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=== MY 3D JARGON ==

le aree delimitate dagli edges (linee rette che collegano due vertici), suddivise in triangoli triangoli
(normalmente o anche in quadrati. Triangulate o Quadrangulate)
A polygon mesh is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of a polyhedral
object in 3 computer graphics
3 modeling (also !no"n as meshing)
T#$T%&# 'A(()*+,
Te-ture mapping is a method for adding detail, surface te-ture (a bitmap or raster image), or color
to a computer.generated graphic or 3 model.
ato che le te-ture non possono rispecchiare l/illumina0ione della scena, ma solo il colore del
modello, per 1perturbare1 le normali ai poligoni si usa il bump mapping.
)l normal mapping 2 una tecnica che sostituisce invece di perturbare la normale alla superficie,
una normal map 2 un/immagine a 3 canali in cui ogni pi-el rappresenta un vettore 3, ovvero la
normale al punto stesso.
*ormal map, the distinctive colors represent the directional topology of the original mesh. The
lighting pass is made from this information rather than the lo"er poly mesh/s verte- normals.
*ormal mapping "or!s by simulating surface details on a mesh so that lighting can be performed
as if the detail "as actually in the mesh
a light map te-ture may be used to light a surface as an alternative to recalculating that lighting
every time the surface is rendered.
3rapping is used in 3 computer graphics to repeat a te-ture over a polygon, eliminating the
need for large te-tures or multiple polygons.
%4 mapping is the 3 modeling process of ma!ing a 5 image representation of a 3 model.
This process projects a te-ture map onto a 3 object
The letters 1%1 and 141 are used to describe the 5 mesh678 because 1$1, 191 and 1:1 are already
used to describe the 3 object in model space.
%4 te-turing permits polygons that ma!e up a 3 object to be painted "ith color from an image.
The image is called a %4 te-ture map,658 but it/s just an ordinary image
copying a triangle shaped piece of the image map and pasting it onto a triangle on the object.
le linee rette che collegano tra loro i vertici
linee rette
;ol te-ture mapping si pu< descrivere la superficie di un oggetto sen0a aggiungere complessit=
alla scena, un/immagine (te-ture) viene 1spalmata1 sulla superficie di un oggetto,
>haders are essentially mathematical algorithms that, through various parameters, can ma!e
surfaces on geometry appear as fire, stone, etc etc.
are surfacing controls that create maps based on values entered by the user. 'aps created by
procedural shaders can be used on any surfacing parameter..diffuse color, specular reflection,
luminosity, transparency, just the same manner that bitmaps created outside the
application can be used.
a shader is a set of soft"are instructions that is used primarily to calculate rendering effects on
graphics hard"are "ith a high degree of fle-ibility
(i-el shaders, also !no"n as fragment shaders, calculate the color of individual pi-els
4erte- shaders are run once for each verte- given to the graphics processor. The purpose is to
transform each verte-/s 3 position in virtual space to the 5 coordinate at "hich it appears on
the screen (as "ell as a depth value for the :.buffer). 4erte- shaders can manipulate properties
such as position, colour, and te-ture coordinate, but cannot create ne" vertices
il processo di illumina0ione (lighting), che ricostruisce l/intera0ione tra gli oggetti e le sorgenti di
luce, a questo scopo sono necessari per un modello di illumina0ione le propriet= della luce, le
propriet= di riflessione e la normale alla superficie nel punto in cui l/equa0ione di illumina0ione
viene calcolata.
?o shading (lett. 1ombreggiatura1) 2 il processo di determina0ione del colore di un determinato
pi-el dell/immagine.
immagini che vengono usate per ricoprire i poligoni
a te-ture is a pi-el picture "ith no coordinate or lin! bet"een each pi-el. you need to coordinate
your surfaces (uvmap)before applied the te-ture(picture)
A material is the collection of many colors, te-tures, and display properties that are applied to a
surface of a 3 model.
#ach material can have several te-tures.
A te-ture is only the mapping of a bitmap image
A table may have a 1"ood1 material, though to ma!e the surface appear as "ood it needs several
te-tures, one purely for the color (diffuse te-ture), another one for the roughness of the surface
(bump te-ture), and another for the reflected surroundings (reflection te-ture).
a material is a pi-el mathematics algorhymte picture , it can be applied in any surface even if it is
no a coordinated one(uvmap)
is a set of coefficients that define ho" the lighting model interacts "ith the surface. )n particular
a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path or circuit, composed of a finite sequence of
straight line segments
polygonal modeling is an approach for modeling objects by representing or appro-imating their
surfaces using polygons
descrivono le aree di ogni singola faccia del modello
rappresentano le facce non suddivise per triangoli, direttamente connesse tra loro (top, bottom,
lati) che descrivono la geometria del modello
A point "here t"o or more lines meet
A verte- is a corner point of a polygon
i punti
)l rendering 2 il processo di produ0ione dell/immagine finale a partire dal modello matematico del
soggetto (scena).
+li algoritmi di rendering si dividono in due categorie, scanline renderers e ray tracers.
) primi operano oggetto per oggetto, disegnando direttamente su schermo ogni poligono o
micropoligono@ essi richiedono quindi che tutti gli oggetti (anche quelli modellati con curve
continue) siano stati sfaccettati in poligoni. ) secondi operano pi-el per pi-el, tracciando un raggio
visuale immaginario dal punto di vista all/interno della scena, e determinando il colore del pi-el
dalle interse0ioni con gli oggetti.
algoritmi per la modella0ione delle superfici curve.
?e patch piA comunemente usate sono in pratica basate su spline *%&B>
)n 3 computer graphics, hidden surface determination (also !no"n as hidden surface removal
(C>&), occlusion culling (D;) or visible surface determination (4>)) is the process used to
determine "hich surfaces and parts of surfaces are not visible from a certain vie"point. A hidden
surface determination algorithm is a solution to the visibility problem, "hich "as one of the first
major problems in the field of 3 computer graphics. The process of hidden surface
determination is sometimes called hiding, and such an algorithm is sometimes called a hider. The
analogue for line rendering is hidden line removal. Cidden surface determination is necessary to
render an image correctly, so that one cannot loo! through "alls in virtual reality.
A related area to 4> is c!!"#$, "hich usually happens before 4> in a rendering pipeline.
(rimitives or batches of primitives can be rejected in their entirety, "hich usually reduces the load
on a "ell.designed system.
The advantage of culling early on the pipeline is that entire objects that are invisible do not have
to be fetched, transformed, rasteri0ed or shaded. Cere are some types of culling algorithms,
V"%&"#$ '()*+ c!!"#$
The vie"ing frustum is a geometric representation of the volume visible to the virtual camera.
*aturally, objects outside this volume "ill not be visible in the final image, so they are discarded.
Dften, objects lie on the boundary of the vie"ing frustum. These objects are cut into pieces along
this boundary in a process called clipping, and the pieces that lie outside the frustum are
discarded as there is no place to dra" them.
B,c-',c% c!!"#$
>ince meshes are hollo" shells, not solid objects, the bac! side of some faces, or polygons, in
the mesh "ill never face the camera. Typically, there is no reason to dra" such faces. This is
responsible for the effect often seen in computer and video games in "hich, if the camera
happens to be inside a mesh, rather than seeing the 1inside1 surfaces of the mesh, it mostly
disappears. (>ome game engines continue to render any for"ard.facing or double.sided
polygons, resulting in stray shapes appearing "ithout the rest of the penetrated mesh.)
C.#*("/*".# c!!"#$
Dften, objects are so far a"ay that they do not contribute significantly to the final image. These
objects are thro"n a"ay if their screen projection is too small. >ee ;lipping plane
Occ!)".# c!!"#$
Dbjects that are entirely behind other opaque objects may be culled. This is a very popular
mechanism to speed up the rendering of large scenes that have a moderate to high depth
comple-ity. There are several types of occlusion culling approaches,
(otentially visible set or (4> rendering, divides a scene into regions and pre.computes visibility
for them. These visibility sets are then inde-ed at run.time to obtain high quality visibility sets
(accounting for comple- occluder interactions) quic!ly.
(ortal rendering divides a scene into cellsEsectors (rooms) and portals (doors), and computes
"hich sectors are visible by clipping them against portals.
Dcclusion culling is another means of increasing frame rate by not rendering certain object in a
'anual occlusion culling can easily be done by organi0ing objects in groups or mar!ing tags
or ?evel of etail
)f an object "ill be seen up close and needs lots of detail at some point in the game, but it "ill be
far enough a"ay at other times to needlessly ta- the engine, one often uses an ?D At
a particular distance, the high poly object is hidden and the lo" poly stunt double is sho"n in its
place to improve frame rate. 3ith some engines, this may be handled by the engine itself creating
the lo"er poly version and s"apping out at a pre.determined distance. )n other engines, or "ith
important meshes, the artists "ill provide the ?D version or versions.
The lo"est poly version is often an alpha channel using image
The image is al"ays fully self illuminated. The dynamic version consists of a single plane
containing the image that is al"ays turned to face the camera. This technique is called
The image is al"ays fully self illuminated. The dynamic version consists of a single plane
containing the image that is al"ays turned to face the camera. This technique is called
D")*,#c% c!!"#$:
&elated to ?D, distance culling means that at a particular distance, the object "ill no longer be
dra"n in the scene. 3hen a high poly count object ta!es only a fe" pi-els on screen, it is "asting
resources. Typically, one might use a lo" poly stand in at a particular distance, then use distance
cull to stop dra"ing the lo" poly at some point.
Besides being visually more interesting for an environment, fog "or!s "ell "ith distance culling
by allo"ing the objects to be culled sooner as they disappear into the fog. Fog can be of t"o
types, verte- fog "here the verte- color of an object is affected more as the object recedes, and
pi-el fog, "hich gives more consistent results but uses more resources.
C!"00"#$ 0!,#%)
;ameras have near and far clipping planes. Dbjects are not rendered if they are closer than the
near clipping plane or beyond the far clipping plane. 3hen used in conjunction "ith fog, clipping
planes present a quic! and efficient means of limiting the rendering of objects in the scene (see
Figure 7.35). )f any part of an object/s bounding bo- is "ithin the vie" frustum (the part of the
screen you see) and the camera clipping planes, then each face of the object has to go through
the chec!ing process to see if it "ill need to be rendered.
D(,& .(1%(
3hen a scene is rendered, objects are dra"n into that scene one at a time. epending on ho"
an engine is set up, it may also dra" certain types of objects before or after other objects. )f the
objects are dra"n in the order they "ere added to the scene, it/s possible that you "ill see alpha
dra" order issues. This happens "hen an object "ith partial transparency is dra"n sooner than
objects that lie behind it. uring dra"ing, if an object is partially occluded, that part is not dra"n.
The chec! for occlusion does not chec! the opacity of all of the occluding objects@ it/s either
occluded or not. To ensure that objects are dra"n behind transparent objects, the semi.
transparent objects are dra"n last.
)n some engines, the scene is parsed at start time to determine locations of semi.transparent
objects so that it !no"s the order in "hich to dra" them, therefore avoiding dra" order issues.
The do"nside of this method is "hen a semi.transparent object is animated out of its starting
position, dra" order may be adversely affected.
)n other engines, you may be able to use special shaders to achieve the same effect
)n 3, basic, non.+) (global illumination) is performed on a per.verte- basis. #ach verte- has
"hat is called a verte- normal, a vector that determines ho" the face or triangle "ill be lit, (Figure
7.3G). A ray is traced from the light to the verte- and the angle bet"een the t"o, the Angle of
)ncidence, is used to calculate the percentage of that light received by that verte-. The light
received by each verte- is averaged bet"een each. The smaller the angle, the more light the
verte- receives.
V%(*%3 4)5 0"3%! !"$2*"#$:
The previous e-amples use "hat is called verte- lighting. )t is the fastest type of lighting and is
quite efficient "ith lo"er polygon models (see Figure 7.3H). %nfortunately, "ith lo" poly models,
the averaging of the light bet"een vertices can leave splotchy, irregular results. As e-pected,
higher poly count ma!es for more even lighting, but at the cost of needing to calculate lighting on
more vertices. (i-el lights, on the other hand, perform more calculations on the mesh depending
on its current on screen si0e. A close object receives more e-tra render time than the same mesh
farther bac! in the scene.
(i-el lighting also allo"s for other affects such as shado"s, coo!ies (projected mas!s), and
normal mapsIall at a cost, of course. 3hile these features are assumed in ;; programs, they
are each responsible for using additional resources and slo"ing frame rate in real time. )n the
%nity game engine, if a graphics card does not support pi-el lights, the lights "ill automatically be
dropped bac! do"n to verte- lights.
Te-ture Ba!ing>ay you have an object. 9ou add a te-ture. And another te-ture "ith displacement.
A fe" lights to cast shado"s. Then you turn on Ambient Dcclusion. *o", every time you render
the scene, Blender has to calculate the te-ture, the displacement, the shado"s, and Ambient
Dcclusion. This ta!es a "hile. >ay you get the first object just the "ay you li!e it, and are not
going to change it any more. 9ou add a second object and "or! "ith it. But every time you render
the scene, Blender still does all that e-tra "or! for the first object even though nothing has
changed. 3ouldn/t it be a vast savings of time if you could someho" store the "or! Blender does
on the first object. This "ay, instead of "asting time re.calculating everything, Blender could
instead quic!ly re.load the stored "or!. This process is called Te-ture Ba!ing.