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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is FAS? Fundamental configuration of FAS FACP Power Supply Initiating Devices Notification Appliances Building Safety Interfaces Common Troubles
1. What is FAS?
FAS – Fire Alarm System •As the name implies FAS is a system that is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. •In general, a fire alarm system is either classified as automatic, manually activated, or both. •Automatic fire alarm systems can be used to notify people to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, to summon emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and smoke.
2. Fundamental configuration
•Fire alarm control panel: This component, the hub of the system, monitors inputs and system integrity, controls outputs and relays information. •Power supply: Commonly the non-switched 120 or 240 Volt Alternating Current source supplied from a commercial power utility. In non-residential applications, a branch circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and its constituents. •Initiating Devices: This component acts as input to the fire alarm control unit and are either manually or automatically activated. •Notification appliances: This component uses energy supplied from the fire alarm system or other stored energy source, to inform the proximate persons of the need to take action, usually to evacuate. •Building Safety Interfaces: This interface allows the fire alarm system to control aspects of the built environment and to prepare the building for fire and to control the spread of smoke fumes and fire by influencing air movement, lighting, process control, human transport and exit.
3. FACP – Fire Alarm Control Panel
A fire alarm control panel (FACP), or fire alarm control unit (FACU), is an electric panel that is the controlling component of a fire alarm system. The panel receives information from environmental sensors designed to detect changes associated with fire, monitors their operational integrity and provides for automatic control of equipment, and transmission of information necessary to prepare the facility for fire based on a predetermined sequence. The panel may also supply electrical energy to operate any associated sensor, control, transmitter, or relay. There are four basic types of panels: 1. 2. 3. 4. Coded panels Conventional panels Addressable panels Multiplex systems.
A Simplex 4100U Info ALARM addressable fire alarm control panel.
Addressable panels: Addressable panels are usually much more advanced than their conventional counterparts, with a higher degree of programming flexibility and single point detection. Addressable fire alarm panels were introduced by many manufacturers during the microcontroller boom in the mid 1980s. Examples include the Simplex 4100U. The 4100U is available as a standalone system with one host panel, or as an expansive system with several remote back boxes, with or without multiple host panels. The type of configuration used depends on the size of the site into which it is being installed. The following types of configurations are offered: Standalone. Comprised of one FACP and its assorted warning devices, initiating devices, and signaling line circuit devices. MINIPLEX. A standalone system plus remote transponder cabinets, which allow for additional slave modules to be used. Typically used for multi-level buildings and small multi-building applications. Network. A multi-FACP system connected by network cards. Each panel maintains the status and control of its own circuit points while monitoring and controlling activity at other locations. Network nodes may perform similar tasks, or may be dedicated to specific functions.
Network Configuration: The 4100 can be expanded to a network system by using network interface cards (NICs).When a NIC is installed into a 4100 host panel, it is used to connect to other network nodes. Nodes may consist of other host 4100 panels, or they may be completely different: Graphical Command Centers (GCCs), and Visual Command Centers (VCCs) are all examples of what could be used as nodes. A node is a self-sufficient CPU that controls appliances and devices, which also has the capability of controlling and communicating with other nodes. The network configuration supports two prevalent architectures (or wiring configurations): 1. 2. Hub (or ring) Star A networked system can also use a combination of the two.
Components of Simplex FACP:
1. 2. 3. 4. CPU (Central Processing Unit) Signaling Line Circuit Loops (SLC loops) Network Interface Card (NIC) System Power Supply (SPS)
As the name implies, this is the processing unit of FACP. It Process the information got from the devices and perform the related operations. Ex: The sensors provide an analog measurement that is digitally communicated to the control panel where it is analyzed and an average value is determined and stored. An alarm and other abnormal condition is determined by comparing the sensors present value against its average value. The CPU controls the overall FACP.
• Analog sensors information is digitally communicated to the control panel via
MAPNET II or ID Net, two wire communication. • Peak activity/sensor is stored to assist in evaluating specific locations. The alarm set point for each sensor is determined at the control panel. • Alarm set point can be programmed for timed automatic sensitivity selection (such as more sensitivity at night, less during day). • The control panel can be programmed to provide multistage operation per sensor. Ex: A 0.2% level may cause a warning to prompt investigation while a 2.5% level may initiate an alarm. • The control panel determines when individual sensors need cleaning. Dirty sensors or other sensors trouble will automatically be annunciated at the control panel and that sensor’s base LED will light steadily.
2. Signaling Line Circuit Loops (SLC loops):
Communication between the control panels and intelligent addressable initiating, monitor and control devices takes place through signaling line circuit, which can be wired to meet the requirement of NFPA (National Fire Protection Association). Panels usually have a number of signaling line circuit loops - usually referred to as loops or SLC loops - ranging between one and thirty. Depending on the protocol used, a loop can monitor and control several hundred devices. Some protocols permit any mix of detectors and input/output modules, while other protocols have 50% of channel capacity restricted to detectors/sensors and 1/2 restricted to input/output modules. Each SLC polls the devices connected, which can number from a few devices to several hundred, depending on the manufacturer. •The Simplex 4100 and 4100U FACP have 10 SLC loops. • The Simplex 4100 FACP can address up to 1000 devices. • The Simplex 4100U FACP can address up to 2000 devices. • Number of devices that can be connected to each SLC loop Simplex 4100 – 127 devices Simplex 4100U – 250 devices
Each device on a SLC has its own address, and so the panel knows the state of each individual device connected to it. Common addressable input (initiating) devices include • Fire Detectors • Manual call points or manual pull stations • Isolators • ZAM (Zone Adaptor Module) • IAM (Individual Addressable Module)
Fire Detectors and Manual call points or manual pull stations are explained in chapter5.
Devices connected to the FACP through signaling line circuit
Devices connected to the FACP using Isolators.
4090-9117AU Addressable Power Isolator
• The Isolator module protects the section of a transmission line from short circuits. The Isolator module is used in conjunction with the Transceiver. • The Isolator modules are placed in series with transmission lines, where they monitor for short circuits. They are wired as a part of the loop with an Isolator, every so many feet or so many devices. • In an event of a short circuit, 2 Isolator modules open, removing the shortened section of line from the channel. Both good sections of line will be able to communicate with the rest of the system, one from the primary side and one from the secondary side. • ‘No Answer’ troubles will be indicated for the devices on the shorted side of the line.
ZAM (Zone Adaptor Module): ZAMs provide an addressable interface to conventional fire alarm zone circuit devices including: • Initiating devices (Monitor ZAM) • Notification appliance circuits (Signal ZAM) • Control relays (Control ZAM)
Monitor ZAMs: provide status monitoring and supervision of an initiating device circuit (IDC) zone and are used for circuits with non-addressable detectors and for other contact closures such as water flow and tamper switches or non-addressable manual stations. Signal ZAMs: supervise and operate 24 VDC notification appliances, speakers, and telephone circuits. Control ZAMs: provide addressable control functions such as elevator capture, HVAC control, pressurization fan control, and damper control.
4090-9101 Zone Adaptor Module (ZAM)
IAM (Individual Addressable Module): An individually addressable module that has both its power and its communications supplied by a two wire circuit. It provides location specific addressability to a single initiating device or multiple devices by monitoring normally open, dry contacts. Closure of the monitored contacts initiates an alarm. An open in the initiating circuitry wiring will cause a trouble to be reported at the Fire Alarm Control Panel. If the initiating device contacts are momentary, such as from a rate-of rise heat detector, enabling the latch feature allows the IAM to latch the alarm condition until the system is reset. For applications where the contact closure latches, or if its condition needs to be tracked at the control panel, non-latching operation may be enabled.
4090-9118 Relay IAM (Individual Addressable Module) with T-Sense Input
3. Network Interface Card (NIC):
The 4100 can be expanded to a network system by using network interface cards (NICs).When a NIC is installed into a 4100 host panel, it is used to connect to other network nodes. Network communication is achieved via network interface cards. Each network node requires a NIC. Once the FACP is a network node, it may be programmed to be fully in control of other nodes, or to be fully passive or anywhere in between. NICs uses the standard 4100 serial bus to communicate with the master. The NIC connects FACPs in a network allowing for communication between each panel via fiber, modem or twisted shielded pair wire. The NIC is designed to be connected in a point-to-point arrangement, so that one wire fault does not cause the entire system to fail. The point-to-point arrangement provides the most secure and fault tolerant wiring possible. Up to 2 media boards can be plugged into each NIC. The same NIC can use a combination of 2 types of media board. Ex: NIC may have a wired media card connected to port1 and fiber optical media card connected to port2. The NIC used media cards to connect to other NICS.
4. System Power Supply (SPS):
The system power supply (SPS) is mains powered and has backup batteries that get switched in on mains failure. It is the initial power source for the CPU and the host cabinet. The SPS provides 24V card power to the CPU motherboard and the other cards. It also supplies 24V power on a separate bus to the outputs, e.g. Notification Appliance Circuits (NACs). The SPS also has three on-board NACs that support reverse polarity supervision. It provides an IDNet channel, auxiliary power, an auxiliary relay, and it mounts and drives the Alarm Relay Card. The SPS performs functions such as brownout detect, battery transfer, battery recharge, earth fault detection, and power limiting of outputs. It provides voltage and current information to the CPU card, which can then be displayed at the user interface. The 24Vdc bulk power on the SPS is unregulated, and is divided into three feeds, i.e. 24V Card, 24V Signal, and 24V Aux Power. The 27.3V regulated battery charger is powered from the bulk supply and is switched off during alarm. The batteries only get connected to the bulk supply when the mains supply fails.
In expansion bays, power and data are distributed via the power distribution interface (PDI). The PDI is a wiring board with eight card slots, each of which can accommodate a 4-inch (102 mm) x 5-inch (127 mm) slave card. If motherboards are used, they must be mounted over the PDI using metal standoffs.
4. Power Supply
Commonly the non-switched 120 or 240 Volt Alternating Current source supplied from a commercial power utility. In non-residential applications, a branch circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and its constituents. Secondary (backup) Power supplies: This component, commonly consisting of sealed lead-acid storage batteries or other emergency sources including generators, is used to supply energy in the event of a primary power failure.
5. Initiating Devices
This component acts as input to the fire alarm control unit and are either manually or automatically activated. • Manually activated devices: Break glass stations, Buttons and manual pull station are constructed to be readily located (near the exits), identified, and operated. • Automatically activated devices: can take many forms intended to respond to any number of detectable physical changes associated with fire: convected thermal energy; heat detector, products of combustion; smoke detector, combo detector (both heat and smoke detector).
Manually activated devices: The addressable Manual Call Point (MCP) provides a means to manually initiate a fire alarm condition to the FACP c.i.e. via the channel. The channel provides the communication link and power between the call point and FACP. Activation of the MCP requires the frangible element to be broken, which causes contacts on a microswitch to close, initiating an alarm condition. Call Point reset requires the fitting of a replacement frangible element. The MCP features an integral red LED status indicator.
4099-9032 Manual Call Point
Automatically activated devices: Smoke Detector:
A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke. Commercial, industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system. Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection (photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase sensitivity to smoke. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup. Every 4 seconds, smoke sensors transmit output value based on their smoke chamber condition.
Optical smoke detector:
An optical detector is a light sensor. When used as a smoke detector, it includes a light source (incandescent bulb or infrared LED), a lens to collimate the light into a beam, and a photodiode or other photoelectric sensor at an angle to the beam as a light detector. In the absence of smoke, the light passes in front of the detector in a straight line. When smoke enters the optical chamber across the path of the light beam, some light is scattered by the smoke particles, directing it at the sensor and thus triggering the alarm. Optical smoke detectors are quick in detecting particulate (smoke) generated by smoldering (cool, smoky) fires. Many independent tests indicate that optical smoke detectors typically detect particulates (smoke) from hot, flaming fires approximately 30 seconds later than ionization smoke alarms. They are less sensitive to false alarms from steam or cooking fumes generated in kitchen or steam from the bathroom than are ionization smoke alarms. For the aforementioned reason, they are often referred to as 'toast proof' smoke alarms.
Optical Smoke Detector with the cover removed.
Ionization Smoke Detector:
This type of detector is cheaper than the optical detector; however, it is sometimes rejected because it is more prone to false (nuisance) alarms than photoelectric smoke detectors. It can detect particles of smoke that are too small to be visible. It includes radioactive americium (241Am). The radiation passes through an ionization chamber, an air-filled space between two electrodes, and permits a small, constant current between the electrodes. Any smoke that enters the chamber absorbs the alpha particles, which reduces the ionization and interrupts this current, setting off the alarm.
A heat detector is a device that responds to changes in ambient temperature. Typically, if the ambient temperature rises above a predetermined threshold an alarm signal is triggered. In the case of sprinkler systems, water will be released to extinguish the fire. Heat detectors can also be further broken down into two main classifications of activation, "rate-of-rise" and "fixed." The most sophisticated units are activated by both conditions.
Rate-of-rise heat detectors Rate-of-rise (ROR) heat detectors react to the sudden change or rise in ambient temperature from a normal baseline condition. Any sudden temperature increase that matches the predetermined alarm criteria will cause an alarm. This type of heat detector can react to a lower threshold condition than would be possible if the threshold were fixed. A typical alarm may sound when the rate of temperature rise exceeds 12° to 15°F (6.7° to 8.3°C) per minute. Fixed temperature heat detectors This type of detector reacts when the ambient temperature reaches a fixed point. The most common fixed temperature point is 136.4°F (58°C). Recent technological developments have enabled the perfection of detectors that activate at a temperature of 117°F (47°C), providing increased time to escape.
Combo Detector: As the name implies it is a combination of Heat and smoke detectors. Using the single combo detector we can detect both heat and smoke.
6. Notification Appliances
A fire alarm notification appliance is an active fire protection component. A notification appliance may use audible, visible, or other stimuli to alert the occupants of a fire or other emergency condition requiring action. Audible appliances have been in use longer than any other method of notification. Example: Hooter – When ZAM gets the 24VDC it activates the Hooter.
7. Building Safety Interfaces
This interface allows the fire alarm system to control aspects of the built environment and to prepare the building for fire and to control the spread of smoke fumes and fire by influencing air movement, lighting, process control, human transport and exit. Magnetic Smoke Door Holders: Wall or floor mounted solenoids or electromagnets controlled by a fire alarm system or detection component that magnetically secures spring-loaded selfclosing smoke tight doors in the open position. Designed to de-magnetize to allow automatic closure of the door on command from the fire control or upon failure of the power source, interconnection or controlling element. Stored energy in the form of a spring or gravity can then close the door to restrict the passage of smoke from one space to another in an effort to maintain a tenable atmosphere on either side of the door during evacuation and fire fighting efforts. Duct Mounted Smoke Detection: Smoke detection mounted in such a manner as to sample the airflow through duct work and other plenums specifically fabricated for the transport of environmental air into conditioned spaces. Interconnection to the fan motor control circuits are intended to stop air movement, close dampers and generally prevent the recirculation of toxic smoke and fumes produced by fire into occupiable spaces.
Fire Sprinkler Systems:
A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of a water supply system, providing adequate pressure and flowrate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected. These are different systems used in different places to put off accidental fires. The most common fire sprinkler system is a wet pipe system which always has water in it. The sprinkler heads have a heat sensitive element, most commonly a glass bulb filled with liquid that expand when exposed to heat, after a certain temperature is met , usually 160 degrees or more the glass bulb breaks and allows water to flow on the fire in a uniform water density. The sprinkler system may have an alarm device that sounds an audible alarm in the building, and/or call the fire department. The system may have a connection for the fire department to add to the automatic water supply.
8. Common Troubles
Also known as "Defect". When held steady or flashing, it means that a trouble condition exists on the panel. Trouble conditions are often activated by a contaminated smoke detector or an electrical problem within the system. Trouble conditions are also activated by a zone being disabled (disconnected from the system), a circuit being disabled, low power on the backup battery, the disabling of a notification appliance, the ground faults, or short or open circuits. Usually the alarm panel's sounder will activate if a trouble condition exists, though older systems would sometimes activate a bell or other audible signal connected to the panel. In a trouble condition, the panel displays the zone or devices causing the condition. The "Trouble" indicator goes out automatically when the situation causing the trouble condition is rectified and some panels have more specific indicators such as 'Trouble-PSU' which shows when the panel itself is compromised and 'Trouble-Bell' which shows that the sounders are not functioning correctly.