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6

The Social Cohesion of the States


Georgi M. Derlugian
From 1945 to 1967/73: The Time of Universal Deliverance
The unrece!ente! economic e"ansion of the #orl!$econom% of this
erio! #as accomanie! &% an e'uall% unrece!ente! e"ansion of the
effectiveness an! or!erliness of the state structures in the #orl!$s%stem(
inclu!in) its *actuall% e"istin) socialist* +ones,- .t #as also the time #hen
the national li&eration ro/ect in the Thir! 0orl!( e"resse! &% the
s%m&olic #or! *1an!un)*( seeme! to come to fruition, 2arious reli)ious
institutions( &elea)uere! &% &oth the mo!ern state an! antis%stemic
movements( seeme! to have reconcile! themselves to the au"iliar% role
triumhant secularism ha! conce!e! to them( an! &e)an to see their
common future in social #or3( the reachin) of tolerance( an! ecumenic
!ialo)ue,
The s%stemic !isor!ers of the inter#ar erio! #ere su!!enl% over(
althou)h to man% o&servers rior to 1945 the s%stem ha! seeme! !ama)e!
&e%on! reair, .n short( ara!o"icall%( in the 1954s an! 1964s almost
ever%one aeare! to feel that the% coul! ri)htfull% claim the% #ere in the
rocess of reain) success from the trials an! tri&ulations of revious
!eca!es, This #as true of the antis%stemic movements 5a term #e !efine
&roa!l% to mean all those )rous that ursue social chan)e in #a%s that #ill
fun!amentall% restrict or ime!e caital accumulation( the rincial
un!erl%in) rocess of the caitalist #orl!$s%stem6, 1ut it #as even more
true of the !efen!ers of caitalism, .t #as true
-. am )rateful to m% frien!s an! collea)ues 7ose 8ota 9oes an! Shu/i :isae!a
for their materials on antis%stemic movements an! environmental !e)ra!ation use! in
#ritin) this chater( an! to Dieter ;ucht for his meticulous e!itin),
Georgi M. Derlugian
149
not onl% of reli)ious lea!ers 5no# almost universall% sea3in) a lan)ua)e
of aggiornamento), &ut even more so of the secularists, .t #as true not onl%
of national li&eration forces in the Thir! 0orl!( &ut even more so of the
colonial o#ers that #ere see3in) to !ismantle their colonial s%stems in
#a%s that #oul! )uarantee )lo&al or!er,
<roun! the #orl!( the states ha! emer)e! from the !isor!ers of 1914=
45 enormousl% reinforce!( eseciall% in the core +ones of the #orl!$
s%stem, These core states as #ell as man% semieriheral states ha! alrea!%
&een e"an!in) their !omain since the latter thir! of the nineteenth centur%
into #hat ha! reviousl% &een !efine! as *non$state* sheres of social
activit%( a!vancin) in five searate !irections: 516 the u&lic sector( &% the
nationali+ation of reviousl% rivate caitalist enterrises> 5?6
macroeconomic mana)ement( or the use of ta"in) an! sen!in) o#ers of
the state for the re)ulation of the macroeconomic situation( lar)el% in
accor!ance #ith @e%nesian i!eas> 536 re)ulation of economic an! social
activit% throu)h a anol% of seciali+e! a)encies #ith o#ers to set
stan!ar!s in man% !iverse fiel!s( from airfares an! telehone rates to the
safet% of !ru)s an! chil!ren*s to%s> 546 social en)ineerin) aime! at
era!icatin) oliticall% !etermine! *social evils* 5overt%( racism( se"ism(
!ru) a&use( a!olescent !elin'uenc%( an! so on6> 556 #elfare rovision in its
strict sense( #ith the state osin) as )uarantor of a certain minimal
stan!ar! of livin) 5@in)( 19A3: A=96,
These #elfare$state ten!encies have a continuous histor% from the
Factor% <cts of Breat 1ritain in the 1A44s( Caoleon .ll*s social state( an!
1ismarc3*s olicies in Berman%( to 9lo%! Beor)e*s li&eral reforms in Breat
1ritain an! those of Biolitti in .tal% at the turn of the t#entieth centur%,
The most ronounce! ush to#ar!s the activel% interventionist state(
ho#ever( #as the result of the enormous strain of the First 0orl! 0ar an!
the ensuin) hase of #orl!#i!e economic !eression of 19?9= 39( #hich
set the sta)e for the ost$1945 #elfare state,
The ne#est 9eviathan #as variousl% concetuali+e!, 8ar"ists !eri!e! it
as *state monool% caitalism*( %et virtuall% raise! it as the *or)ani+e!
caitalism*( *ultra$caitalism* or( in the case of the Communists( as the *last
an! the final sta)e( the eve of socialism*, The ultra$ri)ht theorists an! the
fascist or numerous ara$fascist ractitioners of the 19?4s an! 1934s
claime! it as their *ne# state* cororativism, .t too3 a #hile for the li&eral
centrists to ri! themselves of the ver&al constraints of nineteenth$centur%
*8anchester* !o)mas, 1ut( &% the 1934s( the% ha! an oenl% statist a)en!a
of their o#n, 0ith the !efeat of the fascist mo!el( the li&eral statist
5@e%nesian6 vision #oul! eventuall% &ecome the revalent a)en!a of the
ost$1945 erio! an! serve as the i!eolo)ical foun!ation of US he)emon%,
The rocess of cootation of the antis%stemic
154 The Age of Transition
Communist an! revolutionar% nationalist re)imes in the eriher% an!
semieriher% at the interstate level 5Dalta an! the ti)htl% controlle! Col!
0ar( &ut also the reco)nition of the le)itimac% of the non$ali)nment stance6
turne! the Soviet mo!el of national$&oun!e!( !evelomentalist
anticaitalism into #hat mi)ht &e calle! the su&he)emonic ara!i)m,
Cee!less to sa%( it #as statist in the e"treme( or( as Stalin ut it( *the state
in the USS; #ithers a#a% not as a result of slac3enin) of its functions( as
8ar" an! En)els suose!( &ut as a result of its ma"imal stren)thenin)*
(Problems of Leninism, cite! in Fursov( 1991: A7=A6,
This more 'ualitative statist ten!enc% #as coule! #ith the 'uantitative
e"ansion in the sheer num&er of soverei)n states in the interstate s%stem,
5Consi!er merel% the multilication in the num&er of em&assies an!
)eneral staffsF6 The vision of a soverei)n state conformin) to certain * norms
of stateness*( a vision &re! ori)inall% in the core &ut no# alie! in full to
the eriher% an! semieriher%( #as activel% ushe! &% &oth the ne#
he)emonic o#er an! its su&he)emonic artner( the USS;, Desite the
intrinsicall% #orl!$imerial character of the first an! foremost Communist
state an! the internationalist rhetoric #hich #as central to its 8ar"ist
le)ac%( it is si)nificant that the 1olshevi3s an! Stalin on t#o searate
occasions felt o&li)e! to conform to the norm of self$!etermination of
nations: first( in the earl% 19?4s( &% creatin) the set of formall% soverei)n
reu&lics to &e fe!erate! #ithin the USS;( as #ell as formall% reco)ni+in)
the in!een!ence of 8on)olia an! Tannu Tuva> an! a)ain in the late
1944s( !iscar!in) the i!ea of the Comintern*s ori)inal vision of the USS; as
an alliance oen to an% #oul!$&e socialist state in the #orl!, 51ul)aria !i!
not &ecome /ust a *1ul)arian SS;*( as 9ithuania !i! in 1944( even thou)h it
is sai! the 1ul)arian Communists #ere intereste! in this ossi&ilit%,6
The national self$!etermination ro)ramme roclaime! simultaneousl%
&% 0oo!ro# 0ilson an! 9enin in 1917 seeme! to have triumhe! in the
ost$1945 a&olition of colonialism an! the vast increase in the num&er of
formall% soverei)n state entities( #ith mo!ern = that is( caitalist =
&ureaucracies either mo!elle! on or !irectl% traine! &% the core *caitalist*
states or their semieriheral Communist counterarts, To &e sure( all too
man% of these ne#l% in!een!ent or re&orn eriheral states of the 1954s
an! 1964s rove! their ne#ness/#ea3ness &% creatin) formi!a&le s%stems
of olice surveillance an! mechanisms to e"tin)uish internal oonents,
The incontesta&le truth is that it *has &ecome evi!ent that the henomenon
Gof state$or)ani+e! terrorH has more )lo&al roots than Glocal culturesH an! is
tie! to the increasin)l% sohisticate! an! continuousl% e"an!in)
&ureaucratic an! technical caa&ilities of states ever%#here for violence
an! reression* 51ushnell
Georgi M. Derlugian
151
et al,( 1991: 36, Bula)s an! Bestaos &ecame( erhas( the 'uintessential
attri&ute of t#entieth$centur% stateness( eseciall% outsi!e the infalli&l%
luc3% core +one,
.nsi!e 0estern countries( the ost$1945 accelerate! economic )ro#th
an! li&eral socioolitical arran)ements resulte! in an unrece!ente!
!e)ree of class eace, The situation in the #orl!$s%stem*s eriheries(
#here !ictatorial re)imes revaile!( mi)ht &etter &e !escri&e! as relativel%
un!istur&e! sta&ilit%, The main con!ition( an! simultaneousl% the result( of
this ost#ar henomenon #as the emer)ence of the full$&lo#n #elfare
state in the core an! the statist !evelomentalist mo!el else#here, The
me!ian si+e of u&lic e"en!iture in the core reache! ?9,6 er cent in
196?( )re# to 3?,7 er cent in 1974( an! continue! its unrece!ente!
e"ansion u to 19A4 #hen it reache! 44,? er cent, Comara&le an! even
faster )ro#th in u&lic e"en!iture coul! &e o&serve! in most of the non$
Communist states outsi!e the core( thou)h the comosition of the &u!)et
#as !ifferent there $ fe#er #elfare a%ments( more investment in
infrastructure an! also in armaments 5UC 19A5: A9$946,
.n #hat then seeme! to &e a ma/or historical chan)e( &oth Communist
an! social$!emocratic arties re)istere! an unrece!ente! increase in their
olitical influence an!( at least aarentl%( in their caa&ilit% of s%stemic
transformation( either comin) to o#er !irectl% or servin) as the rincial
an! le)itimate! oosition, Soviet articiation in the !efeat of Ca+ism( an!
the Chinese ;evolution in the Far East( seeme! to ma3e this ten!enc%
unstoa&le, The *#orl! socialist movement* aeare! to &e stron)l% on
the rise( #ith its Communist comonent re)isterin) its )reat stren)th in the
*cam of socialist countries* from the El&e to the Dalu( &ut also else#here(
nota&l% in France( .tal% an! .n!onesia, The social !emocrats #ere
increasin)l% influential in Breat 1ritain( in the smaller countries of
0estern Euroe( an! in the erst#hile 1ritish !ominions, There #as
)ro#in) ra!icali+ation in the rest of the eriher%( insire! &% the
achievements in China( seen as the ri)ht 3in! of foun!ation for a stron)
socialist movement in the Thir! 0orl! 5S#ee+%( 1949: 146, 8aurice Do&&(
for instance( #ritin) in 1947 #hat #as to &ecome a classic of scholarl%
8ar"ism( ha! no hesitanc% in assertin) that(
.n the contemorar% #orl! roert%$ri)hts !ivorce! from social activit% are
universall% !esise! an! are on the !efensive> #hereas the #or3in) class has
ever%#here emer)e! stron)er( more conscious of its stren)th an! more
uroseful than #as ever the case &efore, The vision of a future rich in
romise ,,, has &e)un to fire min!s #ith a ne# faith an! ne# hoes, 5Do&&(
1964: 3A66
15? The Age of Transition
.n retrosect( ho#ever( these aarent successes of the anticaitalist
movements aear rather to &e a form of cootation( after the first
moment of otential revolutionar% &rea3throu)h, The antis%stemic
movements of the core an! its imme!iate semieriher%( in the form the%
too3 in the 1917=45 erio! 5the *ol! left*6( #ere lar)el% neutrali+e! 5or(
learne! the limit to #hich the% coul! ush #ithout /eoar!i+in)
themselves an! the s%stem in #hich the% e"iste!6, 8ost remar3a&l%( this
#as achieve! throu)h *stati+ation* rather than outri)ht reression( #ith
the su&se'uent ossi&ilit% of securin) a share of the material a!vances of
the ost$1945 or!er an! roserit%, Col! 0ar )eoolitics allo#e! the
*rulin) Communist arties to remain in char)e of the states the% ha!
alrea!% controlle!( #hile offerin) to the 0estern Communist arties
5#hich seeme! to &e on the ver)e of ta3in) o#er in France( .tal% an!
Breece6 the lure of &ecomin) an esta&lishe! oosition( #ith actual
control over man% local )overnments 5nota&l% in .tal% an! France6, Social
!emocrats in the 1954s #ere she!!in) their last relics of 8ar"ism an!
)enerall% *;e!* rhetoric an! historical s%m&ols romte! &% their
5 )ro#in) ro"imit% to ta3in) state o#er, The hi)hl% s%m&olic event #as
the a!otion of the 1a!$Bo!es&er) ro)ramme &% the Berman Social$
Democratic Iart% in 1959 #hich mar3e! the final ta3eover of the lace of
the ol! 9i&eral arties on the 0est Euroean olitical )ame&oar! &% the
!irect i!eolo)ical !escen!ants of E!uar! 1ernstein*s revisionists of the
1A94s,
Civic movements #ere certainl% rarer in the 1954s than after or &efore(
&ut the% also aeare! much stron)er in terms of numerical stren)th(
or)ani+ation( an! accor!e! resti)e, 1oth the relative rarit% an! the
stren)th of civic movements #ere !ue to their affiliation #ith the
esta&lishe! olitical arties( sometimes more than one at the same time(
li3e the eace an! anti$nuclear movement that !re# suort from the
Communists( Social Democrats( left Catholics( an! even some mo!erate
conservatives, This attern of multilateral cootation hels to e"lain ho#
such a universall% oular an! seemin)l% o#erful movement of the time
coul! &e su&servient to the Col! 0ar )eoolitics an! ultimatel% so
ineffective,
This create! a formi!a&le sta&ilit% in the votin) atterns in the 0estern
countries( #hich sho#e! no ma/or chan)e until the mi!$19A4s 5see Fi)ure
6,16, .t is #orth notin) that( /ust as in the crime rates 5Fi)ure 6,?6( the
sta&ili+ation of the tren! clearl% re!ates the a!vent of the @on!ratieff$<(
&ein) clearl% ronounce! since the 19?4s an! ro&a&l% since the belle
epoque at the turn of the centur%, This seems to resent )rahic roof of
the overall ar)ument that the ost$1945 or!er an! roserit% #ere not
merel% the effect of the con/unctural
Georgi M. Derlugian
153
5@on!ratieff6 economic c%cle or the en! of the lon) #orl! #ar of 1914= 45
5the stru))le for succession to 1ritish he)emon%6( &ut rather the
cumulative result of several secular tren!s an! c%clical rh%thms,
Srea!in) from the ne# he)emonic countr%( the <merican mo!el of
la&our relations 5that is( mana)ement of class conflict6 &ecame the attern
first in 0estern Euroe( then in 7aan( an! later on even #ithin the &roa!er
semieriher%, From the ersective of the la&our movement in the core
+one( this #as ar)ua&l% the ri)ht mo!el in the late 1944s( more a!e'uate to
a situation characteri+e! &% the &e)innin) of an economic e"ansion &ase!
on mass ro!uction( !omination of the #orl!$econom% &% US
cororations( an! a Col! 0ar concetion of )lo&al securit%, The ro/ect of
)lo&al economic e"ansion #as &ase! on the re$creation of mar3ets an!
)ro#in) levels of ro!uctivit%( !eman! an! consumtion, .t thus re'uire!
the institution of increase! #a)es( social securit% &enefits( the !istri&ution
of &onuses( an! e"an!e! leisure time $ the so$calle! For!ist *re)ime of
accumulation*( as !escri&e! &% the authors &elon)in) to the *;e)ulation
School* in olitical econom% 5see <)lietta( 19796,
.n Euroe as in the Unite! States since the Deression( this mo!el
informe! the t%e of relations &et#een la&our an! caital that the
@e%nesian 5or dirigiste) #elfare state simultaneousl% ma!e ossi&le an!
re'uire!, <s the e"ansion continue!( it le! to full emlo%ment> in!ustrial
#a)es more than !ou&le! in the US< an! !i! almost as #ell in 0estern
Euroe, These rocesses effectivel% eliminate! earlier la&our ra!icalism as
#ell, .n countries #ith historicall% stron) Communist an! tra!e$union
or)ani+ations( lar)e sections of the oulation 5not necessaril%( ho#ever(
in!ustrial la&our6 ten!e! to suort the left at local an! national elections,
This( ho#ever( &ecame a conscious oular tactic of e"ertin) ressure on
the state an! caitalist )rous in or!er to o&tain/ reserve concessions an!
#as certainl% not a strate)% of see3in) the revolutionar% overthro# of the
re)ime,
From the ersective of caital the institution of the #elfare state ha!
starte! as an alternative to the olitical sta)nation of conservatism( #hich
)ave rise to the insecurit% of otential revolution, .t &ecame( ho#ever( also
a central factor in the sta&ilit%( economic )ro#th( an! sustaina&le hi)h
rates of net rofit that the #orl!$econom% #as a&le to attain throu)hout
the 1954s an! 1964s, .t #as not &efore 1967$73( #hen the e"ansion
&e)an to sli into !eression( that the limits of the For!ist mo!el &ecame
clear, Jn the si!e of caital( hi)h #a)es an! social &enefits came to &e seen
as increasin)l% &ur!ensome( )iven fallin) rofits an! the conse'uent acute
cometition that ensue!> #hile( to the #or3in) classes( the revious
incororation of their or)ani+ations into
154 The Age of Transition
the la&our$mana)ement schemes le! to the loss of &ar)ainin) caa&ilities
that translate! into stea!% !ecreases in real earnin)s over the follo#in)
t#o !eca!es,
Ecumenicism #as the most overt e"ression of mo!ernit%*s imact
on the historical reli)ions, .ts intellectual un!erinnin) #as the i!ea of
i!eolo)ical luralism( one of the 'uintessential i!eas of mo!ern li&eralism,
Ecumenicism #as the ro!uct mainl% of 0estern li&eral Irotestantism(
other reli)ious or)ani+ations articiatin) in the !ialo)ue for 'uite
secular( even rosaic( reasons, For the ;oman Catholic Church( the
innacle of its accommo!ation to mo!ernit% &ecame( un!ou&te!l%( the
council of 196?=64( usuall% 3no#n siml% as 2atican ..( an! the ontificates
of Ioes 7ohn KK... an! Iaul 2., 7e#s un!er#ent s#eein)
seculari+ation &oth &% &ein) ro)ressivel% concentrate! an! inte)rate!
into the &oomin) *meltin) ots* of the US< an! the USS;( an! &%
accetin) Lionism( par exellene a seculari+in) !octrine in that it ma!e
stateness a necessar% fulfilment of 7u!aism,
Secularism #as even more triumhant in its imact on the reli)ions
situate! in the +ones that &ecame the Thir! 0orl!, Secularism &ecame
the onditio sine qua non for international an! internal reco)nition of
!evelomentalist cre!entials( the main venue of le)itimation for the
recentl% create!/reconstructe! states, The various reli)ions locate! in
these countries stru))le! !efensivel% to maintain their osition( #ith
!ifferent !e)rees of resoluteness an! +eal( &e it Shinto in ost#ar 7aan(
Chinese oular cults after the Communist victor% of 1949( the :in!u
caste s%stem un!er ressure from the .n!ian state an! Con)ress nationalism(
or .slam ushe! asi!e &% &oth the Shah in .ran an! various <ra&
socialist arties 51a*ath( the Casserists6,
:o#ever( there #ere( after 1945( fe#er frontal assaults from the
secularist movements comin) to state o#er 5#ith the nota&le e"cetion of
<l&ania6 than ha! &een the case in the 19?4s in the USS; an!
8on)olia( 8e"ico an! Tur3e%, Jnce havin) assume! an enli)htene!
outloo3 an! accete! a searation from the state( mainstream reli)ious
hierarchies en/o%e! relative roserit% not onl% in the 0est &ut even in
most of the Communist East,
Christianit% an! .slam continue! their missionar% a!vances in <frica(
#hilst <fricans( un!er the con!itions of !ecoloni+ation( &e)an to ta3e
control over the local state$&oun! reli)ious institutions, Soon the% #oul!
&ecome a#are of their )ro#in) #orl!#i!e numerical a!vanta)e over
their co$reli)ionists in the Corth an! !eman! to &e ta3en seriousl% in
terms of institutional o#er 5amon) ;oman Catholics most nota&l%( &ut
also in man% Irotestant churches an! .slamic Sufi or!ers6 50halin)(
19A7: A46, .n the 1954s( Southern *reformulations* of Christianit% an!
Georgi M. Derlugian
155
.slam in terms of their nativist attitu!es &e)an to &e sociall% an! oliti call%
si)nificant: the sra#lin) <fro$Christian *Lion* churches in <frica( as #ell
as in the Cari&&ean 5;astafarians( <fro$1ra+ilianists( an! so on6> Cao Dai(
:oa :ao( an! other s%ncretist cults in Southeast <sia, These hot&e!s of
reli)ious !issent #ere the !irect rolo)ue to the e"losion of non$secular
movements of rotest in the 1964s amon) the non$0hite communities of
the MCorthern* +one( most nota&l% in the US<( Breat 1ritain an! South
<frica,
The )lor% of the ost$1945 state is &est measure!( erhas( &% its a&ilit%
to contain an! monooli+e violence, <s Burr notes in his historical surve%(
crime in the 0estern societies #as then at its *all$time historic lo#* 519A9(
.: 436, Charles Till% a!!s that( *all arts of Euroe move! in the same
!irection,,,, G1Hrea3in) an! sei+in) &% civilians la%e! a smaller art in
Euroean contention( #hile a)ents of national states &ecame more an!
more heavil% involve! in such collective violence as occurre!* 5see Fi)ure
6,?6, 0ith #ars increasin)l% more fre'uent an! re)ular since 14A4(
eseciall% in the t#entieth centur%( an! tremen!ousl% more !estructive( *the
shere of state Ghas &ecomeH more an! more violent( #hile civilian life has
turne! relativel% eaceful* 519A9: 93$46,
The e"lanation rovi!e! &% <rlacchi for the secular !o#nturn in crime
rates in .tal% aears similar to that of Till%: the state effectivel% ha!
monooli+e! violence an! neutrali+e!/a&sor&e! its eretrators, :e sa%s
that( !urin) the ost$1945 %ears( *the o#er of the 8afia lost not onl% its
le)itimac%( &ut also its autonom% an! soverei)nt% throu)h the State*s
reclaimin) control over u&lic or!er,,,, GThe mafiosi*sH inte)ration into the
State*s a!ministrative aaratus( throu)h their aointment to the ne#l%$
forme! u&lic a)encies( hele! in man% #a%s to neutrali+e the element of
la#lessness an! violence that the mafiosi ha! em&o!ie!* 519A6: 796, The
lo# #as attaine! in 196? #ith onl% a sin)le 8afia$relate! re)istere!
mur!er in .tal%,
Criminal an! vi)ilante violence also !ramaticall% !ecrease! in the
Unite! States, 1% all accounts there #as a reciitous !ecline in the
num&ers of vi)ilante )an)s an! instances of l%nchin) since the late
nineteenth centur%, <fter the infamous an! overromantici+e! )an)ster #ars
of the Irohi&ition eoch( US )an)sterism entere! a erio! of &usiness
roserit% an! relative or!erliness, The @efauver Committee*s conclusion(
reache! in the earl% 1954s( that the criminals of the re#ar erio! ha!
*entere! the le)itimate areas of &usiness enterrise in aro"imatel% 54
areas* seems correct an! rovi!es an interestin) contrast to the more
&ureaucratic .talian mo!e of inte)ratin) the mafiosi 5see Celli( 19A7: ?5$76,
156 The Age of Transition
The unrece!ente! mi!$centur% e"tension of the functions of the state
#as e"ensive( an! this #as reflecte! in the )ro#in) levels of ta"ation an!
the increasin) share of state &u!)ets in the BCI, The reort on the lon)$
term tren!s in ta" revenues of the JECD countries sums it u this #a%:
Thou)h variations &et#een countries are consi!era&le( the main tren!s
over the erio! from 1955 to 19A4 #ere:
= an increase in the ratio of total ta" receits to BDI>
= a !ecrease! reliance on consumtion ta"es an! an increase! reliance on
income ta" an! social securit% contri&utions>
= a lar)e increase in the share of ta" receits from in!ivi!ual income ta"es
an! emlo%ers* social securit% contri&utions #ith a smaller increase in the
share of receits from )eneral consumtion ta"es an! emlo%ees* social
securit% contri&utions>
= a lar)e !ecrease in the share of receits from ta"es on articular )oo!s an!
services 5mostl% e"cises6 #ith a smaller !ecrease in the share of receits from
cororation income ta"es an! roert% an! #ealth ta"es 5JECD 19A1: ?6,
The same reort states that in 1955( *the un#ei)he! avera)e ratio Gof ta"
levels to BDIH for the countries articiatin) in the stu!% #as ?4,7 er cent
an! 36,6 er cent in 19A4( an avera)e increase of aroun! 4,5 ercenta)e
oints er %ear( thou)h !urin) the secon! half of the 1964s the avera)e
annual increase reache! nearl% one ercenta)e oint,* 1ut nota bene: *8ost
of these tren!s have slo#e! !o#n since 1975 an! come comletel% to an
en! &% 1977: ta" levels an! ta" structures in 19A4 #ere almost i!entical to
those in 1977,*
This hi)hest level of ta"ation in the *!eveloe! mar3et economies* #as
reache! &% UC estimates in the 1974s: *aroun! 43N of the BCI( #ith 67N
for S#e!en an! 64N for Cetherlan!s to 3AN in the Unite! States an! 34N
in S#it+erlan!( as comare! to 15N in the !eveloin) countries* 5UC(
19A5: 9?6, Estimates for the share of ta" evasion an! the *sha!o#* econom%
in the core countries are atch% an! conflictin), Cevertheless( authors of
such estimates #ithout e"cetion a)ree on one oint: from 1954 to 1974 it
#as ne)li)i&le( or at least si)nificantl% less than the levels of the t#o
follo#in) !eca!es 5see I%le( 19A9: 53> JECD( 19A76,
0e ma% o&serve similar tren!s to#ar! consoli!ation of state structures
all over the #orl! in the same erio!, .n lar)e areas of the )lo&e( statehoo!
#as cr%stalli+e! for the first time( or after a lon) erio! of anarch% an!
locali+e! non$state o#er relations, 9atin <merican oronets an! audillos
!isaeare! alon) #ith tra!itional &an!its( often inte)rate!
Georgi M. Derlugian
157
into state a)encies as rural olice( electe! offices( or mem&ers of national
art% hierarchies, The <ra& states of the 8i!!le East asse! from
semicolonial !een!enc% an! tri&al atrimonialit% to more *mo!ern*
in!een!ent states( throu)h either reu&lican revolutions or u!atin) their
monarchies( ma3in) them more comati&le #ith the functionin) of the
mo!ern #orl!$s%stem,
The )uerrilla henomenon that srea! throu)hout the eriher% in this
erio! !i! in!ee! ose a challen)e to the e"istin) state or!er( &ut in the
name of an alternative state or!er( a *eole*s* state or!er, 2ietnamese(
<l)erian( <n)olan( 8o+am&ican( Cami&ian( an! most 9atin <merican
)uerrillas fou)ht #ith the e"licit ro)ramme either of creatin) ne# states
or of ta3in) state o#er an! usin) it as a tool for ra!icall% transformin) the
social or!er,
The Communist &loc that came into e"istence after 1945 inclu!e! a
)oo! num&er of states that ha! reviousl% &een locales of internal trou&les,
The ne# Communist re)imes first fro+e( then reformulate! a series of
en!emic conflicts that ha! consi!era&l% hamere! the functionin) of the
re$Communist re)imes in these areas, The en!emic conflicts reviousl%
foun! virtuall% ever%#here in these states( from the 1al3ans to central <sia
to southern China( seeme! to &e &urie! un!er the #ei)ht of the Communist
or!er( ne#l% esta&lishe! throu)h revolutions,
<fter an initial erio! characteri+e! &% e"treme violence( the Com$
munist states entere! a erio! of relativel% eaceful evolution, State an!
art% &ureaucracies( havin) ri! themselves of the !ea!l% !an)erous
insta&ilit% of *Stalinism #ith Stalin*( e"an!e! an! flourishe!( &ein) a&le
finall% to rea the fruits of their osition an! to en/o% them in eace an!
securit%, <ll Communist s%stems un!er#ent !ecentrali+ations an!
hori+ontal e"ansions of their state a)encies,
<t the interstate level( eseciall% in the core an! a!/acent +ones( one of
the most imortant conse'uences of the catastrohic e"erience &rou)ht &%
the t#o #orl! #ars of the t#entieth centur% #as ar)ua&l% the
!ele)itimation of #ar( if not its elimination, This serve! as some
rotection( if not for state re)imes then at least for state frontiers,
Si)nificantl%( since 1945 there have &een har!l% an% !eclarations of #ar &%
one state uon another, ;ather( there occurre! 5rather numerous6
*interventions*( either &% a countr% on &ehalf of a more or less artificial
internal all% of the intervenin) o#er( or &% the #orl! communit%
em&o!ie! in the Unite! Cations, .n all cases( it #as assume! that the
&oun!aries of the state #oul! remain intact, .n the core( the ima)er% of
atomic e"termination so vivi!l% !iffuse! in the 1954s an! 1964s serve! as
an unarallele! !evice for im&uin) &oth olitical !ecision$ma3in) an!
mass consciousness #ith &locs of stron) anti$#ar sentiment,
15A The Age of Transition
Jf course( oen militar% as #ell as *covert action* interventions in
intrastate an! interstate conflicts #ere re)ularl% un!erta3en &% the suer$
o#er rivals or their allies( an! in most instances #ere an inte)ral art of
the Col! 0ar olicin) insi!e the t#o &locs, Such interventions ten!e! to
sta&ili+e e"istin) re)imes, .nterventions in the Thir! 0orl!( #here shiftin)
seams e"iste! &et#een the )eoolitical &locs( #ere even more fre'uent,
Such interventions #ere usuall% fairl% efficacious 5for e"amle( 9e&anon(
195A> Con)o( 1961$64> Dominican ;eu&lic( 19656, There #ere ver% fe#
attemte! or successful con'uests after the Secon! 0orl! 0ar, .n!ia*s
forci&le !ecoloni+ation of the Iortu)uese enclaves of Boa( Damao( an!
Diu in 196? is no# a totall% for)otten inci!ent, .srael*s e"ansion in the
#ars of 194A an! 1967 #as #i!el% !iscusse!( recisel% &ecause of its
e"cetional nature, Det these #ere almost ne)li)i&le acts of con'uest an!
anne"ation &% the stan!ar!s of revious eochs( an! ama+in)l% rare
occurrences on a #orl! scale,
Iarallel to #hat ha! &een reviousl% o&serve! in Euroe( moments of
mass violent uheaval in the eriher% ten!e! to &e short( thou)h far
&loo!ier( #ith the state usuall% a&le to reress them, Jut&rea3s of mass
violence that accomanie! ma/or olitical uheavals in some countries
5.n!ia( 1954( 1956( an! 1961> Tunisia( 195?> .ran( 1951$53> Berman
Democratic ;eu&lic( 1953> 8orocco( 195?=56> :un)ar%( 1956> :aiti(
1957> 9aos( 1954 an! 1964> Southern ;ho!esia an! South <frica( 1964>
U)an!a( 1963> @en%a( 19636 aear as mere &lis in the attern 5Ta%lor
an! :u!son( 197?: 94$14?6,
The olitical in!een!ence of the ne# states of <frica an! <sia #as
accomanie! &% a sectacular &loatin) of civil &ureaucracies an! militar%
ersonnel, Creation of &ureaucratic an! militar% ositions as a means of
recomense to the activists of the ro$in!een!ence movements an! of
consoli!atin) the social &ase of the ost$colonial re)imes #as certainl%
commonlace( sometimes reachin) e"or&itant roortions,
The )ro#th of national armies in the eriher% #as !eli&erate( an! even
haile! as a #a% of securin) the ne#l% ac'uire! !evelomentalist statehoo!>
ver% soon( it came to &e seen as the last resort in mana)in) an! reservin)
it, Iarticularl% e"tensive #ere the militar% &uil!$us of ost$revolutionar%
re)imes 5Cu&a( 2ietnam( .ra'6, Even more sectacular ,#as the
roliferation of mo!ern intelli)ence services in the semieriher%,
Ireviousl% the e"clusive rivile)e of the *imerialist* core states &efore 1945(
sohisticate! intelli)ence a)encies emer)e! all over <sia( from China an!
@orea to .ra' an! .srael( an! in 9atin <merica 5Cu&a6, The ver% notion of a
Cu&an or Ia3istani s% net#or3 #oul! have seeme! a ri!iculous o"%moron
in 1917 or even 1954( &ut no lon)er in 1974,
.n short( the !ata seem 'uite strai)htfor#ar! an! une'uivocal, .n the
Georgi M. Derlugian
159
erio! of 1945=1967/73 #e o&serve the state ever%#here e"an!e!(
e"ansive( an! in all its )lor%, The lon)$term rocess of state formation
an! state e"ansion aeare! to culminate in an unrece!ente! triumh,
The #hole )lo&e #as covere! #ith soverei)n states( an! these aeare! to
&e #or3in) in a 'uite satisfactor% manner, For the first Jme there #ere
almost no merel% *nominal )overnments* that coul! rule outsi!e the caital
cities onl% than3s to the suort of local non$state an! arastatal
authorities 5#arlor!s( stron)men( shei3hs( tri&al chiefs6, There #ere
certainl% e"cetions( such as the Colom&ian !iolenia of 1946=66( &ut
the% #ere in!ee! e"cetional( often rather *la%$offs* of earlier stru))les
51er)'uist( Ienaran!a an! Sanche+( 199?: 7$A6
Criminal an! olitical oular violence #as )enerall% at an e"ce$
tionall% lo# level an! containe!/a&sor&e! &% the state( #hich in its turn in
most cases #as a&le to 5re6assert its monool% of coercion The various
li&eration an! )uerrilla movements in this erio! almost invaria&l% #ere
e"ressl% statist in their outloo3 an! the% consciousl% rero!uce! t%ical
state functions an! attri&utes #henever an! #herever ossi&le 5li&erate!
+ones( e"ternal missions( an! so on6, .t shoul! not &e for)otten(
furthermore( that the various national li&eration fronts an! easant
insur)encies effectivel% channelle! oular violence an! a )reat !eal of
criminalit%( reincororatin) an! reor!erin) them in the frame#or3 of
counter$state *li&eratin) coercion* an! revolutionar% violence This function
#as e"licitl% note! an! vaunte! &% one famous theorist of these
movements( Frant+ Fanon( #ho rooun!e! the !esira&le role of the
lumenroletanat in a national li&eration movement 51963$ 119$646, The
net )ainer( of course( #as the universal state or!er,
State &ureaucracies )re# #orl!#i!e( not onl% in the core( #here the%
seeme! to rovi!e the necessar% &asis for socioolitical sta&ilit%( &ut also
an! eseciall% in the ne#l% in!een!ent states in the eriher% an!
semieriher%, Iost$1945 )eoolitical arran)ements e"licitl% reasserte! the
rincile of soverei)n states an! imlemente! it in ractice in the
tremen!ous e"ansion of the num&er of in!een!ent states 5more than
threefol!( /u!)in) &% UC mem&ershi6, Three )lorious !eca!es in!ee!,
From 1967/73 to 1994: The Time of Un!oin)
8ost of the tren!s !iscusse! reviousl% un!er#ent !ramatic chan)e in
the erio! follo#in) 1967( #hen the earliest si)ns of reverse &e)an to
aear( or after 1973( #hen trou&les &ecame o&vious an! )eneral,
Cumerical atterns over#helmin)l% sho# that *somethin) #as haenin)*,
For instance( the num&er of arme! attac3s /ume! in 1967 to 3(444 from
164 The Age of Transition
the me!ian of 1(644 in the revious !eca!e 5Ta%lor an! :u!son( 197?: 143
=96, The inci!ence of mass rotest an! violence in the US< reache! such
levels that it ut the he)emonic o#er far &e%on! the avera)e of the rest of
the core states an! romte! one anal%st to su))est that *the !eca!e of
1964 #as erhas the most tumultuous in <merican histor%* 5Burr( 19A9:
..( 1496, 0e have in this erio! in the US< such sin)ular events as the
assassinations of &oth 7ohn an! ;o&ert @enne!%( 8artin 9uther @in)( an!
8alcolm K( as #ell as the ur&an riots( the @ent State Universit% shootin)(
an! the 0oun!e! @nee re&ellion( althou)h the rate of fatalities ten!e! to
&e much lo#er in the he)emonic countr% than in an% Thir! 0orl! countr%,
The ne# anti$racist( stu!ent an! anti$#ar movements that s#et the US<
in the 1964s emer)e! lar)el% !esite the revious e"istence of or!erl%
structure! movements an! or)ani+ations, Their untame! nature an! ver%
ne#ness #as their )reatest source of !isrutive o#er an! therefore their
)reatest stren)th, Even thou)h often a!!ressin) ol! issues( the rhetoric an!
tactics for a time re)aine! full antis%stemic flavour,
There #as al#a%s a la) &et#een the US< an! the rest of the core,
0estern Euroe an! <ustralia( #hich ha! reache! their historical lo#s of
non$state violence an! !isor!er alrea!% in the 19?4s an! 1934s( remaine!
relativel% eaceful throu)h most of the 1964s( althou)h crime rates ha!
&een slo#l% )ro#in) there( too, France an! .tal% of 196A aear lo# in
violence as comare! to the tumults of the 1944s( the 1934s( an! the late
1944s in France( or the 19?4s an! the 1944s in .tal% 5Till%( 19A9: 67$756,
For Euroe an! 7aan the %ears of most intense challen)e to state authorit%
#ere the 1974s( #hich #ere mar3e! !ramaticall% &% terrorism 5e"tremist
national movements in .tal%( the Fe!eral ;eu&lic of Berman%( 7aan(
France an! Breece> &ut also searatist movements in Sain( the Unite!
@in)!om an! France6, 1% inci!ence of terrorist attac3s these countries
surasse! even 9atin <merica( #hich the me!ia roose! as the lea!in)
+one of terrorism of the 1964s,
8afia$t%e criminal or)ani+ations e"an!e! tremen!ousl% in the core
countries( an! at the same time their o#er !ecline! 5see Fi)ure 6,?6, This
is not as ara!o"ical as it ma% seem, Crime &ecame more !isor)ani+e!
&ecause of the )ro#in) cometition &et#een the mafia clans an! the
entrance of ne# criminal s%n!icates, Furthermore( or)ani+e! crime siml%
san3 into the ocean of oular( mostl% teena)er( crime an! violence
5;euter( 19A3 passim). <!olescent criminalit% &ecame a t%ical mar3 of the
sra#lin) !ein!ustriali+e! areas throu)hout the Corth <tlantic core +ones
50estern Euroe an! the US<6 an! the East Euroean Communist
semieriher%, Those mi)ht &e siml% street
Georgi M. Derlugian
161
)an)s( or the ne#( %oun)er an! meaner( variet% of fan clu&s in sorts an!
roc3 music( or oliticall% tinte! )rous( such as neo$fascist s3inhea!s in the
0est an! neo$Soviet Tiu&er%* in ;ussia, Street )an)s certainl% lac3e!
international connections an! ossi&ilities to con!uct su&stantial criminal
&usiness, These functions #ere &ein) overta3en in the late 1964s an!
1974s &% so$calle! lar)e$scale crime( #hich in fact means essentiall%
criminal multinational cororations 5<rlacchi( 19A6: ?14=156, The% #ere
concentrate! in the international tra!e in !ru)s an! #eaonr%( &ut also in the
ille)al movement of la&our( contra&an! conventional )oo!s( an! mone%
transfers, 8ost e"erts a)ree that the creation of the Euro!ollar mar3et in
the 1954s an! the e"ansion of etro!ollars in the 1974s offere! unhear!$
of oortunities for or)ani+e! crime( &oth in ille)al transactions an! in
mone% laun!erin), The !ru) mar3et remaine! the most rofita&le( the
most violent( an! the most internationali+e!, The share of sei+ures of !ru)s
&% state authorities rai!l% e"an!e! in the erio! 1974$94( !ou&tless
reflectin) an ever$)ro#in) volume of the illicit !ru) tra!e 5see Ta&le 6,16,
This rai!l% )ro#in) henomenon is intimatel% lin3e! #ith the
e"ansion of non$controlle! international finance mar3ets( #hich is the
locus #here most of the criminal rofits can *)o le)it*, < )oo! in!icator of
such activit% seems to &e the )ro#th of investment in *ta" haven* countries(
#hose num&er increase! &et#een 1945 an! 19A4 almost tenfol!,
.nternational or)ani+ations li3e the JECD have &ecome increasin)l%
#orrie! a&out this mass ta" evasion an! the effects that it &rin)s 5see
JECD( 19A76, Tal3 a&out the necessit% of creatin) an international ta"
olice has &ecome ersistent 5see JECD( 19A7: Ireface6, The scan!al of
the earl% 1994s concernin) the 1an3 of Commerce an! Cre!it
.nternational 51CC.6 !eeene! the concern an! ma% serve as a stimulant
to more !irect action,
Ta"ation ha! ose! serious ro&lems to virtuall% all states in the 1974s
an! 19A4s, :istoricall%( the levels of ta"ation have &een )ro#in) over the
#hole erio! of the caitalist #orl!$s%stem 5for the &etter$!ocumente!
*classical* case of France( see Fi)ure 6,36, .n the US< in 1AA7 fe!eral
receits #ere a&out 3 er cent of BCI( !riven lar)el% &% custom tariffs(
)iven the non$e"istence of a fe!eral income ta" 5not intro!uce! &efore
19136, .n 1937( US fe!eral receits reache! 5,5 er cent of BCI( /umin)
to nearl% ?4 er cent after 1945 5Stein( 19AA: "6,
The %ear of 1969 #as mar3e! in the US< &% an avalanche of ress
criticism aime! at the #elfare state( #hich #as then ta3en u in virtuall% all
0estern countries, Ioular attitu!es to#ar!s hi)h )overnment
e"en!itures 5#hich #as a euhemism for !istrust in the a&ilit% of the
state to mana)e societ%6 chan)e! !ramaticall% in the late 1964s an!
16? The Age of Transition
1974s, The ercenta)e of those critical in the US< an! Breat 1ritain
/ume! from aroun! 54 er cent in the mi!$1964s to nearl% A4 er cent in
the 1974s, <ll JECD countries face! a revolt of ta"a%ers in that erio!
5&e%on! the frin)e movements that al#a%s e"ist6 in one or another form,
The hi)h$ta" issues #ere ta3en u either &% ol! conservative an! oulist
arties( or &% ne# anti$)overnment movements( articularl% in 0estern
Euroe 5servin) for the !eca!e of the 1974s as the main comonent of the
cate)or% *other* arties( in Fi)ure 6,16 5Ieters( 1991: 157$9( 17?$46,
Consi!era&le ta" re!uctions an! rearran)ements have &een intro!uce!
throu)h )overnmental reforms since the earl% 19A4s &% virtuall% all JECD
mem&ers 5or at least a rhetoric of thrift an! cometitiveness6( as #ell as &%
such imortant semieriheral countries as 8e"ico( Colom&ia( .n!onesia
an! China 5the list ma% easil% &e e"an!e!6, Jn the other han!( ta"ation
has nearl% !isaeare! in several !o+en Thir! 0orl! countries !ue to the
lac3 of state enforcement of the ta" an! tariff olicies an! their o#n
ersonnel*s *en!emic* corrution( as this attern of in!ivi!ual accumulation
throu)h cororate elite control of the state a)encies is usuall% calle!, .n the
19A4s an avera)e civil servant*s salar% #as rovi!in) for &asic livin)
e"enses onl% for &et#een one an! t#elve !a%s a month in virtuall% all
countries of troical <frica( #hich clearl% sho#s that the motivation for
/oinin) the &ureaucracies must have &een other than the !irect salar%
58acBaffe%( 1991: 156, <s a result( forei)n ai! &ecame the main source of
revenue for a si+ea&le )rou of eriheral states( #hile some #ere actuall%
&ein) run at one or another level &% various international or local non$statal
a)encies 5see 1ro!ersohn( 19AA: 11A=?4> for the @ur!ish henomenon(
see van 1ruinessen( 199?: 33$676,
Iro&lems #ith collectin) an! le)itimi+in) state revenues #ere !irectl%
relate! to the )eneral tren! to#ar!s relievin) the state of man% #elfare an!
economic functions, The last si)nificant nationali+ations in the #orl! too3
lace in the mi!$1974s an! #ere connecte! to the victories of socialist$
oriente! re)imes in the former Iortu)uese colonies( Ethioia( .n!ochina(
an! some smaller Thir! 0orl! states, The French socialists nationali+e!
some &an3s in 19A4$A1( &ut then launche! *!ecentrali+ation* a fe# %ears
later, .n the 19A4s the #hole tren! #as !ramaticall% reverse!, Iolicies &ase!
on monetarism an! neo$conservative ta" reforms s#et over the 0est an!
&e)an to &e the ne# !o)ma in the !e&t$stric3en South( enforce! &% the
.8F an! cre!itor clu&s, E"tensive !enationali+ation ro)rammes have
&een un!erta3en in Breat 1ritain( France( the Fe!eral ;eu&lic of
Berman%( .tal%( S#e!en an! 7aan> an! in the Thir! 0orl! in 1an)la!esh(
1enin( 1ra+il( Chile( Dominican ;eu&lic( Ecua!or(
Georgi M. Derlugian
163
7amaica( Cote !*lvoire( @en%a( 8e"ico( Ia3istan( Ieru( Iortu)al( the
Ihiliines( South @orea an! Laire 5UC( 19A5: 976, <fter 1994( this list
#as !ramaticall% e"an!e! &% s#eein) rivati+ations in the e"$
Communist countries,
Even in roserin) 7aan( a countr% in #hich the role of the state in
the econom% ha! &een central throu)hout the mo!ern era an! in #hich
state service #as resti)ious( *the num&er of alicants for the civil
service e"amination has &een !ecreasin) since 1979* 5Sa3amoto( 1991:
1496, This henomenon is attri&ute! to the )ro#th in rominence of the
rivate cororate &ureaucracies, The "# $eport on the %orld &oial &ituation
ar)ues that:
;ene#e! interest has emer)e! in recent %ears concernin) otential roles for the
rivate econom% in rovi!in) u&lic services = fire an! olice rotection(
sul% of !a%$care( ol!$a)e home facilities( am&ulance services( an! even
construction an! mana)ement of rivatel% o#ne! risons, The US< resorte! to
such services more than an% other countr% $ O66,A &illion ha! &een sent onl% in
19A4 at the state an! local levels,,,, 1oth !eveloe! an! !eveloin) countries
increasin)l% recur to rivate sector for the sul% of utilities services $ electricit%(
)as( #ater, 5UC( 19A5: 93$46
.n man% countries such t%icall% u&lic services as the ostal service(
telecommunications( an! even /ails an! olice have &een increasin)l%
rivati+e!, 1% the estimates of the "& #e's and %orld $eport 51?
Covem&er 1994: 1?6( in the US< ever% thir! securit% )uar! is rivate(
hire! &% either communities or cororations, .t is estimate! that &% the
%ear ?444 the share of rivate )uar!s in the overall olice force #ill
reach one$half, <nalo)ous rocesses in the former Communist countries
are even more !ramatic, .n ;ussia alone &% the &e)innin) of 199? there
#ere more than 144(444 re)istere! rivate !etectives an! )uar!s( an! a
thrivin) mar3et for securit% !evices an! traine! !o)s (#e(a!isima)a ga*eta, 9
8a% 199?: 66,
This is e"actl% the mar3eti+ation of reviousl% state$e"clusive
functions so much !iscusse! an! often raise! !urin) the 19A4s,
<lthou)h the functional effectiveness of such u&lic$to$rivate transfers
ma% &e reasona&l% satisfactor% in some cases( the overall result is to
un!ermine further the institutional illars of mo!ernit% #ithout offerin)
an% o&viousl% &etter alternative, .n a nutshell( u&lic )oo! = the most
fun!amental one in the case of la# an! or!er $ &ecomes rivate or
cororate rivile)e,
Territorialit% an! soverei)nt%( the t#o central intert#ine! rinciles of
the interstate s%stem( are comin) increasin)l% into 'uestion, 0estern
Euroean inte)ration #as the main emirical ar)ument for most authors,
164 The Age of Transition
.n a famous !escrition )iven &% Ieter @at+enstein 519A76( the Fe!eral
;eu&lic of Berman% #as terme! *a semi$soverei)n state*( !eel%
enetrate! simultaneousl% &% the C<TJ structures from a&ove an! &% the
fe!eral Ldnder from &elo#,
There #ere( ho#ever( consi!era&le theoretical !ifficulties in con$
cetuali+in) the rocesses of )lo&ali+ation an! re)ionali+ation( construe! as
*overcomin) the state*, The i!ea emer)e! from emirical o&servations that
le! various authors to conclu!e that a )lo&al authorit% #as either ver%
!esira&le in the *inter!een!ent an! more comle"* #orl! 5for instance(
0al3er an! 8en!lovit+( 19946( or as somethin) alrea!% in the ma3in) 5see
Bilin( 1975> @eohane( 19A9> Camilleri an! Fal3( 199?6, Concernin) the
state an! )lo&ali+ation/re)ionali+ation( calle! &% some authors the *ne#
fe!eralism* 5see D*<mico an! Iiccone( 1991: ?=1?6( there is a sli)htl%
!ifferent a)en!a or)ani+e! aroun! the concet of ostmo!ernit%, .t #as
'uite rai!l% assimilate! into the olitical science mainstream( itself a si)n
of concetual crisis 5see <ter( 19A7> ;u))ie( 19936,
There aears to &e ma/or confusion or evasion a&out the crucial
'uestion of #h% the current transformation of the state$&ase! or)ani+ation
of o#er is haenin), 8ost of the ar)ument is re!uci&le essentiall% to a
snashot of realit% not )roun!e! in coherent theor%, This is e"actl% #hat
;u))ie catures &% sa%in): *Irevailin) ersectives have !ifficult%
!escri&in) an! e"lainin) the rocess ,,,( &ut none su))ests that it is not
occurrin)* 5;u))ie( 1993: 1416, Shall 8inerva*s o#l fl% at !us3 a)ainP
There is even more confusion a&out the antis%stemic movements( the
ma/or source ar)ua&l% &ein) the resi!ual olitical an! i!eolo)ical
commitments of o&servers, <s ointe! out &% <n!rei Fursov:
one of the main( if not the main( failures of the left 5eseciall% Communist6 in
theor% #as its ultimate ina&ilit% to concetuali+e the social nature of the
movement itself( an! articularl% the s%stem of o#er that ha! &een institu$
tionali+e! un!er the Gsi)nificantl% en!less misnomersH such as *socialist cam*(
*communist re)imes*( *Soviet$t%e societies*( etc, 51991: 346
<ntis%stemic movements have &een rai!l% losin) their caa&ilit% of
intervention as main actors of social chan)e since the late 1964s( not onl%
in achievin) their o&/ectives &ut also in terms of their cohesion(
mo&ili+ation( or)ani+ation an! strate)ies, .n short( the% have &een
!eclinin)( even !isaearin),
This !ecline #as common in sli)htl% !ifferent !e)rees to olitical
arties of Communist or social$!emocratic !esi)nation in or out of o#er>
to la&our or)ani+ations( #hether or not lin3e! to arties> an! to
Georgi M. Derlugian
165
former national li&eration movements, .f loo3e! at since 1945( the
tra/ector% of Communist or)ani+ations an! olitical re)imes in terms of
their influence re)istere! a stea!% increase 5#ith an internal crisis of !e$
Stalini+ation in 1956( &ut then a recover% of the tren!6 u to the late 1964s
#hen it starte! )ra!uall% to !ecline 5196A in C+echoslova3ia an! Iolan!(
institutionali+ation of &roa!l% !efine! *!issi!ent anti$olities*6( fallin)
reciitousl% after circa 19A4 5the !e&t crisis> stron) 0estern reaction in all
+ones ne#l% *associate!* to the socialist &loc = <f)hanistan( Cicara)ua(
.n!ochina( <n)ola( etc,> cruise missiles an! the en! of !etente in Euroe>
irreressi&le Soli!arit% in Iolan! an! the &e)innin) of )enerational
transition in the Soviet lea!ershi6 = a tren! of #hich the collase of the
USS; an! the Eastern Euroean re)imes in 19A9= 91 can &e seen as the
ultimate confirmation, 0hile socialist arties in some countries &enefite!
from the relative !ecline of Communist arties at first( their )ro#th
reache! its ae" in the earl% 19A4s> then( as the !eca!e close!( the% &e)an
to &e affecte! as #ell &% the !ecline in the cre!i&ilit% of #elfare$state
ro)rammes,
.n the 1964s all these issues #ere forcefull% ta3en u an! ra!icall%
e"an!e! an! reformulate! &% the ne# social movements #orl!#i!e, .n
the 19A4s the *Breen* movements came to &e their first serious electoral
e"ression, .n the late 19A4s( the% &e)an to aear as a conten!er to fill the
niche of the ol! left arties, The% re)istere! a transient olitical success(
first in the Fe!eral ;eu&lic of Berman%( then in other 0estern countries,
The% #ere then sha3en &% internal !e&ate over #here the% #oul! fit on the
olitical chec3er&oar!: on the far left( as a relacement for the ol! left( or
as a ne# centrist force, These !e&ates #ea3ene! them, This fact har!l%
si)nifie! an unmiti)ate! !efeat of the Breen movement, The same is even
more true in the case of human$ri)hts activism, To &e sure(
environmentalist( anti$#ar( #omen*s( minorities*( or )eneric human$ri)hts
concerns #ere not e"actl% ne#( !atin) &ac3 in fact to the nineteenth
centur%, Det( until the 1964s the% remaine! !een!ent !iscourses of
li&eralism( #ith 8ar"ists an! revolutionar% nationalists usuall% &ein) at
&est am&i)uous a&out these issues( #hich #ere consi!ere! su&or!inate to
the main cause of stru))le, Elitist )rous an! ersonalities 5<lfre! Co&el(
1ertran! ;ussell( <natole France( :,B, 0ells( Frit/of Cansen( an! so on6( or
li&eral 0estern )overnments an! inter)overnmental or)ani+ations 59ea)ue
of Cations( the UC an! its su&si!iaries6( ha! &een the ma/or romoters an!
normsetters of acifism( anti!iscrimination( nature reservation( an!
)eneral *humane con!uct*( eseciall% in times of #ar 59uar!( 1967: 7=??6,
The entr% of the ne# social movements into the olitical arena seeme!
at first a ra!ical innovation, 1ut one coul! ar)ue that the% #ere
166 The Age of Transition
almost instantl% incororate! into the he)emonic li&eral !iscourse an!
or)ani+ational frame#or3s of the core states( as reflecte! &% the num&er of
Co&el ri+es #on &% the activists( invitations to a!!ress the UC an!
various resti)ious conferences( or( in the case of the Soviet &loc
!issi!ents( the e"tensive use that the% ma!e of the Col! 0ar roa)an!a
machine in the 0est, Conetheless( &% reco)ni+in) an! romotin) eole
li3e 8artin 9uther @in)( :avel( 8an!ela( Sa3harov( an! various civic
resisters of the militar% re)imes in 9atin <merica an! <sia( the core states
ha! to accet an! ta3e into consi!eration their a)en!as( at least u&licl%,
The fact that self$esta&lishe! #atch!o) CBJs( such as Breeneace an!
<mnest% .nternational( have &een a&le to transform themselves into
influential )lo&al a)encies is certainl% of ma/or imortance, Successive
!emocrati+ation #aves that s#et a#a% or criticall% ero!e! !o+ens of
!ictatorial re)imes of all sorts #orl!#i!e since the late 1974s #ere
tri))ere! &% the @on!ratieff$1 s'uee+e, The concrete historical forms that
the su&se'uent oular movements( reforms an! revolutions too3(
ho#ever( #ere 'uite clearl% far more art of the le)ac% of the olitics of
the 1964s than out)ro#ths of the ost$1945 li&eral !iscourse of US
he)emon%,
<s to the former national li&eration movements of the eriheries( a
tra/ector% of !ecline( !e)eneration an! collase #as e'uall% ronounce!
since the mi!$1974s( al&eit #ith far more terri&le cruelt%( as al#a%s in the
#retche! +ones of the #orl!, Beneticall% sea3in)( these movements
foun! the !ifficulties of national !eveloment vastl% a))ravate! &% the
#orl!#i!e economic sta)nation( an! the structural a!/ustment ro)rammes
imose! &% the 0est, 7oinin) the alle)e!l% alternative socialist #orl!$
s%stem seeme! less an! less attractive( as it &ecame ever clearer that it #as
at most a )eoolitical &loc #ithin the #orl!$s%stem( an! recisel% lac3e!
the economic foun!ations to &ecome a s%stem on its o#n, The 1an!un)
era of Casser( Tito an! Castro #as over, <fter the )reat offensive( the
&attlefiel! #as littere! #ith human an! institutional #rec3a)es an!
&elon)e! to the marau!ers( such as Sa!!am :ussein( Du)oslavia*s e"$
Communist #arlor!s( or <frica*s lumen$militariats( as <li 8a+rui #r%l%
&ran!e! them 519736,
The last fortresses of states #hose re)imes !erive! from national
li&eration movements of one variet% or another #ere &esie)e! &% anti$
secular militants of !esair 5.n!ia( E)%t( <l)eria( Sri 9an3a( Tunisia(
Ieru( Ta!/i3istan6, <fter 1979 an increasin) num&er of antisecular
movements #ere successful in stormin) the states 5.ran( Su!an(
<f)hanistan6 or( failin) that( in &ein) invite! into the rulin) coalitions
5.srael( .n!ia( Ia3istan( Tur3e%( &ut also the Unite! States6, 8ainstream
reli)ious or)ani+ations #orl!#i!e have also &een tar)ets of reli)ious
Georgi M. Derlugian
167
militants( a%in) the rice for their coha&itation #ith the secular
authorities an! accommo!ation to la% i!eas, ;eli)ious fun!amentalists
reresente! )enuine rotest &ut har!l% emanciator% movements( at least in
contemorar% terms, Jn closer loo3( it also &ecomes o&vious that the%
have not &een tr%in) to reverse histor%( as is usuall% asserte! a&out them(
&ut rather to ta3e over the !iscre!ite! national !evelomentalist ro/ect
an! reformulate its values an! social &ase 5see <&rahamian( 199?( for the
ara!i)matic case of .ran> Sivan( 199?( for the <ra& countries> an! :e#itt(
1994( for the +omunidades elesidstias de base in 1ra+il6, Essentiall%( the
eriheral fun!amentalists have trie! to ta3e over the cause of
!eveloment /ust as the nationalists an! the socialists of the revious
erio! #ere in fact !roin) it, :ence the stress on &oth the )rassroots
communit% of mar)inali+e! anomic Thir! 0orl! !#ellers an! the
m%tholo)i+e! notions of reli)ious meta$communities = .slamic Umma(
Si3h :alsa( the caste or!er in :in!uism( the Christian &rotherhoo! in
li&eration theolo)%,
.n the core( ro&a&l% the first si)ns of the !rift from secularism came in
the &i+arre form of the rai!l% roliferatin) *ne# reli)ious movements*
&ase! on an avi! interest in non$<&rahamic ractices an! !octrines, These
movements recruite! mostl% amon) the %oun)er )enerations in Euroe
an! Corth <merica, .n contrast to the theosohic elitism such movements
e"hi&ite! at the turn of the t#entieth centur%( the ne# m%sticist )rous
activel% rosel%ti+e! an! attracte! 'uite a si+ea&le mass &ase 5tens of
thousan!s of *full$time* a!ets #ith ar)ua&l% hun!re!s of thousan!s of
short$term follo#ers6, This henomenon receive! an enormous amount of
attention, ;o&&ins has comare! the imact of the *ne# reli)ious
movements* on the sociolo)ists of reli)ion to *the !iscover% of some 344
ne# secies of li+ar!( inclu!in) a fe# !an)erous man$eaters( on a scholarl%
association of heretolo)ists* 519AA: 136, The attention #as( ho#ever( more
than aca!emic, <t least in the core countries( most eole still e"ecte!
seculari+ation an! the Enli)htenment to &e irreversi&le, The e"losive
)ro#th of the militant fun!amentalist movements in the 1974s an! 19A4s
came to shatter this &elief an! instil )loom% e"ectations of the return of
the Dar3 <)es 5inci!entall%( ver% similar to the no# half$for)otten fears of
a *ne# o&scurantism* in the inter#ar erio!( the revious @on!ratieff 1$
hase6, Fun!amentalists certainl% reflecte! an antis%stemic strate)% that
challen)e! the 0est an! its caitalist mo!ernit%( an! sa# the mo!erni+in)
state as the most oressive asect of it, Det it is har! to conceive of these
movements as a full$#ei)ht relacement to the national li&eration
movements, <s #ith the Breens in relation to the *ol! left*( or the East
Euroean !emocrats to the Communists( the ne# sta)e resem&les
16A The Age of Transition
thus far more a life$after$!eath of the ol! movements an! i!eas than the
!a#n of trul% ne# ones,
Consi!erin) the antis%stemic movements in relation to the states( it
seems ironicall% that the states have &een losin) their !irect a!versaries
recisel% since( an! in lar)e art &ecause of( the revolutionar% uheavals of
1967=73, <si!e from the terrorists( #ho ma% &e /u!)e! as still !efiant
&ut non$!ura&le( other antis%stemic movements no lon)er !evote a
central lace to the state in their %eltanshauung. To use one of 9enin*s
t%ical hrases( this ma% *reveal to all countries somethin) = an! some$
thin) hi)hl% si)nificant $ of their near an! inevita&le future* 59enin( 1975:
?91$?6,
Even the terrorist or)ani+ations !iffer from the ol!er )uerrilla move$
ments in one ver% imortant sense, .f the )uerrilla movement of the re$
1967 eoch ha! essentiall% an *ol! left*/national$li&eration ro)ramme =
that is( ha! as the most imortant mi!!le$term aim the sei+ure of state
o#er$ most of the ost$1967 terrorist or)ani+ations in &oth Corth an!
South !i! not envisa)e such )oals, The% #ere tr%in) instea! 5some#hat
li3e the un!er)roun! movements of 1A15=4A in 0estern Euroe6 to
create con!itions for a !ramatic chan)e in( or the total !emise of( the
state an! social or!er as such, .f the terrorism of the 1974s an! 19A4s
reresente! an aftershoc3 of 196A( then the !istance &et#een the latter an!
the earlier t#entieth$centur% )uerrillas ma% &e comare! to the !istance
&et#een the ne# antis%stemic movements an! the ol! ones,
.n a!!ition( the mur3% #orl! of esiona)e seems to have share! the
!ifficulties of this time of trou&les, The C.< an! 8.5 un!er#ent ma/or
u&lic scan!als, The Soviet @B1 an! the .sraeli 8ossa! an! Shin 1et
lost much of their m%sti'ue an! m%th of omniotence !ue to numerous
em&arrassin) !efections an! !omestic o#er stru))les, The cometition
offere! &% the ne#comer secial services of the Thir! 0orl!( terrorists( an!
international criminals enormousl% comlicate! the s% universe, The net
result #as that these esiona)e services &e)an to lose some of the
un'uestione! aura an! national le)itimac% the% ha! reviousl% en/o%e!( a
further re!uction of the real o#er of the states,
The arms race aears to have accelerate! in the 1974s an! earl%
19A4s, J&viousl%( more an! more states( after reactin) to the ne# in$
sta&ilit% of the earl% 1974s &% e"an!in) their aaratuses of coercion
an! eventuall% em&ar3in) on internal an! e"ternal #ar = Cha! an!
Cha!/9i&%a( Ci)eria( U)an!a/Tan+ania( Somalia/Ethioia( Su!an(
0estern Sahara/8orocco/8auritania in <frica> *internal #ars* in
<r)entina( Uru)ua%( Chile( Colom&ia( 2ene+uela( Ieru( 1olivia(
Buatemala( Cicara)ua in 9atin <merica( lus the *e"ternali+e!* Fal3lan!/
Georgi M. Derlugian
169
8alvinas South=Corth clash of rohetic si)nificance> the entire 8i!!le
East #ith the secial case of 9e&anon> <f)hanistan( .n!o$Ia3istani
conflicts( Cam&o!ia/2ietnam in South an! Southeast <sia, 8ilitar%
ta3eovers also )re#( althou)h there is no clear attern in the simle
num&er of such events, 1% 19A7( accor!in) to the a&ove$cite! UC reort(
there #ere fift%$nine militar% )overnments #orl!#i!e,
Det ver% soon this tren! to#ar!s militar%$&ureaucratic re)ulation #oul!
&e reverse! in sectacular #aves of #orl!#i!e *!emocrati+ation*, 1% 1994
there #ere har!l% an% militar% re)imes in 9atin <merica( #hile else#here a
)ro#in) num&er of &oth #ea3 states 5To)o( 8o+am&i'ue( Tan+ania6 an!
stron)er states 5South <frica( Tur3e%( Thailan!( South @orea( Tai#an6
&e)an to !emocrati+e = that is( rel% more on ne)otiation #ithin the
olitical an! economic elites rather than outri)ht militar% an! olice
reression, This shift #as not #ithout certain reversals 5<l)eria &ein)
erhas the most nota&le( &ut there #as also the imosition of nationalist
!ictatorshis in man% former Communist states #here national urisin)s of
the late 19A4s hele! to !estro% the revious monoolies of state o#er6,
The effects of !emocrati+ation on state cohesion seem mi"e! at &est, 0hile
in some states situate! in the +ones of e"onomic e"ansion 5Chile( South
@orea an! Tai#an6 !emocrati+ation o&viousl% ma!e the states more
le)itimate in the e%es of their su&/ects( in man% more laces the tren!
aeare! more li3e a !eserate attemt of the local elites to ro u their
ositions in the chan)in) #orl!$s%stem &% e"licitl% su&scri&in) to the
!ominant i!eolo)ies an! thus )ettin) e"ternal reco)nition, 8an% eriheral
an! semieriheral states have &een increasin)l% una&le to control their
territories( or have collase! alto)ether, 1et#een 197A an! 1994( 9e&anon
!i! not e"ist as a state, 9e&anon #as restore! un!er S%rian *roconsulshi*(
&ut this 3in! of sta&ili+ation ma% &e vie#e! rather as an instance of a
con'uest imossi&le to le)itimate an! thus as a si)n of !esta&ili+ation of
the interstate s%stem, <s of 1994( there #as no 9i&erian( <f)han( or Somali
state( #ith fe# via&le rosects for their restoration, The #ars in former
Du)oslavia an! the conflicts in the former Soviet reu&lics &ecame the
most *northern* of the *southern* state collases( !irectl% en!an)erin) a
si)nificant art of the core 50estern Euroe6,
.f one ta3es as an in!icator one of the most resecte! comen!ia of
in!icators( the "# $eport on the %orld &oial &ituation, #e note that &et#een
195?( #hen it &e)an to aear( an! 19A? it mainl% consiste! of chaters on
!emo)rah%( health( e!ucation an! ur&ani+ation, .n 19A? the structure of the
reort un!er#ent a si)nificant chan)e, Chaters on civil an! olitical ri)hts
an! !isarmament #ere intro!uce! for the first time( an! in !ie Ireface a
ver% interestin) ne# tonalit% ma!e its aearance:
174 The Age of Transition
;ecent economic set&ac3s have not onl% !amene! e"ectations &ut also
e"ose! the limits of the role of the nation$state as a mana)er of socio$economic
chan)e,,,, 2arious forms of olitical insta&ilit% occurre!( eseciall% #here
Bovernments #ere still face! #ith the formi!a&le tas3 of &uil!in)
simultaneousl% a nation an! a via&le econom%, Jften( more authoritarian t%es
of )overnment emer)e! as a resonse to this insta&ilit%, .t also too3 the form of
!ecline in u&lic an! rivate &ehaviour, The #ea3enin) of various forms of
authorit% an! of accete! values #hich &oun! in!ivi!uals to)ether has )ra!uall%
)enerate! &oth a )reater in!ivi!ual free!om an! a more fra)ile societ%,,,,
<ttitu!es to#ar!s u&lic authorities #ere often mar3e! #ith !efiance, 9a#s(
re)ulations( ta"es #ere increasin)l% 'uestione! an! eva!e!, <lcoholism( !ru)
a!!iction( criminalit%( irresonsi&ilit% vis$a$vis fello# men an! the communit%
#ere seemin)l% more fre'uent in man% societies #ith !ifferent cultures an!
!ifferent levels of !eveloment 5UC( 19A?a: 1$?6,
0ith the e"ecta&le la) in terminolo)% an! st%le roer to this inter$
national &o!%( calle! uon to e"ress nothin) less than the a))re)ate!
oinion of )lo&al human3in!( the reort succinctl% sums u the tren! #e
have &een tr%in) to !etect in its multile an! numerous manifestations, .n
19A5 the "# $eport inclu!e! %et another ne# chater( M2iolence to
Brous an! .n!ivi!uals*, T#o more interestin) statements #ere ma!e:
;eli)ious revival( ho#ever( aears to &e a stron) factor in several current civil
#ars an! conflicts,,,, <lso( the lon)$term tren! of seculari+ation( or laici+ation of
the social or!er( has &een increasin)l% 'uestione! an!( in some instances(
reverse!,,,,
The #elfare state #as loo3e! at criticall%,,,, .n man% !eveloin) countries
financial resources &ecame so scarce that ,,, these states ha! to face a stru))le
for survival 5UC( 19A5: ?5$6( A96,
Jne of the e"ressions of this mountin) insta&ilit% an! #ea3ness of the
state is un!ou&te!l% the much lau!e! an! hoe!$for )lo&al !emoc$
rati+ation of the late 19A4s an! 1994s, <nother in!icator #oul! certainl% &e
the ressures for human ri)hts an! the ne# centralit% of so$calle! *minorit%
issues*( #hich came into the limeli)ht in the 1974s( an! no# roliferate not
onl% in the core &ut else#here in the #orl!$s%stem, .n the case of the
former Communist countries of Eastern Euroe( it is most aarent that
!emocrati+ation is rimaril% a result of collase of the states( an! of social
!isor!er,
The resistance of the core states to a&sor& i!eolo)icall% the minorities of
*colour* 5from the South6 has le! to calls for *multiculturalism*( #hich are
in turn resiste!, <s a result( the states fin! themselves cau)ht &et#een t#o
fires = the *multiculturalist* ressures from the increasin)l% more
effectivel% or)ani+e! *Southern* minorities on the one han!( an!
Georgi M. Derlugian
171
"enoho&ic Christian or even re$Christian fun!amentalist ri)ht$#in)
oulists on the other,
9i&eralism as the !ominant i!eolo)% of the #orl!$s%stem is thus
cau)ht in numerous i!eolo)ical an! olitical comlications that revi$
ousl% it coul! lar)el% )loss over or i)nore alto)ether, 8inorit% ri)hts
un!ermine the *one man( one vote* rincile> affirmative action contra$
!icts meritocrac%> the state is vie#e! &% the ri)ht$#in)ers as *un!ul%
me!!lin)*( an! &% the minorities as ina!e'uate( untrust#orth% an! h%o$
critical,
0hat is at sta3e is the #hole 7aco&in ro/ect of olitical mo!ernit% $
that is( nationalism as the rimar% mechanism of uniformi+ation an!
articulation of oulations into mo!ern state aaratuses, .n!ee!(
communities have to &e ima)ine! to &ecome real( an! #hen the% are
ima)ine! as nations 5<n!erson( 19916 the rincile of nationalism
!eman!s that ethnic units &ecome con)ruent to olitical units $ ever%
;uritanian uon &ecomin) conscious of &ein) ;uritanian must fi)ht for
all ;uritanians $ usuall% re)ar!less of the rice 5see Bellner( 19A36,
8ean#hile( the mo!ern #orl!$s%stem aears to allo# for far fe#er
states than there ma% &e conten!ers, Thus( the ver% roliferation of
nation$state$see3in) un!ermines the state$imose! or!er,
8ore than si"t% states = that is( more than one$thir! of the total(
accor!in) to UC estimates = face )rave an! imme!iate searatist !an)ers,
2er% fe# searatist movements in the erio! since 1945 have succee!e! in
creatin) full$fle!)e! states of their o#n 5the most nota&le e"amle
&ein) 1an)la!esh( #hich ha! the unusual a!vanta)e of )reat h%sical
searation from the other art of Ia3istan6, :o#ever( the collases of
Du)oslavia an! the USS; in 1991 &rou)ht into e"istence a si+ea&le
num&er of ne# internationall% reco)ni+e! in!een!ent states( an!
&rou)ht in its #a3e the !issolution of C+echoslova3ia,
0arlor!ism seeme! once a)ain to &e ramant throu)hout the more
an! the not so !istant +ones of the #orl!$s%stem, 8an% )uerrilla move$
ments !e)enerate! into this form of or)ani+ation of o#er in the
con!itions of state collase, Iarts of the Ihiliines( Cam&o!ia( 1urma(
Thailan!( Sri 9an3a( .n!ia( <f)hanistan( 9e&anon( Cha!( U)an!a(
8o+am&i'ue( <n)ola( Somalia( 9i&eria( Su!an( Ethioia( an! no#
consi!era&le stretches of the former Du)oslavia an! USS; #ere &ein)
rule! &% arme! )rous #ith or #ithout nominal olitical a)en!as,
State !ecentrali+ation has &een another si!e of the same rocess,
This henomenon is much more )eneral than the stu!ents of 0estern
u&lic a!ministration have usuall% &elieve!( since the re$emer)ence of
*tra!itional* or fun!amentalist structures of u&lic o#er in the South
for them has &een )enerall% classifie! as anthroolo)%( an! hence
17? The Age of Transition
!ivorce! from the tren! in the core +ones to#ar!s locali+ation of
)overnance, The ten!enc%( alrea!% resent for the reasons !escri&e!
reviousl%( has &een much reinforce! &% the *ne# oenness* imose!
throu)h the .8F structural a!/ustment olicies( #hich reverse! most of
the statist$nationalist olicies of the revious <$hase, .n the eriher%
an! semieriher%( the !ismantlin) of the state( in favour of lo#er *su&$
state* an! hi)her *sura$state* levels #as ainfull% o&vious, The ost$
colonial utative nation$state #as &ecomin) merel% a le)itimi+in) mas3
for &oth levels, .n this li)ht( 1a3er oses the tantali+in) 'uestion: The
economic #ea3nesses an! vulnera&ilit% of the colonial state at in!e$
en!ence ,,, have ersiste!, 0ill the Gost$colonialH state no# &ecome the
mid'ife of the ne' olonialism,- 51991( 36?: emhasis in ori)inal6, The
attemte! intervention in Somalia( #hich #as certainl% meant to &ecome a
attern of such neo$colonial humanitarian interventions( has sho#n that
even this #arnin) mi)ht &e far$fetche!, .merialism re'uires far more
olitical #ill an! resources than #ere availa&le in the en! of the US
he)emonic c%cle( eseciall% after the comlicit USS; #as no lon)er a
la%er in the eriheries,
<t the same time( the lanetar% ecoshere an! ever%thin) relate! to it
ascen!e! !urin) the 1967=94 erio! to the osition of &ein) &oth the
&i))est scare an! the &i))est hoe of human3in!, 1% the &e)innin) of the
1994s( environmentalism as a social henomenon aeare! to &e !eel%
!ivi!e! into several cometin) an! !is/ointe! currents, Some aeare!
'uite antis%stemic( &ut others clearl% &elon)e! to the core*s Esta&lish$
ment, Furthermore( environmentalism oerate! at all levels( &ut it
consicuousl% ten!e! to )ravitate to#ar!s uttin) its aims a&ove an!
&elo# the nation$state( either in cosmoolitan )lo&al environmental
a)encies( rivate an! international( or at the local levels of )rassroots
ressure )rous #ithin local communities or rovinces, Thou)h there
#ere imortant e"amles of statist environmentalism( it #as rather
e"cetional( t%ical onl% of countries #ith a tra!itionall% stron) state
searate! from the civil societ%( such as France 5!e 8ont&rial( 1994: 3636,
The revailin) currents of environmentalism since the late 19A4s #ere
)lo&al environmental mana)ement an! )lo&al ecolo)%, .n one or another
form the% #ere suorte! &% the immense resources of Corthern caitalist
)rous( state )overnments( an! interstate a)encies, This t%e of
environmentalism clearl% reresente! the latest version of li&eral i!eolo)% in
its t#o variants: conservative neo$li&eralism an! social$!emocratic
reformism, .t #as aarentl% hoe! that this &ran! of technocratic envi$
ronmentalism in tan!em #ith the sli)htl% reformulate! !evelomentalism of
*sustaina&le !eveloment* mi)ht reresent a via&le alternative to the crisis
in the *i!eolo)ical cement* of late$t#entieth$centur% caitalism,
Georgi M. Derlugian
175
This in!icates one !irection of ossi&le future !eveloment in the
caitalist #orl!$s%stem, The closel% 3nit #e& of international an! ma/or
nation$state &ureaucracies( &oth scientific an! mana)erial( u&lic an!
rivate( ma% see3 to le)itimi+e themselves &% assumin) the functions of
)lo&al mana)ement an! securit%, Environmentalism( #ith its live human
assion an! e"cetionall% #i!e u&lic accetance an! suort( #ith its
e"tremel% successful roa)an!a camai)ns an! universall% aealin)
slo)ans 5nothin) less than *Save the EarthF*6( its heroes an! mart%rs 5Chico
8en!es( 7o% <!amson( 2la!imir Chernousen3o6( ma% rovi!e an
e"cetional oortunit% for ossi&le olitical resta&ili+ation in the *ost$
mo!ern* fra)mentation an! morass,
.n!ee!( 77 er cent of <mericans olle! in 19A9 reson!e! that their
urchase !ecisions #oul! &e affecte! &% a coman%*s reutation #ith
re)ar! to the environmental issues 58iller( 1991: ?166, DuIont is currentl%
lea!in) the #a% in a!vertisin) its *eco$ima)e*, .n a sectacular move( US
tuna ro!ucers a!ote! e"ensive !olhin$safe olicies &efore the% #ere
man!ate!, .n another e"amle( sales of &eneficent insects in the US< have
trile! &et#een 19A5 an! 1994( #hile the me!ical #aste !isosal in!ustr%
#as e"ecte! to further increase &% O5 &illion &% 1995 58iller( 1991: ?166,
Even more imressivel%( a 19A9 #e' .or/ Times oll sho#e! that A4 er
cent of re)ular US voters a)ree! #ith the statement: *the stan!ar!s for
rotectin) the environment cannot &e too hi)h( an! continuin)
imrovement must &e ma!e re)ar!less of costs*> in 19A1( onl% 45 er cent
a)ree! #ith this 58iller( 1991: ?466,
.t shoul! &e a!!e! that eco$safe technolo)ies have &een rai!l%
&ecomin) another ro!uction a!vanta)e rovi!in) for monoolistic rent(
#hile the enormous costs of an eventual )lo&al clean$u mi)ht offer
ta"a%er$sustaine! mar3ets 5mana)e! throu)h states or international
a)encies6 caa&le of servin) as a su&stitute for the increasin)l% !iscre!ite!
militar%$in!ustrial @e%nesianism of the t#entieth centur%,
Curiousl%( mo!ern$!a% ecolo)ical camai)ns in man% #a%s resem&le
<&olitionism( another )reat humanistic issue that ha! move! in the late
ei)hteenth centur% into the centre of u&lic !e&ates to &ecome a ma/or tool
of imosin) 1ritish he)emon%( an! rovi!e! the Corthern elites of the
Unite! States #ith an aroriate !iscourse in their stru))le to &ecome a
#orl! o#er, <s in the case of slaver%( the !efence of an anti$environmental
stance has to!a% &ecome an ar!uous tas3( the si)n of an eccentric
conservatism,
<s comare! to <&olitionism( the &i))est ro&lem #ith )lo&al
environmental mana)ement is not even that the #hole a)en!a ma% &e too
easil% transforme! into an antis%stemic tool( or messe! u &% an effort of
the rulin) )rous of the South( #hich mi)ht ossi&l% unite on
174 The Age of Transition
a latform of sustaina&le !eveloment an! forcefull% !eman! their share of
the *ost$in!ustrial* eco$safe technolo)ies instea! of the out!ate!
smo3estac3s, <fter all( successful i!eolo)ies of historical caitalism have
invaria&l% &een revolutionar% in st%le( thus &alancin) close to the e!)e of
antis%stemic conse'uences,
The ro&lem is that environmental mana)ement !oes not seem revo$
lutionar% enou)h> hence it ma% &e an immanent failure from the outset,
The crusa!e to save the Earth !oesn*t seem feasi&le )iven the resent lac3
of coor!inate! olitical #ill an! availa&le resources amon) the ossi&le
conten!ers for an eventual future )lo&al he)emon%( #hich leaves us #ith
another ver% &i) 'uestion mar3 in the interro)ation a&out the future,
Table 6.1 0orl! heroin an! cocaine sei+ures( 1947$A? 53)6
:eroin Cocaine
1947=66 5annual avera)e6 1A7 41
1967=74 5annual avera)e6 953 6?5
1975 1(74A ?(446
1976 ?(5A3 ?(419
1977 ?(377 3(977
197A ?(441 5(391
1979 ?(474 A(365
19A4 ?(514 11(A?4
19A1 5(613 9(541
19A? 6(153 1?(49?
&oure0. UC Division of Carcotic Dru)s 8C<;/1/19A4( ;evie# of Tren!s in Dru) <&use
an! .llicit Traffic, Cite! in <rlacchi( 19A6,
Georgi M. Derlugian
175
176 The Age of Transition
Georgi M. Derlugian 177