EMF

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EMF

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King Saud University

Electrical Engineering Dept.

Fundamental Laws of Electrostatics

Integral form Differential form

= l d E 0

E = 0

=

C

dv q s d D ev

q D

E

=

0

V

ev

S

dv q s d D ev

q

E D =

Fundamental Laws of

Magnetostatics

Integral form Differential form

=

s d J l d H

= J H

0 =

S C

s d B

0 =

=

B

J H

0

S

s d B

H B =

Electrostatic, Magnetostatic, and , g ,

Electromagnetostatic Fields

In the static case (no time variation), the

electric field (specified by E and D) and the ( p y )

magnetic field (specified by B and H) are

described by separate and independent sets described by separate and independent sets

of equations.

b h l In a conducting medium, both electrostatic

and magnetostatic fields can exist, and are

coupled through the Ohms law (J = E).

Such a situation is called electromagnetostatic. Such a situation is called electromagnetostatic.

Electromagnetostatic Fields g

In an electromagnetostatic field, the electric

field is completely determined by the p y y

stationary charges present in the system, and

the magnetic field is completely determined the magnetic field is completely determined

by the current.

h f l h The magnetic field does not enter into the

calculation of the electric field, nor does the

electric field enter into the calculation of the

magnetic field. magnetic field.

Faradays Experiment y p

83 i h l d In 1831, Michael Faraday

discovers that a changing

magnetic flux can induce an

l t ti f electromotive force.

d

= A d B

r r

dt

d

V

emf

=

area

d B

d

l d E

0 =

C

l d E

=

S C

s d B

dt

l d E

Move a bar magnet toward

Conducting

loop

the loop, a current suddenly

appears in the circuit

Sensitive

current meter

The current disappears when

the bar magnet stops

Since there is no battery or

other source of emf included,

If we then move the bar magnet away, a

current again suddenly appears, but now in

the opposite direction

there is no current in the circuit

the opposite direction

Discovering of the First Experiments

1. A current appears only if there is relative

motion bet een the loop and the magnet motion between the loop and the magnet

2 Faster motion produces a greater current

3 If moving the magnets N-pole towards the

2. Faster motion produces a greater current

3. If moving the magnet s N pole towards the

loop causes clockwise current, then moving

the N-pole away causes counterclockwise.

Magnetic Field can produce an electric current in a closed

loop, if the magnetic flux linking the surface area of the loop

changes with time.

This mechanism is called Electromagnetic Induction

d d

N V

emf

=

dt

emf

LENZS LAW LENZ S LAW

The polarity of the emf induced by a The polarity of the emf induced by a

changing flux will produce a current that

t ti fi ld i th generates a magnetic field opposing the

flux change that produced it

Conclusions from the experiment

Current induced in the closed loop when magnetic flux changes,

and direction of current depends on whether flux is increasing or

decreasingg

If the loop is turned or moved closer or away from the coil, the

ph sical mo ement changes the magnetic fl linking its s rface physical movement changes the magnetic flux linking its surface,

produces a current in the loop, even though B has not changed

In Technical Terms

Time ar ing magnetic field prod ces an electromoti e Time-varying magnetic field produces an electromotive

force (emf) which establish a current in the closed

circuit circuit

Electromotive force (emf) can be obtained through the

following ways: following ways:

1. A time-varying flux linking a stationary closed path. (i.e.

Transformer)

2. Relative motion between a steady flux and a close path.

(i.e. D.C. Generator)

3. A combination of the two above, both flux changing and

d i i l l l d h conductor moving simultaneously. A closed path may

consists of a conductor, a capacitor or an imaginary line in

space etc space, etc.

Faradays Law Faradays Law

The magnitude of the induced emf in a closed

i i

g

circuit

is equal to the time rate of change of the linked

magnetic flux .

( l ) (volts)

Minus Sign Lenzs Law

I di t th t th f i d d i i h di ti t Indicates that the emf induced is in such a direction as to

produces a current whose flux is opposite to the original

flux flux.

If the closed path is taken by an N-turn filamentary conductors

Magnetic flux ? Magnetic flux ?

The magnetic flux linking a surface S is defined as the

total magnetic flux density B passing through S: total magnetic flux density B passing through S:

(Wb) (Wb)

Take N = 1

distribution must lead to zero potential difference

b t l ed th about a closed path.

Here the line integral leads to a potential difference

15

g p

with time-varying magnetic fields, the results is

an emf or a voltage

Stationary Loop in a Time-Varying Magnetic Field

A i l t (N 1) d ti l i A single-turn (N =1), conducting loop is

placed in a time-varying magnetic field B(t).

i h l i i d/d ( ) l Since the loop is stationary, d/dt operates on B(t) only

OR

M ll E f El i

OR

Maxwells Eqn of Electrostatic

Moving Conductor in a Static Magnetic Field

Awire with length l moving across a static magnetic field

at a constant velocity u (points to x).

The conducting wire contains free electron.

Magnetic force F

m

acting on

any charged particle q any charged particle q

moving with velocity uis:

This F

m

is equivalent to the

electrical force that would be

exerted o the particle by an

electric field E

m

given by:

The electric field E

m

generated by the motion of

E

m

is in a direction

perpendicular to the plane

generated by the motion of

the charged particle is called a

motional electric field

perpendicular to the plane

containing uand B

For the wire, E

m

is along -y

^

Magnetic force acting on

the electrons in the wire

causes them to move in

the direction of -E

m

i.e. towards the end labeled 1

Induces a voltage difference Induces a voltage difference

between ends 1 and 2

End 2 being at the higher potential

End 2 being at the higher potential

For the conducting wire: g

moves with a velocity uacross a static magnetic field B, then

the induced motional emf is:

O l th t f th i it th t ti Only those segments of the circuit that cross magnetic

field lines contribute to

Fleming Right Hand Rule Fleming Right Hand Rule g g g g

Direction of Induced e.m.f, Magnetic Flux, Conductor Motion

Fore Finger

Di ti f Direction of

Field Flux

Thumb

Direction of

Conductor Motion

Middle Finger

Direction of Induced

emf or Current Flow emf or Current Flow

Fleming's right hand rule (for generators)

Fleming's right hand rule shows the direction of Fleming s right hand rule shows the direction of

induced current flow when a conductor moves in

a magnetic field.

The right hand is held with the thumb, first finger

and second finger mutually at right angles, as

shown in the diagram shown in the diagram

The Thumb represents the direction of Motion of the conductor The Thumb represents the direction of Motion of the conductor.

The First finger represents the direction of the Field.

The Second finger represents the direction of the induced or generated Current

(i h l i l di i f i i i ) (in the classical direction, from positive to negative).

Fleming's left hand rule (for electric motors)

Fl i ' l f h d l h h di i f

Fleming s left hand rule (for electric motors)

Fleming's left hand rule shows the direction of

the thrust on a conductor carrying a current in a

magnetic field.

The left hand is held with the thumb, index finger

and middle finger mutually at right angles. g y g g

The First finger represents the direction of the Field.

The Second finger represents the direction of the Current (in the classical

direction, frompositive to negative). direction, from positive to negative).

The Thumb represents the direction of the Thrust or resultant Motion.

Application of Faradays Law Application of Faradays Law

The rectangular loop shown in the

Example 1:

g p

figure is situated in the x-y plane

and moves away from the origin

at a velocity (m/s) in a

magnetic field given by:

(T)

If R = 5 , find the current I at the

instant that the loop sides are at

y

1

= 2m and y

2

= 2.5m .

The loop resistance may be ignored. The loop resistance may be ignored.

h i d d l i i b The induced voltage V

12

is given by:

Since is along g

Voltage are induced across

only the sides oriented along

i.e. sides (1-2) and (3-4)

x

The induced voltage V

12

is given by: The induced voltage V

12

is given by:

B decreases exponentially with y B decreases exponentially with y

At y

1

= 2 m

Induced voltage V

12

is:

At y

2

= 2 5 m At y

2

2.5 m

Induced voltage V

43

is:

Current in the circuit is:

Example Example 2 2: AC Generator : AC Generator

The Faradays Law is the principle at work in an electric generator.

The essential design is a conducting coil rotating in the magnetic field

of a fixed magnet. g

G t Generators

Si l Ph G t Single-Phase Generator

l l i h i For constant angular velocity, the magnetic

flux through the coil area A is:

Conducting Coil Conducting Coil

B

M ti I d ti Magnetic Induction

The Magnetic Playback Head of a Tape

Deck Deck

Tape / Hard Drive etc

Tiny coil responds to change in flux as the magnetic Tiny coil responds to change in flux as the magnetic

domains go by (encoding 0s or 1s).

Credit Card Reader

M t i d Must swipe card

generates changing flux

b l Faster swipe bigger signal

Transformers

A transformer is a device for increasing or decreasing an ac

voltage voltage.

The changing magnetic flux produced by the current in the

i il i d f i h d il primary coil induces an emf in the secondary coil.

At the far right is the symbol for a transformer.

Transformer Equations

Using Faradays law we can write expressions for the

primary and secondary voltages as follows: primary and secondary voltages as follows:

N V

S S

=

N V

=

.

t

N V

S S

.

t

N V

P P

=

Dividing the above equations we get,

.

S S

N V

=

Dividing the above equations we get,

P P

N V

Assuming that there is no power loss, we can

write,

.

P P S S

I V I V =

N I V

.

P

S

S

P

P

S

N

N

I

I

V

V

= =

Power Loss in Transmission Lines

Transformers play a key role in the transmission of electric power.

R I P

2

R I P

Loss

2

=

Example 3 Example 3

Example 4 Example 4

Example 5 Example 5

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