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By Prof.Dr. Syafruddin Ilyas, M.

Biomed
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics
and Natural Sciences, Univ. of North Sumatra
Introduction of The Lecture
Lecturer of Animal Structure
Prof.Dr. Syafruddin Ilyas, M.Biomed.
Molecular Biologist
syaf_ilyas2004@yahoo.com
Hp. 0812555198
Main Topics
1. Animal Tissue
2. Integument System
3. Sirculation System
4. Digestive System
5. Respiration System
6. Endocrine System
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Lecture Materials
Power Point for Main Lectures
Lecture Note
Video
Animation Movie
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Evaluation
10% = Quiz
15% = homework
25% = Mid Term examination
50% = Final Term examination (EM)
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
By ; Prof.Dr. Syafruddin Ilyas, M.Biomed.
(1) Animal Tissues
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Animal Tissues
The development of a fertilized egg into a newborn
child requires an average of 41 rounds of mitosis
(2
41
= 2.2 x 10
12
).
During this period, the cells produced by mitosis
enter different pathways of differentiation; some
becoming
blood cells,
some muscle cells, and so on.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
ANIMAL TISSUES
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPa
ges/A/AnimalTissues.html
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Drawings
1. Epithelial
2. Muscle
3. Connective
Supporting connective
tissue
Dense connective tissue
Loose connective tissue
Adipose tissue
4. Nerve
Neurons
Glia
5. Blood
Animal
Tissue
1.
Epithelial
2. Muscle
3.
Connective
4. Nerve
5. Blood
There are more than 100 visibly-distinguishable
kinds of differentiated cells in the vertebrate
animal.
These are organized into tissues; the tissues
into organs.
Groups of organs make up the various systems

digestive,
excretory, etc. - of the body.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
The actual number of differentiated cell types
is surely much larger than 100.
All lymphocytes, for example, look alike but
actually represent a variety of different
functional types, e.g., B cells, T cells of
various subsets.
The neurons of the central nervous system
must exist in a thousand or more different
functional types, each representing the result
of a particular pathway of differentiation.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
1. Epithelial
Epithelial tissue is made of closely-packed cells arranged in flat
sheets.
Epithelia form the surface of the skin, line the various cavities
and tubes of the body, and cover the internal organs.
Subsets of Epithelia
Epithelia that form the interface between the internal and
external environments.
Skin as well as the lining of the mouth and nasal cavity.
These are derived from ectoderm.
Inner lining of the GI tract, lungs, urinary bladder, exocrine
glands, vagina and more. These are derived from
endoderm.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Each of these will have special roles to play in building the
complete animal.
Some are listed in the table.
Germ-layer origin of various body tissues
Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm
skin notochord
inner lining of gut, liver,
pancreas
brain muscles inner lining of lungs
spinal cord blood inner lining of bladder
all other
neurons
bone
thyroid and parathyroid
glands
sense
receptors
sex organs thymus
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
The apical surface of these epithelial cells is
exposed to the "external environment", the
lumen of the organ or the air. [View example]
Mesothelia. These are derived from mesoderm.
pleura the outer covering of the lungs and
the inner lining of the thoracic (chest) cavity.
peritoneum the outer covering of all the
abdominal organs and the inner lining of the
abdominal cavity.
pericardiumthe outer lining of the heart.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Endothelia. The inner lining of the heart, all
blood and lymphatic vessels derived from
mesoderm.
The basolateral surface of all epithelia is
exposed to the internal environment (ECF).
The entire sheet of epithelial cells is attached
to a layer of extracellular matrix that is called
the basement membrane or, better (because it
is not a membrane in the biological sense),
the basal lamina. [View example]
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
View showing relationship between the apical
and basolateral surfaces of epithelial cells and
how they maintain their distinction. The
function of epithelia always reflects the fact
that they are boundaries between masses of
cells and a cavity or space. Some examples:
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
The epithelium of the skin protects the
underlying tissues from
mechanical damage
ultraviolet light
dehydration
invasion by bacteria
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
The columnar epithelium of the intestine
secretes digestive enzymes into the
intestine;
absorbs the products of digestion from it.
An epithelium also lines our air passages and
the alveoli of the lungs. It secretes mucus
which keeps it from drying out and traps
inhaled dust particles. Most of its cells have
cilia on their apical surface that propel the
mucus with its load of foreign matter back up
to the throat.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
2. Muscle
Three kinds of muscle are found in
vertebrates: Skeletal muscle is made of long
fibers whose contraction provides the force of
locomotion and other voluntary body
movements.
Smooth muscle lines the walls of the hollow
structures of the body, such as the intestine,
urinary bladder, uterus, and blood vessels. Its
contraction, which is involuntary, reduces the
size of these hollow organs.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
The heart is made of cardiac muscle.
Link to page devoted to the structure and
properties of the three kinds of muscles.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
3. Connective
The cells of connective tissue are embedded in a great amount
of extracellular material.
This matrix is secreted by the cells.
It consists of protein fibers embedded in an amorphous mixture
of protein-polysaccharide ("proteoglycan") molecules.
Supporting connective tissue
Gives strength, support, and protection to the soft parts of the
body.
Cartilage.
Example: the outer ear
Bone.
The matrix of bone contains collagen fibers and mineral
deposits. The most abundant mineral is calcium phosphate,
although magnesium, carbonate, and fluoride ions are also
present. [More on bone]
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Dense connective tissue
Often called fibrous connective tissue. Tendons connect
muscle to bone. [View] The matrix is principally Type I
collagen, and the fibers are all oriented parallel to each other.
Tendons are strong but not elastic.
Ligaments attach one bone to another. They contain both
collagen and also the protein elastin. Elastin permits ligaments
to be stretched.
Loose connective tissue
It is distributed throughout the body. It serves as a packing and
binding material for most of our organs. Collagen, elastin, and
other proteins are found in the matrix.
Both dense and loose connective tissue is derived from cells
called fibroblasts [View], which secrete the extracellular
matrix.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Adipose tissue
Adipose tissue is "fat". There are two kinds
found in mammals: white adipose tissue
(WAT) in which the cells, called adipocytes,
have become almost filled with oil.
The oil is confined within a single membrane-
bound droplet.
Virtually all of the "fat" in adult humans is
white adipose tissue.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
brown adipose tissue (BAT) in which the adipocytes
contain many small droplets of oil as well as many
mitochondria.
White adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue differ
in function as well as cellular structure.
These differences are described on a separate page.
Link to it
New adipocytes in white fat are formed throughout life
from a pool of precursor cells. These are needed to
replace those that die (after a life span of about 100
days).
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Whether the total number of these adipocytes
increases in humans becoming fatter as
adults is still uncertain.
If not, why do so many of us get fatter as we
age? Because of the increased size of
individual adipocytes as they become filled
with oil.
The adipocytes of white fat secrete several
hormones, including leptin and adiponectin.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
4. Nerve
Nerve tissue is composed of nerve cells called
neurons and
glial cells.
Neurons
Neurons are specialized for the conduction of nerve
impulses. A typical neuron consists of a cell body
which contains the nucleus;
a number of short fibers dendrites extending
from the cell body
a single long fiber, the axon.
The nerve impulse is conducted along the axon.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Glia
Glial cells surround
neurons.
Once thought to be
simply support for
neurons (glia =
glue), they turn out
to serve several
important functions.
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
5. Blood
The bone marrow is the source of all the cells of
the blood. These include: red blood cells (RBCs or
erythrocytes)
five kinds of white blood cells (WBCs or
leukocytes)
platelets (or thrombocytes)
Link here to a page describing the blood cells in
detail. Welcome&Next Search
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA
Review Questions | Back to Top
Which of these is not an animal tissue? a) connective; b) xylem; c) epithelial; d) nervous ans is b
Tissues are made of _______. a) groups of cells that perform a different set of functions; b) collections of cells that perform similar or
related functions; c) subellular structures that aid in the performance of the cell's role; d) none of these ans is b
Which of these is NOT a function of epithelial tissue? a) covering surfaces; b) secretion; c) support of the body; d) lining internal
exchange areas ans is c
Layered epithelial tissue is referred to as which of these? a) squamous; b) stratified; c) voluntary; d) pseudostratified ans is d
Which of these cell types covers the inside of the mouth? a) squamous epithelium; b) cartilage; c) blood; d) cuboidal epithelium ANS is
a
Protection of the body from infectious organisms is accomplished by which of these tissues? a) bone; b) muscle; c) nerve; d) blood ANS
is d
Linking of bone to bone in a skeletal system is accomplished by which of these tissues? a) epithelial; b) connective; c) muscle; d)
nervous ANS is b
Cells that line the tubules in the kidney make up which of these tissues? a) adipose; b) squamous epithelium; c) cuboidal epithelium; d)
stratified epithelium ANS is c
The storage of fat is accomplished by which of these cell types? a) adipose; b) squamous epithelium; c) cuboidal epithelium; d) stratified
epithelium ANS is a
Glands are composed of which of these tissue types? a) epithelium; b) connective; c) muscle; d) nervous ANS is a
Hard parts of the body would be made of which of these cell/tissue types? a) blood; b) bone; c) muscle; d) nerves ANS is b
Bone acts as a reservoir for which of these elements? a) carbon; b) nitrogen; c) calcium; d) hydrogen ANS is c
The major function of bone is ___. a) covering body surfaces; b) support; c) movement; d) integration of stimulus ANS is b
New blood cells are formed in the ___. a) matrix; b) bone marrow; c) liver; d) adipose cells AMS is b
The blood cells that transport oxygen within the body are the ___. a) macrophages; b) erythrocytes; c) platelets; d) leukocytes ANS is b
The liquid part of the blood is ___. a) plasma; b) adipose; c) cartilage; d) platelets ANS is a
When you move your arm to use your computer mouse, which of these muscle cell types is involved? a) cardiac; b) skeletal; c) smooth
ANS is b
Contraction of your heart is accomplished by which of these cell types? a) cardiac; b) skeletal; c) smooth ANS is a
Contractions of the uterus during birth are accomplished by which of these cell types? a) cardiac; b) skeletal; c) smooth ANS is c
The junctions between nerve cells are known as ___. a) gap junctions; b) synapses; c) tight junctions; d) villi ANS is b
Transmission of the nerve message within the neuron is ___ in nature. a) chemical b) electrical ANS is b
Biology Department of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of North Sumatra Medan INDONESIA