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________Application Note ________

October 2000
APPLICATION NOTE
Reference Guide for Integrating CO2
DCV with VAV Systems
Differences Between Traditional VAV and VAV with CO2 Control
This chart below describes the differences between a traditional VAV control approach and the
application of CO2 DCV (demand controlled ventilation) to operate a VAV system based on both
temperature and ventilation demand.
Traditional VAV VAV + CO2 DCV
General Principal
Of Operation
Control of temperature on a zone-by-zone basis
by modulating the amount of tempered air to the
space. The air handling unit (AHU) outside air
(OA) damper is at a fixed design level or an air
flow metering station is used to deliver constant
design outdoor CFM at all supply fan air flows.
Control of temperature and ventilation on a zone-by-
zone basis. The VAV box is modulated based on both
temperature and demand for fresh air based on actual
occupancy as measured by CO2. AHU outdoor air is
modulated based on actual occupancy.
Desi gn
Determining
Design Ventilation
Rate
A fixed ventilation rate is determined by
multiplying occupancy X target cfm/person or by
using multiple spaces approach in ASHRAE 62.
Sizing for worst-case critical space requirements
may result in excessive outside air ventilation
and energy waste.
Ventilation capacity remains the same. DCV is an
operational parameter. The Design Ventilation Rate
becomes the maximum position of the outside air
damper which is modulated based on demand as
measured with CO2. Maximum position is only achieved
when space is at full occupancy.
Critical Space
Considerations
Per ASHRAE 62, the fixed outside air capacity
must be sized to ensure that all spaces receive
adequate outside air under all operating
conditions (e.g. part load conditions). This
usually requires adjustments of Equation 6-1
ratios to minimize overall capacity impact of
maintaining correct ventilation to critical zones
under all supply airflow conditions.
System is operated based on actual occupancy and
ventilation requirements of the space as measured with
CO2 rather than providing fixed outdoor ventilation rates
based on worst case design assumptions. Every zone is
sized the same way and system capacity is merely the
sum of all zone ventilation requirements.
Base Ventilation
Requirements
Not Applicable. Outside air ventilation is fixed to
provide design ventilation CFM at all times.
A base ventilation rate (typically 20%-40% of design
ventilation) is necessary to control non-occupant related
sources. It is the minimum amount of outside air
provided during occupied hours. In practice the base
ventilation is very close to the minimum amount of OA
necessary to balance exhaust and maintain positive
pressure. See chart on next page for recommended
base ventilation rates.
Sensors One temperature sensor for each major zone of
occupancy.
One CO2 sensor and one temperature sensor (or one
combined sensor) for each major zone of occupancy.
Duct mount sensors take an average of all spaces and
will not accurately indicate ventilation requirements for
each space.
Operation
Outside Air
Quantities
A fixed CFM of ventilation is provided by the
AHU at all times regardless of actual
occupancy. Fixed ventilation setting will waste
energy and over ventilate if occupancy is less
than design assumptions. Outside air delivery is
based on design assumptions that are difficult to
verify once operating.
VAV box is modulated based on temperature and CO2
levels in each space. If temperature limits are reached
reheat can be used. If demand for ventilation cannot be
met by a particular zone additional air will be added to
the system by modulation of the OA damper at the
AHU. The correct cfm/person ventilation rate is provided
at all times to each zone based on actual occupancy,
which saves energy whenever occupancy is below
design in any given zone. CO2 readings provide real
time feedback of ventilation level and requirements of
the space and can be trend logged.
Determining Base Ventilation Rate
There has really been no reference to what base ventilation rates should be. Over the last few years
a rule of thumb has been established that the base ventilation rate for most spaces should be 20-30%
of the design ventilation rate. ASHRAE is about to circulate for comment proposed changes to
ASHRAE Standard 62 that includes establishment of base ventilation rates for sources within the
space in terms of cfm/ft
2
requirements for various occupancy categories. The chart below combines
these recommended rates with current ventilation requirements and calculates what the base
ventilation rate should be as a percent of the OA design capacity. Please note that these changes are
not incorporated into the standard at this time but do reflect current thinking of the ASHRAE 62
committee. Looking at the numbers, 20-30% of design appears to be a good conservative rule of
thumb for most applications.
Determining Base Ventilation Rate
Occupancy Category
Typical
Density
#/1000 ft
cfm/
person rate
Base Vent
Rate cfm/ft2*
Base Rate as a % of
outside air design
Education
Daycare (through age 4)
Classrooms (ages 5-8)
Classrooms (age 9 plus)
25
25
35
15
15
15
.18
.12
.12
48%
32%
23%
Food And Beverage
Restaurant dining rooms
Cafeteria / fast food dining
Bars, cocktail lounges
70
100
100
15
15
15
.18
.18
.18
.17%
.17%
.17%
Conference
Conference/meeting 100 15 .18 12%
Office
Office Building
Reception areas
Telephone/data entry
5
30
30
20
20
20
.06
.06
.06
60%
10%
5%
Assembly
Auditorium seating area
Churches, temples
Courtrooms
Libraries
Lobbies
150
120
70
10
150
15
15
15
15
15
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.12
0.06
3%
3%
6%
80%
3%
Retail
Sales
Mall common areas
15
40
15
15
0.12
0.06
53%
10%
Sport & Entertainment
Disco/dance floors
Health club/aerobics room
Health club/weight rooms
Bowling alley (seating)
Gambling casinos
100
40
10
40
120
15
15
15
15
15
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.12
0.18
4%
10%
40%
20%
10%
* These recommended based ventilation rates are taken from the latest draft of a revision to ASHRAE standard 62 which will
be circulated for public comment during the summer of 2001
DCV VAV With Reheat Sequence of Operation
VAV Box Controller Monitors: Primary Air Flow, Space Temperature, Space CO2, Air handler
Status, Air Handler mode
VAV/FT Control: When the zone CO2 sensor is below its set-point (chosen to maintain target
cfm/person rate) the VAV/FT will have the terminal damper at minimum position and modulate the
damper based on its PID temperature control algorithm to maintain desired zone temperature set-
points.
If the CO2 level at the zone exceeds its set-point the VAV/FT will begin to modulate the damper using
a PID control loop. When the CO2 level set-point is reached the box will stop modulation and begin
back toward minimum position. If while modulating open the damper, the space temperature limit is
reached the VAV/FT will engage reheat. If the maximum damper position is reached and the CO2 set-
point is still not satisfied the AHU will modulate its OA damper using a PID loop to bring the zone CO2
level below set-point.
Air Handling Unit Temperature Control: All zones on a given Air Handler Unit (AHU) shall be polled
and the highest CO2 sensor reading shall be sent to the AHU Outside Air damper controller. This CO2
reading shall be compared to the CO2 setpoint at the AHU damper controller. If no zones are calling
for max air flow from their VAV box the reading is below the CO2 set-point, the AHU damper shall
maintain the base ventilation rate. If any VAV box is at maximum airflow and requires more ventilation
airthe reading is above the set-point, the AHU damper controller shall modulate the outside air
dampers open utilizing a PI loop to reduce the CO2 level in the space. If the mixed air temperature
falls below the AHU discharge air temperature set-point, the AHU shall modulate it's preheat control
to maintain the discharge air temperature set-point. Once the space CO2 level drops below the AHU
CO2 set-point, the outside air dampers shall modulate to maintain the base ventilation rate. If the AHU
is equipped with economizer control and the economizer determines that it is beneficial to use outside
air for cooling, the economizer shall override the Demand Controlled Ventilation algorithm to
modulate the dampers open to their maximum position. During the cooling cycle a discharge
controller shall modulate the chilled water coil valve to maintain the discharge air set point.
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