deficiency: night blindness and skin infections
Vitamin C
Source: citrus fruit (orange/lemon), green leafy vegetables
formation of connective tissue
health of gums, teeth and skin
boosts immune system
aids absorption of iron
Vitamin D
Source: liver, oily fish, egg yolk, milk and dairy foods, margarine and sunlight (if you're in the sun your
skin produces vitamin D)
proper formation of teeth and bones
aids absorption of calcium
Source: milk, yoghurt, cheese, green vegetables
Function: combined with vitamin D and phosphorous, calcium helps the formation of strong teeth and
Source: liver, red meat, bread, egg yolk, green vegetables
Function: combined with protein, forms haemoglobin which helps transport oxygen around the body
(haemoglobin is in the red blood cells)
Source: fruit and vegetables and drinks
cytoplasm of cells contains water where most chemical reactions take place
it transports nutrients, waste and hormones in the blood around the body and controls the
distribution of electrolytes (body salts)
you should drink around 8 glasses a day to say well hydrated
2.25 understand that energy requirements vary with activity levels, age and
2.26 recognise the structures of the human alimentary canal and describe in
outline the functions of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large
intestine and pancreas
So the human alimentary canal basically just includes all the organs in the digestive
Mouth: where you chew food into smaller pieces giving it a larger surface area, and
secreting saliva which helps lubricate the food so it's easier to swallow; saliva also
contains the enzyme amylase which catalyses the digestion of starch to maltose.
Oesophagus: the 'food pipe' by which food enters the stomach from the mouth
Stomach: here is where conditions are acidic due to hydrochloric acid, which is the
optimum pH for the enzymes in the stomach such as the protease pepsin. The acid
doesn't just lower pH levels, it also kills any bacteria in the food. Muscular contractions
in the stomach mix up the food with the gastric juices (acid and enzymes) to increase
surface area and make sure the enzymes are acting on all parts of the food. The
disgusting liquidy stuff in your stomach is now called chyme and stays in your stomach
for 4-6 hours.
Small intestine: The final steps of digestion take place here.
digestion of insoluble macromolecules into smaller, soluble ones,
absorption of the small molecules into the bloodstream for use by the body
The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, and so when food enters here from
the stomach it will be acidic. But the enzymes in the small intestine work best in slightly
alkaline pH levels, so bile (alkaline) from the gall bladder (it's just stored there, it's
actually made in the liver) is secreted into the duodenum and neutralises the acid. It
also emulsifies the fats (elaborated on in a specification point later below). Pancreatic
juices from the pancreas is also secreted and it contains lipase which digests lipids.
Large intestine: This is where water is reabsorbed leaving behind the semi-solid
undigested waste (faeces) that is stored in the rectum, until you decide to do your
business and egestion takes place through your anus.
Pancreas: This produces pancreatic juice which contains lipase and digests lipids into
fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine.

2.27 understand the processes of ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion
Ingestion: 'the process of taking food into the body through the mouth' - basicallyeating..
Digestion: the 'break-down' of macromolecules into smaller, soluble molecules that can be absorbed
and used by the body by mechanical and enzymic action (mechanical-chewing, your stomach's muscular
contractions; enzymic-digestive enzymes help catalyse digestion)
Absorption: 'the process by which one thing absorbs or is absorbed by another' - so where the small
food molecules like glucose are absorbed into the bloodstream (they really just diffuse through the wall
of the small intestine)
Assimilation: using the absorbed nutrients and converting it into living tissue
Egestion: the elimination of undigested waste like fibre, this is different to excretion!! which is
eliminating metabolic wastes like sweat and urine.
2.28 explain how and why food is moved through the gut by peristalsis

A bolus of food is basically a mouthful of food that you swallow.
So basically muscles before the bolus of food contracts and forces the bolus down and the muscles after
it relax to let it through, and this way, it is moved through the gut. The gut is the whole of the digestive
tract starting from the mouth and ending at your anus. Peristalsis doesn't just happen in the
oesophagus, though that's where it's easiest and most often thought of to occur at.
2.29 understand the role of digestive enzymes to include the digestion of starch to glucose by amylase
and maltase, the digestion of proteins to amino acids by proteases and the digestion of lipids to fatty
acids and glycerol by lipases
Amylase (enzyme) is found in your saliva and so digestion begins in your mouth. It digests starch to
maltose. Maltase (enzyme) digests maltose to glucose.
Proteases (enzymes) digest proteins to amino acids. Examples include pepsin which is found in the
stomach and trypsin which is found in the small intestine. This means that the optimum pH level for
pepsin is around 2-3 as conditions in the stomach are acidic due to the hydrochloric acid present. As for
trypsin, optimum pH level is around 8 due to bile present in the small intestine, which is there to
neutralise acid from the stomach. (foods that enter small intestine from the stomach may have some
Lipases (enzymes) digest lipids (fats and oils) to fatty acids and glycerol. The pancreas secretes
pancreatic juices into the small intestine and this includes lipase.
These enzymes digest all the macromolecules (big molecules) like starch, protein and fat into smaller,
soluble molecules so that they can diffuse through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream-
essentially making it easier for the body to 'absorb'.
Enzyme Reaction Catalysed
Amylase Starch --> maltose
Maltase Maltose --> glucose
Proteases (e.g. pepsin and trypsin) Protein --> amino acids
Lipase Lipids --> fatty acids + glycerol

2.30 recall that bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder, and understand the role of
bile in neutralising stomach acid and emulsifying lipids
So the liver makes bile and this is stored in the gall bladder, this is secreted into the small intestine via
the bile duct and the bile is alkaline, so it neutralises stomach acid to give enzymes in the pancreatic
juice their optimum pH level. If not, they would denature and would not function so digestion cannot
continue in the small intestine.
Bile also emulsifies lipids, basically this is the breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, more evenly
distributed particles that gives it a larger surface area--so enzymes have a larger area to act on and
digest the lipids quicker.

2.31 explain how the structure of a villus helps absorption of the products of digestion in the small

The villi in the small intestine are just finger-like projections that increase surface area, they themselves
have microvilli which are just smaller villi extending from it again. It's like roots that then have root
So these villi are only one cell thick so the small molecules like amino acids and glucose can diffuse
through easily into the bloodstream. There is a dense capillary network so there's a good supply of
blood where the nutrients can diffuse into.
2.32 recall how to carry out a simple experiment to determine the energy content in a food sample.
f) Respiration
2.33 recall that the process of respiration releases energy in living organisms
Just recall this. Energy is locked up in food molecules such as glucose. Living organisms release energy by
breaking these molecules down. Without respiration, you wouldnt have energy to do all your physical
activities and survive.
Plants and most animals, including humans, respire aerobically. These complex organisms need a lot of
energy to survive. Some examples of energy-consuming processes in organisms are:
The synthesis of proteins from amino acids
Cell division
Muscular contractions such as heartbeats and respiratory movements
Active transport in the absorption of food substances by the small intestine
Transmission of nerve impulses or messages
2.34 describe the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration is with oxygen, anaerobic respiration is without. Basically, your
muscle cells can respire anaerobically for short periods of time when there is a shortage
of oxygen.

Aerobic respiration is actually a multi-step reaction that is catalysed by enzymes in the
And aerobic respiration releases more energy, but the good thing with anaerobic
respiration is that its almost instant, its quick-which is why events such as a 100m
sprint which requires a quick burst of energy is anaerobic.
But anaerobic respiration leads to the production of lactic acid-a poison, which builds up
in your muscles. The lactic acid concentrations build up slowly in the muscles and may
eventually become high enough to cause fatigue, muscular pains and cramps to stop
you from continuing.
This is why you continue to breathe hard after anaerobic exercise for a while, as you are
repaying your oxygen debt, which is the oxygen required to oxidize and convert the
harmful lactic acid into harmless products like carbon dioxide and water.
2.35 recall the word equation and the balanced chemical symbol equation for aerobic respiration in
living organisms
Glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP)
My class likes to use ATP in place of energy, and it stands for adenosine triphosphate. It's like the
'currency' of energy. I'll let this link do the explaining of what it is:
The explanation in the link may be confusing, as we don't need that kind of depth yet. In very basic
terms, ATP is like small packets of energy. They store energy temporarily and provide energy for all the
reactions taking place in the cell.
+ 6O
--> 6CO
+ 6H
2.36 recall the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants and in animals
Glucose --> lactic acid + ATP (smaller amount!)
--> 2C
The small amount of energy released in anaerobic respiration, together with that produced in aerobic
respiration, is sufficient to keep the muscles contracting.
Keep in mind that this equation is different for alcoholic fermentation where yeast respires
anaerobically. This is used in the production of bread to make bread rise, as the carbon dioxide
produced raises the bread.
Glucose --> ethanol + carbon dioxide + small amount of energy
Note that the glucose molecule is only partially broken down in anaerobic respiration. The ethanol
produced still contains much energy, hence explaining why only a small amount of energy is set free in

As you can see, anaerobic respiration and removing lactic acid is much more complex than what I've
described, but you don't need to concern yourself with glycolysis for now. Just know the equations I've
stated above and all the general stuff.

2.37 describe simple controlled experiments to demonstrate the evolution of carbon dioxide and heat
from respiring seeds or other suitable living organisms.
2.38 understand the role of diffusion in gas exchange
In humans, gas exchange happens all the time in the lungs. The oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the
blood and carbon dioxide from the blood into the alveoli-the carbon dioxide is then exhaled. This is
actually a form of excretion would you believe it, as carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product from
2.39 understand gas exchange (of carbon dioxide and oxygen) in relation to respiration and
2.40 understand that respiration continues during the day and night, but that the net exchange of
carbon dioxide and oxygen depends on the intensity of light
2.41 explain how the structure of the leaf is adapted for gas exchange
2.42 describe the role of stomata in gas exchange
2.43 describe simple controlled experiments to investigate the effect of light on net gas exchange
from a leaf, using hydrogen-carbonate indicator
2.44 describe the structure of the thorax, including the ribs, intercostal muscles, diaphragm, trachea,
bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and pleural membranes
So your thorax is the part of your body that lies between your neck and your abdomen (around your
stomach), and it includes all of the above. They are vital for gas exchange.
So air usually enters your body through your nose-through your two external nostrils whose walls bear a
fringe of hairs. The nostrils lead into two nasal passages which are lined with moist mucous membrane.
Breathing through the nose has the following advantages:
Dust and foreign particles, including bacteria in the air, are trapped by the hairs in the nostrils as
well as by the mucus on the mucous membrane.
As air passes through the nasal passages, it is warmed and moistened before it enters the lungs.
Harmful chemicals may be detected by small sensory cells in the mucous membrane.
The air in your nasal passages enters the pharynx, then to the larynx, and then into your trachea. The
trachea lies in front of your oesophagus. It extends downwards from the larynx into the chest cavity. The
lower end of the trachea divides into two tubes, the bronchi (singular: bronchus), one to each lung. Each
bronchus divides repeatedly and ends in very small, fine bronchioles. Each bronchiole ends in a cluster
of air sacs called alveoli.
Each lung lies in the pleural cavity, within which the lung expands. The pleural cavity is lined by two
transparent elastic membranes called the pleura (singular: pleuron) orpleural membranes. The inner
pleuron covers the lung. The outer pleuron is in contact with the walls of the thorax and the diaphragm.
A thin layer of lubricating fluid between the pleura allows the membranes to glide over each other easily
when the lungs expand and contract during breathing.
Within the lungs, the bronchial tubes divide repeatedly, giving rise to smaller tubes called bronchioles as
mentioned earlier. They each end in a cluster of air sacs or alveoli(singular: alveolus). Thousands of
alveoli are found in the lungs, providing a very large surface area for gas exchange.
Fun fact!
The total surface area of the alveoli in both lungs has been estimated to be equal to the surface area of
a tennis court! That is 50 times more than the whole area of the skin.
Your chest wall is supported by the ribs. They are attached dorsally to the backbone in such a way that
they can move up and down. The ribs are attached ventrally to the chest bone or sternum. Two sets of
muscles, the external and internal intercostal muscles, can be found between the ribs. They are
antagonistic muscles. When the external intercostal muscles contract, the internal intercostal muscles
relax and vice versa.
The diaphragm, which is a dome-shaped sheet of muscle and elastic tissue, separates the thorax from
the abdomen. When the diaphragm muscles contract, the diaphragm flattens downwards and whey
they relax, the diaphragm arches upwards again.

2.45 understand the role of intercostal muscles and the diaphragm in ventilation
During inhalation/inspiration:
Your diaphragm contracts and flattens.
Your external intercostal muscles contract while your internal intercostal muscles relax.
Your ribs move upwards and outwards. Your sternum also moves up and forward.
The volume of your thoracic cavity increases.
Air pressure in your lungs causes them to expand to fill up the enlarged space in your thorax.
Expansion of your lungs causes the air pressure inside them to decrease.
Atmospheric pressure (pressure of air outside) is now higher than the pressure within your
lungs. This causes air to rush into your lungs from outside.
During exhalation/expiration:
Your diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards.
Your internal intercostal muscles contract while your external intercostal muscles relax.
Your ribs move downwards and inwards. Your sternum also moves down to its original position.
The volume of your thoracic cavity decreases.
Your lungs are compressed and air pressure inside them increases as the volume decreases.
Air pressure within the lungs is now higher than atmospheric pressure. The air is forced out of
your lungs to the exterior.
Here's my easy way of remembering what happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing:
When you inhale, you...
Relax your
Internal intercostal muscles and
Contract your
External intercostal muscles
When you exhale, your...
External intercostal muscles
Relax and your
Internal intercostal muscles
2.46 explain how alveoli are adapted for gas exchange by diffusion between air in the lungs and blood
in capillaries
short and sweet.
How are the lungs/alveoli adapted for efficient gas exchange?
The numerous alveoli in the lungs provide a large surface area.
The wall of the alveolus is only one cell thick. This ensures a faster rate of diffusion of gases
through it (shorter diffusion distance).
A thin film of moisture covers the surface of the alveolus. This allows oxygen to dissolve in it.
The walls of the alveoli are richly supplied with blood capillaries. The flow of blood maintains the
concentration gradient of gases.
Oxygen diffuse from alveoli where there is a higher concentration into blood capillaries
Carbon dioxide diffuse from blood capillaries where there is a higher concentration into alveoli to be
2.47 understand the biological consequences of smoking in relation to the lungs and the circulatory
Chemicals in tobacco
Properties of the chemicals Effects on the body
Nicotine Addictive drug
Causes the release of the
hormone adrenaline
Makes blood clot easily
Increases in heartbeat and
blood pressure
Increased risk of blood clots
in blood vessels
Carbon monoxide Combines with haemoglobin to
form carboxyhaemoglobin
reduces oxygen transport
efficiency of red blood cells
Increases the rate of fatty
deposits on the inner arterial
Damage the lining of blood
Death if concentrations in the
air are increased by 1%
Increased risk of
Increased risk of blood
clotting in the arteries
Tar Contains cancer-causing
(carcinogenic) chemicals which
induce uncontrolled cell
division of the epithelium
Paralyses cilia lining the air
Blockage in the air sacs and
reduction in gas exchange
Dust particles trapped in the
mucus lining the airways
cannot be removed
Irritants (e.g.
hydrogen cyanide,
Paralyses cilia lining the air
Increased risk of chronic
bronchitis and emphysema
The inner walls of the trachea and bronchi are lined by ciliated epithelium (epithelium cells with hair-like
stuff called cilia). Gland cells (goblet cells) in the epithelium secrete mucus to trap dust particles and
bacteria. The cilia help to sweep these particles up the bronchi and trachea into the pharynx. It may be
coughed out or swallowed into the oesophagus.
But if you smoke, the tar coats the ciliated epithelium and they are paralysed. Excessive mucus is
secreted by the epithelium, and the mucus and dust particles cannot be removed. The airways could
become blocked, making breathing difficult.
The person has to cough persistently to clear his airways in order to breathe. This increases the risk of
getting lung infections.

moral: don't smoke!
smoking kills
2.48 describe a simple experiment to investigate the effect of exercise on breathing in humans
I'll just come up with an example. You can make your own later.

By the way, I use heart rate here, but you can also measure breathing rate instead-that could be more
tailored to the specification point..

10 people will be involved in the experiment. 5 females and 5 males of the same age and fitness level,
with no infirmities. Each will measure and record their resting heart rate twice and calculate the average
to be precise.

Each will then exercise on an exercise bike for 10 minutes, then record their heart rate immediately
after using electronic devices to be accurate.

They will then continue to record their heart rate 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 minutes after exercise. The results will
be plotted onto a graph to show the relationship.

A comparison can be made between the change in heart rate of a female and a male.

You can adapt this example to see the effect drinking tea has on breathing. :)
h) Transport
2.49 understand why simple, unicellular organisms can rely on diffusion for movement of substances
in and out of the cell
2.50 understand the need for a transport system in multicellular organisms Flowering plants
2.51 describe the role of phloem in transporting sucrose and amino acids between the leaves and
other parts of the plant
The phloem conducts manufactured food (sucrose and amino acids) from green parts of the plant (esp.
Leave) to other parts of the plant.
Consists mainly of sieve tubes and companion cells. Sieve tube-columns of elongated, thin-walled living
cells-sieve tube cells
Cross-walls separating the cells-lots of minute pores-sieve plates
A mature sieve tube cell has only a thin layer of cytoplasm inside the cell. --> cell is connected to cells
above and below through sieve plates. Each sieve tube cell has lost its central vacuole, nucleus and most
organelles. Sieve tube cells-lost most organelles from protoplasm=degenerate protoplasm
-Thus, each sieve tube cell has a companion cell beside it-carries out metabolic processes needed to
keep sieve tube cell alive.
Each companion cell--narrow, thin-walled cell with many mitochondria, cytoplasm and a nucleus.
Companion cells provide nutrients and help the sieve tube cells to transport manufactured food.
How is a phloem adapted for its function?
Companion cells-many mitochondria-provides ATP for active transport-for companion cells to
load sugars from mesophyll cells into the sieve tubes
Holes in sieve plates-allow rapid flow of manufactured food substances through the sieve tubes
2.52 describe the role of the xylem in transporting water and mineral salts from the roots to other
parts of the plant
Xylem tissue has 2 functions:
Conducting water and dissolved mineral salts from the roots to the stems and leaves
Providing mechanical support for the plant
Xylem tissue consists of xylem vessels.
Xylem vessel:
long hollow tube from root to leaf
made up of many dead cells
inner wall strengthened by deposits of lignin
How is a xylem vessel adapted for its function?
Empty lumen without protoplasm--> reduces resistance to water flowing through
Walls thickened with lignin--> hard, rigid substance-prevents collapse of vessel
2.53 explain how water is absorbed by root hair cells
Mass flow: Explain how water is absorbed in root hair cells:
A root hair is a simple extension of the epidermis of a root cell. It exists to increase the
surface area between the root and the soil and thus the rate at which water can be
absorbed. The water potential is greater in the soil than in the cytoplasm of the root hair
cells, as cell sap contains sugars, amino acids and salts. Thus water moves through
osmosis down a water potential gradient into the root hair cells (cytoplasm & vacuole)
via a semi-permeable membrane (root hair cells surface membrane). This consequently
makes the cell turgid.
2.54 recall that transpiration is the evaporation of water from the surface of a plant
2.55 explain how the rate of transpiration is affected by changes in humidity, wind speed,
temperature and light intensity
2.56 describe experiments that investigate the role of environmental factors in determining the rate
of transpiration from a leafy shoot
2.57 recall the composition of the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma
2.58 understand the role of plasma in the transport of carbon dioxide, digested food, urea, hormones
and heat energy
2.59 describe the adaptations of red blood cells for the transport of oxygen, including shape, structure
and the presence of hemoglobin
2.60 describe how the immune system responds to disease using white blood cells, illustrated by
phagocytes ingesting pathogens and lymphocytes releasing antibodies specific to the pathogen
2.61 understand that vaccination results in the manufacture of memory cells, which enable future
antibody production to the pathogen to occur sooner, faster and in greater quantity
2.62 recall that platelets are involved in blood clotting, which prevents blood loss and the entry of
2.63 describe the structure of the heart and how it functions
2.64 understand that the heart rate changes during exercise and under the influence of adrenaline
i) Excretion
2.67 recall the origin of carbon dioxide and oxygen as waste products of metabolism and their loss
from the stomata of a leaf
1) Photosynthesis --> O
Leaves absorb light energy, combines with CO
and water to form glucose and O
. O
gas is the metabolic
2) Respiration --> CO
Plants carry out aerobic respiration where glucose and O
are combined together. They go through an
enzyme reaction and ATP, water and carbon dioxide are formed. CO
is the metabolic waste here.

2.68 recall that the lungs, kidneys and skin are organs of excretion
An excretory organ secretes waste products of metabolism, this is not to be confused with egestion.
Egestion is the removal of undigested material from the alimentary canal. You egest faeces, which
are not waste products of metabolism. They are just undigested food. This undigested material is not
formed from substances within the cells and has never been absorbed into the cells.
(Just in case you're confused about that metabolism is, metabolism refers to all the chemical processes,
anabolic and catabolic, that go on in living cells in order to keep an organism alive. Some metabolic
processes produce waste products which are toxic if they accumulate in the organism. So, the process of
removing metabolic waste products and toxic materials from the body of an organism
is called excretion.)
On the other hand, your lungs, kidneys and skin are excretory organs. Your lungs help excrete carbon
dioxide, a waste product of respiration - which is a metabolic process. (You definitely need the energy
released from glucose in your cells during respiration to keep you alive.) Your kidneys help excrete urine,
which as spec point 2.76 tells you, contains water, urea and salts. Your skin is the largest organ, and it is
also an excretory organ. When you sweat, that is actually a process of excretion, you are excreting sweat
from the sweat glands in your skin. You sweat to cool yourself down, because the water evaporates
from your skin, using heat energy from your body. So it literally 'takes heat away' from you - effectively
cooling you down.
2.69 understand how the kidney carries out its roles of excretion and of osmoregulation
2.75 describe the role of ADH in regulating the water content of the blood
Osmoregulation is the control of water and solute levels in the blood to maintain a constant water
potential (or water concentration) in the body. Basically, regulating water and solute levels in your blood
so that there's not too much of it, or too little.

The water potential of the blood has to be kept relatively constant because drastic changes of water
potential can cause serious problems. For instance, if the blood plasma (remember water is carried by
the blood in the plasma) becomes too dilute, water will enter the blood cells by osmosis and the blood
cells will swell and burst. The tissue cells will also swell because of water moving into the cells. On the
other hand, if the blood plasma becomes too concentrated (i.e. high level of solutes, low level of water.
example of solutes are salts), water will move out of the cells by osmosis. The blood cells and tissue cells
will become dehydrated and shrink, leaving them unable to carry out their metabolic functions. In
severe cases this may be fatal to the organism.

The water potential of the blood depends on the amount of water and salts in the plasma. The amount
of water in the blood is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).ADH is produced by a region of the
brain called the hypothalamus. It is released by thepituitary gland and increases water reabsorption by
the kidney tubules.

How do kidneys help regulate the water potential of the blood?
The kidneys are called osmoregulators because they help to regulate the water or the salt concentration
in the blood. Osmoregulation is an example of homeostasis- the maintenance of a constant internal
environment within an organism.
So, if water potential in the blood plasma decreases, the hypothalamus in the brain detects this and
'instructs' the pituitary gland to release more ADH into the bloodstream. The ADH makes walls of the
collecting duct more permeable to water. Hence more water can be reabsorbed, so less urine is
produced by the urine is more concentrated. Thus the water potential in blood returns to normal.

If water potential in the plasma increases, again, the hypothalamus detects this and the pituitary gland
releases less ADH into the bloodstream. Less water is reabsorbed and more urine is produced, and the
urine is more dilute as it has more water in it.
2.70 describe the structure of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra

So urine passes out of the collecting ducts to the renal pelvis, then it passes out of the kidneys through
two tubes -- the ureters. They take the urine to a muscular bag which is your bladder, and the urine then
passes out of your body through the urethra. The diagram below should help you visualise the structure.
Do not mix up ureter and urethra!

2.71 describe the structure of a nephron, to include Bowman's capsule and glomerulus, convoluted
tubules, loop of Henl and collecting duct

I thought that it would be easier for you to understand all the explanations about the kidney's function if
you knew all the key terms. The nephrons are the functional units in your kidney, and their structure is
shown below. The renal artery takes blood into the kidney which branches out into arterioles. Read on
to find out what happens in each part of the nephron.

2.72 describe ultrafiltration in the Bowman's capsule and the composition of the glomerular filtrate
2.76 recall that urine contains water, urea and salts

How the kidney carries out its roles of excretion:
Urine formation
Excess mineral salts and nitrogenous wastes (e.g. urea and uric acid) are harmful if they are allowed to
accumulate in the body. They are removed by the kidneys through the formation of urine. Thus, blood
leaving the kidneys usually has a lower concentration of mineral salts and nitrogenous waste products
than blood entering the kidneys. Blood leaving the kidneys also contains less oxygen and more carbon
dioxide than blood entering the kidneys. (The kidneys need the oxygen to release energy in respiration
to function.)

How is urine formed in the kidneys?
Two main processes are involved in the formation of urine within each kidney tubule:
The ultrafiltration of very small molecules from the blood
Selective reabsorption of useful materials
Ultrafiltration removes small molecules from the blood
Blood passes from the branches of the renal artery into the glomeruli in the renal capsules. Mechanical
filtration occurs in each glomerulus. Most of the blood plasma is forced out of the glomerular blood
capillaries into the Bowman's capsule.
This process is is called ultrafiltration because:
it is caused by high blood pressure; and
the membrane around the glomerular blood capillaries is like a very fine filter.
Only very small molecules are filtered off from the blood, while all solids and large molecules are
retained. So water, ions and small molecules like urea, uric acid, amino acids, glucose and vitamins are
allowed through. This forms the glomerular filtrate. Whilst blood cells, platelets and large molecules like
protein and fats are held back. The blood is literally being filtered.
The following in purple is extra and you probably don't need to know it. I just found it in a book of mine.
But for those keen to learn more, here you go:

Two conditions must be satisfied for ultrafiltration to occur:
There must be a high blood pressure or hydrostatic blood pressure in the
glomerulus. The afferent arteriole that brings blood into the glomerulus is wider (has a larger
diameter) than the efferent arteriole that carries blood away. This creates a high blood
pressure. The hydrostatic blood pressure provides the main force required for the filtration
A partially permeable membrane must be present. The filter in the glomerulus is a partially
permeable membrane that wraps around the glomerular blood capillaries. It is called
the basement membrane. The basement membrane has very small pores that allow only water
and very small molecules to pass through.

The high blood pressure in the glomerulus forces water and small molecules - glucose, amino acids,
mineral salts and nitrogenous waste products - out of the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule,
forming the filtrate. Blood cells, platelets, and large molecules such as proteins and fats, are retained in
the glomerular capillaries.
2.73 understand that water is reabsorbed into the blood from the collecting duct
2.74 understand that selective reabsorption of glucose occurs at the proximal convoluted tubule
Useful materials are selectively reabsorbed
In a normal adult, about 120 cm
of filtrate is formed in the kidney every minute. If this amount of
filtrate were allowed to pass out as urine, the body would lose too much water and other useful
substances, and would soon be dehydrated. Thus, as the filtrate passes through the tubule, useful
materials are taken back into the bloodstream by selective reabsorption.
1. At the proximal convoluted tubule, most of the mineral salts and, in a healthy person, all of the
glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed through the walls of the tubule into the surrounding
blood capillaries. These solutes are reabsorbed by diffusion and active transport. This
reabsorption is highly selective, and only those substances required by the body are reabsorbed
readily. Most of the water is reabsorbed here by osmosis.
2. Some of the water is reabsorbed from the fluid in the loop of Henl and distal convoluted tubule
into the surrounding blood capillaries.
3. Some salts (sodium ions) are reabsorbed from the distal convoluted tubule.
4. Some water is reabsorbed from the collecting duct.
5. Excess water, excess salts and metabolic waste products such as urea and uric acid pass out of
the collecting duct into the renal pelvis as a mixture called urine.
That was a lot of information to take in, so I've including the following table which is a quicker way to
take notes and summarise.
Found in
Substance Blood Filtrate in proximal
convoluted tubule
Filtrate in distal
convoluted tubule
Protein X X X
Glucose X X
Amino acids X X
j) Coordination and response
2.77 understand that organisms are able to respond to changes in their environment
2.78 understand that homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment and that
body water content and body temperature are both examples of homeostasis
2.79 understand that a coordinated response requires a stimulus, a receptor and an effector Flowering
2.80 understand that plants respond to stimuli
Stimuli ---> Receptor ---> Response
Stimuli: changes om the environment, including temperature, light
Response: e.g. Growth
Tropism: Growth in response to stimulus
1. Phototropism (light)
2. Geotropism (gravity)
2.81 describe the geotropic responses of roots and stems
Geotropism: Geo gravity, Tropism growth response
When the embroic root grows downwards, it is called a positive geotropism.
When the shoot grows upwards through the surface it is called negative geotropism.
If you rotate the seed around instead of continuing to grow on the right and the left, it will either grow
upwards or downwards (negative and positive geotropism).
2.82 describe positive phototropism of stems
Positive Phototropism (growth in response to light, growing towards the light).
When the light source is directly above the plant, the plant grows upwards.
However, if there is a lateral light source (light coming from the side), the plant bends towards the light
(like sunflowers!). The light causes the movement of auxin to the darker side. Auxin is a plant hormone
that allows more growth to happen on one side of the plant. So the plant bends towards the side with
less growth, more light.
2.83 describe how responses can be controlled by nervous or by hormonal communication and
understand the differences between the two systems
2.84 recall that the central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord and is linked to sense
organs by nerves
2.85 understand that stimulation of receptors in the sense organs sends electrical impulses along
nerves into and out of the central nervous system, resulting in rapid responses
2.86 describe the structure and functioning of a simple reflex arc illustrated by the withdrawal of a
finger from a hot object
2.87 describe the structure and function of the eye as a receptor
Tip: Know about the cornea, iris, lens, pupil, retina and optic nerve mainly. You may be asked to label a
diagram and possibly answer a few 1-2 mark questions on the functions of these parts. You should know
the positions of the rest, but they aren't the main important bits you need to know.

1. Sclera : the tough outer coat of the eye, which is the visible, white part of the eye. It protects the
eyeball from mechanical damage.
2. Cornea : at the front of the eye the sclera becomes a transparent 'window' which is the cornea-this
lets light into the eye, refracting or bending the light rays into the eye. This plays a key part in the
focusing of an image on the retina.
3. Choroid: this is the middle layer of the eye (between the sclera and the retina), it is black, preventing
reflection of light in the interior of the eyeball. (It also contains blood vessel that bring oxygen and
nutrients to the eyeball and remove metabolic waste products.)
4. Ciliary body : this contains a circular ciliary muscle (just call it ciliary muscle) which is attached to the
lens with the suspensory ligaments. These play a huge role in accomodation-which is basically changing
the shape of the lens to focus light onto the retina so an image may be formed.
5.Iris : this is in front of the lens, it is a circular diaphragm controlling the amount of light entering the
6. Pupil : this is basically a hole/opening in the iris to let light through.
7. Retina : this is inside the choroid layer, it is a light-sensitive membrane with neurones and
photoreceptor cells. There are 2 types of photoreceptor cells: rods and cones. Cones enables us to see
colours in bright light while rods enable us to see in black and white in dim light. The photoreceptors are
connected to the nerve-endings from the optic nerve.
8. Macula : NOT NEEDED. Fyi, the fovea is in the centre of the macula. Basically, this is where visual
perception is most acute.
9. Optic nerve : A nerve that transmits nerve impulses to the brain when the photoreceptors in the
retina are stimulated.
10. Optic disc : NOT NEEDED. Fyi, this connects the retina to the optic nerve.
11. Vitreous humour : A transparent, jelly-like substance. This keeps the eyeball firm and helps to
refract light onto the retina too.
12. Aqueous humour : A transparent, watery fluid. This keeps the front of the eyeball firm and helps to
refract light into the pupil.
13. Canal of Schlemm : NOT NEEDED. Fyi, this is basically just a channel in the eye that collects aqueous
humour and moves it into the bloodstream.
14. Lens : A transparent, circular, biconvex structure. It is elastic and changes it shape or thickness to
refract light onto the retina.
15. Conjunctiva : this is a thin transparent membrane covering the sclera in front. It is a mucous
membrane, it secretes mucus, thus keeping the front of the eyeball moist.
2.88 understand the function of the eye in focusing near and distant objects, and in responding to
changes in light intensity
2.89 describe the role of the skin in temperature regulation, with reference to sweating,
vasoconstriction and vasodilation
2.90 understand the sources, roles and effects of the following hormones: ADH, adrenaline, insulin,
testosterone, progesterone and oestrogen.

Section 3: Reproduction and inheritance
a) Reproduction
b) Inheritance
a) Reproduction
3.1 describe the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction
3.2 understand that fertilisation involves the fusion of a male and female gamete to produce a
zygote that undergoes cell division and develops into an embryo
Flowering plants
3.3 describe the structures of an insect-pollinated and a wind-pollinated flower and explain
how each is adapted for pollination
3.4 understand that the growth of the pollen tube followed by fertilisation leads to seed and
fruit formation
3.5 recall the conditions needed for seed germination
3.6 understand how germinating seeds utilise food reserves until the seedling can carry
out photosynthesis
3.7 understand that plants can reproduce asexually by natural methods (illustrated by runners)
and by artificial methods (illustrated by cuttings)
3.8 recall the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems
3.9 understand the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle
3.10 describe the role of the placenta in the nutrition of the developing embryo
3.11 understand how the developing embryo is protected by amniotic fluid
3.12 recall the roles of oestrogen and testosterone in the development of secondary sexual
b) Inheritance
Remember, I try to stick to the specification so anything I say is not needed in the double award, it's
because the spec doesn't say so. Anywho, please don't hunt me down if it turns up in the exams
eventually, though I do post info on extras anyway, so you won't do too badly. :P

Spec: I will focus on the following in this post.
3.13 recall that the nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes on which genes are located
3.14 understand that a gene is a section of a molecule of DNA
3.15 describe a DNA molecule as 2 strands coiled to form a double helix, the strands being linked by a
series of paired bases: adenine (A) with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) with guanine (G)
3.16 understand that genes exist in alternative forms called alleles which give rise to differences in
inherited characteristics
3.17 recall the meaning of the terms: dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype,
genotype and codominance (for single science)
Key words:
Dominant: A dominant allele would be expressed over the recessive allele in the phenotype, so the
dominant brown eye colour will be expressed over the recessive blue eye colour. The person will have
brown eyes, but will be a carrier for blue eye colour.
Recessive: recessive allele will not be expressed, it is masked by the dominant allele in the phenotypic
expression (physical basically..)
Homozygous: Having 2 copies of the same allele for a particular trait located at similar positions (loci) on
paired chromosomes. So homozygous dominant is basically having 2 dominant alleles, like 2 alleles for
brow n eyes-BB. Homozygous recessive is having 2 recessive alleles, like 2 alleles for blue eyes-bb.
Heterozygous: Having 2 different alleles for a particular trait. Like one brown eye allele and one blue eye
allele. -Bb
basic definition: the expression of a particular trait according to genetic makeup. So a person with the
genotype BB, will have the phenotype: brown eyes-->this is what is expressed!
detailed definition: Phenotypes result from the expression of the genes of an organism as well as the
influence of environmental factors and random variation.
genotype + environment + random variation phenotype
The easiest example to think of is skin colour. You may have yellow skin like me but under hot sun, you'll
still tan and grow darker..
Genotype: the set of alleles that determines the expression of a particular trait. So the genotype for
somebody with brown eyes but is a carrier for blue eye colour is: Bb The dominant allele is always in
capital letters, the recessive one is lower case. The letters always follow the dominant allele, it is just a
coincidence that brown and blue start with B. If this was about a red and yellow flower, a yellow flower
being recessive, it would not be yy, but it would be rr. As red-R, is dominant.
Codominance (single science): the alleles in a gene pair are both dominant, hence they are both
expressed, resulting in a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive. A very simplified way to
think about it is, a red flower and white flower colour are both dominant, genotype: RW, so their
offspring would be pink. There is more to this, but it's very complicated. I don't fully understand it
myself. :/
Genes: sections of DNA that determine a particular feature by instructing cells to produce particular
Remember: genes are sections of DNA, whilst DNA is part of a chromosome.

What people are confused about are: alleles. These are heritable units, basically alternate forms of a
gene. There can be many forms of a gene. These are found on thesame place on a chromosome. Each
person will have 2 alternate forms (alleles) for a feature. How? The sex cells will have one of the
alternate forms and when fertilisation takes place, you have a full set of chromosomes so you will have 2
alleles for each feature. One allele can be dominant over the other, which is why you will express one of
the traits. For example: there are many alleles for eye colour, if you have one brown allele and one blue
allele, the brown one is dominant so you will have brown eyes. (But you will still be a carrier for blue eye

Easy notes:
each feature is controlled by a gene, which is found on a chromosome.
there are 2 copies of each chromosome and each gene in all body cells, except the sex cells.
the sex cells have only one copy of each chromosome and each gene.
there are 2 alleles (forms) of each gene
one allele is dominant over the other allele, which is recessive
when 2 different alleles (one dominant and one recessive) are in the same cell, only the
dominant allele is expressed
an individual can have 2 recessive alleles, a dominant and a recessive or 2 dominant alleles
(codominance-NOT NEEDED FOR DOUBLE AWARD) in each cell.
3.18 describe patterns of monohybrid inheritance using a genetic diagram
3.19 understand how to interpret family pedigrees
3.20 predict probabilities of outcomes from monohybrid crosses
3.21 recall that the sex of a person is controlled by one pair of chromosomes, XX
in a female
and XY in a male
3.22 describe the determination of the sex of offspring at fertilisation, using a
genetic diagram
3.23 understand that division of a diploid cell by mitosis produces two cells
which contain
identical sets of chromosomes
3.24 understand that mitosis occurs during growth, repair, cloning and asexual
3.25 understand that division of a cell by meiosis produces four cells, each with
half the
number of chromosomes, and that this results in the formation of genetically
haploid gametes
3.26 understand that random fertilisation produces genetic variation of offspring
3.27 recall that in human cells the diploid number of chromosomes is 46 and the
number is 23
3.28 understand that variation within a species can be genetic, environmental, or
a combination
of both
3.29 recall that mutation is a rare, random change in genetic material that can be
3.30 describe the process of evolution by means of natural selection
3.31 understand that many mutations are harmful but some are neutral and a few
are beneficial
3.32 understand how resistance to antibiotics can increase in bacterial
3.33 understand that the incidence of mutations can be increased by exposure to
radiation (for example gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays) and some
mutagens (for example chemicals in tobacco).
Section 4: Ecology and the environment
a) The organism in the environment
b) Feeding relationships
c) Cycles within ecosystems
d) Human influences on the environment
a) The organism in the environment
4.1 understand the terms population, community, habitat and ecosystem
4.2 recall the use of quadrats to estimate the population size of an organism in two different areas
4.3 describe the use of quadrats as a technique for sampling the distribution of organisms in their
b) Feeding relationships
4.4 recall the names given to different trophic levels to include producers, primary, secondary and
tertiary consumers and decomposers
4.5 understand the concepts of food chains, food webs, pyramids of number, pyramids of biomass and
pyramids of energy transfer
4.6 understand the transfer of substances and of energy along a food chain
4.7 explain why only about 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.
c) Cycles within ecosystems
4.8 describe the stages in the water cycle, including evaporation, transpiration,
condensation and precipitation
4.9 describe the stages in the carbon cycle, including respiration, photosynthesis,
decomposition and combustion
4.10 describe the stages in the nitrogen cycle, including the roles of nitrogen fixing
bacteria, decomposers, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria (specific names
of bacteria are not required).
d) Human influences on the environment
4.11 understand the biological consequences of pollution of air by sulfur dioxide and by carbon
4.12 recall that water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and CFCs are greenhouse
4.13 understand how human activities contribute to greenhouse gases
4.14 understand how an increase in greenhouse gases results in an enhanced greenhouse effect
and that this may lead to global warming and its consequences
4.15 understand the biological consequences of pollution of water by sewage including increases in
the number of microorganisms causing depletion of oxygen
4.16 understand that eutrophication can result from leached minerals from fertilizer
4.17 understand the effects of deforestation, including leaching, soil erosion, disturbance of the water
cycle and of the balance in atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Section 5: Use of biological resources
a) Food production
b) Selective breeding
c) Genetic modification
d) Cloning
a) Food production Crop plants
5.1 describe how glasshouses and polythene tunnels can be used to increase the yield of certain crops
Polythene tunnels
- Keep frost off
- Stops water loss
- Avoid direct effect of sunshine
- Heat doesnt escape
5.2 understand the effects on crop yield of increased carbon dioxide and increased temperature in
- Increase the concentration of carbon dioxide (Substrate), photosynthesis rate increases, higher crop
yield up to a point (greatest yield of product)
- Increasing temperature: at first increases the reaction, then hits the peak (optimal temperature), and
- Using glasshouses advantages: Avoid frost damage, provide constant temperature contributes to
5.3 understand the use of fertiliser to increase crop yield
You apply fertilisers to the soil to promote growth of plants. They take the form of nitrates (for
proteins), phosphates (DNA, membrane structure) or both. They are taken up by the root structure and
then to the leaf.
Fertilisers: organic & artificial
Organic: produced from animal wastes on farms (cow faeces collected by farmers --> decomposition /
fermentation --> slurry applied to fields)
Artificial: chemicals, synthetically produced (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, bought by the
farmer --> go into solution in the soil water --> release nitrates --> same)
5.4 understand the reasons for pest control and the advantages and disadvantages of using pesticides
and biological control with crop plants
Monoculture is susceptible to pests; they use crop as their own food source. This reduces the
productivity of farming. To overcome this, you may use pesticides; chemicals designed to kill the pests.

Easy to obtain
Easy to apply
Very effective
Kill other plants and animals, possibly humans
Bio accumulation: pesticide builds up through the food chains e.g. DDT
Mutation leads to resistance (higher concentration or alternative pesticides needed)
Introducing an alien species from another country that eat the pests away.
No toxic chemicals involved
Less impact on man/ wildlife
Not 100% effective. It is difficult to control: introduced species are likely to find alternative prey
and dont die out after removal of pests.
Difficult to match a predator to the prey (cant find suitable animals to remove pests)
5.5 understand the role of yeast in the production of beer
Beer is made out of ethanol, which is produced from the fermentation of yeast. Yeast supplies the
enzymes to bring about this conversion. Ethanol is flavoured by flowers such as hops. Glucose comes
from starch (Barley seeds, wheat seeds, rice). The process of starch converting into maltose with the
help of amylase is called malting.
5.6 describe a simple experiment to investigate carbon dioxide production by yeast, in different
5.7 understand the role of bacteria (Lactobacillus) in the production of yoghurt

Pasteurising the milk kills any unwanted bacteria and microorganisms present that would otherwise
produce unwanted products and affect the taste. The milk is incubated at 40C as that is the optimum
temperature for the bacteria to ferment at.
The bacteria converts the lactose in the milk to lactic acid during this fermentation. Lactose is a sugar
found in milk, it is specifically a disaccharide, made up of glucose and galactose which are
monosaccharide sugars. The lactic acid reduces the pH level of the milk, obviously as it is an acid, and as
you know acids are sour (lemons and oranges are sour-citric acid). This is what produces that
characteristic sour taste of yoghurts.
At a low pH the milk curdles because the protein coagulates, thus thickening and clotting. When
proteins coagulate it means that they denature and set, this is irreversible.
To stop any further fermentation occurring, the mixture is cooled (at low temperatures, bacteria are
dormant). Sometimes the yoghurt is re-pasteurised to destroy the bacteria, sometimes it isn't and that is
your 'pro-biotic' yoghurt for you. If you look at some yoghurt pots they say 'live cultures' which means
that there are still bacteria in there, and it's this bacteria that somehow aids digestion, as you often hear
people telling you to have some yoghurt to help you with stomach problems.
A stage not shown in the above picture is homogenisation. This typically occurs after the milk is
pasteurised. Homogenisation is when the fat globules in the milk are broken up into smaller bits and
distributed evenly across. 'Homo' means the same, so you're just making the milk the same throughout
with an even consistency. Also, the yoghurt can have flavourings, colourings, preservatives or fruits
added to it. Then it is packaged and sold!
5.8 interpret and label a diagram of an industrial fermenter and explain the need to provide suitable
conditions in the fermenter, including aseptic precautions, nutrients, optimum temperature and pH,
oxygenation and agitation, for the growth of microorganisms
The fermenter is made of copper or steel. There is another layer inside to form a cooling jacket (it
contains water). The reaction will produce heat, therefore, needs to be cooled off to maintain optimal
conditions. The fermenter will need to be cleaned. There is a pipe that sends steam into the fermenter.
It sterilises the fermenter between fermentation. There is a heater within the fermenter to raise the
temperature. The heater and the cooling jacket together produce the optimal temperature. The
fermenter also requires nutrients for the microorganisms (pipe). A temperature probe is required to
monitor the temperature to deploy the heater and the cooling jacket. The reaction will require
additional microorganisms and the heater. It also requires a pH probe to maintain the optimal pH. One
needs to be able to stir the mixture using a motor. By agitating the mixture, it will stop them from
clomping. Overall, the fermenter is a reaction centre where we control the optimum growth conditions
for the microorganisms. Finally, we need a way to drain off the product that will be sent for downstream
processing (involves purification).

Aseptic Precautions: to avoid contamination and production of unwanted by-products
Optimum temperature to allow for maximum yield since microorganisms are very sensitive to changes
pH microorganisms are very sensitive to changes in pH and effect the metabolic processes so acid or
alkali is added as needed
Oxygenation needed for aerobic respiration
Agitation / Stirring paddles (impeller) or jets of air are used to stir the culture medium to prevent
microorganisms settling and maintaining an even concentration of nutrients, even temperature.
Fish farming
5.9 explain the methods which are used to farm large numbers of fish to provide a source of protein,
including maintenance of water quality, control of intraspecific and interspecific predation, control of
disease, removal of waste products, quality and frequency of feeding and the use of selective
Fish farming is very good. Fish are low in fat, but high in protein. They are also efficient at turning their
nutrients into fish mass. Fish farming will allow us to control the quality of water, control predators and
reduce pests / diseases. We contribute to an increase in yield of fish. However, high density of fish
increases chances of transmission of disease. So fish farmers may use antibiotics.
b) Selective breeding
5.10 understand that plants with desired characteristics can be developed by selective breeding
5.11 understand that animals with desired characteristics can be developed by selective breeding.
For example: ANIMAL cow, DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC: milk yield
Various cows produce different amounts of milk. (50.100.150 --> breed 150s --> 100.150.200 --> and so
on). By breeding the highest milk producing cows, we develop the desired characteristics by selective
breeding. This works under the condition thatmilk yield is genetic.
c) Genetic modification (genetic engineering)
5.12 describe the use of restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific sites and ligase enzymes to join
pieces of DNA together
Restriction enzymes are able to cut the DNA at specific locations. The location identified by ATA. It is an
important tool in biotechnology. DNA ligase enzymes join DNA.
5.13 describe how plasmids and viruses can act as vectors, which take up pieces of DNA, then insert
this recombinant DNA into other cells

Recombinant DNA
When a gene--a section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein--is cut out of the DNA of one
species and inserted into the DNA of another, the new DNA is calledrecombinant DNA.-->as the DNA
from 2 different organisms has been 'recombined'.
The organism that receives the new gene from a different species is a transgenicorganism.
This organism receiving the new gene will be able to manufacture the protein its new gene codes for.
E.g. a bacterium receieving the gene from a human that codes for insulun production will make human
Producing genetically modified (transgenic) bacteria
Bacteria have 2 kinds of DNA
DNA found in their bacterial chromosome, which is a continuous loop of DNA rather than a
strand like in humans.
They have smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids.
Bacteria naturally 'swap' plasmids, so biologists found ways of tranferring plasmids from one bacterium
to another. They researched and found molecular 'scissors' and 'glue' to cut out genes from a molecule
of DNA and insert it into another.
DNA ligases: enzymes that join cut ends of DNA molecules
Restriction endonucleases/restriction enzymes: these enzymes cut DNA molecules at specific
points. So they can be used to cut out specific genes from a molecule of DNA. Different
restriction enzymes cut DNA at different places, as they recognise certain base sequences in a
DNA strand. Wherever it encounters the sequence it will cut the DNA molecule. Some restriction
enzymes make a straight cut and the fragments of DNA they produce are said to have 'blunt
ends'. Other restriction enzymes make a staggered cut, it isn't straight down the middle. These
produce fragments of DNA with overlapping ends with complementary bases. These
overlapping ends are called 'sticky ends', as fragments of DNA with exposed bases are more
easily joined by ligase enzymes.

So biologists could now transfer a gene from any cell into bacterium by inserting the gene into a
plasmid, and then transferring the plasmid into a bacterium. The plasmid is a vector as it is the means of
transferring the gene.

It's hard to find a good diagram to illustrate the main processes in producing a transgenic bacterium, so
I'll try to outline it as well:
1. Plasmids are isolated from a bacterium.
2. They are cut open with a specific restriction enzyme.
3. The gene to be transferred is cut from the donor DNA using the same restriction enzyme, so that
the plasmid and the gene have the same sticky ends and can be joined together.
4. The 'opened-up' plasmids and the isolated gene are mixed with a DNA ligase enzyme to create
recombinant plasmids.
5. Bacteria are incubated with the recombinant DNA.
6. Some bacteria will take up the plasmids.
7. The bacteria that have taken up the plasmid now contain the gene from the donor cell. This
could be a gene controlling the production of human insulin.
8. So the bacterium is transgenic.

This is a picture out of one of my books, it should be quite a clear explanation. :)
5.14 understand that large amounts of human insulin can be manufactured from genetically modified
bacteria that are grown in a fermenter
Mutated bacterial cells injected into the fermenter along with nutrients (amino acids). Temperature, pH
and gas control are compulsory. The optimal condition will result in population increase. Bacteria will be
manufactured, producing more protein insulin. It is necessary to remove the product and carry out
purification. There are many processes to purify for human use: downstream processing. Genetically
engineered human insulin are called humulin.
5.15 evaluate the potential for using genetically modified plants to improve food production
(illustrated by plants with improved resistance to pests)
Genetically modifying plants can have some advantages and disadvantages. Despite the fact that the
world produces enough food to feed the whole world many times over, some people are still starving.
Others are suffering from malnutrition and many are hungry. Genetic modification has great potential; it
can allow certain crops to survive in harsher conditions so that for example, people in Africa can grow
crops despite the harsh conditions there. Scientists can even genetically modify foods so that they are
more nutritious, for instance they genetically modified rice plants to produce 'Golden Rice' which has a
higher vitamin A content. So here you see that GM foods can help address certain nutrient deficiencies
too. Not all of a crop planted will be harvested; a percentage will be lost to disease, some to pests,
others to weeds. So GM plants can be designed to have resistance to not only harsher conditions, but to
pests too. This way crop yield is increased. But of course, there are disadvantages too. I'll just list a few
of each, and then include a table for some benefits of genetic engineering applications to society.
Advantages, GM crops:
Need fewer chemical sprays
Could give bigger yields
Could grow in harsher conditions
Could result in cheaper food (if there were higher crop yields, supplies increase and with the
same demand, prices are lowered)
Could be more nutritious
Adv. -Research into the genetic modification of plants hopes to provide (or provides already) plants
Increased resistance to a range of pests
Resistance to pathogens so they don't contract diseases
Increased heat and drought tolerance
Increased salt tolerance
A better balance of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals-more nutritious crop

Accidental transfer of new genes to other wild plants-unpredictable
GM crops could reduce biodiversity
The new proteins in GM crops could cause allergies
GM seeds are expensive, but the costs of production are lower as sometimes less water is
needed, or expensive chemicals such as herbicides and pesticides are not needed if the crops
are resistant towards diseases and pests and weeds
Applications of genetic engineering Benefits to society
Low-cost production of medicines Genetic engineering of important drugs such as
human insulin has dramatically reduced the cost of
these medicines. This makes it more affordable and
therefore more accessible to people who need
them, so they can be treated.
Production of crops that grow in extreme conditions
(e.g. high-salt environments)
Examples of such crops include:
Drough-resistant crops;
Salt-tolerant crops; and
Crops that make more efficient use of
nitrogen and other nutrients.
This allows farmers to grow crops even when the
soil conditions are not suitable for cultivating most
Development of:
Crops that produce toxins that kill insect
pests; and
Pesticide-resistant crops
The use of costly pesticides that may damage the
environment is reduced. For example, the Bt gene
from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis can be
inserted into plants to produce a toxin that kills
certain insect pests.
Development of foods designed to meet specific
nutritional goals
Improved nutritional quality of foods. For example,
two genes from daffodil and one gene from the
bacterium Erwinia uredarora inserted into rice
plants produce Golden Rice. The rice grains have
high vitamin A content. This helps fight vitamin A
deficiencies in developing countries.
Example question:
Vitamin A deficiency affects 800 million children worldwide.
Vitamin A can be given in tablets.
Suggest two reasons why giving vitamin A in tablets might be better in the diet than using
genetically modified rice. (2m)
Markscheme: any two from:
Dosage more controlled (e.g. some ages/areas may require vit. A at difference concentrations);
(child) may still be feeding only on milk/may not eat rice;
(vitamin A is) soluble in (lipid parts of) milk;
More concentrated/rice conc. may not be enough to make a difference;
Easier/more convenient to get treatment to children in non-rice growing areas;
Allow available all year round
Suggest two reasons why using genetically modified rice in the diet to supply vitamin A might be
better than using tablets. (2m)

Markscheme: any two from:
Locally available/don't have to deliver to remote areas;
Don't have to rely on remembering to take/supply tablets;
Possible resistance from groups of people to taking medicine;
Children not good at taking tablets;
Medicines can be redirected/put on black market;
Don't have to rely on drug companies;
Allow one explained economic argument in either part (i) or (ii)
5.16 recall that the term transgenic means the transfer of genetic material from one species to a
different species.
Transgenic: transfer of genetic material from one species to a different species.
e.g. 5.13 bacterial cell of bacterial DNA + plasmids with human insulin gene
e.g. 5.15 Maize DNA + BT gene (toxin to kill larvae pests)
d) Cloning
5.17 describe the process of micropropagation (tissue culture) in which small pieces of plants
(explants) are grown in vitro using nutrient media
When a plant which has characteristics that we consider desirable (commercial characteristics), we want
it reproduced. Sexual reproduction will produce different plants to the parents due to genetic variation
(--> loss of qualities). So we use a cloning technique called micropropagation.
We can cut parts from the shoots or the roots and cut them in aseptic conditions (no contaminations).
They are cut into small parts and then transferred into a petri dish containing nutrient agar. This will
contain minerals that support the growth of tissue, rooting compounds and other plant hormones to
encourage the growth of each of the small parts. Each will then be grown on into a seedling. Since many
clones are made, they are genetically identical with the same characteristics.
5.18 understand how micropropagation can be used to produce commercial quantities of identical
plants (clones) with desirable characteristics
5.19 describe the stages in the production of cloned mammals involving the introduction of a diploid
nucleus from a mature cell into an enucleated egg cell, illustrated by Dolly the sheep
Dolly the sheep & original (clones)
1) Obtain genetic info from animal 1.
2) Remove diploid cell where the nucleus contains all the genetic information needed to make animal
3) Animal 2 is treated with hormones like FSH (superovulation). They are encouraged to produce eggs
because egg cells tend to divide.
4) We dont want the genetic information of the egg cell, so we take the nucleus out (enucleated)
5) We fuse the cells (from animal 1 and egg cell from animal 2).
6) Cell division takes place through mitosis, which ends up as blastula (embryonic sheep).
7) The embryo is put in surrogate mother (animal 3).
8) It grows into a fetus and this was how Dolly was made.
9) Dolly the sheep is identical to animal 1 despite the age difference.
5.20 evaluate the potential for using cloned transgenic animals, for example to produce commercial
quantities of human antibodies or organs for transplantation.
Cloned transgenic animals (genetically identical with 2 different DNAs mixed) can be used for
commercial production of antibodies. Human antibodies can be collected by cow milk on a large
commercial scale.
1) Obtain an egg cell from cow 1 and remove the cow antibody production gene.
2) Take a cell from a human and use restriction enzyme to remove a gene associated with antibody
3) Add human gene to the cow egg cell.
4) The cow cell is developed by mitosis to form the clone of cells and an embryo.
5) The embryo is transferred to a surrogate cow mother.
6) Genetically identical calves will be produced. They will produce milk containing human antibodies.