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Motor Energy Management:

Opportunities for Energy and


Cost Savings
John Malinowski
Baldor Electric Company
Bob Zaragoza
Xcel Energy
Energy Star WebEx
March 4, 2009
2:00pm Eastern
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Presentation Outline
Estimating Lifetime Motor Costs
Motor Management and Planning
Use MDM tools for motor management and
communicating lifetime costs
Partner with efficiency programs
Motor System Opportunities
Next Steps
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Why Energy-Efficient Electric Motors?
Electric motors consume
63% of the electricity
used by American
industry
Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 2002
4
Savings Opportunity
U.S. DOE estimated annual savings:
62 104 billion kWh in electricity
15.3 26 million metric tons of carbon CO
2
Remove 3.2 5.4 million cars from the road
$3 5 billion savings
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Motor Electricity Usage
All of the electricity
that enters a motor is
either lost as heat or
converted into
mechanical energy
(torque).
The heat produced
must be removed.
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Compare Auto Life Cycle Costs
Less than 17 months to pay back additional cost of more
expensive hybrid auto.
$6,660 $17,640 5 year operating cost
$1,332 $3,528 Annual operating cost
$4.00/gal. $4.00/gal. Fuel/Energy Cost
45 MPG 17 MPG Efficiency
15,000 mi. 15,000mi. Annual use
$20,500-$22,075 $18,995 Net purchase price
$525-$2,100 $0 Less federal rebate
$22,600 $18,995 Purchase Price
Hybrid Auto Pickup
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Compare Auto Costs to Motor Costs
~11.2 times ~6.0-6.5%
Annual operating cost as
a % of purchase price
$25,932 $1,332 Annual operating cost
$0.08/kWh $4.00/gal. Fuel/Energy Cost
0.936 45 MPG Efficiency
8760 hrs. 15,000 mi. Annual use
$2,330 $20,500-$22,075 Net purchase price
$0 $525-$2100 Less federal rebate
$2,280 $22,600 Purchase Price
50 HP motor Hybrid Auto
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Life Cycle Cost Energy Savings
$78,460 $44,140
Est. Savings over
motor life (20yrs.)
$3,923 $2,207
Est. Annual
Savings
$135,862 $137,578 $139,785
Est. Op. Cost/Yr.:
Continuous op. at
$0.10/kWh
96.2 95.0 93.5 Efficiency
NEMA
Premium
Efficiency
motor
EPAct
efficiency
motor
Pre-EPAct
efficiency
(average)
200 HP, 4 pole
operating
costs
Motor Management &
Planning: Use MDM Tools
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Motor Decisions Matter
SM
A national campaign to:
Encourage motor planning and management
Highlight financial and performance benefits
Improve repair/replace decision-making
Promote NEMA Premium & best practice repair
Collaborate nationally to enhance local
effectiveness
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MDM Sponsors
Motor Manufacturers
ABB Inc.
A.O. Smith Electrical Products
Company
Baldor Electric Company
Emerson Motors
GE Industrial Systems
Regal-Beloit Corporation
Siemens Energy & Automation
TECO-Westinghouse Motor
Company
Toshiba International
WEG Electric Motor Corp.
Other Organizations
CDA, Inc.
EASA
NEMA
Advanced Energy
Efficiency Program Administrators
Alliant Energy
Austin Energy
BC Hydro
ComEd, a division of Exelon Corporation
LIPA
MidAmerican Energy Company
National Grid USA
NYSERDA
NW Alliance
NSTAR Electric & Gas
PG&E
SMUD
SCE
Xcel Energy
Supporting Organizations
U.S. Department of Energy
Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE)
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Motor Management Is
a set of ongoing policies and practices
that help commercial and industrial facility
managers proactively plan and effectively
manage their motor population
reducing equipment downtime
and energy costs.
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MDM Resources: www.motorsmatter.org
MDM Tools
Motor Planning Kit
MotorSlide Calculator
Simple Savings Chart
1*2*3 Spreadsheet & Users Guide
MDM Events: Webcasts, Conferences
Other resources: DOE, EPA
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Proactive Planning
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The Building Blocks of a
Motor Management Plan
Policies Based on
Life Cycle Costing
- Purchasing
- Best-Practice Repair
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1*2*3 Process
Input
Company Information
Company Name Contact
Location Date Evaluated (mm/dd/yy)
Input: Representative Motor 1 * Required fields
Motor ID * Year motor installed
Manufacturer Motor location
Model Application
Size (hp) * Total yearly operating hours *
RPM * Actual load (amps) (optional)
Enclosure type Repairs/Rewinds
Full-load efficiency(%) * Quantity of similar motors *
Frame size and type
Voltage rating
Full-load amps
Cost of Electricity (note 1) *
Desired Payback Period (yrs)
Horsepower breakpoint (hp)
% of Full Load (if available)
Annual Energy Cost
Capital Investment N/A
Incremental Investment Cost N/A N/A
Annual Energy Savings N/A N/A
Net Present Value N/A N/A
Return on Investment N/A N/A
Simple Payback Period N/A N/A
Act Now
Replace
Immediately
with NEMA
Premium
Rewind
Using Best
Practice
Replace with
EPAct
Replace with
NEMA
Premium
Motor Management: Input Page
Replace with
EPAct
Act Upon Motor Failure
Motor Nameplate Data Motor Application Information
EPAct Motor Cost *
EPAct Motor Efficiency *
All values represent results for
one motor. To see cumulative
results for the full quantity of
similar motors, go to the
Summary page.
Financial Information
Motor Installation Cost *
Decision: Representative Motor 1
Review the results with your customer. Decide
on the appropriate course of action. Then, click
the corresponding button and the 123
software will generate label(s) that you can use
to tag this representative group of motors. It
will also enter the decision in the 123 Motor
Inventory.
Best Practice Rewind Cost *
Current
Costs
(Base Case)
Replace
Immediately
with NEMA
Premium
NEMA Premium Motor Cost *
NEMA Premium Efficiency *
Rewind Using
Best
Practice
(Base Case)
Act Upon Motor Failure
New Motor &
Best Practice Rewind Costs
The 123 Approach to
Results: Representative Motor 1
Act Now
Replace with
NEMA
Premium
Replace with
NEMA
Premium
Replace with
EPAct
Rewind
Using Best
Practice
Replace
Immediately
with NEMA
Premium
Decision
Results
Partner with
Efficiency Programs
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Consortium for Energy Efficiency
Includes
Utility Efficiency
Programs
National Labs
No private interests
Covers
35 states
5 provinces
Motors Program Info:
www.cee1.org/ind/mot-sys/mtr-ms-main.php3
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Utility Offered Efficiency Programs
Education and Training
Technical Expertise
Financial Assistance
Custom Programs: New Construction, Retrofit
Prescriptive Programs: motors, drives
Financial Incentives
Rebates to the customer
Rebates to the motor service provider
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CEE Member Programs
20 Fan Systems
22 Pump Systems
40 Compressed Air Systems
58 Industrial Motors (above 200hp)
Dedicated Programs for Equipment and Systems
50 Variable Speed Drives
58 (5 offer 1-500 hp) Industrial Motors (1-200 hp)
Prescriptive Programs for Equipment
No. of Programs Dedicated Program Area
2009 Preliminary CEE Member Profile
Motor System
Opportunities
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Conduct Plant Surveys
Level 1 - Basic
Survey your facility and inventory all motors
Tag action on failure
Level 2 - Advanced
Measure current draw on each motor to
determine sizing
Level 3 - Systems
Add adjustable speed drives on fans and
pumps to control flow and save energy
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Level 1 Plant Surveys
Survey facility and inventory motors
Decide what to do for each motor before it fails
and tag motor
2+ shifts - Replace immediately with Premium
1+ shifts - Replace on failure with Premium
Intermittent use - Replace on failure with
EPAct
Special motors not available from distributor -
Rewind on failure
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Additional Energy Savings
Replace single phase motors with three phase
Typical Single Phase 80.0%
Premium Single Phase 86.5%
Typical Three Phase 87.5%
NEMA Premium Three Phase 90.2%
Always use three phase motors when possible
If only single phase is available consider use
of inverter and three-phase motor
When repairing motors, always use Best
Practices
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Level 2 Plant Surveys
A more extensive survey making current
measurements during operation
Allows to right size motors for each
application
Increase efficiency and power factor
Reduce purchase price
Consider adjustable speed drive here or
in Level 3 system analysis
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Identify the Correct Motor
for the Application
Determine failure mode for motor
Upgrade enclosure
Upgrade level of environmental protection
Cast Iron - Severe duty or IEEE 841
Steel band - Washdown duty
Correct bearings for application
Right-size motor for load
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Right-size the Motor
Choose the correct rating for the application
Oversized motors have lower efficiency and power factor
Highest efficiency 75 - 100% of rated load
Service factor is for short-term operation
Motor Efficiency vs Load
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
25 50 75 100 115 125 150
Percent Load
EPAct
NEMA Premium
Motor Power Factor vs Load
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
25 50 75 100 115 125 150
Percent Load
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

P
F
EPAct
NEMA Premium
28
Level 3 Plant Surveys
Look beyond the motor at the application during
the survey
Add adjustable speed drives on pump and fan
applications
Process control can increase productivity
Increased efficiency gear reducers
Add servos for increased throughput
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Plant Surveys
Surveys may be performed by plant personnel
Training and Audits:
Industry representatives and utilities offer motor
survey training and audits of installed base
EASA Motor repair shops
National Distributors
Energy Service Companies - ESCO
Local resources
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Considerations at Repair Time
Deduct repair cost from new motor price on
replacement
Establish a motor repair policy
Establish repair / replace guidelines
Immediate replacement of non-premium
motors 2+ shifts operation
Replace other motors on failure
Repair Premium motors if cost is < ?% of new
price (Horsepower break point)
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Additional Energy Savings
The most efficient motor is one that is not
running
Turn off motors when not needed
Sensors on conveyors
PID for pumps and compressors
Watch number of starts on large motors
Soft start can reduce voltage and improve
power factor
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Controlling Flow to Achieve Savings
Change Motor and/or
Equipment
Fan belts
Motor base speed
Pump Impeller
Blade pitch
Inlet Guide Vanes
Pump Valves
Variable Frequency Drive
(VFD)
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Motor Systems Tips: Pumps & Fans
Few applications require 100% continuous flow
Greatest savings are available when less than
100% flow or pressure is required
Systems are designed for worst case
Emergency conditions require higher volumes
Systems are sized up to next rating (to multiply
safety margins
Demand changes: weekend, nighttime have
lower needs
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Typical Duty Cycle: Centrifugal Fan
% Flow Volume
% Flow Volume
10 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 60 70 70 80 80 90 90 100 100
100 100
80 80
60 60
40 40
20 20
0 0
%

T
o
t
a
l

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

T
i
m
e
%

T
o
t
a
l

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

T
i
m
e
Source: Electric Power Research Institute
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Electrical Energy Costs Electrical Energy Costs
100% Speed, 100% Load
100% Speed, 100% Load
100 HP Induction Motor
$27,139 per year!
(100 HP)x(1/95%eff.) x(.746 kw/HP)x(.08 $/kWh)x(12 h/Day)x(360 D/Year) =
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Electrical Energy Costs Electrical Energy Costs
$5,970 per year!
60% Speed, 22% HP
60% Speed, 22% HP
100 HP Induction Motor
(100 HP)x(0.22) (1/95%eff.)x(.746 kw/HP)x(.08 $/kWh)x(12 h/Day)x(360 D/Year) =
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Annual Electrical Energy Savings Annual Electrical Energy Savings
$21,169 per year!
100% Speed: $27,139
60% Speed: $5,970
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Systems Best Suited for Drives
All friction system (No static head)
System where control valve is constantly
modulated
Pumps in parallel or series operation
Pumping system with multiple design points
System with modulating bypass valve
Cooling towers that start and stop frequently
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Input Power Necessary
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
40 60 80 100
Percent Motor Load
K
W
Motor w/Throttle valve Motor With ASD
Motor W/Bypass Valve
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Motor Drive Compatibility
Standard Efficiency
Not well suited to ASD/VFD use
NEMA High Efficiency
May work on variable torque applications
NEMA Premium
ASD/VFD suitable: VT & CT applications
Optimized for ASD/VFD use
Pole optimized
Not suitable for line start
Next Steps
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Make the Business Case for
Motor Management
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Motors: ~40% of Building Energy Use
Commercial Buildings
Other: 9%
Cooling: 8%
Ventilation: 7%
Refrigeration: 6%
Total: 30%
Office Buildings
Space Heating: 13%
Space Cooling: 11%
Other: 10%
Refrigeration: 6%
Ventilation: 6%
Total: 46%
Source: www.eia.doe.gov
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Motor Energy Costs Can Be Managed
Over 90% of motor decisions are made at the
facility level
Only 11% of companies have written motor
specifications
Only 12% of companies have written motor
rewind specifications
24% of facilities have not addressed energy
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Change the Purchasing Paradigm
Management empowers purchasing to use life
cycle costs, not lowest initial cost
Maintenance selects equipment for lowest life
cycle costs
Benchmark processes to establish energy cost
per item produced
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Most Important to Facility Managers &
Engineers
Keep plant running increase uptime
Reduce plant operating costs
Often heard - Keep the facility running but
dont spend a nickel more than you need to..
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Change the Purchasing Paradigm
Commitment
Set goals
Make action plan
Implement plan
Verification
Recognize
achievements
Repeat cycle
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Conclusions
Consider life cycle cost not initial cost
Use MDM Tools to develop a motor
management plan
Know what to do on failure
Replace with NEMA Premium motors
Seek Best Practice Repair
Consider drives where appropriate
Partner with service shops & distributors,
and electric utility provider
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U.S. DOE Best Practices
Choose NEMA Premium
Best Practice Rewinds
Motor right sizing
Reduce system load: 5 60% savings
Control motor speed ASD: 30-80% savings
Match equipment to load: 5 30% savings
Upgrade component efficiency: 2 10% savings
Maintenance: 2 30% savings
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Dont Forget Rebates
CEE 2009 Motor & Systems Program Summary
Rebates, audits and surveys, custom incentives
Rebate Examples
Xcel Energy (MN) prescriptive rebates:
$4/hp for new motors 1-500hp
$16.50/hp for upgrade 1-500 hp
$30/hp for drives
Xcel Energy (MN) dedicated custom:
Compressed Air System
Thank you. Any questions?
John Malinowski
JMalinowski@baldor.com
Kellem Emanuele
kemanuele@cee1.org
Bob Zaragoza
Bob.Zaragoza@xcelenergy.com
www.motorsmatter.org