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Curriculum Training

Sensors and Actuators


Sensors
Technical Service Training
CG 8233/S en 12/2006
TC4012041H
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of going to print. The right to change prices, specifications, equipment and maintenance instructions at any time without notice
is reserved as part of FORD policy of continuous development and improvement for the benefit of our customers.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a data processing system or transmitted in any form, electronic,
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can be accepted for any inaccuracies in this publication, although every possible care has been taken to make it as complete and
accurate as possible.
Copyright 2007
Ford-Werke GmbH
Service training programs D-F/GT1 (GB)
Electronics as well as measurement and control technology are playing an increasingly important role in automotive
engineering.
Sensors are used to register measurement variables for a variety of electronic control systems related, e.g. to the
engine, chassis, safety and comfort.
These sensors register, for example, values indicating angle, acceleration, speed, pressure, flow rate, temperature,
brightness, moisture, gas concentration and vibration, and transmit them as electrical signals to the inputs of the
relevant control modules.
The control modules use these signals to calculate variables for the control of actuators. Actuators do mechanical
work in order to open or close elements such as nozzles, valves or contacts.
The expression "sensor" is derived from the Latin word "sensus (= feel)". Sensor signals are formed using a variety
of electrical variables such as current, voltage, resistance, frequency, oscillation, amplitude, period, pulse duration,
capacitance, inductance.
Self-tests performed by control modules usually account for connected sensors and related wiring. System diagnosis
is performed using the WDS ( Worldwide Diagnostic System)/IDS (Integrated Diagnostic System).
The training course on sensors and actuators includes the following information for technicians:
Sensors, CG 8233/S (TC4012041H)
Actuators, CG 8234/S (TC4012042H)
Communications Network, CG 8235/S (TC4012053)
For service purposes, this document provides an overview of the most commonly installed sensors and their functions
as well as diagnostic advice.
Note: The supplied data and values only serve as demonstration and to facilitate understanding. Current
values should always be taken from current workshop literature.
Please remember that our training literature has been prepared for FORD TRAINING PURPOSES only. Repairs
and adjustments MUST always be carried out according to the instructions and specifications in the workshop
literature. Please make full use of the training offered by Ford Technical Training Courses to gain extensive
knowledge of both theory and practice.
1 Service Training (G458880)
Preface
PAGE
1 Preface..............................................................................................................................
Lesson 1 General Information
7 Introduction................................................................................................................................................
7 Open and closed loop control..........................................................................................................................................
8 Testing sensors and switches...........................................................................................................................................
8 Pulse width modulated signals........................................................................................................................................
10 Group assignment.......................................................................................................................................
11 Physical operating principles.....................................................................................................................
11 Piezoelectricity................................................................................................................................................................
13 NTC resistor....................................................................................................................................................................
14 PTC resistor.....................................................................................................................................................................
15 Inductance.......................................................................................................................................................................
17 Membrane sensors with strain resistors..........................................................................................................................
18 Hall effect........................................................................................................................................................................
21 Magneto-resistivity.........................................................................................................................................................
22 Capacitance.....................................................................................................................................................................
23 Optoelectronics...............................................................................................................................................................
24 Switches..........................................................................................................................................................................
26 Reed contact....................................................................................................................................................................
27 Ohmic resistance.............................................................................................................................................................
28 Infra-red radiation...........................................................................................................................................................
29 Ultrasonic........................................................................................................................................................................
31 Photovoltaic effect...........................................................................................................................................................
32 Galvanic principle...........................................................................................................................................................
Service Training 2
Table of Contents
33 Test questions..............................................................................................................................................
Lesson 2 Sensors
35 Sensors.........................................................................................................................................................
35 Exhaust gas temperature sensor......................................................................................................................................
36 Intake air temperature sensor (IAT)................................................................................................................................
38 Barometric pressure sensor (BARO)...............................................................................................................................
40 Outside air temperature sensor........................................................................................................................................
41 Acceleration sensor (lateral/longitudinal acceleration sensor).......................................................................................
43 Brake pad wear sensor....................................................................................................................................................
44 Brake pressure sensor......................................................................................................................................................
46 Brake-booster pressure sensor........................................................................................................................................
47 Brake pedal travel sensor................................................................................................................................................
49 Impact sensor (acceleration sensor)................................................................................................................................
51 Torque-angle sensor........................................................................................................................................................
52 Throttle position (TP) sensor (petrol engines)................................................................................................................
54 Electronic differential pressure transducer / diesel particulate differential pressure sensor...........................................
56 Vehicle speed sensor (VSS)............................................................................................................................................
58 Accelerator pedal position (APP) sensor........................................................................................................................
62 Transmission range (TR) sensor.....................................................................................................................................
64 Remote transmitter..........................................................................................................................................................
66 Transmission fluid temperature (TFT) sensor.................................................................................................................
68 Gear-shaft speed sensors............................................................................................................................
68 Output shaft speed sensor (OSS)....................................................................................................................................
68 Input shaft speed sensor (ISS).........................................................................................................................................
68 Turbine shaft speed sensor (TSS)....................................................................................................................................
3 Service Training
Table of Contents
70 Yaw rate sensor...............................................................................................................................................................
71 Glass break sensor...........................................................................................................................................................
72 Intrusion sensor...............................................................................................................................................................
74 Refrigerant pressure sensor.............................................................................................................................................
75 Knock sensor (KS)..........................................................................................................................................................
77 Force sensor....................................................................................................................................................................
78 Fuel pressure sensor........................................................................................................................................................
80 Fuel level sensor..............................................................................................................................................................
82 Fuel temperature sensor..................................................................................................................................................
84 Clutch pedal position sensor (vehicles with hill launch assist).......................................................................................
85 Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP)..................................................................................................................................
88 Engine coolant temperature sensor (ECT) and cylinder head temperature sensor (CHT)..............................................
91 Oxygen sensors (HO2S).............................................................................................................................
91 General............................................................................................................................................................................
92 Dual-point HO2S (NTK)................................................................................................................................................
94 Planar dual-point HO2S..................................................................................................................................................
96 Planar broadband HO2S..................................................................................................................................................
98 Steering wheel rotation sensor........................................................................................................................................
101 Light sensor.....................................................................................................................................................................
103 Mass air flow sensor (MAF)...........................................................................................................................................
107 Air temperature sensor, air outlet temperature sensor....................................................................................................
109 Inclination sensor............................................................................................................................................................
111 Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP)...................................................................................................................................
113 Oil level/temperature sensor...........................................................................................................................................
115 Position sensor - gearshift actuator.................................................................................................................................
117 Wheel speed sensor.........................................................................................................................................................
Service Training 4
Table of Contents
120 Rain sensor......................................................................................................................................................................
122 Manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP)......................................................................................................................
125 Convertible top sensors (Focus Coupe Convertible).......................................................................................................
128 Select-Shift switch..........................................................................................................................................................
130 Passenger weight sensor..................................................................................................................................................
132 Occupancy sensor...........................................................................................................................................................
134 Seat position sensor.........................................................................................................................................................
136 Sun load sensor...............................................................................................................................................................
138 Position sensors (distance sensors).................................................................................................................................
139 Intake manifold flap position sensor (diesel engines).....................................................................................................
142 Ultrasonic sensor for parking aid....................................................................................................................................
144 Test questions..............................................................................................................................................
Lesson 3 Switches
146 Pressure switch............................................................................................................................................
146 Brake pressure switch.....................................................................................................................................................
147 Refrigerant pressure switch.............................................................................................................................................
149 Oil pressure switch..........................................................................................................................................................
150 PSP (Power Steering Pressure) switch............................................................................................................................
151 Mechanical switch......................................................................................................................................
151 Brake light switch / brake pedal position (BPP) switch / clutch pedal position (CPP) switch.......................................
153 Defrosting switch............................................................................................................................................................
154 Seatbelt buckle switch.....................................................................................................................................................
156 Rear door window switch strip.......................................................................................................................................
157 Inertia fuel shutoff (IFS) switch......................................................................................................................................
158 Brake fluid switch...........................................................................................................................................................
5 Service Training
Table of Contents
159 Switch for windshield washer / coolant level..................................................................................................................
160 Reversing lamp switch....................................................................................................................................................
161 Audio remote control......................................................................................................................................................
162 Speed control switch.......................................................................................................................................................
163 Other switches.................................................................................................................................................................
164 Test questions..............................................................................................................................................
166 Answers to the test questions.........................................................................................
167 List of Abbreviations.......................................................................................................
Service Training 6
Table of Contents
Open and closed loop control
To understand the importance of sensors, we first need
to examine the difference between open- and closed-loop
control. This difference can be demonstrated using two
examples provided below.
Open-loop control
E59373
1
2
5
3
4
EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) solenoid valve 1
PCM (Powertrain Control Module) 2
Vacuum line 3
EGR valve 4
Recirculated exhaust gas quantity 5
A characteristic is saved in the PCM. This characteristic
indicates how far the EGR valve must open in order to
achieve a particular recirculated exhaust gas quantity.
For every setpoint value (desired EGR rate), there is a
corresponding value of the manipulated variable
(setting of the EGRvalve).
Closed-loop control
E59374
1
5
6
3
4
2
EGR solenoid valve 1
PCM 2
Vacuum line 3
EGR valve 4
Recirculated exhaust gas quantity 5
Position sensor in EGR valve 6
The setpoint value (50% in this example) determined
for the EGR valve using the characteristic is compared
with the actual value from the position sensor
(measured variable, 45% in this example) on the
EGRvalve.
E59375
1
5
6
3
4
2
EGR solenoid valve 1
PCM 2
Vacuum line 3
EGR valve 4
7 Service Training (G458890)
Introduction Lesson 1 General Information
Recirculated exhaust gas quantity 5
Position sensor in EGR valve 6
The difference between the setpoint value and actual
value (50% vis--vis 45% in this example) is used to
determine the actual setting of the EGR valve and
perform a correction (55% in this example) to the
manipulated variable.
Summary
The essential difference between open and closed-loop
control lies in the comparison of setpoint values with
corresponding measurement variables. Whereas
closed-loop control involves this comparison, open-loop
control does not.
Testing sensors and switches
Sensors installed in a vehicle have different
measurement principles depending on their task and
design.
To "measure" in this case means to "compare". In
other words, any value measured by the sensor needs
to correspond (within a defined tolerance range) to a
setpoint value defined for the state in question.
If measured values lie outside the tolerance range, the
sensor may be defective. In this case, it is also necessary
to check the connectors and cables for signs of damage
/ corrosion.
Pulse width modulated signals
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signals are
square-wave signals with a constant frequency, but
variable turn-on time.
E59696
Voltage (in volts) V
Time t
The frequency is determined by the number of pulses
(oscillations per second). Accordingly, the frequency
increases / decreases proportionally to the number of
pulses per second.
The frequency (formula symbol "f") is measured in
Hertz (Hz).
The pulse width is the duration of the active signal.
E59656
A
B
C
Voltage (in volts) V
50% active (500 ms on and 500 ms off) A
25% active (250 ms on and 750 ms off) B
75% active (750 ms on and 250 ms off) C
(G458890) Service Training 8
Lesson 1 General Information Introduction
The duty cycle is the ratio between the on and off times
of a PWM signal. The duty cycle is expressed as a
percentage (%).
Accordingly, a duty cycle of 25% means that the signal
is active 25% of the time; over 1 second of pulse width
modulation, for example, the signal is active for 250 ms
and inactive for 750 ms.
PWM signals can serve both as output signals (e.g.,
boost pressure solenoid valve) and as input signals (e.g.,
digital MAF (Mass Air Flow) sensor).
The duty cycle can be measured with the aid of an
oscilloscope and the WDS/IDS datalogger (if supported).
9 Service Training (G458890)
Introduction Lesson 1 General Information
According to their function, sensors in vehicles can be
assigned to one of the groups below.
Piezoelectric, for example:
Knock sensors
Accelerometers
NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) resistor.
Temperature sensors
PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) resistor.
Temperature sensors
Temperature control
Inductive, for example:
Speed sensor
Wheel-speed sensor
Phase sensors
Membrane sensors with strain resistors:
Pressure sensor
Hall effect, for example:
Selector-lever position sensor
Speed sensor
Seat-position sensor
Belt-buckle sensor
Phase sensor
Magnetic-field sensors, for example:
Steering-wheel rotation sensor
Active wheel-speed sensor
Capacitive, for example:
Yaw rate sensor
Impact sensor
Switches, for example:
Pressure cut-off switch
Seatbelt buckle switch
Reed contact - filling level indication
Ohmic resistance, for example:
Potentiometer
Voltage coding
Seat occupancy detection
Accelerator-pedal setting sensor
Angle / position sensor
Infrared, for example:
Rain sensor
Infrared locking system (transmitter / receiver)
Ultrasonic, for example:
Parking aid
Interior monitoring
Galvanic, for example:
Lambda sensor
Photovoltaic, for example:
Solar sensor (photo-diode / transistor)
Light sensor
(G458890) Service Training 10
Lesson 1 General Information Group assignment
Piezoelectricity
The piezo-electric effect
E53584
2
5
A B C
1
1
4
4
6
3
Quartz crystal in rest state A
Action of an external force B
Application of an electrical voltage C
Pressure 1
Ion displacement 2
Voltage generation 3
Direction of force 4
Deformation of crystal 5
Voltage supply 6
Piezo-technology finds application in optics, precision
mechanics, medicine, biology, consumer goods (e.g.
loudspeaker tweeters, quartz alarm clock beepers, etc.),
in mechanical engineering and the automotive industry.
Examples from the automotive industry include knock
sensors, pressure sensors, ultrasonic sensors,
acceleration sensors and actuators for opening fuel
injectors (on certain diesel engines).
The piezo-electric effect of natural crystals was
discovered in 1880 by the brothers Pierre and Jacques
Curie. The term piezo is derived from the Greek word
piezein, meaning to "press".
The piezo-electric effect can best be illustrated by means
of a quartz crystal, on which pressure is exerted.
Outwardly, the quartz crystal is electrically neutral in
its rest state, i.e. the positively and negatively charged
atoms (ions) are in balance (A).
External pressure exerted on a quartz crystal causes the
crystal's lattice to deform. This results in ion
displacement. An electric voltage (B) is generated as a
consequence.
Conversely, when an electrical voltage is applied, this
leads to a deformation of the crystal and consequently
to a force (C).
11 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Uses of piezo-electricity in practice
E53585
5
A
B
7
4 6
1 2 3
Direct piezo effect (sensors) A
Indirect piezo effect (actuators) B
Solid body in rest state 1
Force acting upon solid body (pressure) 2
Force acting upon solid body (tension) 3
Mechanical deformation of the solid body 4
Elastic tension 5
Force exerted 6
Example application: Fuel injector 7
Today's technologies use high-performance
piezo-ceramic materials instead of quartz crystals. When
it comes to applications, a distinction is made between
direct and indirect piezo effects.
The direct piezo effect is primarily utilized in sensors.
As sensors, piezo-ceramics convert a force acting upon
them into an electrical signal when the ceramic material
is compressed against its high rigidity.
Owing to dielectric displacement (dielectric =
electrically non-conductive), surface charges are
generated and an electric field builds up.
This field can be registered as a (measurable) electrical
voltage via electrodes.
Summary: In the case of sensors, mechanical energy
is converted into electrical energy by means of a force
acting on a piezo-electric body.
Example application:
Knock sensor
The indirect piezo effect is primarily used in actuators.
In the case of actuators, electrical voltage is converted
into mechanical deformation of a solid body, i.e. an
electrical field acts upon a piezo-electric body,
deforming it.
If the body is prevented from deforming, elastic tension
is generated. Consequently, a force is exerted on the
structure preventing deformation of the piezo-electric
body.
Summary: In the case of actuators, voltage is applied
to the piezo-electric body, converting electrical into
mechanical energy.
Example application:
Fuel injector for the Siemens common rail system.
(G458890) Service Training 12
Lesson 1 General Information
NTC resistor
Example characteristic of a NTC temperature sensor
E58741
R
T
Resistance R
Temperature T
In automotive technology, many temperature sensors
are equipped with a NTC resistor.
The core of a NTC temperature sensor is a
temperature-dependent, non-linear measuring resistor
in the form of a semiconductor.
The resistance of the NTC component decreases as the
temperature increases.
Accordingly:
The higher the temperature, the lower the
resistance.
NTC-resistors are also termed thermistor.
NTC temperature sensors form part of a voltage-divider
circuit usually supplied with a reference voltage of 5 V.
The voltage drop across the NTC resistor depends on
the prevailing temperature. This voltage value is used
by the connected control unit as a measure of the sensor
temperature.
The base material consists of different oxides of metals
such as iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc. Chemical
stabilizers are added to the oxides, which are then
pressed into the desired shape.
Example application:
ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature) sensor
IAT (Intake Air Temperature) sensor
General testing possibilities
For the purpose of testing, the NTC temperature sensor
can be represented in the DMM (in some cases, also in
the WDS/IDS datalogger) and its reading compared
with the actual sensor temperature measured using a
standard thermometer.
More detailed sensor tests can be performed by heating
the sensor with a hot air blower or cooling it with a
temperature reduction spray.
The values measured here must correspond to the
setpoint values. Furthermore, the resistance
characteristic must remain constant.
13 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
PTC resistor
Example characteristic of a PTC resistor
E59807
R
T
Resistance R
Temperature T
The PTC resistor is an electrical component whose
resistance increases with temperature.
Accordingly:
The higher the temperature, the higher the
resistance.
PTC resistors are also referred to as posistors.
PTC resistors are used mainly to limit temperatures.
The power consumption of the PTC is controlled
automatically by its characteristic.
A higher current flows at the low temperatures
prevailing immediately after a PTC resistor has been
connected (due to the lower resistance in this phase).
As the temperature increases, so does the resistance,
causing the current to drop correspondingly.
Advantage:
This characteristic prevents the PTC element from
overheating.
Example application:
Auxiliary electric heater on diesel vehicles
General testing possibilities
For the purpose of testing, the PTC temperature sensor
can be represented in the Datalogger or DMM and its
reading compared with the actual sensor temperature
measured by means of a standard thermometer.
More detailed sensor tests can be performed by heating
with a hot air blower or cooling with spray.
The values measured here must correspond to the
setpoint values. Furthermore, the resistance
characteristic must remain constant.
(G458890) Service Training 14
Lesson 1 General Information
Inductance
Generating an induction voltage
E58742
1
4
2
3
Motion 1
Electrical conductor 2
Permanent magnet 3
Magnetic field 4
The diagram shows a permanent magnet with north and
south poles. An electrical conductor is positioned
between the north and south poles.
If the conductor is moved in the direction of the arrow,
it intersects with the permanent magnet's field lines.
Charges inside the conductor are displaced in this
process. Free electrons move to one end of the
conductor. Correspondingly, a shortage of electrons
occurs at the other end.
The resulting potential between the conductor's ends is
termed induction voltage.
The induction voltage's direction depends on the
electrical conductor's direction of motion and the
magnetic field's direction.
E58743
2
1
Amplitude 1
One complete oscillation = 1 period 2
Voltage in volts U
Time in seconds t
Voltages generated by induction constantly alternate in
level and polarity. Accordingly, they are also termed
alternating voltage.
Alternating voltage rises from 0 V to its positive peak
value (amplitude), then drops back via the 0-V level to
its negative peak value, rises again to its positive peak
value etc. The number of complete alternations (periods)
per second is termed the voltage frequency.
Example application:
Inductive CKP (Crankshaft Position) sensor
Passive wheel speed sensor
15 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Practical example involving a passive
wheel-speed sensor
E58802
1
6
2 3
4
5
Permanent magnet 1
Coil 2
Magnetic field 3
Sensor ring (pulse generation wheel) 4
Air gap 5
Connection cable 6
The inductive wheel-speed sensor contains a permanent
magnet surrounded by a coil.
The wheel-speed sensor is mounted so that its front face
is a defined distance from the sensor ring.
The rotation of the pulse generation wheel influences
the magnetic field. The changes in the magnetic field
induce an alternating voltage in the inductive sensor
coil.
The signal frequency changes as the wheel speed
increases or reduces. The control unit (the ABS
(Anti-lock Brake System) module in this case) receiving
the frequency signal uses it as a measure of the current
wheel speed.
Self-induction
When a current starts flowing through an electrical
conductor, a circular magnetic field originating from
the center of the conductor is produced.
The strength of this magnetic field is proportional to the
current intensity. The magnetic field's polarity depends
on the current's direction of flow.
If an insulated conductor is wound on a coil form, the
magnetic fields of the individual windings are added
together to form a total force field.
Conditions for induction are also present during build-up
of the magnetic field, causing a voltage to be induced.
However, this voltage opposes the excitation voltage
which generated it.
As no external factors are responsible for this, one
speaks here of self-induction. The same phenomenon
occurs in reverse when the coil's excitation voltage is
turned off.
(G458890) Service Training 16
Lesson 1 General Information
Membrane sensors with strain resistors
Micro-mechanical membrane sensors with strain
resistors are often used to measure pressure in
automotive engineering.
Signals are generated by a thin membrane acting as an
intermediate mechanical stage; subjected at one end to
pressure, this membrane bends as a result.
Depending on the pressure values to be registered by
the sensor, the membrane can be adapted in terms of
thickness, diameter and material.
E58744
5
4
2
3
1
Strain resistor (compressed state) R1
Strain resistor (tensioned state) R2
Supply voltage U0
Measurement voltage UM
Measurement pressure p
Membrane 1
Reference vacuum 2
Glass (pyrex) 3
Bridge circuit 4
Silicon chip 5
The sensor membrane bends in accordance with the
pressure applied to it.
The resulting mechanical forces change the electrical
resistances of the four expanding elements on the
membrane.
These four expanding elements are arranged on the
membrane such that the measuring resistance of two
increases, and that of the other two decreases.
The strain resistors are connected in a Wheatstone bridge
circuit. Changes in resistance also change the ratios
between the voltages across the measuring resistors.
The measurement voltage "UM" also changes
accordingly, thus serving to indicate the pressure exerted
on the membrane.
Example applications:
MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure) sensor
BARO (Barometric Pressure) sensor
Fuel pressure sensor
17 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Hall effect
The physicist Edwin Hall made the following
discovery:
If a current flows through an electrical conductor
positioned at right angles (90) to a magnetic field,
the charge carriers (electrons) are deflected (Lorentz
force).
E59007
1 2
3
Hall plate 1
Electron flow 2
Magnetic field 3
Supply voltage U
Hall voltage UH
The Hall effect here is generated by means of a
semiconductor plate (Hall plate) which receives a
defined voltage (U).
Application of the supply voltage "U" results in an
evenly distributed electron flow over the entire surface
of the Hall plate. As a result, a magnetic field builds up
around the Hall plate.
The evenly distributed electron flow leads to charge
equalization ("UH" = 0 V) on both sides of the Hall
plate.
Example, part 1:
E59008
1
2
3
4
Hall plate 1
Electron flow 2
Magnetic field 3
Permanent magnet 4
Supply voltage U
Hall voltage UH
Switching point 1 S1
(G458890) Service Training 18
Lesson 1 General Information
Note: Changes in the magnetic field lead to
corresponding changes in electron flow.
If the north pole of a permanent magnet meets the north
pole of a Hall plate's magnetic field, the field moves
away from the permanent magnet.
As a result, the electrons (negatively charged particles)
driven by the longitudinal potential are suddenly
deflected vertically with respect to the current's direction
of flow, away from the permanent magnet (repulsion
of electron flow).
The resulting charge difference between the two sides
of the Hall plate gives rise to a Hall voltage ("UH").
Example, part 2:
E59020
1
2
3
4
Hall plate 1
Electron flow 2
Magnetic field 3
Permanent magnet 4
Supply voltage U
Hall voltage UH
Switching points 1 to 3 S1 to
S3
If the south pole of a permanent magnet meets the north
pole of a Hall plate magnetic field, the field moves
toward the permanent magnet.
As a result, the electrons (negatively charged particles)
driven by the longitudinal potential are suddenly
deflected vertically with respect to the current's direction
of flow, toward the permanent magnet (attraction of
electron flow).
The sudden changes in electron flow correspondingly
change the polarity of the Hall voltage (from positive
to negative or vice versa).
The Hall voltage is generally very low. Lying in the
millivolt range, these voltages must be processed
appropriately.
Sensor technology usually makes use of integrated
circuits (ICs) to process Hall voltages and output them
as square-wave signals to the terminal device (e.g.
PCM). The square-wave signals can be made visible
with the aid of an oscilloscope.
Note: The Hall plate magnetic field can also be deflected
by moving an iron element (e.g., a ferrous pulse wheel)
toward it.
Example involving a ferrous pulse wheel
In this case, there is no alternation of electron flow
between the sides of the Hall plate.
The magnetic field and electron flow are always
displaced in just one direction: from charge
equalization to charge difference (0 signal edge / high
signal edge).
19 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Example applications:
CMP (Camshaft Position) sensor (based on Hall
effect)
VSS (Vehicle Speed Sensor) (based on Hall effect)
(G458890) Service Training 20
Lesson 1 General Information
Magneto-resistivity
Alignment of local magnetization in a ferromagnetic
material with and without the influence of an external
magnetic field
E53537
1 2
Without external magnetic influence 1
With external magnetic influence 2
The magnetoresestive effect is based on the alignment
of local magnetizations in ferromagnetic materials.
Ferromagnetic materials consist of several layers. Each
one of these layers has a local magnetization.
Without the influence of an external magnetic field, the
alignment of the local magnetization is random.
If an external magnetic field is applied to the
ferromagnetic material, the local magentizations are
aligned towards the external magnetic field.
The alignment of the local magnetization is dependent
on the strength of the external magnetic field:
If the magnetic field is weak, the alignment of the
local magnetization to the external magnetic field is
random and therefore uneven. The ferromagnetic
material has a high resistance.
If the magnetic field is sufficiently strong, the
alignment of the local magnetization to the external
magnetic field is uniform. The ferromagnetic
material has a low resistance.
The ferrous material used is, for example, an alloy of
80% nickel and 20% iron (permalloy).
Example applications:
Steering-wheel rotation sensors
Wheel speed sensors
21 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Capacitance
Capacitive measurement is based on the principle of a
capacitor.
One of the physical properties of a capacitor is the
dependence of its capacitance, i.e. ability to store charge,
on the distance between its two plates. The plate spacing
accordingly determines the charge difference between
the two plates.
Capacitive measurements make use of this property.
E53938
If the two plates are relatively far apart, the charge
difference between them is relatively low.
E53939
If the plates are moved closer together, the charge
difference rises proportionally.
The change in charge difference can be registered and
evaluated by a connected control unit.
Example applications:
Brake pressure sensor in an ABS system
Acceleration sensor
(G458890) Service Training 22
Lesson 1 General Information
Optoelectronics
E53330
2
1
3
Segment disk 1
Light beam 2
Photoelectric barrier, consisting of transmitter
and receiver
3
Optoelectronic sensors use photoelectric barriers for
contactless monitoring of a sender element.
The sender element could be e.g. a segment disk (see
illustration). The gaps on the edge of the segment disk
allow the light beams to pass, the solid material between
them break the light beam of the photoelectric barrier.
The number of times the light beam is broken indicates
the distance traveled.
Example application:
Steering-wheel rotation sensors
23 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Switches
On / off switches and changeover switches, or buttons
are not sensors in the conventional sense.
Nevertheless, these components are worthy of mention
when speaking of sensor technology, because they can
transfer pressure signals as well as mechanical switch
settings, limits and angular values for further processing
to the control electronics by establishing a connection
to earth or a positive pole. These components are also
used for thermal protection.
Switches are used, for example, to input instructions for
the speed control system, in which case different
resistance values are connected to the signal input of
the electronic control unit.
Voltage coding
In the case of voltage coding, an electronic control unit
registers voltage drops via an array of integrated
resistors and determines which resistor (control
instruction) was connected into the circuit in each case.
One advantage of this type of circuit is the relatively
low number of connected cables.
Speed-control system using the Scorpio '95 as an example
TIE41680
-
A
ON button actuated.
Voltage supply A
To the speed control module / PCM 5. 6
The switches are linked via a hybrid circuit with the
control unit / PCM speed control unit.
Different resistors are integrated into the circuit.
Pressing a button supplies the control unit with a voltage
signal whose value depends on the connected resistance.
The control unit uses this signal to identify the button
which was pressed, and then adjusts the vehicle's speed
taking into account all necessary parameters.
(G458890) Service Training 24
Lesson 1 General Information
TIE41681
-
Acceleration / SET button operated
Voltage supply A
To the speed control module / PCM 5. 6
Pressing the acceleration button (corresponding here to
approx. 680 ohms between pins 5 and 6) produces a
voltage drop in the electric circuit. This drop is identified
by the control module as an acceleration signal.
Pressing any of the other buttons also connects an
associated resistor which results in a corresponding
voltage drop. In accordance with the registered drop,
the module invokes a related function from memory.
Example applications:
Electric seat adjustment
Electronic mirror adjustment
Radio remote control
Select-shift switch on the steering wheel (in vehicles
with automatic transmission and manual gear
selection)
Cruise control system
25 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Reed contact
E59704
2
2
1
Closed reed contact
Glass tube 1
Contact tips 2
A reed contact reacts to changes in low current or
movements of permanent magnets without making any
physical contact.
Depending on the type of circuit, two or three contact
tips are fused into a glass tube containing a vacuum or
inert gas.
E59705
2
3
2
1
Open reed contact
Glass tube 1
Contact tips 2
Permanent magnet 3
One of the contact tips is magnetized and reacts very
sensitively to the lines of force generated by a permanent
magnet or electrical field.
Because they are protected, the contacts have a nearly
unlimited service life.
Reed contacts can be normally open or closed.
Example application:
Tank flap switch for vehicles with a soot particle
filter and fuel additive system
Liquid level switch
(G458890) Service Training 26
Lesson 1 General Information
Ohmic resistance
In sensor technology, ohmic resistances are employed
in accordance with the voltage division principle.
Fixed ohmic resistances
Fixed ohmic resistances of different values serve, for
example, to indicate control commands, lever settings,
angular positions etc. in the sensor loop of a control
unit's input section.
In the case of a speed-control system, for example,
resistors of different values are connected to the signal
input loop of the electronic control module (refer to the
description of switches).
Sliding-contact position sensor
E59775
4
5
B
A
1
3
2
Maximum angle of rotation A
Current measuring angle B
Variable resistance track 1
Maximum resistance 2
Contact track 3
Sliding contact 4
Minimum resistance 5
In the case of a sliding-contact sensor (or potentiometer),
a contact slides at a defined angle over a variable
resistance track.
The variable resistance track is designed to have a
constant, rising or falling resistance characteristic from
start to end.
The sensor is supplied with a reference voltage via the
contact track. This contact track has a constant, low
ohmic resistance from start to end.
When the sliding-contact position sensor is actuated,
the resistance of the variable resistance track changes
correspondingly. At the same time, the voltage drop
across the variable resistance changes proportionally,
thus serving to indicate the current position.
Example applications:
APP (Accelerator Pedal Position) sensor
TP (Throttle Position) sensor
27 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Infra-red radiation
Infrared radiation lies in the optical waveband and forms
part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The infrared range
is adjoined by visible light of long wavelengths.
Every "warm" body (i.e. with a temperature in excess
of absolute zero, or -273C) emits infrared radiation.
The radiated energy and wavelength distribution depend
on the body's temperature. The higher a body's
temperature, the more energy it releases in the form of
infrared radiation.
Infrared radiation is often used for contactless transfer
of heat signals.
Example application:
Infra-red remote control
Rain sensor
(G458890) Service Training 28
Lesson 1 General Information
Ultrasonic
An ultrasonic sensor operates at brief time intervals
alternately as a transmitter and receiver.
During these measurement cycles, the ultrasonic sensor
transmits ultrasonic waves of a certain frequency (in
excess of 16 kHz) inaudible to humans.
An ultrasonic sensor consists of a piezo-element with
a conical member. Acting as a reverse funnel, the cone
pushes waves outward through an opening in the
housing.
E59570
2
3
4
1
Cone 1
Housing 2
Piezo element 3
Electrical connection 4
The piezo element consists of two differently sized piezo
plates.
Piezo element
E59571
4
3
2
1
Ultrasonic wave A
Long plate 1
Ultrasonic wave generated by voltage 2
Voltage generated by ultrasonic wave 3
Short plate 4
On receiving a voltage via an electrical connection,
these plates expand. In this process, the shorter plate
exerts pressure on the longer one, similar to a bi-metallic
strip.
The resulting stress between the two plates causes them
to oscillate at a high frequency.
The sensor transmits these oscillations as ultrasonic
waves.
The speed of sound in air is 343 metres per second (m/s).
On meeting an obstruction, sound waves are reflected.
The sensor receives the resulting echo signal after a time
proportional to the distance travelled by the sound.
The total time is that taken by sound signals to travel
from the ultrasonic sensor to the obstruction and back.
29 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
The electronic evaluation module then calculates the
distance to the obstruction using the speed of sound.
The total time elapsed between transmission of the
sound signal and reception of the echo signal is divided
by two.
Example:
If the distance between the ultrasonic sensor and
reflective obstruction is 0.5 metres, the sound signal
covers 1 metre in travelling to and fro.
Formula: > 1 s : 343 m = 0.0029 s or 2.9 ms
A travelling time of 2.9 ms corresponds to a distance
of 0.5 m. At a distance of one metre, the signal
travelling time would be 5.8 ms.
Example application:
Parking aid sensors
Intrusion sensors
Radiation of ultrasonic waves by a parking aid sensor
E59085
(G458890) Service Training 30
Lesson 1 General Information
Photovoltaic effect
Photovoltaic technology involves a conversion of solar
energy into electrical energy (voltage).
A solar cell is a photodiode made of semiconductor
material (e.g., germanium, silicon, selenium).
If visible (laser) or invisible (infrared) light radiation
impinges on the semiconductor's crystalline structure,
electrons are dissociated from their atoms. This gives
rise to an open-circuit voltage between the anode and
cathode.
The conductivity of the resulting electrical path increases
with the radiation intensity.
Because photodiodes are operated in the reverse
direction, one speaks of a reverse current in this case.
The reverse current is proportional to the intensity of
the impinging light.
Photodiodes and photo-transistors are used as sensors
for light-dependent control.
Example application:
Solar sensor
Light sensor
Photovoltaic cell
A photovoltaic cell is a solar cell (photodiode) suitable
for use as a power source.
Photo-transistor
As opposed to a conventional transistor, a
photo-transistor has a light-sensitive semiconductor
layer instead of a base.
In sensor technology, photo-transistors are used as
light-sensitive switches. When light impinges on a
photo-transistor, the path between its collector and
emitter becomes conductive.
Light-dependent resistor (LDR)
Also comprising a light-sensitive semiconductor
element, a light-dependent resistor varies its resistance
in accordance with the intensity of the light impinging
on it.
Made of cadmium sulphate, a light-dependent resistor
contains very few or no free electrons in darkness.
The resistance in darkness is very high (several hundred
kohms). When light impinges on the LDR, electrons
are released and the LDR becomes conductive.
Resistance in bright conditions is lowered to a few
hundred ohms.
In principle: The higher the light intensity, the lower
the resistance.
LDR designs
E59849
31 Service Training (G458890)
Lesson 1 General Information
Galvanic principle
E58871
1 3
2
Metal 1 1
Electrolyte solution 2
Metal 2 3
A galvanic element consists of two different metals in
an electrolyte solution.
The metals in the solution give rise to different levels
of ionization resulting in a corresponding displacement
of electrons.
This generates a voltage potential between the two
metals.
Example applications:
Vehicle battery
HO2S (Heated Oxygen Sensor)
Conventional oxygen sensors basically operate like
galvanic elements, except that they are equipped with
a solid electrolyte - zircon dioxide (ZrO2) - instead of
a liquid electrolyte.
At temperatures in excess of 300C, this ceramic
electrolyte permits a passage of oxygen ions while
blocking electrons.
(G458890) Service Training 32
Lesson 1 General Information
Tick the correct answer or fill in the gaps.
1. A comparison between setpoint values and actual measurement values takes place:
a. exclusively during transmission control.
b. exclusively during engine control.
c. during open-loop control.
d. during closed-loop control.
2. What are PWM signals?
a. Square-wave signals of a variable frequency
b. Square-wave signals of a constant frequency
c. Sinusoidal signals of a constant frequency
d. Temperature-dependent direct voltages
3. All speed sensors are inductive:
a. True
b. False
4. Which principle do temperature sensors operate on?
a. Hall
b. Inductive
c. Ohmic resistance
d. NTC.
5. In the case of NTC resistors:
a. the higher the temperature, the higher the resistance.
b. the higher the temperature, the lower the resistance.
c. the higher the temperature, the higher the duty cycle.
d. the higher the temperature, the higher the signal frequency.
33 Service Training (G458891)
Test questions Lesson 1 General Information
6. In the case of voltage coding:
a. use is made of different resistance values.
b. a large number of signal lines is needed.
c. codes indicating voltage values are exchanged between control units.
d. use is made exclusively of resistances between 300 and 500 ohms.
7. Which of the following statements is false?
a. In piezo technology, a distinction is made between direct and indirect piezo effects.
b. The value of a PTC resistor increases with its temperature.
c. Hall signals can generally not be made visible with the aid of an oscilloscope.
d. During inductive speed measurement, the signal frequency changes correspondingly as the speed rises.
(G458891) Service Training 34
Lesson 1 General Information Test questions
Exhaust gas temperature sensor
E59692
Location
In the exhaust system upstream of and/or downstream
of the catalytic converter
Physical operating principle
PTC resistor (1.8L Duratec-SCi)
NTC resistor (1.6L/2.0L Duratorq-TDCi with diesel
particulate filter)
Task / function
The exhaust gas temperature sensor measures the
temperatures of the exhaust gases.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the exhaust temperature.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.2-4.8 V Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
Values of the exhaust gas temperature sensor in the
1.8L Duratec-SCi
Resistance (ohm) Temperature (C)
210 230 20
480 500 400
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
(Diagnostic Trouble Code)
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
35 Service Training (G458881)
Sensors Lesson 2 Sensors
Intake air temperature sensor (IAT)
E58186
1 2
Examples of IAT sensors
IAT sensor 2.4L Duratorq-DI (Puma) diesel 1
IAT sensor 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (Puma) diesel 2
Location
In the intake system
Physical operating principle
NTC resistor
Task / function
The IAT sensor measures the current intake air
temperature.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the intake air temperature.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.2-4.5 V Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
IAT sensor set values in Visteon systems *
Voltage (V) Resistance
(Kohms)
Temperature
(C)
4.51 4.54 860 900 40
4.46 4.49 501 645 30
4.31 4.35 253 289 20
4.17 4.23 170 196 10
3.82 3.92 89 102 0
3.5 3.7 62.0 70.0 10
3.0 3.2 35.0 40.0 20
2.6 2.8 25.0 28.0 30
2.0 2.2 15.0 17.0 40
1.7 1.9 11.0 13.0 50
1.2 1.4 7.1 8.0 60
0.9 1.2 5.0 6.2 70
0.6 0.9 3.0 4.5 80
0.5 0.7 2.4 3.5 90
0.4 0.5 1.9 2.5 100
0.3 0.4 1.5 1.7 110
0.2 0.3 1.0 1.3 120
* IAT values of other engine-management systems may differ from
this table.
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
(G458881) Service Training 36
Lesson 2 Sensors
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
+ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features
The IAT sensor is often integrated into the following
components:
in the MAF sensor (it is then designated as the
"combined IAT sensor" and "MAF sensor")
in the MAP sensor (it is then designated as the
MAPT (Manifold Absolute Pressure And
Temperature) sensor)
However, the properties of the integrated IAT sensor
are identical to those of the separate IAT sensor.
On some systems, the IAT sensor signal is also used for
calculating the battery electrolyte temperature.
37 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Barometric pressure sensor (BARO)
E58180
1
2
BARO sensor 1
PCM 2
Location
Integrated in the PCM.
Exception: 2001 Mondeo with 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi
(Puma) with the VP44-injection pump and variable
turbocharger:
in the inner area behind the instrument panel, at the
left support of the reinforcement element of the
A-pillar.
Physical operating principle
Membrane sensors with strain resistors
Task / function
The BARO sensor measures the ambient pressure.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the ambient pressure.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 2.2-4.4 V Signal type / voltage
adjustable * Resistance
adjustable * Frequency
* In some systems, the BARO in the datalogger is displayed in
millibars (mbar), and in others in hertz (Hz).
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ (not possible with the
sensor integrated in the
PCM)
DMM
++ Datalogger
+ (not possible with the
sensor integrated in the
PCM)
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features
Regardless of the operating state of the engine/vehicle,
the pressure must always remain constant and may only
change proportionally if there is a corresponding change
in the vehicle height (higher position, lower air
pressure).
(G458881) Service Training 38
Lesson 2 Sensors
In some systems, a BARO value is displayed in the
datalogger although no BARO sensor is installed. This
is merely a value calculated by the PCM.
39 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Outside air temperature sensor
TIE42059
Location
In the front-end area, behind the bumper.
Physical operating principle
NTC resistor
Task / function
The outside-temperature sensor measures the ambient
temperature outside the vehicle.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the outside-air temperature.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.5-4.5 V Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
Resistance (Kohms) Temperature (C)
Approx. 5.2 0
Approx. 4.5 5
Approx. 3.9 10
Approx. 3.3 15
Approx. 2.8 20
Approx. 2.4 25
Approx. 2.0 30
Approx. 1.2 40
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
+ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
(G458881) Service Training 40
Lesson 2 Sensors
Acceleration sensor (lateral/longitudinal
acceleration sensor)
E58049
1
2
Separate yaw rate/lateral acceleration sensor
(joint holder)
1
Combined yaw rate and lateral acceleration
sensor
2
Location
On the floor panel in the vehicle interior, at the
longitudinal and/or transverse axis
Physical operating principle
Capacitive
Task / function
Acceleration sensors measure the acceleration of the
vehicle in either a longitudinal or lateral direction,
depending on the use.
The higher the acceleration registered by the sensor, the
greater the sensor signal.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
Digital CAN protocol 5
V
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
500 KB/sec. Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
++ Datalogger
- (can not be evaluated) Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Acceleration sensors are monitored continuously by the
ABS/stability assist module.
When checking the acceleration sensor using the
datalogger, please note that even the smallest jolts will
be detected and displayed.
However, only a general function test is possible.
Evaluation of the signal is not possible using WDS/IDS.
41 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Signal trace of the acceleration sensor in the datalogger
E59083
1
2
Minor jolt of the vehicle 1
Major jolt of the vehicle 2
Special features
In the case of relatively old vehicles, the acceleration
sensor may be installed as a separate component.
In some systems, it may be necessary to calibrate the
acceleration sensor using WDS/IDS after renewal.
Instructions for this can be found in the relevant Service
literature.
(G458881) Service Training 42
Lesson 2 Sensors
Brake pad wear sensor
TIE41547
Location
On the brake pad (for disc brakes only)
Physical operating principle
Ohmic resistance
Task / function
The brake pad wear sensor consists of a small wire loop
which is incorporated in the inner pad of a pair of brake
pads.
As soon as the friction lining of the brake pad has worn
down to a defined thickness, this leads, depending on
the system:
A: to a break in the circuit to ground
B: to a ground short
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
ON/OFF Signal type /
voltage
< 0.5 Ohm, wire coil not inter-
rupted
> 10 kOhm, wire coil interrupted
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features
In the case of relatively old vehicles, resistors may also
be integrated into the circuit, which indicate a break in
the power supply with various displays in the instrument
cluster (indicator light flashes or shines continuously).
43 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Brake pressure sensor
E58050
1
2
Brake pressure sensor integrated into the HCU
(Hydraulic Control Unit)
1
Brake-pressure sensor installed in the brake
master cylinder
2
Location
Depending on the type of ABS/stability assist installed,
the pressure sensors are either installed on the exterior
of the brake master cylinder or integrated into the HCU.
Physical operating principle
Capacitive, piezo or membrane sensors with strain
resistors
Task / function
The brake-pressure sensor measures the pressure in the
hydraulic brake circuit.
The sensor produces a voltage signal proportional to
the pressure.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Supply voltage
Direct voltage: 0.5-4.5 V Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ (not with integrated
sensor)
DMM
++ Datalogger
- (not with integrated
sensor)
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Pressure sensors are monitored continuously by the
ABS/stability assist module.
(G458881) Service Training 44
Lesson 2 Sensors
Signal trace of the brake-pressure sensor in the datalogger
when the brake pedal is actuated twice
E59081
Capacitive pressure sensor
E53937
1
2
3
5
4
Brake master cylinder 1
Brake fluid 2
Sensor body 3
Capacitive plate (movable) 4
Capacitive plate (fixed) 5
As hydraulic pressure rises, the movable plate of the
capacitive pressure sensor is pushed against the spring
by the piston.
The resulting charge transfer is picked up and evaluated
by the ABS/stability assist module.
Piezo-electric pressure sensor
E53980
2
3
1
Sensor body 1
Piezoelectric actuator 2
Electrical connector 3
The piezo-electric pressure sensor consists of a piezo
element which is connected to the hydraulics of the
brake system via a membrane.
As brake pressure rises, the membrane deforms the piezo
element thereby changing the charge distribution in the
piezo element.
This change in charge distribution is evaluated by the
ABS/stability assist module to determine its magnitude.
Special features
The brake pressure sensors integrated into the HCU can
not be renewed separately.
In some systems, it may be necessary to calibrate the
brake pressure sensor with WDS after renewal.
Instructions for this can be found in the relevant Service
literature.
45 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Brake-booster pressure sensor
TIE42041
Location
On the brake booster (Mondeo with 1.8L Duratec-SCi
(MI4))
Physical operating principle
Membrane sensors with strain resistors
Task / function
The brake-booster pressure sensor measures the vacuum
in the brake booster.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the brake-booster pressure.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.4-4.5 V Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
+ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Voltage (V) Conditions
3.5 4.5 V With the ignition ON,
operate the brake pedal
several times (decrease
vacuum in the brake
booster)
0.4 1.0 V With the engine running
after several sharp blips of
the throttle (maximum
vacuum in brake booster)
(G458881) Service Training 46
Lesson 2 Sensors
Brake pedal travel sensor
E53982
Location
In the brake master cylinder (ABS with open return
only).
Physical operating principle
Sliding-contact switch
Task / function
The brake-pedal sensor measures the position of the
brake pedal.
The brake pedal sensor features two slide paths. One of
the two slide paths is divided into seven segments,
whereby each segment is connected via a resistor to one
of the electrical connections of the sensor.
E53983
2
3
1
4
Slide path 1
Slider 2
Resistor 3
Electrical connector 4
The other slide path is continuous and connected to the
second connection of the sensor. Depending on the
position of the pedal, the resistances are switched in
series via a sliding contact.
This results in a two-stage (Escort/Orion) or seven-stage
(Scorpio/Transit) resistance and/or voltage change across
the entire pedal travel.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.5-4.5 V Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
47 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Resistance (ohm) Brake pedal position
237 262 Stage 1 Escort/Orion 1991
(8/1990-9/2001)
974 1075 Stage 2
237 249 Stage 1 (Scorpio 1995 (10/
1994-6/1998) / Transit
1995 (8/1994-7/2000))
414 458 Stage 2
535 591 Stage 3
655 725 Stage 4
776 858 Stage 5
981 1083 Stage 6
infinite Stage 7
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
(G458881) Service Training 48
Lesson 2 Sensors
Impact sensor (acceleration sensor)
E58051
1 2
3
Examples of impact sensors
Front and side impact sensor, Fiesta 2002.25 1
Front and side impact sensor, Mondeo 2001 2
Side impact sensor, Mondeo 1997 3
Location
Between one and five impact sensors are installed,
depending on the vehicle. Depending on use, they are
integrated at the vehicle front end (front air bag), on the
vehicle floor in the B-pillar area (for side air bag),
C-pillar (side air curtain in the case of more than two
seat rows) or in the SRS (Supplemental Restraint
System) module.
Physical operating principle
Piezo or capacitive
Task / function
Depending on the use, the impact sensors measure the
transverse and/or longitudinal acceleration of the
vehicle.
An electronic evaluation module is integrated in the
sensor. Digitally coded crash data is transmitted to the
SRS module according to the acceleration.
Operating range
Value
Voltage
Digitally coded crash
data *
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
* Not measurable
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes * WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* Depending on the system, the WDS/IDS indicates diagnostic
trouble codes together with the corresponding error values. Error
values are needed for error description in the FordEtis diagnostic
and test routine.
Impact sensors can not be checked in the workshop. It
is only possible to check the wiring.
49 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Special features
Impact sensors are also designated as ECS (Electronic
Crash Sensor)s.
Due to their position, sensors for side air bags are also
referred to as satellite sensors.
In some systems, it is necessary to progam or calibrate
impact sensors in the SRS module after renewal.
In some systems, impact sensors can be reused after an
accident during which the air bags have been deployed.
The instructions in the current service literature must
be followed without fail.
(G458881) Service Training 50
Lesson 2 Sensors
Torque-angle sensor
E58067
Location
In the distributor injection pump VP30/VP44.
Physical operating principle
Hall
Task / function
The torque-angle sensor probes a pulse generation wheel
with fine splines. Precisely calculated gaps are worked
into the splines.
Operating range
Value
Voltage
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
The torque-angle sensor itself can not be tested because
it is connected directly to the pump control unit (PCU).
The torque-angle sensor can not be replaced separately.
In the case of a defective torque-angle sensor, the entire
distributor injection pump must be replaced.
51 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Throttle position (TP) sensor (petrol
engines)
E31517
Location
In the intake tract in the throttle body
Physical operating principle
Sliding-contact potentiometer
Task / function
If the throttle plate is opened, a sliding contact moves
onto a resistance track in the TP sensor.
The resistance of the sensor increases proportionally as
the throttle plate is moved towards WOT (Wide Open
Throttle).
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.6-4.8
Volt
Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
Values of the TP sensor in the 2.0L Duratec-HE
Voltage (V) Resistance
(Kohms)
Throttle Position
Approx. 0.8 Approx 1.1 * fully closed
Approx. 4.7 Approx 4.4 * fully open
* Values measured on a removed TP sensor.
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
+ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Signal trace of the TP sensor in the datalogger when
revving the throttle up twice.
E58350
(G458881) Service Training 52
Lesson 2 Sensors
Continuity test
With the aid of the oscilloscope, a continuity test can
be carried out on the signal wire of the TP sensor.
For this purpose, move the throttle plate continuously
from idling to WOT. The voltage change must also be
displayed continuously on the oscilloscope.
In the case of erratic voltage changes or voltage peaks
(caused by cracks or soiling) outside the specified
voltage range, the TP sensor is faulty.
Note: Hairline cracks or similar in the sensor may lead
to faults at low temperatures which possibly no longer
occur when the engine is warm.
53 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Electronic differential pressure
transducer / diesel particulate
differential pressure sensor
E58794
1 2
Diesel particulate filter differential pressure
sensor
1
Electronic differential pressure transducer 2
Location
Depending on use:
as an electronic differential pressure transducer
between the EGR valve and the exhaust manifold,
as a diesel particulate differential pressure sensor
with a connection upstream of and downstream of
the diesel particulate filter.
Physical operating principle
Membrane sensors with strain resistors
Task / function
Detects the differential pressure in the pipe to the EGR
valve or upstream of or downstream of the diesel
particulate filter.
The strain resistances change depending on the pressure
difference. This leads to a change in the signal voltage.
Electronic differential pressure transducer
E58052
There is a throttle point in the pipeline (Venturi).
Depending on the EGR rate, a corresponding pressure
loss occurs at this point. This pressure loss is detected
by the differential pressure sensor and is made available
to the PCM in the form of a voltage signal.
Particulate differential pressure sensor
E59691
The diesel particulate filter provides a certain resistance
to the exhaust gas flow. This leads to a pressure
difference in the exhaust pressure upstream of and
downstream of the diesel particulate filter.
(G458881) Service Training 54
Lesson 2 Sensors
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.5-4.5 V Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Operation of the diesel particulate differential pressure
sensor/electronic differential pressure transducer can
be checked as follows using the hand pump or the
WDS/IDS datalogger:
select the diesel particulate differential pressure
sensor in the WDS/IDS datalogger.
remove the hose to the front measuring point
(upstream of the diesel particulate filter) on the diesel
particulate differential pressure sensor;
connect the hand pump to the connection and set a
pressure at the hand pump (for example, 300 mbar);
read off the differential pressure on the WDS. The
measured value must correspond to the set value on
the hand pump.
55 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Vehicle speed sensor (VSS)
E58811
1 2
Examples of VSSs
VSS without additional mechanical drive (newer
vehicles without ABS)
1
VSS with additional mechanical drive for the
vehicle-speed display (older vehicles)
2
Location
On the transmission housing (output shaft)
Physical operating principle
Hall or inductive (relatively old vehicles)
Task / function
The VSS detects the speed of the output shaft in the
transmission.
Depending on the operating principle:
an alternating voltage is generated (inductive),
a square-wave signal is generated (Hall).
In proportion to the engine speed
the voltage and the frequency change (inductive),
the frequency changes (Hall).
See also OSS (Output Shaft Speed) sensor.
Measurement range
Value
12 V (Hall)
- (inductive)
Supply voltage
Square-wave signal 12 V
(Hall)
Sinusoidal (inductive)
Signal type / voltage
- (Hall)
0.4-0.6 kOhm (inductive)
Resistance
speed-dependent Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ Datalogger
DMM
+ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
(G458881) Service Training 56
Lesson 2 Sensors
Signal trace of a VSS signal (Hall) at a constant speed
(approx. 30 km/h)
E60150
Signal trace of a VSS signal (inductive) at a constant speed
(approx. 130 km/h)
E60151
The signal trace depends on the installed sensor and the
transmission.
Special features
In the case of newer vehicles with ABS, the vehicle
speed is determined via the wheel speed sensor signals.
The VSS is dispensed with.
In this case, the signal designated with VSS in the
datalogger is calculated by the PCM and/or generated
by the OSS.
57 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Accelerator pedal position (APP) sensor
E47845
Location
Integrated into the accelerator pedal
Physical operating principle
Sliding-contact potentiometer or inductive
Task / function
The APP sensor determines the current position of the
accelerator pedal.
As a plausibility check, the APP sensor consists of two
to three sensors altogether.
APP sensor with potentiometers
E58187
1
2
Slide tracks for APP 1
Shaft with sliding contacts 2
When the accelerator pedal is actuated, the shaft with
the sliding contacts is shifted in its position on the slide
tracks.
The slide tracks are designed to provide an evenly
increasing or falling resistance across the entire distance.
The change in resistance leads to a proportional change
in the voltage, which provides information about the
accelerator pedal position.
(G458881) Service Training 58
Lesson 2 Sensors
APP sensor with inductive senders
E58188
2
4
3
1
A
5
6
7
V
0
Amperes (amps) A
Volts V
Rotor 1
Electronics 2
Primary coil 3
Secondary coil 4
Analog alternating current 5
Generated PWM square-wave signal 6
PCM 7
The inductive sender functions essentially in a similar
way to a transformer. Initially, the incoming direct
voltage must be converted into alternating voltage.
A rotor is moved in the inductive sender when the
accelerator pedal is actuated. This rotor induces the
alternating voltage between the primary coil and the
secondary coil.
The strength of the induction depends on the position
of the rotor:
no accelerator-pedal actuation: low induction, i.e.
low amplitude of the AC voltage,
full accelerator-pedal actuation: high induction, i.e.,
high amplitude of the AC voltage.
To allow the PCM to process the AC voltage signal
issued by the secondary coil, the signal must first be
converted in the sensor electronics.
At present, APP sensors with two inductive senders are
being used in Ford vehicles.
According to the requirements of the engine
management strategy, the signals from the inductive
senders are processes by the electronics in the APP
sensor as follows:
APP 1 = PWM signal
APP 2 = analog DC voltage signal
Operating range
APP sensor with potentiometer
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0-4.5 V Signal type / voltage
dependent on position Resistance
Frequency
APP sensor with inductive senders
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
PWM signal Signal type/voltage APP 1
Direct voltage: 0-5 V Signal type/voltage APP 2
Resistance
Frequency
59 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
APP sensor voltage values on the 2001 Mondeo with
diesel engine
APP 3 (V) APP 2 (V) APP 1 (V)
0.8 1.4 4.2 Idling
1.1 1.6 3.8 2
1.4 1.9 3.4 3
1.7 2.3 3.0 4
2.0 2.6 2.6 5
2.3 2.8 2.2 6
2.6 3.2 1.8 7
2.9 3.4 1.4 8
3.1 3.7 1.0 9
3.3 3.9 0.8 WOT
Measuring options
APP sensor with potentiometer
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
APP sensor with inductive senders
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
- (APP 1)
++ (APP 2)
DMM
+ Datalogger
++ (APP 1)
+ (APP 2)
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
APP sensor with three potentiometers, idling - wide open
throttle in the datalogger (example: Mondeo with 2.0L
Duratorq-TDCi (Puma) diesel engine)
E58745
To ensure reliable fault detection, the additional sensors
APP 2 and, if necessary, APP 3 may be redundant and/or
can transmit a different voltage signal from APP 1 to
the PCM.
Note: Hairline cracks or similar in the sensor may lead
to faults at low temperatures which possibly no longer
occur when the engine is warm.
(G458881) Service Training 60
Lesson 2 Sensors
APP sensor with two potentiometers, idling - wide open
throttle in the datalogger (example: Mondeo with 1.8L
Duratec-SCi (MI4))
E59981
Inductive APP sensor (APP 1) during idling in the
oscilloscope (example: C-MAX with 1.6L Duratorq-TDCi
(DV) diesel)
E58746
Idle:
PWM with short switch-on duration
Inductive APP sensor (APP 1) during WOT in the
oscilloscope (example: C-MAX with 1.6L Duratorq-TDCi
(DV) diesel)
E58747
WOT:
PWM with long switch-on duration
Special features
APP sensors with sliding-contact potentiometer:
When making measurements with the sensor, please
note that the sliding-contact potentiometers are
heat-sensitive and in certain circumstances deviations
of up to 10 % may be measured.
61 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Transmission range (TR) sensor
E58054
1
2
Examples of TR (Transmission Range) sensors
TR sensor CFT23 (Hall) 1
TR sensor AW81-40 (sliding contact) 2
Location
Inner side of the transmission (in the manual selector
valve body) or outer side of the transmission (gearshift
shaft)
Physical operating principle
Sliding contact, Hall or voltage-coded
Task / function
The TR sensor detects the engaged selector lever
position. At the relevant points, depending on the
operating principle
an electrical circuit is completed using a contact
switch;
a digital signal is generated using a Hall sensor;
a voltage drop is generated using various resistors.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V (sliding contact,
Hall)
Approx. 5 V (voltage-coded)
Reference voltage
Supply voltage
Direct voltage: 12 V (sliding
contact)
Direct voltage: 5 V (voltage-
coded)
Square-wave: 5 V (Hall)
Signal type / voltage
see table * Resistance
Frequency
* With voltage-coded sensors only
Example: Mondeo with CD4E automatic
transmission
Resistance kOhm Selector Lever Position
Approx. 4.2 P (Park)
Approx. 1.44 R (Reverse)
Approx. 0.734 N
Approx. 0.402 D (Drive)
Approx. 0.211 2
Approx. 0.086 1
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ (sliding contact, voltage-
coded)
- (Hall)
DMM
(G458881) Service Training 62
Lesson 2 Sensors
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
It is always possible to test the TR sensor in the
datalogger. The display in the datalogger is adjusted
according to the equipment of the vehicle (eg,
continuously variable transmission, manual gear
selection).
The following tests can therefore be carried out in the
datalogger:
of the TR sensor,
of the Select-Shift switch on the selector lever,
of the Select-Shift switch on the steering wheel,
of the O/D switch on the selector lever.
TR sensor in the datalogger
E59969
Example: Galaxy with AG5
Display of the individual transmission ranges P - 1
Display for manual gear selection MAN
The display of the selector-lever position and/or of the
gears for manual gear selection may, depending on the
vehicle equipment, also be shown in the instrument
cluster.
Note for TR sensors with sliding contact: Hairline
cracks or similar in the sensor may lead to faults at low
temperatures which possibly no longer occur when the
engine is warm.
Special features
Even with a correct display in the datalogger, the setting
of the cable between the selector lever and the
transmission should always be carried out using the
special tool and with reference to the workshop
literature.
63 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Remote transmitter.
E41703
3
1 2
Unlock button 1
Luggage compartment unlocking button 2
Lock button 3
Location
Omitted
Physical operating principle
Radio or infrared (relatively old vehicles)
Task
When one of the buttons on the remote transmitter is
actuated, the remote transmitter issues a signal.
Depending on the operating principle, the signal from
the remote transmitter is received either by an infrared
receiver or by a radio antenna.
In the case of infrared systems, a visual contact must
exist between the remote transmitter and the receiver.
Systems with a key-free locking system transmit the
relevant radio signal without any actuation of a function
button.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 3/6 Volts Voltage
Radio signal
Infrared signal
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Approx. 433 MHz (radio)
Approx. 10,000 GHz
(infrared)
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDS DTC
+ (self-test only) Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Radio remote controls can be tested in the self-test of
the GEM (Generic Electronic Module). Instructions for
activating this self-test can be found in the relevant
Service literature.
If the radio range of the transmitter in the radio remote
transmitter decreases constantly, the battery may need
to be replaced. In some systems, this necessity is also
displayed in the vehicle's instrument cluster.
(G458881) Service Training 64
Lesson 2 Sensors
In the Ford Galaxy, the status of the battery can be
checked with a warning indicator in the key. Notes on
this subject can be found in the relevant Owner's
Handbook.
Special features
In the 2006.50 Transit, a rechargeable battery is
integrated in the radio remote control.
The integrated battery is continuously recharged
inductively while the ignition is switched on.
65 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Transmission fluid temperature (TFT)
sensor
E58055
1 2
Examples of TFT (Transmission Fluid Temperature)
sensors
Separately installed TFT sensor 1
Integral TFT sensor (CFT23) 2
Location
Integrated in the automatic transmission housing or in
the transmission control unit.
Physical operating principle
NTC resistor
Task / function
The TFT sensor measures the current transmission fluid
temperature.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the transmission temperature.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage:
see table
Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
Values may differ, depending on the transmission
Voltage (V) Resistance
(Kohms)
Temperature
(C)
4.51 4.54 860 900 40
4.31 4.35 253 289 20
3.82 3.92 89 102 0
3.0 3.2 35 40 20
2.0 2.2 15 17 40
1.2 1.4 7.1 8.0 60
0.6 0.9 3.0 4.5 80
0.4 0.5 1.9 2.5 100
0.2 0.3 1.0 1.3 120
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes, restricted WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
(G458881) Service Training 66
Lesson 2 Sensors
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features
Any TFT sensors integrated in the transmission control
module cannot be replaced separately.
67 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Output shaft speed sensor (OSS)
Input shaft speed sensor (ISS)
Turbine shaft speed sensor (TSS)
The listed sensors are designed to detect speed.
E58059
1 2
Examples of gear-shaft speed sensors
Inductive sensor (4F27E) 1
Hall sensor (AW81-40LE) 2
Location
The installation location may vary in some transmissions
(automatic transmission, automated manual transmission
and/or continuously variable automatic transmission).
It is located on or in the transmission housing on the
relevant gear shaft.
Physical operating principle
Inductive or Hall
Task / function
Gear-shaft speed sensors probe a gear or a ring gear on
a gear shaft.
Depending on the operating principle:
an alternating voltage is generated (inductive),
a square-wave signal is generated (Hall).
In proportion to the engine speed
the voltage and the frequency change (inductive),
the frequency changes (Hall).
See also VSS.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V (Hall)
- (inductive)
Voltage
Square-wave 5 V (Hall)
Sinusoidal, dependent on
speed (inductive)
Signal type / voltage
OSS: 500-900 Ohm *
TSS: 300-800 Ohm *
ISS: 500-600 Ohm *
Resistance
speed-dependent Frequency
* In inductive sensors only; values may fluctuate depending on the
temperature.
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ (inductive)
- (Hall)
DMM
(G458881) Service Training 68
Lesson 2 Sensors Gear-shaft speed sensors
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
NOTE: In the CFT23 automatic transmission, it is not
permissible to take measurements with a multimeter at
the TCM (Transmission Control Module). Failure to
follow this instruction may destroy the TCM.
OSS, TSS (Turbine Shaft Speed) and engine speed in the
datalogger
E59970
1
A
B
2
1 2
illustrated: Mondeo with 5F31J
Acceleration A
Fade out time B
Switching point 1st/2nd gear 1
Switching point 2nd/3rd gear 2
proportional to the vehicle speed OSS
Engine speed RPM
proportional to the engine speed TSS
Signal trace of an inductive signal during idling on the
oscilloscope
E59984
Example TSS Mondeo with CD4E
Signal trace of an inductive signal at approx. 2,500 rpm
on the oscilloscope
E59985
Example TSS Mondeo with CD4E
The trace of a signal depends on the installed sensor
and the probed gear/ring gear.
Special features
In some transmissions, the OSS is also designated as
VSS.
The signals from the gear-shaft speed sensors are also
used in some transmissions for self-diagnosis purposes.
In the AG5 (Galaxy) and the 5F31J (Mondeo),
intermediate shaft speed sensors are used. These each
have a resistance of approx. 560 Ohm.
69 Service Training (G458881)
Gear-shaft speed sensors Lesson 2 Sensors
Yaw rate sensor
E59115
1 2
Examples of yaw rate sensors
Separate yaw rate and lateral acceleration sensors
(on a joint holder)
1
Combined yaw rate and lateral acceleration
sensor
2
Location
Central position on vehicle underbody
Physical operating principle
Piezo or capacitive
Task / function
The yaw rate sensor measures the rotational movement
of the vehicle around the vertical axis. Electronics
integrated in the sensor evaluate the original signal and
generate a digital signal.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
Digital CAN protocol 5
V
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
500 KB/sec. Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
++ Datalogger
- (can not be evaluated) Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Only a general function test is possible when checking
the yaw rate sensor using the datalogger. An evaluation
of the signal with WDS/IDS is not possible.
Special features
In some systems, it may be necessary to program or
calibrate the yaw rate sensor with the WDS/IDS after
renewal. In this regard, refer to the instructions in the
current Service Literature.
(G458881) Service Training 70
Lesson 2 Sensors
Glass break sensor
E59542
1
Glass break sensor integrated into the heated rear
window
1
Location
In the rear side window and/or the heated rear window
Physical operating principle
Ohmic resistance
Task / function
The glass break sensor consists of a resistance loop and
is installed in estate vehicles and saloon cars/vans with
an anti-theft warning system as a separate loop in the
side window or it is integrated into the circuit of the
anti-theft warning system as a component of the heated
rear window.
The resistance increases if the resistance loop is
interrupted.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
< 0.5 Ohm, wire coil not
interrupted
> 10 kOhm, wire coil
interrupted
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDS DTC
+ (self-test only) Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
71 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Intrusion sensor
Illustration shows ultrasonic sensor
TIE41628
1
Ultrasonic transceiver 1
Location
Depending on the vehicle
in the B-pillars,
in the overhead lamp,
in the headliner,
on the underbody at the center of the vehicle
(microwave sensor).
Physical operating principle
Ultrasonic
Microwaves
Task / function
The ultrasonic sensor detects movements within the
vehicle interior and generates an alarm impulse.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
Alarm impulse, millivolts Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes * WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* depending on the system
The intrusion sensors can be checked by switching on
the anti-theft warning system. The tester should be
located in the vehicle.
After an activation phase of approx. 30 seconds, the
tester should move a hand into the beam range of the
respective sensor. This should trigger the alarm.
It is also possible to carry out the test with a window
open. However, only one window should be open a
small distance. An object can then be passed through
this gap into the beam range of the sensor.
(G458881) Service Training 72
Lesson 2 Sensors
Noises (eg, impact screwdrivers) should always be
avoided, because they can impair the function of the
sensor.
Microwave sensor:
is equipped with a light emitting diode (LED).
Arm the anti-theft alarm system in order to test the
sensor. The LED must subsequently flash once.
Special features
The intrusion sensors can be deactivated, depending on
the country of use. Notes on this subject can be found
in the relevant Owner's Handbook.
The triggered alarms and the reason for the triggering
(e.g., via the intrusion sensors) are stored in the relevant
module and can be read out using WDS/IDS.
73 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Refrigerant pressure sensor
E59974
Location
On the high pressure side of the A/C (Air Conditioning)
system.
Physical operating principle
Membrane sensors with strain resistors
Task / function
The refrigerant pressure switch registers pressure on the
air-conditioning system's high pressure side.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the refrigerant pressure.
Also refer to the refrigerant pressure switch.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.5-4.5
Volt
Signal type / voltage
pressure-sensitive * Resistance
* Not measurable
Refrigerant pressure sensor
Voltage (V) Pressure (bar)
3.9 4.0 Approx. 30
3.3 3.4 Approx. 25
2.7 2.8 Approx. 20
2.1 2.2 Approx. 15
1.6 1.7 Approx. 10
1.0 1.1 Approx. 5
0.5 0.7 Approx. 1
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
+ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features
Refrigerant pressure sensors are installed in relatively
new vehicles (eg, Focus 2004.75 1.6L Duratec-16V
(Sigma), Fiesta ST) instead of dual pressure switches.
The linear signal trace permits more precise fan control.
(G458881) Service Training 74
Lesson 2 Sensors
Knock sensor (KS)
E47846
Location
On the engine block under the cylinder head
Physical operating principle
Piezo
Task / function
The KS (Knock Sensor) records the vibrations
occurring in the cylinder and converts the mechanical
vibrations into electrical voltage signals.
The stronger the vibrations, the higher the frequency
and the alternating voltage.
Operating range
Value
Voltage
Alternating voltage,
millivolts
Signal type / voltage
Approx. 4.8 Megaohm Resistance
4 kHz-18 kHz Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Connect the multimeter to the KS with the aid of a
breakout box or an adapter cable. Set the multimeter to
the smallest voltage range (mV) for alternating voltage.
When knocking gently against the cylinder block near
to the sensor, it should be possible to measure a voltage.
75 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Signal trace, knock sensor
TIE42093
1
2
A
B
1
2
Normal combustion in engine A
Knocking combustion in engine B
Pressure characteristics in cylinder 1
Voltage signal from the KS 2
Special features
Depending on the model, one or two knock sensors are
installed in 4-cylinder engines. If one knock sensor is
installed, it is located in the centre of the engine block,
between the 2nd and 3rd cylinders.
If two knock sensors are installed, they are located
between the 1st and 2nd and between the 3rd and 4th
cylinders.
6-cylinder V-engines always have two knock sensors,
each positioned in the centre of a cylinder row.
(G458881) Service Training 76
Lesson 2 Sensors
Force sensor
E59569
1
Parking brake/parking brake actuator module (Teves)
Force sensor 1
Location
In the parking brake actuator (electronic parking brake)
Physical operating principle
Hall
Task
The force sensor (in the electronic parking brake)
measures the force acting on the parking-brake cable.
Operating range
Value
Voltage
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
The force sensor itself can not be tested, as it is
completely integrated into the parking brake actuator.
If a force sensor is faulty, a complete new parking brake
actuator must be installed.
77 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Fuel pressure sensor.
E30973
Location
In the fuel injection supply manifold of the injection
system
Physical operating principle
Membrane sensors with strain resistors
Task / function
The fuel pressure sensor measures the fuel pressure in
the fuel injection supply manifold.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the fuel pressure.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.1-4.8 V Signal type / voltage
pressure-sensitive * Resistance
Frequency
* Not measurable
Setpoint values for the Denso common rail system
Voltage (Volts) Fuel pressure (bar)
Approx. 1.0 0
Approx. 1.32 200
Approx. 2.6 1000
Approx. 3.56 1600
Approx. 4.2 2000
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Sample values in diesel common-rail systems
Fuel pressure (bar) Engine speed (rpm)
Approx. 220-270 Idling
Approx. 1,400 *
Approx. 1,600 **
Wide open throttle (vehicle
accelerates)
* Common-rail systems, 1st generation.
** Common rail systems, 2nd generation
(G458881) Service Training 78
Lesson 2 Sensors
Fuel pressure at maximum acceleration in 1st gear in the
2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (DW)
E58748
Special features
The fuel pressure sensor must not be replaced separately
during servicing. If a fuel pressure sensor is faulty, the
entire fuel injection supply manifold must be replaced.
79 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Fuel level sensor
E58057
1
2
Connector 1
Sender unit for fuel level 2
Location
Integrated in the fuel tank in the FPDM (Fuel Pump
Driver Module).
Physical operating principle
Sliding-contact potentiometer
Task / function
The fuel level sensor records the fuel level in the fuel
tank.
If the fuel level changes, the position of the sliding
contact on the resistance track and so the voltage drop
at the sensor also change.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
DC voltage Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
Resistance (Ohm) * Position of fuel level
sensor
> 150 Fuel tank empty
Approx. 50-80 Fuel tank 50 % full
< 20 Fuel tank full
* In the case of relatively old fuel level sensors, two slide paths may
be installed, which work in opposite directions. The resistance values
are therefore reversed.
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes, restricted WDS/IDS DTC
+ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
+ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
(G458881) Service Training 80
Lesson 2 Sensors
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
The value displayed by the fuel level sensor in the
instrument cluster can be checked with a self-test of the
instrument cluster. Instructions for this self-test can be
found in the relevant Service literature.
For a more precise test, the tank sensor must be removed
and the resistance of the sliding-contact potentiometer
must be tested directly.
It must be possible to measure a continuous change in
resistance across the entire lever travel.
81 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Fuel temperature sensor
B
A
1
1
2
E85051
System with fuel temperature sensor in the return
line
A
System with fuel temperature sensor at the
high-pressure pump
B
Fuel temperature sensor 1
Branch in the fuel return line 2
Location
In the fuel return line of the injection system or at the
high-pressure pump
Physical operating principle
NTC resistor
Task / function
The fuel temperature sensor measures the temperature
of the fuel return.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the fuel temperature.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
DC voltage: 0.1 4.9 V Signal type / voltage
temperature-sensitive Resistance
Frequency
Target resistance values for the Denso common-rail
system
Resistance (kOhms) Temperature (C)
Approx. 25.4 30
Approx. 15.04 20
Approx. 9.16 10
Approx. 5.74 0
Approx. 3.70 10
Approx. 2.45 20
Approx. 1.66 30
Approx. 1.15 40
Approx. 0.811 50
Approx. 0.584 60
Approx. 0.428 70
Approx. 0.318 80
Approx. 0.240 90
Approx. 0.184 100
Approx. 0.142 110
Approx. 0.111 120
Voltage range for Bosch common rail system:
Approx. 0.1 V at 142 C
Approx. 4.92 V at 45 C
(G458881) Service Training 82
Lesson 2 Sensors
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
+ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
83 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Clutch pedal position sensor (vehicles
with hill launch assist)
E70695
Location
At the clutch master cylinder
Physical operating principle
Inductive
Task / function
Serves to determine the clutch take-up point (pull-away
detection for systems with electronic parking brake).
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
DC voltage: 0.5-4.5 Volt Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
+ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
+ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Datalogger signal (bar chart selected)
E87328
Clutch pedal not pressed A
Clutch pedal partially pressed. B
Clutch pedal fully pressed. C
Special features
The sensor can be renewed separately. However,
accessibility to the sensor is restricted when the clutch
master cylinder is installed. For this reason, a special
tool is available for removing and installing the sensor
during repairs (see current service literature).
(G458881) Service Training 84
Lesson 2 Sensors
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP)
E58177
2 1
Examples of CKP sensors
Inductive CKP sensor 1
CKP sensor (Hall-effect type) 2
Location
Near to the flywheel or the pulley (vibration damper).
Physical operating principle
Inductive or Hall
Task / function
The CKP sensor probes a ring gear (inductive sensor)
or a magnetic disc (Hall sensor) with a clearly defined
number of teeth or magnetic pole pairs (north/south).
A defined gap is located between the teeth or the
magnetic pole pairs.
The CKP signal is generated according to the speed.
Inductive CKP signal
E58343
(+)
1
2
A
6
6
3
4
1 5
4
7
3
(-)
CKP signal (similar to sinusoidal voltage
characteristics)
A
CKP sensor 1
Voltage (Volts) 2
Pulses per crankshaft revolution (360 degrees)
*
3
Reference mark (gap on the ring gear) 4
Tooth centre 5
Tooth interval 6
Ring gear (flywheel or serrated disc) 7
In vehicles with VP30/VP44 injection pump:
pulses per half crankshaft revolution (180
degrees)
*
The signal frequency and the height of the signal
amplitude increase in proportion to the increasing engine
speed.
85 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
CKP signal (Hall)
E58347
3
V
5
2
4
1
Magnetic pole pairs (not visible) on magnetic
disc
1
CKP sensor 2
Clearance between the pole and the CKP sensor 3
Pole gap/reference mark (not visible) 4
Square-wave signal from the CKP (Hall) sensor 5
In the case of Hall sensors, the frequency of the signal
only increases with the increasing engine speed.
Operating range
Value
- (inductive)
Approx. 5 V (Hall)
Reference voltage
Sinusoidal signal
(inductive)
Square-wave signal
(Hall)
Signal type / voltage
see table (inductive)
- (Hall)
Resistance
speed-dependent Frequency
Sample values for inductive sensors
Resistance (ohm) Engine code
Approx. 413 1.4L/1.6L Duratec-16V (Sigma)
300 580 1.8L Duratorq-TDCi (Kent) diesel
300 580 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (Puma)
Approx. 460 1.8L/2.0L Duratec-HE (MI4)
750 1100 1.8L Duratec-SCi (MI4)
approx. 400 2.0L Zetec-E (Zetec)
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ (inductive)
- (Hall)
DMM
Datalogger
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features
The starter motor speed is significant for inductive
sensors.
In order to obtain a reliable signal for further processing
in the PCM, a specific speed and consequently a specific
minimum voltage must be attained during the start-up
(G458881) Service Training 86
Lesson 2 Sensors
process. Moreover, the minimum voltage from which
the CKP signal will be accepted by the PCM software
to start the engine depends on the strategy.
Example:
1.8L Duratorq DI: approx. 0.8 to 1 V
Delphi common-rail systems: approx. 2.9 to 3.4 V
The correct setting of the air gap between the sensor
and the sensor ring and the installation location of the
sensor are extremely important. Minor deviations may
cause the engine not to start.
Soiling (eg, oil or corrosion residue) between the sensor
ring and the sensor may cause the engine not to start or
to run irregularly.
If the engine starts and runs smoothly, the signal is
correct.
87 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Engine coolant temperature sensor
(ECT) and cylinder head temperature
sensor (CHT)
E58183
1 2
Examples CHT (Cylinder Head Temperature)/ECT
sensors
CHT sensor 1
ECT sensor 2
Location
ECT sensor: in the small coolant circuit of the engine
CHT sensor: on the cylinder head
Physical operating principle
NTC resistor
Task / function
The ECT/CHT sensor measures the current engine
coolant or cylinder head temperature.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the engine coolant or cylinder head
temperature.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: see table Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
NOTE: Values for CHT sensors are output differently
in datalogger measurements with WDS/IDS after the
"voltage jump" (see Special features).
ECT/CHT sensor setpoint values in Visteon systems
Voltage (V) Resistance
(Kohms)
Temperature
(C)
4.51 4.54 860 900 40
4.46 4.49 501 645 30
4.31 4.35 253 289 20
4.17 4.23 170 196 10
3.82 3.92 89.0 102 0
3.5 3.7 62.0 70.0 10
3.0 3.2 35.0 40.0 20
2.6 2.8 25.0 28.0 30
2.0 2.2 15.0 17.0 40
1.7 1.9 11.0 13.0 50
1.2 1.4 7.1 8.0 60
0.9 1.2 5.0 6.2 70
0.6 0.9 3.0 4.5 80
0.5 0.7 2.4 3.5 90
0.4 0.5 1.9 2.5 100
0.3 0.4 1.5 1.7 110
0.2 0.3 1.0 1.3 120
(G458881) Service Training 88
Lesson 2 Sensors
ECT/CHT sensor setpoint values on the 1.4L
Duratorq-TDCi (DV) Diesel, 1.6L Duratorq-TDCi
(DV) Diesel and 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (DW) Diesel
engines
Voltage (V) Resistance
(kOhms)
Temperature
(C)
88.500 5.99 % 30
48.535 5.14 % 20
27.665 4.43 % 10
16.325 3.74 % 0
9.950 3.12 % 10
Approx. 3.63 6.245 2.60 % 20
Approx. 3.23 4.029 2.37 % 30
Approx. 2.81 2.664 2.03 % 40
Approx. 2.25 1.802 1.78 % 50
Approx. 1.81 1.244 1.54 % 60
Approx. 1.42 0.876 1.,32 % 70
Approx. 1.11 0.629 1.13 % 80
Approx. 0.88 0.459 1.05 % 90
0.340 0.88 % 100
0.256 1.20 % 110
0.195 1.56 % 120
ECT/CHT sensor setpoint values for 1.8L
Duratec-SCi (MI4) engine
Voltage (V) * Resistance
(Kohms)
Temperature
(C)
Approx. 4.74 62.0 70.0 10
Approx. 4.58 35.0 40.0 20
Approx. 4.37 25.0 28.0 30
Approx. 4.12 15.0 17.0 40
Approx. 3.81 9.0 13.0 50
Voltage (V) * Resistance
(Kohms)
Temperature
(C)
Approx. 3.46 7.1 8.0 60
Approx. 2.97 5.0 6.2 70
Approx. 2.66 3.0 4.5 80
Approx. 2.28 2.4 3.5 90
* The voltage values displayed in the WDS/IDS datalogger deviate
significantly from the characteristic curve, so they are not suitable
for a specific measurement. To measure the voltage values, connect
the DMM to the ECT sensor with a suitable adapter cable.
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ Datalogger
++ DMM
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features CHT sensor
At high temperatures, the resolution of the CHT sensor
is not sufficient to cover the entire temperature range
adequately with high precision.
Therefore the temperature curve is shifted by activating
a second resistor "in the PCM".
89 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
The activation/deactivation point of this second resistor
depends on the relevant engine-management strategy.
The activation and deactivation points can be offset to
each other (hysteresis) to prevent continual activation
and deactivation during continuous engine operation in
the vicinity of the switching point.
Examples:
Visteon systems (petrol engines):
Activation/deactivation point: 95 C
Visteon systems (diesel):
Activation point: 78 C
Deactivation point: 62 C
Siemens systems (diesel):
Activation point: 85 C
Deactivation point: 80 C
(G458881) Service Training 90
Lesson 2 Sensors
General
TIE42064
The illustration shows a planar dual-point HO2S
Location
In the exhaust branch upstream of and downstream of
the three-way catalytic converter, depending on the
function.
Note: In vehicles with direct petrol injection, a third
HO2S is located downstream of the NOx catalytic
converter.
Physical operating principle
Galvanic element
Task / function
The HO2S measures the residual oxygen content in the
exhaust gas. This measuring signal permits the
classification of whether a rich or a lean mixture is being
combusted.
Note: The oxygen sensors used at Ford contain a heat
resistor to guarantee reliable function even in low
exhaust temperatures. The ground connection is made
via the connector of the respective PCM. The power
supply to the oxygen sensor merely supplies the heat
resistor.
91 Service Training (G458881)
Oxygen sensors (HO2S) Lesson 2 Sensors
Dual-point HO2S (NTK)
Layout and operation
E58190
A
B
B
C
+ -
2 1
4
1
Exhaust gas flow in the exhaust manifold A
Ambient air, exterior B
Sensor voltage C
Solid-state electrolyte made of zirconium dioxide
(ZrO2)
1
Platinum electrode, air side (21 % oxygen) 2
Platinum electrode, exhaust side (remaining
oxygen)
3
Exhaust gas flow 4
The sensor element consists of a ceramic holder
(zirconium dioxide) which is covered on the interior
and exterior with electrodes made of a gas-permeable
platinum layer. The sensor extends into the exhaust gas
flow and is surrounded by low-oxygen exhaust gases
on the outside. The ambient air with an oxygen content
of 21 % reaches the interior.
The sensor element can conduct oxygen ions as from a
temperature of over 300 C.
E58191
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0,9 1,0 1,1
B
A
C
E D
F
Operating range of the dual-point HO2S
Voltage in mV A
Sensor signal in mV B
Lambda window (ideal mixture) C
rich mixture D
lean mixture E
Oxygen F
Burning a lean mixture leads to a high residual oxygen
content, while burning a rich mixture leads to a low
residual oxygen content.
This is detected by the dual-point HO2S based on the
type of ionic migration.
The ionic migration causes a dramatic increase or
reduction in the sensor voltage. This voltage jump is
used for lambda control purposes.
A voltage potential of 0.1 volts (lean mixture) to 0.9
volts (rich mixture) is generated according to the
existing residual air content in the exhaust gas.
(G458881) Service Training 92
Lesson 2 Sensors
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Heating voltage
Pulsed DC voltage: 0.1
0.9 V
Signal type / voltage
Approx. 5 Ohm * Resistance
Frequency
* Oxygen sensor heating at +20 C
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics
(WDS/IDS)
++ Datalogger
DMM
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
The illustration shows signals from the upstream (O2S11)
and the downstream (O2S12) HO2S in the 1.8L Zetec-E
in the Focus during idling.
E59760
NOTE: Thanks to the exhaust gas conversion in the
three-way catalytic converter, the measured vibrations
in the downstream HO2S are low (prerequisite: the
three-way catalytic converter is working efficiently).
The function of the HO2S can be tested using an HO2S
tester. Please observe the manufacturer's operating
instructions for the HO2S tester.
Measuring prerequisite:
engine at operating temperature.
Note: The measurement must be made with the engine
running.
If no HO2S tester is available, the specified voltage
values can also be measured with a conventional
multimeter.
For this purpose, connect the PCM, the wiring harness
and the testing device using a suitable adapter cable.
93 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Planar dual-point HO2S
Layout and operation
The planar dual-point HO2S (Bosch) is an enhancement
of the dual-point HO2S (NTK). However, it works
according to the same jump characteristic as the
dual-point HO2S (NTK).
"Planar" in this HO2S means that planar films form the
solid-state electrolyte. The planar sensor element has
the shape of an elongated thin plate with a rectangular
cross-section.
TIE42099
4
1
2
3
Basic structure of the planar dual-point HO2S
Exhaust gas 1
Sensor voltage 2
Heating voltage 3
Reference air duct 4
The core of this HO2S consists of a special planar
ceramic body and a sensor element. The outer electrode
side extends into the exhaust gas flow, and the inner
electrode side is connected to the reference air duct
(external air).
The difference in the oxygen content between the outer
and inner electrodes can be measured as a voltage
difference.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 11-14 V Heating voltage
Pulsed DC voltage: 0.1
0.9 V
Signal type / voltage
7 15 Ohm * Resistance
Frequency
* Oxygen sensor heating at +20 C
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ Datalogger
+ (analog display) DMM
+ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
The function of the HO2S can be tested using an HO2S
tester. Please observe the manufacturer's operating
instructions for the HO2S tester.
Measuring prerequisite:
engine at operating temperature.
Note: The measurement must be made with the engine
running.
(G458881) Service Training 94
Lesson 2 Sensors
If no HO2S tester is available, the specified voltage
values can also be measured with a conventional
multimeter.
For this purpose, connect the PCM, the wiring harness
and the testing device using a suitable adapter cable.
95 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Planar broadband HO2S
TIE42061
Layout and operation
The planar broadband HO2S allows measurements of
the exhaust gas which deviates from the stochiometric
ratio (lambda = 1).
The measuring range extends from lambda 0.7 to 2.8,
whereby the broadband HO2S emits a clear, constant
pump current signal.
With these properties, the broadband HO2S can not only
be used in petrol engine-management systems with
dual-point control (lambda = 1), but even more so in
petrol engine-management systems with lean concepts
(lambda > 1).
Example:
Planar broadband HO2S for direct petrol injection
TIE42098
5
7
9
1
2
8
6
4
3
Nernst concentration cell 1
Oxygen pump cell 2
Measuring area 3
Pump current 4
Regulating switch 5
Reference voltage 6
Heater 7
Heating voltage 8
Reference air duct 9
The broadband HO2S consists of a Nernst concentration
cell and an oxygen pump cell, which transports the
oxygen ions.
Between the oxygen pump cell and the Nernst measuring
electrode, there is a diffusion gap which acts as the
measuring area and is connected to the exhaust gas.
The Nernst concentration cell is connected via a duct
to the ambient reference air and the measuring area and
detects the mixture composition in the measuring area.
A concentration of lambda = 1 is set in the measuring
area using the oxygen ion flow. This is done by applying
a reference voltage which results in a pump current.
In the case of lean exhaust gas, the oxygen pump cell
is activated so that oxygen ions are pumped out of the
measuring area. This is detected by the regulating
switch, so that the flow can move (positive direction).
(G458881) Service Training 96
Lesson 2 Sensors
In the case of rich exhaust gas, the direction of flow is
reversed so that the cell pumps oxygen ions into the
measuring area. The regulating switch detects this, so
the flow is reversed (negative direction).
TIE42062
1
2
Pump current as a function of the excess air factor
lambda of the exhaust gas.
Pump current in mA Ip
positive pump current 1
negative pump current 2
The pump current represents a direct measurement of
the mixture composition. With lambda 1 (14.7 kg air/1
kg fuel), the pump current is 0 mA.
The characteristic curve of the broadband HO2S is
constant (linear), without a lambda jump.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 11-14 V Heating voltage
Analog direct current
(mA)
Signal current/type
2.4 4.1 Ohm* Resistance
Frequency
* Oxygen sensor heating at +20 C
Values for the 1.8L Duratec-SCi (at operating
temperature)
Pump current (mA) Operating mode
Approx. 1.0 2.0 Shift operation (idling)
Approx. 0 Homogeneous operation
(approx. 4,000 rpm)
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Note for vehicles with 1.8L Duratec-SCi (MI4):
Only the lambda value of the broadband HO2S is
indicated in the datalogger.
In order to display the pump current, "Mode 1
Powertrain" must be called up in "OBD Mode". The
relevant PID must then be selected.
97 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Steering wheel rotation sensor
E58053
3
1 2
Examples of steering wheel rotation sensor
Magneto-resistive steering wheel rotation sensor,
Mondeo 2001
1
Opto-electronic steering wheel rotation sensor
with integrated spring, Focus 1999
2
Opto-electronic steering wheel rotation sensor,
Ford Focus 2004.75
3
Location
At the steering column and/or directly behind the
steering wheel
Physical operating principle
Opto-electronic or magneto-resistive
Task / function
The steering wheel rotation sensor measures the rotation
of the steering wheel.
A digital signal is generated via integrated evaluation
electronics according to the movement of the steering
wheel.
In terms of the relative steering angle, the sensor
measures only changes in the steering wheel rotation.
The straight ahead position of the steering is not defined
in the sensor.
In the case of absolute steering angle detection, the
sensor generates a specific signal for every steering
wheel position. The straight ahead position of the
steering is therefore defined in the sensor.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
Digital CAN protocol 5
V
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
500 KB/sec. Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
++ (restricted) Datalogger
- (can not be evaluated) Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Steering wheel rotation sensors are monitored
continuously by the ABS/stability assist module.
(G458881) Service Training 98
Lesson 2 Sensors
Signal trace of the steering wheel rotation sensor in the
datalogger
1
1
2
3
E58752
Steering wheel in straight ahead position 1
One steering wheel revolution to the right 2
One steering wheel revolution to the left 3
In terms of the representation of the signal in the
datalogger, please not that in some cases it may not be
possible to display the measuring range for the entire
steering wheel rotation (stop to stop).
However, for checking purposes, one steering wheel
revolution in each direction will suffice, because any
possible error will simply be repeated.
Opto-electronic steering wheel rotation sensor
E59706
1
4
3 2
Segment disc (engaged in steering spindle) 1
Photoelectric barrier 2
Evaluation electronics 3
Electrical connection 4
The opto-electronic steering wheel rotation sensors use
photoelectric barriers for non-contacting pickup of the
segment disc which is firmly attached to the steering
column shaft.
99 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Magneto-resistive steering wheel rotation sensor
E53338
1
2
4 4
5
6
2
3 3
Drive wheel (engaged in steering spindle) 1
Gearwheel 2
Permanent magnet 3
Magneto-resistive resistance 4
Evaluation electronics 5
Electrical connection 6
Magneto-resistive steering wheel rotation sensors consist
of two permanent magnets, each of which are connected
to the steering column shaft via a spur gear mechanism.
The gear ratio of both mechanisms is different, which
means that for each steering wheel position the magnets
are positioned individually to each other.
Special features
In some systems, it is necessary to program or calibrate
the steering wheel rotation sensor with the WDS/IDS
after renewal. In this regard, refer to the instructions in
the current Service Literature.
It is possible to carry out a function test at the same time
as setting.
Test of steering wheel rotation sensor in guided diagnostics
E59707
(G458881) Service Training 100
Lesson 2 Sensors
Light sensor
2
1
3
E40968
Light/rain sensor unit
Lens 1
Close-range light sensor 2
Long-range light sensor 3
Location
The light sensor for the autolamps is integrated in a unit
with the rain sensor for the rain sensing wipers, which
is attached behind the windshield close to the interior
rear view mirror in the wiping area of the windshield
wipers.
Physical operating principle
Photovoltaic effect
Task / function
The light sensor consists of the following three main
components:
Close-range light sensor
Long-range light sensor
Lens.
The close-range light sensor measures the light intensity
in the immediate vicinity of the windshield.
The long-range light sensor determines the light
intensity in front of the vehicle.
If both the close-range and long-range light sensors
signal a sudden drop in the light intensity at the same
time, an algorithm in the autolamp module (Mondeo
2001 (06/2003-)) or the GEM (all other vehicles) is used
to transmit a digital code in the form of a frequency.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
Digital code Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes (except Mondeo) WDS/IDS DTC
* Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* In the case of a faulty light-sensor signal, the low beam shines
constantly when the "autolamps" function is switched on.
Note: The sensor is able to distinguish between daylight
and artificial light.
101 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
The light sensor cannot be diagnosed.
Special features
If the light sensor fails, the headlamps can still be used
in manual mode.
In the Mondeo 2001 (06/2003-), a separate module is
installed to control the autolamps. It is located under
the instrument panel (driver side).
In the Focus C-MAX (06/2003-) and the Focus 2004.75
(07/2004-), control of the autolamps is via the GEM.
(G458881) Service Training 102
Lesson 2 Sensors
Mass air flow sensor (MAF)
E43235
1
2
Location
In the intake tract, downstream of the air cleaner.
Physical operating principle
Hot wire principle or hot film principle
Task / function
The MAF sensor measures the mass of the air flowing
into the engine.
Function of the hot wire MAF sensor.
E58184
2
1
3
Air temperature sensor 1
Hot wire 2
Bypass duct 3
The intaken mass air flows through a Venturi nozzle
located in the housing of the MAF sensor. The vacuum
resulting from this nozzle effect sucks a specific volume
of air through a bypass duct.
A hot wire and a temperature compensation resistor are
located in this bypass duct.
The air temperature sensor measures the temperature
of the intake air flowing through, which cools off the
heated hot wire.
A regulating switch supplies the heating current in such
a way that the hot wire attains a constant excess
temperature in comparison to the intake air.
This measuring principle takes into account the air
density to the correct degree, because it partly
determines the extent of the heat loss from the hot wire
to the air.
The heating current is therefore a measurement for the
mass air flow. The control electronics in the sensor use
the heating current to generate a voltage signal
proportional to the mass air flow, which is then provided
as an input voltage for the PCM.
103 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
The following applies:
small intake of mass air: low voltage (approx. 0.5
V),
considerable intake of mass air: high voltage (close
to 5 V).
Function of the hot film MAF sensor.
E58185
1
2
4 3
5 6 5
Case 1
Case cover 2
Control electronics 3
Sensor element 4
Sensor measuring cell 5
Heating zone 6
Note: Depending on the engine-management strategy,
the hot film MAF sensor may be designed as an analog
or a digital sensor.
The hot film MAF sensor is able to detect the return
flow of the intaken air.
A sensor measuring cell is heated electrically on the
integrated chip and then cooled by the air flowing
through. The control electronics supply the heating
current in such a way that the chip attains a constant
excess temperature in comparison to the intake air.
Both the mass air flow and the direction of flow can be
derived from this heating current (given in the form of
a signal voltage). As a result, a precise calculation of
the mass air is possible, even with strongly pulsating
air flows.
The direction of flow can be detected from the nature
of the cooling on both sensor measuring cells.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V
Approx. 5 V
Supply voltage (some vari-
ants)
Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.5-4.75
V
PWM square-wave
signal: 0/12 V
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
(G458881) Service Training 104
Lesson 2 Sensors
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes (with an electrical
malfunction)
No (with soiling)
WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ (analog signal)
- (PWM signal)
DMM
++ Datalogger
- (analog signal)
++ (PWM signal)
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Note: The MAF signal output in the WDS/IDS
datalogger differs depending on the vehicle version.
The output may be specified in Volts (V) or in
grams/stroke (g/s).
The output value from the MAF sensor depends on the
design of the intake system and the displacement of the
vehicle.
Signal trace of the analog MAF sensor at maximum
acceleration in 3rd gear in the 1.8L Zetec-E in the Focus
(datalogger signal)
E59038
With the wide open throttle measurement in 3rd gear,
the MAF value should be over 4 V.
Signal trace of the analog MAF sensor at maximum
acceleration in 3rd gear in the 2.2L Duratorq-TDCi
(Puma) in the Mondeo (datalogger signal)
E85327
With the wide open throttle measurement in 3rd gear,
the MAF value should be over 4 V.
105 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Signal trace of the digital MAF sensor at maximum
acceleration in 3rd gear in the 1.6L Duratorq-TDCi (DV)
diesel and 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (DW) in the Focus
(datalogger signal)
E59039
Sample values at maximum acceleration in 3rd gear:
1.6L Duratorq-TDCi in the Focus C-MAX: approx.
120 g/s
2.0L Duratorq-TDCi in the Ford Focus C-MAX:
approx. 150 g/s
Digital MAF sensor
The illustration shows the signal of a digital MAF sensor
in a diesel engine when idling (oscilloscope signal)
E58355
NOTE: The signal change in the centre represents the
intake manifold pulsation.
The PWM signal changes with the increasing speed and
increasing mass air flow. Moreover, the mass air flow
and so the signal from the sensor depend on the design
of the intake tract.
Special features
An IAT sensor is integrated in newer MAF sensors.
This essentially helps to correct the MAF signal. This
ensures a more precise measurement of the mass air.
The physical operating principle and the testing
possibilities are the same as those for the separate IAT
sensor.
In some vehicles, it is necessary to carry out a parameter
reset in the control module using the WDS/IDS after
installing a new MAF sensor. Instructions for this can
be found in the current Service literature.
(G458881) Service Training 106
Lesson 2 Sensors
Air temperature sensor, air outlet
temperature sensor
E58065
1
1
1
2
Examples of air temperature/air outlet temperature
sensors
Sensor element 1
Interior temperature sensor with integrated fan 2
Location
On the instrument panel and/or at the air vents
Physical operating principle
NTC resistor
Task / function
Air outlet temperature sensors measure the temperature
at the air vents, and the air temperature sensor measures
the interior temperature in the vehicle.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the air temperature.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0.5-4.5 V Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
Values not applicable to the Galaxy
Resistance (kOhm) * Temperature (C)
28 32 5
22 24 10
12 14 20
6 8 30
< 5 40
* Measured in the water bath Values may differ, depending on the
installation location.
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes, restricted WDS/IDS DTC
+ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
107 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Depending on the vehicle and the equipment, several
sensors may be installed in the footwell air vents, the
windshield and the center vents (in the instrument
panel).
These can be depicted individually in the datalogger.
Please ensure that the preset measuring range is set to
the ideal values for the diagnosis (0-50 C).
Signal trace of the air-conditioning temperature sensors
in the datalogger given a temperature change.
E58749
1
2
3
Display with temperature change
Air outlet temperature, centre vents 1
Air outlet temperature, footwell 2
Passenger compartment temperature 3
The displayed values must change accordingly when
the temperature or the air flaps change. The displayed
value can be compared simultaneously with a
conventional thermometer. To do so, the thermometer
must be held in the relevant air flow.
Special features
In interior temperature sensors, an additional fan is often
used which sucks the air to be measured out of the
vehicle interior to ensure an optimal measuring result.
This can also be depicted in the datalogger (display in
Hertz (Hz)). If this fan fails, the sensor value displayed
in the datalogger may deviate from the actual interior
temperature.
(G458881) Service Training 108
Lesson 2 Sensors
Inclination sensor
E58058
1
1
A B
Examples of inclination sensors
Inductive (shown: Focus 1999) A
Hall B
Lever arm 1
Location
One sensor at both the front and rear axles (vehicles
with automatic headlamp levelling)
Physical operating principle
Hall or inductive
Task / function
The inclination sensor measures the relative vehicle
height compared to a preset value.
A voltage signal is generated via the integrated
evaluation electronics according to the inclination of
the vehicle and the resulting change in the lever arm.
Operating range
Value
4.8 5.2 V
12 V *
Supply voltage
Direct voltage: 0.5-4.5 V
Direct voltage: 1.8-9.4 V
*
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
* Applies only to Focus 1999, front sensor; see Special features.
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
109 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Signal trace in the datalogger given repeated changes in
the vehicle height (brief rocking)
E58754
In some systems, the signal values from the sensors may
be displayed differently in the datalogger (Volts, degrees
or percentage).
Signal trace across the entire measuring range in the
datalogger (with lever arm removed)
E58753
For a precise test of the sensor, the lever arm of the
sensor should be removed and the entire lever travel of
the sensor should be displayed in the datalogger.
Please note that, in the case of fully sprung vehicles,
the sensor values may lie outside the measuring range
and a test is only possible to a limited degree.
Special features
The data from the front and rear sensors aid the
calculation of the inclination of the vehicle and so
provide a reference variable for correcting the range of
the headlamps.
A change in the signal does not necessarily lead to a
direct adjustment of the range, because the systems work
with different reaction times and algorithms.
In the Focus 1999, please note that a control module is
integrated in the front sensor. This module generates a
voltage signal between 1.8 and 9.4 Volts which directly
activates the adjustment motors for the headlamp
levelling.
In the case of vehicles with subsequently adjusted
vehicle height (eg, lowering of the chassis), it may be
necessary to adjust the fastening points of the sensors
and/or the lever arms accordingly.
When working on inclination sensors, please ensure that
the installation location is correct, because otherwise
the correct function of the sensors can not be guaranteed.
In some systems, it may be necessary to program or
calibrate the inclination sensor after renewal. In this
regard, refer to the instructions in the current Service
Literature.
Inclination sensors are also referred to as headlamp
levelling sensors or vehicle level sensors.
(G458881) Service Training 110
Lesson 2 Sensors
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP)
E58181
1 2
3
Examples of CMP sensors
Inductive CMP sensor (example from the 1.8L
Duratec-HE (MI4))
1
CMP sensor (Hall principle) (example from the
1.8L Duratec-SCi (MI4))
2
CMP sensor (Hall effect) (example from the 1.4L
Duratorq-TDCi (DV) diesel)
3
Location
On the cylinder head, depending on the position of the
phase sensor. Phase sensors may be:
reference cams on the camshaft,
Phase sensing at the camshaft timing belt pulley.
Physical operating principle
Hall or inductive
Task / function
Supports the detection of cylinder 1 and so the definition
of the injection sequence.
The CMP sensor monitors one (or several) reference
cams on the camshaft or the phase sensor on the
camshaft pulley. The number of signals and the signal
intervals depend on the type of injection and the relevant
engine-management strategy.
Operating range
Value
- (inductive)
Approx. 5 V/12 V (Hall)
Voltage
Sinusoidal (inductive)
Square-wave (Hall)
Signal type / voltage
200-900 Ohm (inductive)
- (Hall)
Resistance
speed-dependent Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Not in all systems
(depends on software)
WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ (inductive)
- (Hall)
DMM
+ Datalogger
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
111 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Inductive signal with sequential intake manifold injection
2.5L Duratec-VE during idling (oscilloscope)
E58339
In the inductiveCMP sensor, the signal frequency and
the signal amplitude increase in proportion to the
increasing camshaft speed.
As a result, the signal can only be provided reliably as
from a certain camshaft speed (engine speed).
This type of CMP sensors is primarily used in sequential
petrol intake manifold injection.
The sequential injection is carried out as from an engine
speed of 400-600 rpm.
In these systems, the detection of cylinder 1 is supported
by a reference cam, which passes the CMP sensor every
working cycle (two crankshaft revolutions).
Hall signal in direct petrol injection 1.8L Duratec-Sci
during idling (oscilloscope)
E59133
In the case of Hall sensors, the square-wave signal
voltage depends on the speed. In these sensors, the
frequency of the signal only changes with the
falling/increasing engine speed.
Hall CMP sensors are mainly used in engines with
direct fuel injection.
The reason for this is the high priority of the clear and
rapid definition of the injection sequence even during
the start process with relatively low starter speeds
(between 250-300 rpm in common-rail diesel engines).
Depending on the engine-management strategy, one or
several cams/phases can be implemented for detecting
the cylinders.
The signal sequence depends on the arrangement of the
reference cam(s) (in relation to the CKP signal) and the
engine-management strategy.
(G458881) Service Training 112
Lesson 2 Sensors
Oil level/temperature sensor
E85070
Apertures to the oil level measuring section 1
Electrical connector 2
Heating wire 3
Temperature sensor 4
Location
In the lower part of the cylinder block, near
the oil dipstick
Physical operating principle
Oil level sensor: heated wire principle
Temperature sensor: NTC
Task / function
Serves to calculate the oil level and the oil condition.
Operating range
Value
(heating wire)
Approx. 5 V (temperature
sensor)
Reference voltage
Signal type / voltage
see table below Resistance
Frequency
NOTE: The heating wire is only activated briefly by
the PCM when certain conditions are fulfilled. Current
or voltage measurement is therefore not possible.
Heating wire setpoint values
Resistance (ohms) Temperature (C)
Approx. 7.9 30
Approx. 9.8 20
Approx. 14.8 160
Temperature sensor setpoint values
Resistance (ohms) Temperature (C)
80429 106834 40
41895 54306 30
22717 28796 20
7442 9078 0
2772 3269 20
1151 1320 40
526 588 60
261 285 80
139 149 100
78 83 120
45 50 140
27 32 160
113 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
+ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
(G458881) Service Training 114
Lesson 2 Sensors
Position sensor - gearshift actuator
E59539
1
2
3
Transit automated manual transmission
Position sensor - shift cylinder 1
Position sensor - selection cylinder 2
Position sensor - reverse gear 3
Location
On the housing of the gearshift actuator (Transit with
automated manual transmission)
Physical operating principle
Inductive (permanent magnet with three coils)
Task / function
The gearshift actuator position sensor detects the
movement of the shift or the selection cylinder. A
voltage is applied to the primary coil. The movement
of the magnets then induces a suitably different voltage
in the secondary coils.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Frequency
Resistance values for gearshift actuator position
sensor
Resistance (ohm) Coil
Approx. 68 Primary
Approx. 32 Secondary I
Approx. 32 Secondary II
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
115 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Gearshift actuator position sensor in the datalogger
E58870
Selector Lever Position A
Range selected B
The signal of the gearshift actuator position sensor can
be displayed in the datalogger. The displayed
transmission-range position must correspond to the gear
engaged by the transmission.
Special features
The gearshift actuator position sensor is also referred
to as a selector and shift travel sensor.
(G458881) Service Training 116
Lesson 2 Sensors
Wheel speed sensor
E52529
Location
On each of the wheel hubs of the front and rear wheels
Physical operating principle
Inductive (passive) or magneto-resistive (active)
Task / function
Wheel speed sensors measure the speed of the individual
wheels.
According to the operating principle, an AC voltage
signal (inductive) or a PWM square-wave signal with
constant frequency (magneto-resistive) is generated.
Inductive senor:
The signal frequency and the signal amplitude
increase in proportion to the increasing wheel speed.
Magneto-resistive sensor
Only the frequency of the signal increases
proportionally to the increasing engine speed.
Operating range
Value
- (inductive)
11.3 11.5 V (magneto-resistive)
Supply voltage
Sinusoidal (inductive)
PWM square-wave signal 7-14
mA (magneto-resistive)
Signal type /
voltage
0.9-1.4 kOhm (inductive)
- (magneto-resistive)
Resistance
speed-dependent (inductive)
constant (magneto-resistive)
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics
(WDS/IDS)
+ (inductive)
- (magneto-resistive)
DMM
++ Datalogger
+ (inductive)
- (magneto-resistive)
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
A bar-chart format is recommended for representation
in the datalogger. In the case of driving straight ahead,
all four sensor signals should be at the same height.
117 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
All four wheel speed sensor signals in order (datalogger)
E58768
If one or several of the signals deviate significantly,
there is probably a fault in that sensor circuit.
Failure of a wheel speed sensor signal (datalogger)
E58751
Active wheel speed sensor
Since the end of the 90s, so-called active
(magneto-resistive) wheel speed sensors have been used
more frequently. The advantage over inductive sensors
is that the active sensors are able to pick up wheel speeds
from a standstill, which is of importance on traction
control systems at the moment the vehicle pulls away,
for example.
E58801
The wheel speed sensor usually consists of two
magneto-resistive resistors that are connected together
by means of two constant resistances in the form of a
bridge (Wheatstone bridge).
This type of connection helps to compensate for ageing
and temperature influences that affect the wheel speed
sensor over the service life of the vehicle.
A wheel speed sensor ring, consisting of alternately
opposing permanent magnets, passes over the bridge.
The wheel speed sensor ring is fixed permanently to the
wheel hub, i.e. with the inner ring of the wheel bearing,
and turns at the same speed as the wheel.
Integrated in the sensor are evaluation electronics that
convert the sinusoidal signal resulting from the
measurement into a PWM signal with constant
frequency.
The sensor requires a supply voltage for operation and
features two electrical connections.
The sensor signal results from the current that flows
through the sensor. A high current (approx. 14 mA) is
interpreted by the ABS/stability assist module as a high
signal, and a low current (approx. 7 mA) is interpreted
as a low signal.
(G458881) Service Training 118
Lesson 2 Sensors
Passive wheel speed sensor
In order for the ABS/stability assist module to process
the sensor signal of the passive wheel speed sensor
(inductive) effectively, a sufficient amplitude strength
is required.
This means that a signal which can be processed is only
available from a minimum speed (approx. 5-7 km/h
depending on the system).
Special features
Both the active and the passive wheel speed sensors are
wear-free.
However, due to the use of permanent magnets, metallic
particles such as abrasion particles from the braking
system could build up on the sensors and/or wheel speed
sensor rings during the service life of the vehicle.
These abrasion particles can impair the function of the
sensor. For this reason, it is important to check and
ensure the cleanliness of the wheel speed sensors and
the wheel speed sensor rings carefully if sensor-related
malfunctions are encountered.
119 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Rain sensor
E40970
1
2
3
4
Raindrop 1
Light emitting diode (LED) (infrared sensor) 2
Lens 3
Photodiode (infrared receiver) 4
Location
The rain sensor is integrated in a unit with the light
sensor, which is located behind the windshield close to
the interior mirror in the wiping area of the windshield
wipers.
Physical operating principle
Infrared
Task / function
The rain sensor measures the volume of precipitation
falling on the windshield.
When a defined precipitation volume is measured on
the windshield by the sensor, an algorithm in the
autolamp module (Mondeo 2001 (06/2003-)) or the
GEM (all other vehicles) is used to transmit a digital
code in the form of a frequency.
The transmitter diodes (light emitting diodes) emit an
infrared light, which is directed through the windscreen
and is reflected at its outer surface. Receiver diodes
(photodiodes) receive the reflected light.
The light is deliberately guided at a specific angle so
that the light at the outside of the windshield (glass-air
transition) is reflected 100 %.
If the windshield surface is dry, the infrared light
reaches the receiver diode at almost full intensity (total
reflection).
However, if the windshield is wet, the infrared light is
diverted by the water drops and only partially reaches
the receiver diode (partial reflection).
The receive volume of light depends on the rain
intensity, because raindrops disrupt the reflection at the
glass surface to a certain extent. As the windshield
surface becomes increasingly wet, the percentage of
light reflection decreases.
The proportion of the reflected volume of light acts as
a control variable for the interval time. As a result, the
rain sensor controls the speed of the windshield wiper
in accordance with the "measured" quantity of rain.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
Digital code Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
(G458881) Service Training 120
Lesson 2 Sensors
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes (except Mondeo) WDS/IDS DTC
* Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* In the case of a faulty signal from the rain sensor, the windshield
wiper will constantly wipe in interval mode when the rain sensing
function is switched on.
The rain sensor can not be diagnosed.
Special features
If the rain sensor fails, the windshield wipers can still
be operated manually.
If a fault is detected while the wipers are in operation
then the wipers are left running at the last selected speed.
On some vehicles, automatic calibration takes place:
On older versions, initialization takes place when
the rain sensing wiper function is switched on, during
which the wipers are actuated once. During this
initialization, the current condition of the windshield
is checked and any permanent blemishes within the
detection range of the sensor (for instance, due to
stone chip damage) are identified and taken into
account.
On newer versions, automatic calibration only takes
place if the wiper switch was not set to the rain
sensing function before the ignition was switched
on.
Depending on the vehicle and the equipment, it is
possible to adjust the sensitivity of the rain sensor.
Further instructions on this can be found in the Owner's
Handbook.
In vehicles with a "Solar Reflect" infrared-reflecting
windscreen, a light/rain sensor unit is installed which
takes the coating of the windscreen into account.
This light/rain sensor unit must not be exchanged for a
unit intended for vehicles without an infrared-reflecting
windscreen, because correct operation of the rain sensor
cannot otherwise be guaranteed.
121 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Manifold absolute pressure sensor
(MAP)
E58182
3
2 1
Examples of MAP sensors
MAP sensor 1
MAPT sensor 2
IAT sensor element 3
Location
In the intake system
Physical operating principle
Membrane sensors with strain resistors or piezo
Task / function
The MAP sensor measures the current intake manifold
absolute pressure.
The resistance, and so the voltage drop at the sensor,
alter depending on the manifold absolute pressure.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Direct voltage: 0-4.8 V Signal type / voltage
Resistance
pressure-sensitive * Frequency
* Only in vehicles with EEC IV and, in some cases, EEC V systems.
To test the MAP sensor, proceed as follows: connect a
hand pump to the MAP sensor. If necessary, remove
the MAP sensor, but leave the wiring harness connector
connected; switch on the ignition.
Note: The values specified in the table may differ,
depending on the barometric air pressure (generally
between approx. 920 to 1,028 mbar).
Values for 2.0L Duratec-HE in the Mondeo 2001
Voltage (V) Absolute pressure (bar)
Approx. 4.1 1 (barometric pressure)
Approx. 3.3 0.8
Approx. 2.5 0.6
Approx. 1.7 0.4
Approx. 1.0 0.2
Values for 1.6L Duratorq-TDCi (DV) diesel and 2.0L
Duratorq-TDCi (DW) diesel engines
Voltage (V) Absolute pressure (bar)
0
Approx. 0.86 0.1
Approx. 1 0.2
Approx. 1.19 0.3
Approx. 1.36 0.4
Approx. 1.5 0.5
(G458881) Service Training 122
Lesson 2 Sensors
Voltage (V) Absolute pressure (bar)
Approx. 1.68 0.6
Approx. 1.8 0.7
Approx. 2 0.8
Approx. 2.16 0.9
Approx. 2.4 1 (barometric pressure)
Approx. 2.52 1.1
Approx. 2.71 1.2
Approx. 2.87 1.3
Approx. 3 1.4
Approx. 3.18 1.5
Approx. 3.35 1.6
Approx. 3.52 1.7
Approx. 3.65 1.8
Approx. 3.83 1.9
Approx. 4 2
Approx. 4.2 2.1
Approx. 4.27 2.2
Approx. 4.42 2.3
Approx. 4.6 2.4
Approx. 4.7 2.5
In vehicles with EEC IV and, in some cases, EEC V
systems, the pressure measured by the MAP sensor is
output as a frequency value (Hz).
Values in MAP sensors with output frequency
Frequency (Hz) Pressure (bar)
155.5 Barometric pressure
(measured at 980 mbar)
134.5 142.5 800
118.4 126.4 600
103.4 111.4 400
89.2 97.2 200
Note: Cracks in the sensor housing or internal damage
can lead to the correct frequency being displayed, while
the amplitude of the frequency is not actually reached.
The amplitude can be checked using the oscilloscope
(setpoint value approx. 5 V).
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
++ Datalogger
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Note: In some vehicle versions, the actual manifold
pressure is displayed in bar instead of (or as well as) the
voltage display by the WDS/IDS datalogger.
123 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
In this case, it is possible to carry out a simple test of
the MAP sensor using the hand pump.
Connect the hand pump to the measuring point of
the MAP sensor (if necessary, remove the MAP
sensor for this purpose).
Depending on the combustion type (petrol or diesel),
apply a negative (petrol) or positive pressure (diesel)
in several stages to the MAP sensor.
The values on the dial indicator gauge of the hand
pump must coincide with the displayed values in the
WDS/IDS datalogger.
Note:MAPT sensors are often used in place of MAP
sensors. In this case, an IAT sensor is integrated into
the MAP sensor.
(G458881) Service Training 124
Lesson 2 Sensors
Convertible top sensors (Focus Coupe
Convertible)
Example: front striker sensors
1
2
1
2
E87733
Front right-hand striker sensor 1
Front left-hand striker sensor 2
Location
1 2
3 4
10 9
5
6
7 8
1 2
3 4
10 9
5
6
7 8
E87732
125 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Convertible top front striker sensor RH 1
Convertible top front latch operating mechanism
closed position sensor
2
Convertible top rear striker sensor 3
Luggage compartment lid operating mechanism
latch sensor RH
4
Luggage compartment lid lift cylinder open
position sensor
5
Luggage compartment lid operating mechanism
latch sensor LH
6
Convertible top lift cylinder open position sensor 7
Convertible top lift cylinder closed position
sensor
8
Convertible top front latch operating mechanism
open position sensor
9
Convertible top front striker sensor LH 10
Physical operating principle
Hall
Task / function
Detection of the start and end positions of the
convertible top. The convertible top control module
receives a different voltage signal depending on the
sensor status ("activated" or "not activated").
Depending on the position of the convertible top, this
means that some sensors are activated and some are not
activated.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Square-wave signal: 0 or
5 V
Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
(G458881) Service Training 126
Lesson 2 Sensors
Datalogger signals from all ten sensors OK with
convertible top "closed".
E87436
Not activated A
Activated B
Defective sensor C
Datalogger signals from all ten sensors OK with
convertible top "open".
E87437
Not activated A
Activated B
Defective sensor C
Datalogger signals from all ten sensors, with "defective"
sensor no. 8
E87438
Not activated A
Activated B
Defective sensor C
127 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Select-Shift switch
E58062
1
2
3
Shown: CFT23 automatic transaxle
Illumination LEDs 1
Hall sensors 2
Connector 3
Location
On the gearshift lever (automatic transmission with
manual gear selection)
Physical operating principle
Hall
Task
The Select-Shift switch detects the manual shift mode
of the driver (Select-Shift mode).
Within the manual shift mode, the Select-Shift switch
detects whether the selector lever is actuated forwards
or backwards and generates a digital signal.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Square-wave signal Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Tiptronic lead 2 Tiptronic lead 1 Signal Name
< 3.6 V < 1.4 V 0
> 3.6 V > 3.6 V 1
Tiptronic lead 2 Tiptronic lead 1 Function
1 1 Automatic
mode
0 0 Manual mode
0 1 Tip +
1 0 Tip -
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes, restricted WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
(G458881) Service Training 128
Lesson 2 Sensors
Select-Shift switches can be tested in the context of the
TR sensor test in the datalogger.
TR sensor in the datalogger
E59969
Example: Galaxy with AG5
Display of the individual transmission ranges P - 1
Display for manual gear selection (Select-Shift
switch)
MAN
The display of the gears for manual gear selection may,
depending on the vehicle equipment, also be shown in
the instrument cluster.
129 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Passenger weight sensor
TIE45298
2
1
Sensor mat 1
Sensors 2
Location
Integrated in the passenger seat
Physical operating principle
Ohmic resistance
Task / function
The occupant classification sensor detects whether a
person is sitting on the passenger seat or not.
The system consists of a sensor mat which is
incorporated into the seat and consists of a large number
of small sensor cells. These sensors possess their own
module under the seat surface of the passenger seat.
This module prepares the individual signals and
transmits this information to the SRS module.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
digital ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes * WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* Depending on the system, the WDS/IDS indicates diagnostic
trouble codes together with the corresponding error values. Error
values are needed for error description in the FordEtis diagnostic
and test routine.
(G458881) Service Training 130
Lesson 2 Sensors
The seat load sensor is continuously monitored by the
SRS module and can not be tested in the workshop.
Special features
If the passenger seat is unoccupied or a light object is
placed on it, a "seat unoccupied" signal is transmitted
to the air bag control module and the passenger air bag
is deactivated.
If the passenger seat is unoccupied and the safety belt
is fastened, the "passenger air bag deactivated" warning
indicator lights up.
The occupant classification sensor is integrated in the
passenger seat and can only be renewed together with
the seat foam element. Instructions for this can be found
in the relevant Service literature.
131 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Occupancy sensor
E58072
1 2
shown: model with separate module
Occupancy sensor 1
Control module 2
Location
Integrated in the passenger seat
Physical operating principle
Ohmic resistance
Task / function
The occupancy sensor consists of a sensor loop
integrated into the seat foam and, depending on the
model, a separate occupancy detection module, which
evaluates the signals from the sensor and transmits them
to the SRS module.
The occupancy detection module is located outside the
seat.
The occupancy sensor whether a person is sitting on the
passenger seat. If a defined pressure on the sensor is
exceeded, a digital signal is generated.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes * WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* Depending on the system, the WDS indicates diagnostic trouble
codes together with the corresponding error values. Error values
are needed for error description in the FordEtis diagnostic and test
routine.
The occupancy sensor is continuously monitored by the
SRS module and can not be tested in the workshop.
Special features
The occupancy sensor is used in vehicles which possess
a seat belt warning lamp for the passenger. The
passenger air bag is not deactivated.
(G458881) Service Training 132
Lesson 2 Sensors
The occupancy sensor is integrated in the passenger seat
and can only be replaced together with the seat foam
element. Instructions for this can be found in the relevant
Service literature.
133 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Seat position sensor
E58073
1 2
U-shaped Hall sensor 1
Metal bar 2
Location
Underneath the driver seat on the inner seat track
Physical operating principle
Hall
Task / function
The seat position sensor measures the position of the
driver seat in the longitudinal direction. If the seat is in
a forward position, a metal bar moves into the sensor.
This influences the magnetic field of the sensor and a
square-wave signal is generated.
The Hall sensor is a sensor with two connections.
Principles of Operation
E60112
1
4
3
B
A
2
Control module A
Hall sensor B
Transistor 1
Hall plate 2
Metal bar 3
Connector (2-pin) 4
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Supply voltage
square-wave ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Resistance
Frequency
(G458881) Service Training 134
Lesson 2 Sensors
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes * WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* Depending on the system, the WDS/IDS indicates diagnostic
trouble codes together with the corresponding error values. Error
values are needed for error description in the FordEtis diagnostic
and test routine.
The seat position sensor is continuously monitored by
the SRS module and can not be tested in the workshop.
All the possible errors in the SRS system are displayed
using fault codes.
135 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Sun load sensor
E58064
Location
In the front area of the instrument panel (in vehicles
with EATC (Electronic Automatic Temperature Control)
and SATC (Semi-automatic Temperature Control)).
Physical operating principle
Photovoltaic effect
Task / function
The sun load sensor measures the sun intensity.
The stronger the sun intensity on the sensor, the lower
the resistance.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
DC voltage Signal type / voltage
light: 0-1 kOhm
dark: > 4.5 MegaOhm
Resistance
Frequency
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
+ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
A bar-chart format is recommended for representation
in the datalogger.
Sun load sensor, Mondeo 2001 (06/2003-) in the datalogger
E58750
1 2
Display with sun load 1
Display without sun load 2
When checking the sun load sensor in the datalogger,
please note that the display in the WDS/IDS can show
a lower value than expected, even in direct sunshine.
Lighting with, for instance, a strong headlamp (not a
neon lamp) may, in some circumstances, may achieve
higher results than sunlight.
(G458881) Service Training 136
Lesson 2 Sensors
If the sensor is covered, the display must rise to the
respective maximum value (dark).
The display may have a numerical format (example:
Focus/Mondeo) or a percentage format (example:
Galaxy).
137 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Position sensors (distance sensors)
E59109
1 2
Examples of position sensors
EGR valve position sensor (vacuum-controlled) 1
EGR valve position sensor (electrically
controlled)
2
Location
The position sensors are generally integrated into the
actuator itself and are coupled directly to it.
Physical operating principle
Sliding-contact potentiometer or inductive
Task / function
Position sensors are primarily used in actuators where
a direct detection of the position of the actuator is
necessary, as for instance:
in the vacuum-controlled EGR valve,
in the electrically controlled EGR valve,
position of the electronic throttle plate,
position of the turbocharger guide vanes (variable
turbocharger in vehicles with exhaust standard level
IV),
position of the clutch (vehicles with automated
manual transmission).
The position sensors send a feedback about the current
position of the actuator to the relevant control module.
It is therefore a closed-loop control circuit.
Measuring options
The testing possibilities for the individual position
sensors depend on the physical operating principle and
their use in the system.
For this reason, these sensors are described in the section
relating to each of the relevant actuators in the Student
Information "Actuators, CG8234/S".
(G458881) Service Training 138
Lesson 2 Sensors
Intake manifold flap position sensor
(diesel engines)
E85075
Intake manifold flap position sensor
(sliding-contact potentiometer)
A
Intake manifold flap position sensor (inductive) B
Location
In the intake tract at the intake manifold flap
Physical operating principle
Sliding contact potentiometer (for example on the
2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (Puma) diesel engine with diesel
particulate filter in the 2001 Mondeo)
Inductive sensor (for example on the 2.0L
Duratorq-TDCi (DW) diesel engine with diesel
particulate filter in the 2006.5 S-Max/Galaxy)
Task / function
NOTE: In contrast to most petrol engines, the intake
manifold flap is only used under certain operating
conditions in diesel engines.
Sliding-contact potentiometer:
When the throttle plate is closed, a sliding contact
moves onto a resistance track in the position sensor.
During closing of the intake manifold flap, the
resistance of the sensor drops proportionally with
the intake manifold flap position.
Inductive senor:
When the intake manifold flap is closed, a rotor
moves which induces an alternating voltage from
the primary coil to the secondary coil.
The strength of the induction depends on the position
of the rotor.
In the integrated sensor circuit, the induced
alternating current is converted into direct current
(= output voltage).
During closing of intake manifold flap, the output
voltage of the sensor falls proportionally with the
intake manifold flap position.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
DC voltage Signal type / voltage
- (inductive) Resistance
Frequency
139 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Sensor values on the 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (Puma)
diesel engine with diesel particulate filter in the 2001
Mondeo
Voltage (V) Pressure (mbar) Throttle position
Approx. 3.9 0 (barometric
pressure)
fully open
Approx. 3.5 100
Approx. 2.5 200
Approx. 1.2 300
Approx. 0.3 400 fully closed
Sensor values on the 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (DW)
diesel engine with diesel particulate filter in the 2001
Mondeo
Voltage (V) Pressure (mbar) Throttle Position
Approx. 4.3 0 (barometric
pressure)
fully open
Approx. 3.7 200
Approx. 2.3 400
Approx. 1 Approx. 600 fully closed
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
+ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
++ Datalogger
++ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
The intake manifold flap position sensor can be checked
using the vacuum hand pump and the WDS/IDS
datalogger. To perform the check, connect the vacuum
hand pump to the vacuum unit of the intake manifold
flap.
Intake manifold flap position sensor signal of the 2006.50
Galaxy with 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (DW) diesel when the
engine is switched off
1 1
2
E87773
The intake manifold flap is fully open 1
The intake manifold flap is fully closed 2
Continuity test
With the aid of the oscilloscope, a continuity test can
be carried out on the signal wire of the intake manifold
flap position sensor.
Move the intake manifold flap progressively from the
"fully closed" to the "fully open" position using the
vacuum hand pump for this purpose. The voltage change
must also be displayed continuously on the oscilloscope.
In the case of erratic voltage changes or voltage peaks
outside the specified voltage range, the intake manifold
flap position sensor is faulty.
(G458881) Service Training 140
Lesson 2 Sensors
Note on sliding-contact potentiometers:
Hairline cracks or similar in the sensor may lead to
faults at low temperatures which might no longer
occur when the engine is warm.
141 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Ultrasonic sensor for parking aid
TIE41677
Location
In the front and rear bumper
Task / function
Ultrasonic sensors for parking aid systems measure the
distance between the installation location of the sensor
and an obstacle.
The sensor outputs a digital signal in the form of a
frequency depending on the distance it has measured.
The smaller the distance, the higher the frequency.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 8 V/12 V Supply voltage
digital Signal type / voltage
Resistance
46.5 kHz-50 kHz Frequency
30 cm-max. 150 cm Measurement range
Measuring options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes *
No (all others)
WDS/IDS DTC
+ (self-test) Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
DMM
++ *
- - (all others)
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* Focus C-MAX 2003.75 (06/2003-), Focus 2004.75 (07/2004-),
Galaxy 2000.75 (04/2000-), Transit 2000.5 (01/2000-)
A bar-chart format is recommended for representation
in the datalogger.
Signal trace with constant tone (rear parking aid sensors,
Focus 2004.75) in the datalogger
E59082
The shape of the bumper leads to the different distances
between the outer and inner sensors.
(G458881) Service Training 142
Lesson 2 Sensors
The values correspond to the distance to the obstacle
including a defined offset, which is taken into account
in the calculation for safety reasons.
Systems in which a separately fitted module for
controlling the parking aid is installed can be tested
using an integrated self-test.
In some systems, the parking aid must be activated for
this purpose (Valeo) or a coding connector must be
disconnected before switching on (Bosch). The precise
procedure for activating the test can be found in the
current Service literature.
The proper function can also be tested by touching the
activated sensor lightly. It should be possible to feel a
vibration on the sensor surface.
Moreover, please check that the sensors are in perfect
condition and are free of soiling. The paint coating on
the ultrasonic sensors must also have a precisely defined
thickness.
In heavy rain and/or physically unfavourable reflection
conditions, reliable detection of the nearest obstacle is
not always guaranteed, since the ultrasonic waves may
be subject to unwanted reflection.
143 Service Training (G458881)
Lesson 2 Sensors
Tick the correct answer or fill in the gaps.
1. Which test devices are recommended for testing temperature sensors?
a. The oscilloscope only
b. The DMM only
c. The WDS/IDS datalogger and the DMM
d. The Ford temperature sensor tester or the oscilloscope
2. Which type of signal is output by a Hall sensor?
a. Square-wave signal
b. Sinusoidal signal
c. Linear direct-voltage signal
d. A square-wave signal or a sinusoidal signal, depending on the type
3. What can be determined by the continuity test on sliding-contact potentiometers?
a. The voltage supply of the sensor is in order.
b. There is a continual short circuit in the wiring harness.
c. There is a continuous open circuit in the wiring harness.
d. Cracks or soiling influence the resistance track of the sensor.
4. In inductive speed sensors, what changes when the speed changes?
a. The signal frequency only
b. The height of the signal amplitude only
c. The duty cycle of the PWM signal
d. The height of the signal amplitude and the signal frequency
5. Which test is recommended for inductive sensors (among other areas)?
a. Resistance test
b. Continuity test
c. Pressure test
d. Powerprobe
(G458882) Service Training 144
Lesson 2 Sensors Test questions
6. Hall sensors do not require any reference voltage or voltage supply.
a. true
b. false
7. What should be noted when doing measuring work with the oscilloscope?
a. For this measurement, the vehicle battery must be disconnected without fail.
b. For this measurement, terminal probes must be produced which can be inserted into the wiring-harness
connector on the sensor.
c. The relevant wiring-harness connector must be disconnected from the sensor for measurements with the
oscilloscope.
d. The measurement must be carried out with a breakout box or an appropriate adapter cable.
8. Which tool is recommended for the graphic representation of sensor signals?
a. DMM
b. WDS/IDS datalogger
c. Signal configurator
d. WDS/IDS signal generator
145 Service Training (G458882)
Test questions Lesson 2 Sensors
Brake pressure switch
E30134
1
2
Brake pressure switch 1
Plug connection 2
Location
In the brake line (Mondeo with 5F31J /Galaxy with
AG5; in both cases only with a diesel engine and without
stability assist).
Physical operating principle
Pressure switch (normally open contact)
Task / function
The brake pressure switch registers braking pressure in
the brake system's hydraulic circuit. This switch closes
when a defined pressure is reached.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDSDTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
+ (Galaxy)
- (Mondeo)
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
(G458883) Service Training 146
Lesson 3 Switches Pressure switch
Refrigerant pressure switch
E59764
3
2 1
Examples of refrigerant pressure switches
Refrigerant low-pressure switch 1
Dual pressure switch 2
Refrigerant high-pressure switch 3
Location
On the high and low pressure sides of the A/C
Physical operating principle
Pressure switch (normally closed/normally open contact)
Task / function
Also refer to the refrigerant pressure sensor.
A refrigerant pressure switch registers pressure on the
air-conditioning system's high and low pressure sides.
This switch opens on attainment of a defined pressure.
High-pressure switches are often designed as dual
components (4 terminals) operating in two stages:
Stage 1 for fan control (closes)
Stage 2 for compressor (opens)
Air conditioning systems with a thermostatic expansion
valve are equipped with a 3-stage pressure switch on
the high-pressure side.
Stage 1 for minimum pressure
Stage 2 for fan control
Stage 3 for maximum pressure
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V / 12 V Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Refrigerant high / dual pressure switch
Function Pressure (bar)
Compressor ON < approx. 29
Compressor OFF > approx. 33.5
Fan stage 2 / high-speed fan * approx. 25
* Only dual pressure switch
Refrigerant low-pressure switch
Function Pressure (bar)
Compressor ON > approx. 3.2
Compressor OFF < approx. 1.5
Refrigerant 3-stage switch pressure switch
Function Pressure (bar)
Minimum stage opens < approx. 1.5
Maximum stage closes Approx. 16
Maximum stage opens Approx. 32
Fan stage 2 / high-speed fan Approx. 24
147 Service Training (G458883)
Lesson 3 Switches
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Restricted WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Refrigerant pressure switches should always be tested
in the installed state.
Special features
Refrigerant pressure switches also have the following
designations:
High-pressure limit switch
Low-pressure limit switch
Refrigerant high-pressure switch
Refrigerant low-pressure switch
Cycle switch
Compressor clutch switch
Pressure limit switch
(G458883) Service Training 148
Lesson 3 Switches
Oil pressure switch.
E59866
Examples of oil pressure switches
Location
On the engine block
Physical operating principle
Pressure switch (normally closed contact)
Task / function
An oil pressure switch registers engine oil pressure. This
switch opens when a defined pressure is reached.
Oil pressure switches only have one connection cable.
Earthing is via the housing.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No (warning lamp) WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
+ (restricted) Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
149 Service Training (G458883)
Lesson 3 Switches
PSP (Power Steering Pressure) switch
E58061
Location
On the power steering pump or in the power steering
line, depending on the vehicle.
Physical operating principle
Switch (normally closed contact)
Task / function
The PSP registers pressure in the line between the power
steering pump and steering gear. This switch opens on
attainment of a defined pressure.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
++ Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features
Vehicles equipped with a diesel engine do not require
a PSP switch due to the high torque output of the engine.
(G458883) Service Training 150
Lesson 3 Switches
Brake light switch / brake pedal position
(BPP) switch / clutch pedal position
(CPP) switch
E58056
1 2
CPP (Clutch Pedal Position) switch 1
BPP (Brake Pedal Position) switch / brake light
switch
2
Location
- On the brake pedal (BPP switch / stoplamp switch)
- On the clutch pedal (CPP switch)
Physical operating principle
- BPP switch; (normally closed contact)
CPP switch; (normally closed/normally open contact)
Stoplamp switch; (normally open contact)
Task / function
CPP switch, BPP switch and stoplamp switch detect the
positions of the clutch and brake pedals.
On actuation of the brake pedal:
the BPP switch opens
the stoplamp switch closes
Depending on the vehicle / engine, the switching points
of the brake light and BPP switch are either identical or
mutually offset.
On actuation of the clutch pedal:
the CPP switch opens
The CPP can be designed as a single stage or two stage
switch with different switching points, i.e. stage 1 opens,
stage 2 closes (example: 115 PS Mondeo 2001 with
speed control system).
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V / 12 V for CPP
switch
Approx. 5 V for BPP switch
Approx. 12 V for brake light
switch
Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes * WDS/IDS DTC
++ * Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
++ * Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
151 Service Training (G458883)
Mechanical switch Lesson 3 Switches
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* Not for the stoplamp switch
Special features
The brake light switch is also termed BOO (brake ON
/ OFF switch).
(G458883) Service Training 152
Lesson 3 Switches Mechanical switch
Defrosting switch.
E59111
1
3
2
Connector 1
Relay. 2
Temperature sensor 3
Location
On the evaporator
Physical operating principle
A switch (relay) in conjunction with a NTC sensor
(normally closed contact).
Task / function
The temperature sensor on the defrosting switch
measures the temperature of the evaporator. The relay
opens when the temperature drops below a defined limit.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Supply voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Switching point (degrees
Celsius)
Vehicle
2 Galaxy
4 Escort/Scorpio
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
153 Service Training (G458883)
Lesson 3 Switches
Seatbelt buckle switch
E58066
2
3
1
Belt buckle with an integrated switch 1
Pyrotechnic seatbelt pretensioner 2
Wire for buckle switch 3
Location
Integrated into the seatbelt buckle
Physical operating principle
Switch (normally closed contact), except for Mondeo
2001 (Hall)
Task / function
The seatbelt buckle switch identifies the setting of the
buckle's catch. This switch opens when the catch
engages.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V (switch)
Millivolts (Hall)
Voltage
Supply voltage
ON / OFF (switch)
Digital (Hall)
Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm *
Closed < 0.5 Ohm *
Resistance
* Not measurable in the case of Hall
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No (switch)
Yes (Hall) *
WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ (switch)
- (Hall)
DMM
+ (Hall)
- (switch)
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* Depending on the system, the WDS/IDS indicates diagnostic
trouble codes together with the corresponding error values. Error
values are needed for error description in the FordEtis diagnostic
and test routine.
(G458883) Service Training 154
Lesson 3 Switches
Special features
For the European market, the Mondeo 2001 was
equipped with Hall sensors as safety belt buckle
switches from 2001 to 2002. These cannot be
distinguished from the regular switches from the outside.
If a Hall sensor malfunctions, a DTC is stored in the
SRS module.
155 Service Training (G458883)
Lesson 3 Switches
Rear door window switch strip
Note: Is only installed on the 2006.50 Galaxy.
11
E88597
Window switch strip 1
Location
In the window frames of the rear doors
Physical operating principle
Normally open contact
Task / function
On the 2006.50 Galaxy, the rear door window switch
strip is installed as an additional pinch protection for
the power windows.
The switch strip consists of two conducting materials,
which are separated from each other along its entire
length.
If pressure is exerted at a point in the switch strip, the
conductor materials contact one another and short
circuit.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Reference voltage
Analog DC voltage
Not operated: 2.8 4.1 V
Operated: 0 2.8 V
Open circuit: 4.1 5 V
Signal type / voltage
Not operated, approx. 3.9
kOhm
Operated: < 2.0 kOhm
Open circuit = infinite
Resistance
* Not measurable in the case of Hall
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
+ Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
(G458883) Service Training 156
Lesson 3 Switches
Inertia fuel shutoff (IFS) switch
E58060
1
2 3
4
Reset button for closing the current circuit (after
triggering)
1
Ball seat with magnet 2
Ball 3
Switches 4
Location
At the A-pillar (on vehicles with petrol or diesel
engine in conjunction with a VP44 distributor-type
injection pump and all Galaxy models)
In the luggage compartment (on older vehicles)
Physical operating principle
Ball-and-socket switch (normally closed contact)
Task / function
The IFS (Inertia Fuel Shutoff) interrupts the power
supply to the fuel pump in case of a shock (retardation
on impact).
This electric ON / OFF switch operates on the principle
of inertia.
On an occurrence of rapid retardation (impact speed in
excess of 20 km/h), a ball overcomes a magnetic force
previously retaining the ball in its socket. This presses
the switch up and interrupts the power circuit.
To close the power circuit (after triggering), the switch
must be pressed down again manually by means of the
reset button.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
Yes * WDS/IDS DTC
++ Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
+ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* Error indicates interruption in the fuel pump secondary circuit
157 Service Training (G458883)
Lesson 3 Switches
Brake fluid switch
E59848
1
2
1
A B
Examples of brake fluid switches
Switch integrated into the brake fluid reservoir A
Switch integrated into the brake fluid reservoir
lid
B
Electrical connection 1
Float 2
Location
On the brake fluid reservoir.
Physical operating principle
Switch or reed contact (normally open)
Task / function
A brake fluid switch registers the brake fluid level. If
the brake fluid drops below a defined level, the switch
closes.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No (warning lamp) WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
Special features
A switch integrated into the brake fluid reservoir cannot
be replaced separately.
(G458883) Service Training 158
Lesson 3 Switches
Switch for windshield washer / coolant
level
E59798
1
2
Example of a windshield washer switch
Housing with reed contact (glass tube) 1
Float with an integrated magnet 2
Location
On the windshield washer reservoir or coolant expansion
tank (vehicles with an additional warning system or
driver information system)
Physical operating principle
Reed contact (normally closed or open)
Task / function
This switch registers the level of the windshield washer
fluid or coolant. If the windshield washer fluid or
coolant drops below a defined level, the switch opens
or closes.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No (warning lamp) WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
159 Service Training (G458883)
Lesson 3 Switches
Reversing lamp switch
E59847
Examples of reversing light switches
Location
On the transmission housing (gearbox)
Physical operating principle
Mechanical switch (normally open contact)
Task / function
The reversing light switch registers the gearshift shaft's
position. This switch closes when reverse gear is
engaged.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 12 V Voltage
ON/OFF Signal type / voltage
Open > 50 kOhm
Closed < 0.5 Ohm
Resistance
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
+ (restricted)* Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* On vehicles requiring the reversing lamp switch signal for engine
control functions such as torque limitation.
If a reversing light switch malfunctions, the light no
longer comes on when reverse gear is engaged.
(G458883) Service Training 160
Lesson 3 Switches
Audio remote control
E59872
1
Examples of audio remote controls
Variant with a button for speech control 1
Location
On the steering column
Physical operating principle
Voltage-coded switch
Task / function
Pressing a button generates a voltage signal whose value
depends on the resistance integrated into the switch.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Voltage
Direct voltage Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Resistance Switches
Approx. 5 kOhm No buttons pressed
Approx. 0.3 kOhm SEEK up
Approx. 0.5 kOhm SEEK down
Approx. 1 kOhm MODE
Approx. 150 Ohm VOL Up
Approx. 50 Ohm VOL -
Approx. 2 kOhm VOICE
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
+ (restricted)* Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
* On the Mondeo from MY 2003.75, Focus C-MAX 2003.75 and
Focus 2004.75
The audio remote control can only be replaced as a
complete unit.
161 Service Training (G458883)
Lesson 3 Switches
Speed control switch
E59867
Mondeo 2001 is shown
Location
On the steering wheel
Physical operating principle
Voltage-coded switch
Task / function
Pressing a button generates a voltage signal whose value
depends on the resistor integrated into the switch.
Operating range
Value
Approx. 5 V Voltage
Direct voltage Signal type / voltage
see table Resistance
Not applicable to the Galaxy
Resistance (ohm) Switches
Approx. 2100 No buttons pressed
Approx. 830 - 1100 ON
Approx. 1 - 4 OFF
Approx. 2250 - 2200 Readjustment (=)
Approx. 110 - 130 Retardation (-)
Approx. 300 - 400 SET- / acceleration (+)
Testing options
Compatibility Diagnostic tool
No WDS/IDS DTC
Guided diagnostics (WDS/
IDS)
++ DMM
Datalogger
Oscilloscope (breakout
box and adapter cable
required)
Powerprobe
++ very suitable, + suitable
- unsuitable, - - very unsuitable
The speed control switches cannot be replaced
separately.
(G458883) Service Training 162
Lesson 3 Switches
Other switches
The switches below are mechanical switches designed
to interrupt / restore ground connections.
The switch designation indicates its function and
installation position:
Window control switch
Tailgate release switch
Luggage compartment lid release switch
Luggage compartment lid contact switch
Loading door contact switch
Hood contact switch
Overdrive switch (on the selector lever of vehicles
with automatic transmission)
Parking brake indicator switch
PNP (Park/Neutral Position) switch (in selector lever
in vehicles with automatic transmission)
Select-shift switch on the steering wheel (in vehicles
with automatic transmission and manual gear
selection)
Lock cylinder position switch
Door contact switch (integrated into the door lock
on new vehicles)
Door lock switch (integrated into the door lock on
new vehicles)
Window control switch
Window lift switches operate in one or two stages (for
each direction) depending on the design. The second
stage is needed for the window regulator one-touch
up/down function.
Depending on the design, the switch features integrated
electronics (e.g., Focus with front window regulators
from 08/2000).
Switch diagnosis differs accordingly. Additional details
are provided in the latest circuit diagrams.
163 Service Training (G458883)
Lesson 3 Switches
Tick the correct answer or fill in the gaps.
1. Where are refrigerant pressure switches located?
a. Only on the high-pressure side of the refrigerant circuit.
b. Only on the low-pressure side of the refrigerant circuit.
c. On the high- or low-pressure side of the refrigerant circuit, depending upon the function.
d. Always in the dryer.
2. Which principle do liquid level switches normally operate on?
a. Inductive
b. Hall
c. Reed contact
d. Sliding contact potentiometer
3. Which of the following statements is true?
a. All switches have normally closed contacts.
b. All switches have normally open contacts.
c. Switches can feature either normally closed or open contacts.
d. All the switches are mechanical.
4. Switches can always be represented with the aid of the WDS/IDS in the data logger.
a. True
b. False
5. On which principle do radio remote control and speed control switches operate?
a. Hall
b. Inductive
c. Sliding contact potentiometer
d. Voltage coding
(G458884) Service Training 164
Lesson 3 Switches Test questions
6. Low-pressure switches often operate in two stages.
a. True
b. False
165 Service Training (G458884)
Test questions Lesson 3 Switches
Lesson 1 General Information
1. d
2. b
3. b
4. d
5. b
6. a
7. c
Lesson 2 Sensors
1. c
2. a
3. d
4. d
5. a
6. b
7. d
8. b
Lesson 3 Switches
1. c
2. c
3. c
4. b
5. d
6. b
Service Training 166
Answers to the test questions
Air Conditioning A/C
Anti-lock Brake System ABS
Accelerator Pedal Position APP
Barometric Pressure BARO
Brake Pedal Position BPP
Cylinder Head Temperature CHT
Crankshaft Position CKP
Camshaft Position CMP
Clutch Pedal Position CPP
Diagnostic Trouble Code DTC
Electronic Automatic Temperature Control EATC
Electronic Crash Sensor ECS
Engine Coolant Temperature ECT
Exhaust Gas Recirculation EGR
Fuel Pump Driver Module FPDM
Generic Electronic Module GEM
Hydraulic Control Unit HCU
Heated Oxygen Sensor HO2S
Intake Air Temperature IAT
Integrated Diagnostic System IDS
Inertia Fuel Shutoff IFS
Knock Sensor KS
Mass Air Flow MAF
Manifold Absolute Pressure MAP
Manifold Absolute Pressure And
Temperature
MAPT
Negative Temperature Coefficient NTC
Output Shaft Speed OSS
Powertrain Control Module PCM
Park/neutral Position PNP
Power Steering Pressure PSP
Positive Temperature Coefficient PTC
Pulse Width Modulation PWM
Semi-automatic Temperature Control SATC
Supplemental Restraint System SRS
Transmission Control Module TCM
Transmission Fluid Temperature TFT
Throttle Position TP
Transmission Range TR
Turbine Shaft Speed TSS
Vehicle Speed Sensor VSS
Worldwide Diagnostic System WDS
Wide Open Throttle WOT
167 Service Training
List of Abbreviations