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## By: Ahmed M. Attiya By: Ahmed M. Attiya

King Saud University
Electrical Engineering Dept.
Fundamental Laws of Electrostatics
Integral form Differential form

= l d E 0
E = 0

=
C
dv q s d D ev
q D
E
=
0

V
ev
S
dv q s d D ev
q
E D =
Fundamental Laws of
Magnetostatics
Integral form Differential form
=

s d J l d H
= J H
0 =

S C
s d B
0 =
=
B
J H
0

S
s d B
H B =
Electrostatic, Magnetostatic, and , g ,
Electromagnetostatic Fields
In the static case (no time variation), the
electric field (specified by E and D) and the ( p y )
magnetic field (specified by B and H) are
described by separate and independent sets described by separate and independent sets
of equations.
b h l In a conducting medium, both electrostatic
and magnetostatic fields can exist, and are
coupled through the Ohms law (J = E).
Such a situation is called electromagnetostatic. Such a situation is called electromagnetostatic.
Electromagnetostatic Fields g
In an electromagnetostatic field, the electric
field is completely determined by the p y y
stationary charges present in the system, and
the magnetic field is completely determined the magnetic field is completely determined
by the current.
h f l h The magnetic field does not enter into the
calculation of the electric field, nor does the
electric field enter into the calculation of the
magnetic field. magnetic field.
83 i h l d In 1831, Michael Faraday
discovers that a changing
magnetic flux can induce an
l t ti f electromotive force.
d
= A d B
r r

dt
d
V
emf

=
area

d B
d
l d E
0 =

C
l d E

=
S C
s d B
dt
l d E
Move a bar magnet toward
Conducting
loop
the loop, a current suddenly
appears in the circuit
Sensitive
current meter
The current disappears when
the bar magnet stops
Since there is no battery or
other source of emf included,
If we then move the bar magnet away, a
current again suddenly appears, but now in
the opposite direction
there is no current in the circuit
the opposite direction
Discovering of the First Experiments
1. A current appears only if there is relative
motion bet een the loop and the magnet motion between the loop and the magnet
2 Faster motion produces a greater current
3 If moving the magnets N-pole towards the
2. Faster motion produces a greater current
3. If moving the magnet s N pole towards the
loop causes clockwise current, then moving
the N-pole away causes counterclockwise.
Magnetic Field can produce an electric current in a closed
loop, if the magnetic flux linking the surface area of the loop
changes with time.
This mechanism is called Electromagnetic Induction
d d
N V
emf

=
dt
emf
LENZS LAW LENZ S LAW
The polarity of the emf induced by a The polarity of the emf induced by a
changing flux will produce a current that
t ti fi ld i th generates a magnetic field opposing the
flux change that produced it
Conclusions from the experiment
Current induced in the closed loop when magnetic flux changes,
and direction of current depends on whether flux is increasing or
decreasingg
If the loop is turned or moved closer or away from the coil, the
ph sical mo ement changes the magnetic fl linking its s rface physical movement changes the magnetic flux linking its surface,
produces a current in the loop, even though B has not changed
In Technical Terms
Time ar ing magnetic field prod ces an electromoti e Time-varying magnetic field produces an electromotive
force (emf) which establish a current in the closed
circuit circuit
Electromotive force (emf) can be obtained through the
following ways: following ways:
1. A time-varying flux linking a stationary closed path. (i.e.
Transformer)
2. Relative motion between a steady flux and a close path.
(i.e. D.C. Generator)
3. A combination of the two above, both flux changing and
d i i l l l d h conductor moving simultaneously. A closed path may
consists of a conductor, a capacitor or an imaginary line in
space etc space, etc.
The magnitude of the induced emf in a closed
i i
g
circuit
is equal to the time rate of change of the linked
magnetic flux .
( l ) (volts)
Minus Sign Lenzs Law
I di t th t th f i d d i i h di ti t Indicates that the emf induced is in such a direction as to
produces a current whose flux is opposite to the original
flux flux.
If the closed path is taken by an N-turn filamentary conductors
Magnetic flux ? Magnetic flux ?
The magnetic flux linking a surface S is defined as the
total magnetic flux density B passing through S: total magnetic flux density B passing through S:
(Wb) (Wb)

Take N = 1

## In Electrostatics an electric field intensity E due to static charge

distribution must lead to zero potential difference
b t l ed th about a closed path.
Here the line integral leads to a potential difference
15
g p
with time-varying magnetic fields, the results is
an emf or a voltage
Stationary Loop in a Time-Varying Magnetic Field
A i l t (N 1) d ti l i A single-turn (N =1), conducting loop is
placed in a time-varying magnetic field B(t).
i h l i i d/d ( ) l Since the loop is stationary, d/dt operates on B(t) only

## If B is not time varying i e If B is not time-varying, i.e.

OR
M ll E f El i
OR
Maxwells Eqn of Electrostatic
Moving Conductor in a Static Magnetic Field
Awire with length l moving across a static magnetic field
at a constant velocity u (points to x).
The conducting wire contains free electron.
Magnetic force F
m
acting on
any charged particle q any charged particle q
moving with velocity uis:
This F
m
is equivalent to the
electrical force that would be
exerted o the particle by an
electric field E
m
given by:
The electric field E
m
generated by the motion of
E
m
is in a direction
perpendicular to the plane
generated by the motion of
the charged particle is called a
motional electric field
perpendicular to the plane
containing uand B
For the wire, E
m
is along -y
^
Magnetic force acting on
the electrons in the wire
causes them to move in
the direction of -E
m
i.e. towards the end labeled 1
Induces a voltage difference Induces a voltage difference
between ends 1 and 2
End 2 being at the higher potential

## Voltage induced: motional emf,

End 2 being at the higher potential
For the conducting wire: g

## In general, if any segment of a closed circuit with contour C

moves with a velocity uacross a static magnetic field B, then
the induced motional emf is:
O l th t f th i it th t ti Only those segments of the circuit that cross magnetic
field lines contribute to
Fleming Right Hand Rule Fleming Right Hand Rule g g g g
Direction of Induced e.m.f, Magnetic Flux, Conductor Motion
Fore Finger
Di ti f Direction of
Field Flux
Thumb
Direction of
Conductor Motion
Middle Finger
Direction of Induced
emf or Current Flow emf or Current Flow
Fleming's right hand rule (for generators)
Fleming's right hand rule shows the direction of Fleming s right hand rule shows the direction of
induced current flow when a conductor moves in
a magnetic field.
The right hand is held with the thumb, first finger
and second finger mutually at right angles, as
shown in the diagram shown in the diagram
The Thumb represents the direction of Motion of the conductor The Thumb represents the direction of Motion of the conductor.
The First finger represents the direction of the Field.
The Second finger represents the direction of the induced or generated Current
(i h l i l di i f i i i ) (in the classical direction, from positive to negative).
Fleming's left hand rule (for electric motors)
Fl i ' l f h d l h h di i f
Fleming s left hand rule (for electric motors)
Fleming's left hand rule shows the direction of
the thrust on a conductor carrying a current in a
magnetic field.
The left hand is held with the thumb, index finger
and middle finger mutually at right angles. g y g g
The First finger represents the direction of the Field.
The Second finger represents the direction of the Current (in the classical
direction, frompositive to negative). direction, from positive to negative).
The Thumb represents the direction of the Thrust or resultant Motion.
The rectangular loop shown in the
Example 1:
g p
figure is situated in the x-y plane
and moves away from the origin
at a velocity (m/s) in a
magnetic field given by:
(T)
If R = 5 , find the current I at the
instant that the loop sides are at
y
1
= 2m and y
2
= 2.5m .
The loop resistance may be ignored. The loop resistance may be ignored.
h i d d l i i b The induced voltage V
12
is given by:
Since is along g
Voltage are induced across
only the sides oriented along
i.e. sides (1-2) and (3-4)
x

## B decreases exponentially with y B decreases exponentially with y

The induced voltage V
12
is given by: The induced voltage V
12
is given by:
B decreases exponentially with y B decreases exponentially with y
At y
1
= 2 m
Induced voltage V
12
is:
At y
2
= 2 5 m At y
2
2.5 m
Induced voltage V
43
is:
Current in the circuit is:
Example Example 2 2: AC Generator : AC Generator
The Faradays Law is the principle at work in an electric generator.
The essential design is a conducting coil rotating in the magnetic field
of a fixed magnet. g
G t Generators
Si l Ph G t Single-Phase Generator
l l i h i For constant angular velocity, the magnetic
flux through the coil area A is:
Conducting Coil Conducting Coil
B

## Some Other Applications of

M ti I d ti Magnetic Induction
The Magnetic Playback Head of a Tape
Deck Deck
Tape / Hard Drive etc
Tiny coil responds to change in flux as the magnetic Tiny coil responds to change in flux as the magnetic
domains go by (encoding 0s or 1s).
M t i d Must swipe card
generates changing flux
b l Faster swipe bigger signal
Transformers
A transformer is a device for increasing or decreasing an ac
voltage voltage.
The changing magnetic flux produced by the current in the
i il i d f i h d il primary coil induces an emf in the secondary coil.
At the far right is the symbol for a transformer.
Transformer Equations
Using Faradays law we can write expressions for the
primary and secondary voltages as follows: primary and secondary voltages as follows:
N V
S S

=
N V

=
.
t
N V
S S

.
t
N V
P P

=
Dividing the above equations we get,
.
S S
N V
=
Dividing the above equations we get,
P P
N V
Assuming that there is no power loss, we can
write,
.
P P S S
I V I V =
N I V
.
P
S
S
P
P
S
N
N
I
I
V
V
= =
Power Loss in Transmission Lines
Transformers play a key role in the transmission of electric power.
R I P
2
R I P
Loss
2
=
Example 3 Example 3
Example 4 Example 4
Example 5 Example 5