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Curriculum Training

Diesel Injection and Engine Management


Systems
VP30/VP44 Distributor Fuel Injection Pump Systems
Technical Service Training
CG 8182/S en 12/2005
TC3043050H
To the best of our knowledge, the illustrations, technical information, data and descriptions in this issue were correct at the time
of going to print. The right to change prices, specifications, equipment and maintenance instructions at any time without notice
is reserved as part of FORD policy of continuous development and improvement for the benefit of our customers.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a data processing system or transmitted in any form, electronic,
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can be accepted for any inaccuracies in this publication, although every possible care has been taken to make it as complete and
accurate as possible.
Copyright 2005
Ford-Werke GmbH
Service training programs D-F/GT1 (GB)
More stringent exhaust and noise emission standards and requirements regarding low fuel consumption continue
to place new demands on the fuel injection system of diesel engines. To ensure these requirements are met, the
injection system has to inject the fuel into the combustion chamber at high pressure to achieve good mixture
preparation and, in the process, must also meter the injected fuel quantity as accurately as possible.
Since the introduction of the 1.8L Endura-DI (Kent) diesel engine in the 1999 Ford Focus, the then still partially
mechanical control of the diesel fuel injection systems has progressively been superseded by systems with
fully-electronic control.
The VP30/VP44 distributor fuel injection pump systems are characterized by high precision in terms of injected
fuel quantity and start of injection timing and by high injection pressure.
The fuel quantity is controlled fully electronically and time-controlled by a high-pressure solenoid valve, which is
actuated by a pump control unit.
Completion of the E-learning program "Diesel Fuel Injection and Engine Management Systems" is a prerequisite
for the study of this Student Information.
This Student Information is divided into lessons. It has been designed as a self-learning tool in accordance with the
new Ford training concept.
The beginning of each lesson lists the goals that are to be achieved by working through the lesson. At the end of
each lesson there is a set of test questions which are designed to monitor the student's progress. The solutions to
these test questions can be found at the end of the Student Information.
Please remember that our training literature has been prepared for FORD TRAINING PURPOSES only. Repairs
and adjustments MUST always be carried out according to the instructions and specifications in the workshop
literature. Please make full use of the training offered by Ford Technical Training Courses to gain extensive
knowledge of both theory and practice.
1 Service Training (G544935)
Preface
PAGE
1 Preface..............................................................................................................................
Lesson 1 General Information
5 Objectives....................................................................................................................................................
6 Overview of fuel injection systems.................................................................................................................................
7 Injection characteristics...................................................................................................................................................
10 Test questions..............................................................................................................................................
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection Systems
11 Objectives....................................................................................................................................................
12 Overview.........................................................................................................................................................................
13 Characteristics.................................................................................................................................................................
13 Special features...............................................................................................................................................................
14 PCM................................................................................................................................................................................
17 Glow plug control system...............................................................................................................................................
19 Sensors.........................................................................................................................................................
19 MAF sensor.....................................................................................................................................................................
19 MAP................................................................................................................................................................................
20 IAT sensor.......................................................................................................................................................................
21 MAPT sensor..................................................................................................................................................................
21 CHT sensor.....................................................................................................................................................................
23 APP sensor......................................................................................................................................................................
24 CKP sensor......................................................................................................................................................................
25 VSS signal.......................................................................................................................................................................
25 BARO sensor...................................................................................................................................................................
Service Training 2
Table of Contents
26 Position sensor in EGR valve..........................................................................................................................................
27 Stoplamp and BPP switches............................................................................................................................................
27 CPP..................................................................................................................................................................................
28 EGR solenoid valve and wastegate control solenoid valve.............................................................................................
29 Actuators.....................................................................................................................................................
29 Pump control unit............................................................................................................................................................
30 High-pressure solenoid valve..........................................................................................................................................
30 Timing device solenoid valve..........................................................................................................................................
31 Rotational angle sensor...................................................................................................................................................
34 Strategies.....................................................................................................................................................
34 Fuel metering calculations..............................................................................................................................................
35 Control of the fuel limitation quantity............................................................................................................................
35 Judder damper.................................................................................................................................................................
36 Idle speed control............................................................................................................................................................
36 Smooth-running control (cylinder balancing).................................................................................................................
37 Switching off the engine.................................................................................................................................................
37 Fuel delivery....................................................................................................................................................................
39 Synchronization of the fuel injection pump....................................................................................................................
41 EGR system.....................................................................................................................................................................
42 Boost pressure control.....................................................................................................................................................
45 Data exchange.................................................................................................................................................................
45 PCM fault strategy..........................................................................................................................................................
46 EOBD..............................................................................................................................................................................
49 Fuel system..................................................................................................................................................
49 Overview of the fuel system...........................................................................................................................................
50 Fuel injectors...................................................................................................................................................................
3 Service Training
Table of Contents
52 Injection lines..................................................................................................................................................................
53 VP30.............................................................................................................................................................
53 Overview.........................................................................................................................................................................
55 Fuel supply metering by the high-pressure solenoid valve.............................................................................................
57 VP44.............................................................................................................................................................
57 Overview.........................................................................................................................................................................
59 Components of the Bosch radial piston distributor fuel injection pump VP44..............................................................
61 Fuel metering via the high-pressure solenoid valve........................................................................................................
63 Start of injection adjustment function.............................................................................................................................
65 Test questions..............................................................................................................................................
67 Answers to the test questions.........................................................................................
68 List of Abbreviations.......................................................................................................
Service Training 4
Table of Contents
On completing this lesson, you will be able to:
explain why the VP30/VP44 distributor fuel injection pump systems are used.
state the reasons for the use of pre-injection.
explain what effect pre-injection has on combustion.
5 Service Training (G544937)
Objectives Lesson 1 General Information
Overview of fuel injection systems
E65488
Bosch VP 30 distributor fuel injection pump A
Bosch VP 44 distributor fuel injection pump B
PCM (Powertrain Control Module) 1
Increasingly higher demands are being placed on modern
diesel engines. The focus is not alone on exhaust
emissions but also on increasing environmental
awareness and the demand for increasingly better
economy and enhanced driving comfort.
This requires the use of complex injection systems, high
injection pressures and precise fuel metering by fully
electronically-controlled systems.
The high injection pressures convert the fuel, via the
injector nozzle, into tiny droplets, which, again thanks
to the high pressure, can then be optimally distributed
in the combustion chamber. This results in fewer
unburned HC (Hydrocarbon)s, less CO (Carbon
Monoxide) and less diesel exhaust particulates being
produced in the subsequent combustion stage.
(G544936) Service Training 6
Lesson 1 General Information
In addition, the optimized mixture formation reduces
fuel consumption.
The above-mentioned demands on current diesel engines
likewise lead to high demands on the diesel fuel
injection and engine management system, e. g.:
high injection pressures,
shaping of injection timing characteristics,
pre-injection,
injected fuel quantity, start of injection and boost
pressure values adapted to every operating condition,
load-independent idle speed control,
controlled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation),
low injection timing and injected quantity tolerances
and high degree of precision for the entire service
life,
options to interact with other systems, such as
stability assist, PATS (Passive Anti-Theft System),
comprehensive diagnostic facilities,
substitute strategies in the event of faults.
The VP30/VP44 distributor fuel injection pump
systems have a large range of features to meet these
demands.
The VP30 is a high-pressure solenoid valve controlled
distributor fuel injection pump which operates according
to the axial piston principle. It is based on the VP 20
and VP 37 distributor fuel injection pump.
The VP44 is also a high-pressure solenoid valve
controlled distributor fuel injection pump. However, it
operates according to the radial piston principle as found
in Lucas fuel injection systems (types DPC and DPCN).
With fully electronic fuel injection and engine
management systems, the driver has no direct influence
on the injected fuel quantity as the accelerator pedal has
no mechanical connection to the pump unit, for example.
Here, the injected fuel quantity is determined by a range
of variables. These include:
driver demand (accelerator pedal position),
operating state,
engine temperature,
effects on exhaust emissions,
protection against engine and transmission damage,
faults in the system.
Using these parameters, the injected fuel quantity is
calculated in the PCM and fuel injection timing can be
varied.
Fuel metering is performed fully electronically by a
high-pressure solenoid valve which is located in the
distributor fuel injection pump and controlled by the
pump control unit.
The fully-electronic diesel engine management system
features a comprehensive fail-safe concept (integrated
in the PCM software). It detects any deviations and
malfunctions and initiates corresponding actions
depending on the resulting effects (e.g. limiting the
power output by reducing the quantity of fuel).
Injection characteristics
As already mentioned at the beginning of the lesson,
the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of an
engine are of great significance. These factors can only
be minimized through precise operation of the injection
system and comprehensive engine management
strategies.
7 Service Training (G544936)
Lesson 1 General Information
Consequently, the following requirements are made of
the VP30/VP44 distributor fuel injection pump system:
The injection timing must be exact. Even small
variations have a significant effect on fuel
consumption, exhaust emissions and combustion
noise,
Injection must be terminated reliably. Calculation
of the injected quantity and the injection timing are
precisely adapted to the mechanical components of
the injection system. Uncontrolled fuel dribble
(caused for example by a defective fuel injector
nozzle) results in increased exhaust emissions and
increased fuel consumption.
Simple main injection:
Needle lift of fuel injector nozzle and pressure curve in
the cylinder without pre-injection
E64973
1
2
3
4
5
Combustion pressure in the cylinder 1
Needle lift 2
TDC (Top Dead Center) 3
Needle lift for main injection 4
Crank angle 5
In most VP30/VP44 distributor fuel injection pump
systems (except the 2001 Mondeo), the fuel injection
on the pump side is via simple main injection.
In the pressure curve, the combustion pressure increases
only slightly in the phase BTDC (Before Top Dead
Center), corresponding to compression, but increases
very sharply at the start of combustion.
The steep pressure rise intensifies the combustion noise.
Pre-injection
Needle lift of fuel injector nozzle and pressure curve in
the cylinder with pre-injection
E64974
1
2
3
4
5
6
Combustion pressure in the cylinder 1
Needle lift 2
TDC 3
Needle lift for pre-injection 4
Needle lift for main injection 5
Crank angle 6
The 2001 Mondeo also features electronically controlled
pre-injection, which is implemented using the
high-pressure solenoid valve in the distributor fuel
injection pump.
(G544936) Service Training 8
Lesson 1 General Information
In the case of pre-injection, a small amount of fuel is
injected into the cylinder prior to the main injection.
Pre-injection results in a gradual increase in the
combustion pressure, leading to an improvement in
combustion quality.
The small, pre-injected fuel quantity is ignited and heats
up the upper part of the cylinder, thereby bringing it
into an optimum temperature range (pre-conditioning
of the combustion chamber).
This means that the main injection mixture will ignite
more quickly and the rise in temperature will be less
abrupt as a result.
The less abrupt temperature increase also results in a
less abrupt increase in combustion pressure, significantly
reducing combustion noise.
Advantage:
Continuous build-up of combustion pressure,
resulting in reduced combustion noise,
Reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas.
9 Service Training (G544936)
Lesson 1 General Information
Tick the correct answer or fill in the gaps.
1. Which of the following statements is true?
a. The VP30 is controlled fully electronically and works according to the radial piston principle.
b. The VP30 is controlled purely mechanically and works according to the axial piston principle.
c. The VP44 is controlled fully electronically and operates according to the radial piston principle.
d. The VP44 is controlled fully electronically and operates according to the axial piston principle.
2. What does pre-injection mean?
a. Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke.
b. Injection occurs at the start of the compression stroke.
c. A small amount of additive is injected into the cylinder prior to the main injection in order to increase the
combustion pressure.
d. A small amount of fuel is injected into the cylinder prior to the main injection.
3. What is the advantage of pre-injection?
a. A continuous build-up of the combustion pressure
b. An abrupt increase in combustion pressure, leading to an improvement in combustion quality
c. Significantly higher torque at wide-open throttle
d. The main injected fuel quantity is reduced by more than 50%, significantly lowering fuel consumption.
(G544937) Service Training 10
Lesson 1 General Information Test questions
On completing this lesson, you will be able to:
name the components of the engine management system.
describe how the PCM works and be familiar with the integrated diagnostics.
explain the purpose and function of the individual engine management system components and identify the
effects of component faults as well as their diagnostic function.
specify and explain the basic strategies in the engine management system.
explain the purpose of the EOBD system and be familiar with its function.
name the components of the fuel system.
name the components of the fuel and injection system and be able to explain their function.
put the knowledge acquired into practice in diagnostic operations and thus draw conclusions regarding possible
malfunctions of individual components.
11 Service Training (G544939)
Objectives Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Overview
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
21
19
18
17
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
16
13
14
15
E65499
(G544938) Service Training 12
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
CKP (Crankshaft Position) sensor 1
CHT (Cylinder Head Temperature) sensor 2
MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure) sensor 3
IAT (Intake Air Temperature) sensor 4
MAPT (Manifold Absolute Pressure and
Temperature) sensor
5
MAF (Mass Air Flow) sensor 6
BARO (Barometric pressure) sensor 7
EGR valve 8
APP (Accelerator Pedal Position) sensor 9
BPP (Brake Pedal Position) switch 10
CPP (Clutch Pedal Position) switch 11
VSS (Vehicle Speed Sensor) signal. 12
Ignition lock 13
Pump control unit (communication with CAN
(Controller Area Network) via PCM)
14
Instrument cluster 15
PATS transceiver 16
PCM 17
"Smart Charge" generator control 18
DLC (Data Link Connector) 19
ABS (Anti-Lock Brake System) (communication
with PCM via CAN)
20
Stability assist control unit (communication
with PCM via CAN)
21
Intake manifold flap solenoid valve 22
EGR solenoid valve 23
Wastegate control solenoid valve 24
Glow plug warning indicator (also fault indicator
for vehicles without EOBD (European On-board
Diagnostic))
25
Glow plugs 26
Cooling fan motors 27
Electric auxiliary heater 28
A/C relay 29
Air conditioning clutch 30
Auxiliary fuel pump (VP44 only) 31
MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp) (display of
emissions-related faults in vehicles with EOBD)
32
Characteristics
The VP30/VP44 fuel injection system has two control
modules for fully electronic diesel engine management:
a PCM,
a pump control unit.
While the PCM calculates the injected fuel quantity and
the fuel injection timing using the recorded engine
environment data (cylinder head temperature, boost
pressure, etc.), the pump control unit monitors the
internal pump functions (high-pressure solenoid valve,
rotational angle sensor and adjustment of injection
timing).
Special features
Compared with mechanical control, the fully electronic
control of the VP30/VP44 distributor fuel injection
pumps takes additional requirements into account.
By providing electronic measurement, flexible electronic
data processing and control circuits with electrical
actuators (such as the high-pressure solenoid valve and
the timing device solenoid valve), it supports the
processing of parameters which cannot be taken into
account in the case of mechanical control.
13 Service Training (G544938)
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
PCM
E47821
A fifth-generation PCM with a 104-pin connector is
used.
The PCM is equipped with an Intel 196 microprocessor,
which ensures high-speed data processing.
The PCM is the main component of the engine
management system. It receives the electrical signals
from the sensors and set-point transmitters, evaluates
these and uses them as a basis for calculating the signals
for the actuators (for example the wastegate control
solenoid valve, EGR solenoid valve, etc.).
The control program (the software) is stored in a
memory. The execution of the program is carried out
by a microprocessor.
In addition to the actuators, there are also sensors which
form the interface between the vehicle and the PCM as
a processing unit.
The sensors, actuators and the power supply are
connected to the PCM via a multi-pin connector.
Input signals from the sensors can have different forms.
Analog input signals
Analog input signals can have any voltage value within
a given range. Examples of analog input signals include:
IAT,
MAP,
ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature).
As the microprocessor of the PCM can only process
digital signals, the analog input signals must first be
converted. This is done internally in the PCM in an
analog-to-digital converter (A/D converter).
Inductive input signals
Inductive input signals are pulsed signals that transmit
information about the engine speed and reference mark.
Example
CKP sensor.
The inductive signal is processed in an internal PCM
circuit. Interference pulses are suppressed and the pulsed
signals are converted into digital square-wave signals.
Digital input signals
Digital input signals have only two states:
ON or OFF.
Examples of digital input signals include:
switch signals (BPP or CPP),
speed sensor pulses of a Hall sensor (VSS).
These signals can be processed directly by the
microprocessor.
E51118
1
2
b
b
a
a
PWM signal
Fixed frequency a
Variable switch-on time b
(G544938) Service Training 14
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Signal voltage 1
Time 2
The microprocessor transmits output signals to the
actuatorsvia specific output stages. The output signals
for the actuators can also have different forms:
Switch signals (switch actuators on and off, such as
the A/C clutch.
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signals. PWM
signals are square-wave signals with a constant
frequency, but a variable activation time. Using these
signals, e.g. electro-pneumatic transducers can be
actuated at any location (for example the wastegate
control solenoid valve or EGR solenoid valve).
The high-performance components for direct actuation
of the actuators are integrated in the PCM in such a
manner that very good heat dissipation to the housing
is ensured.
Integrated diagnosis
In the case of sensor monitoring, the integrated
diagnostics are used to check if there is sufficient supply
to the sensors and whether their signal is in the
permissible range.
Furthermore, it is possible to check whether a sensor
signal is within the permissible range via the control
program in the PCM.
In the case of systems which work by means of
closed-loop control (the EGR system, for example),
deviations from a specific control range are also
diagnosed.
A signal path is deemed to be defective if a fault is
present beyond a predefined period. The fault is then
stored in the fault memory of the PCM together with
freeze frame data (for example ECT, engine speed, etc.).
Back in working order recognition is implemented
for many of the faults. This entails the signal path being
detected as intact over a defined period of time.
Fault handling: If there are deviations from a
permissible set value for a sensor, the PCM switches to
a default value. This process is used, for example, for
the following input signals:
ECT, IAT,
MAP, BARO,
MAF.
For some driving functions with higher priority (for
example APP sensor), there are substitute functions
which, for example, allow the vehicle to continue to be
driven to the next Authorized Ford Dealer.
EOBD
As of 1 January 2004, all newly registered diesel
vehicles are required by law to be equipped with EOBD.
EOBD is a component of the PCM software and is used
for the monitoring of components and systems
significant to emissions.
Further information on EOBD can be found in Section
"Strategies".
Diagnostics
The PCM performs self-monitoring to ensure correct
operation. Malfunctions in the hardware or software of
the PCM are displayed by means of a DTC (Diagnostic
Trouble Code). Additional monitoring (see below) is
also performed.
Reference voltage monitoring:
In the case of reference voltage monitoring, so-called
comparators compare the individual reference
voltages for the relevant sensors programmed in the
PCM to check if they are within limits.
If a set reference voltage of 5 V falls below 4.7 V, a
fault is stored and the engine is stopped.
15 Service Training (G544938)
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable
Read Only Memory) monitoring:
The engine adjustment data and freeze frame data is
stored in the EEPROM.
The freeze frame data forms part of the EOBD.
Incorrect entries are detected appropriately and
indicated by a DTC.
Vehicles with EOBD
Reference voltage monitoring:
Since the engine is stopped in the event of a fault,
this is non MIL active monitoring.
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable
Read Only Memory) monitoring:
Faults are MIL active, as the freeze frame data forms
part of the EOBD.
PCM identification
E65500
--0
-
1
2 3
4
Plug-in connection 1
PCM family number 2
Stub 3
Part number 4
PCM PCB design
E65501
1
2
3
4
6
7
5
SCP (Standard Corporate Protocol) 1
Intel 196 microprocessor with integrated RAM
(Random Access Memory)
2
Calculation unit for PATS 3
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable
Read Only Memory) contains vehicle
identification, PATS and engine adjustment data
4
Power driver 5
FEPROM (Flash Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory) contains the engine strategy
and engine calibration
6
CAN 7
(G544938) Service Training 16
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
PATS
E47823
The PATS intervenes in the engine management system.
As a result, the engine cannot be started by unauthorized
persons.
The starter motor is interrupted and the injected fuel
quantity is reduced to "zero". The glow plug warning
indicator flashes at a frequency of 4 Hz.
The hardware of the PATS system is installed on the
PCB of the PCM (combined PATS).
Glow plug control system
E47824
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
7
7
6
CHT signal 1
CKP signal (speed) 2
PCM 3
Glow plug indicator 4
Glow plug relay (in central junction box) 5
Parallel connected fuses (50 A each) 6
Glow plugs 7
NOTE: The glow plug warning indicator has a second
function, i.e. if it flashes during driving then it is
operating as a fault indicator, informing the driver there
is a fault in the engine management system.
A glow plug control system is incorporated into the
PCM. It performs two functions:
Preheating
The PCM receives the relevant temperature signal from
the CHT sensor.
17 Service Training (G544938)
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
The length of the preheating period depends on the
temperature signal (low temperature = longer preheating
period).
The driver is informed that preheating is in operation
by the glow plug indicator in the instrument cluster
coming on.
Postheating
Preheating is followed, after engine start, by the
postheating phase.
Postheating helps to reduce engine noise, improve idling
quality and reduce HC emissions through more efficient
combustion just after start-up.
The postheating phase is carried out up to an engine
speed or around 2500 rpm.
When 2500 rpm is exceeded, the postheating phase is
terminated. The service life of the glow plugs is
increased as a result.
Effects of a fault
Longer start-up at low ambient temperatures
Loud combustion noise after engine starting
Rough running engine
(G544938) Service Training 18
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
MAF sensor
E47843
Location
In the intake tract, downstream of the air cleaner.
Note: The MAF sensor is only used in conjunction with
a variable-geometry turbocharger.
Task / function
The MAF sensor is used primarily to regulate EGR
(closed loop control) and less for fuel metering as is the
case on petrol engines.
Effects of faults
In the event of a signal failure, the EGR rate is regulated
using an emergency-running map.
However, this means that the EGR rate is not regulated
as closely to the operating limit, and as a result the
reduction of NOX (Oxides of Nitrogen) emissions is
not regulated as effectively.
Diagnostics
The monitoring system checks:
the sensor for short circuit to ground/battery and
open control circuit.
the sensor for illogical voltage jumps (illogical
voltage jumps could indicate a loose connection, for
example).
whether the output signal of the MAF sensor
corresponds to the map data. Correct functioning of
the EGR system is checked in this manner.
MAP
E65502
Location
In the air intake tract, downstream of the turbocharger
Task / function
The boost pressure in the intake manifold is measured
by means of the MAP sensor. The higher the boost
pressure, then the greater the maximum quantity of fuel
that can be injected as a function of accelerator position
or engine load.
In systems with a fixed-geometry turbocharger (i.e. no
MAF sensor installed), the MAP sensor signal also
influences the EGR system.
19 Service Training (G544938)
Sensors Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Effects of faults
In the event of a fault, the injected fuel quantity is
reduced.
In versions with a variable-geometry turbocharger, the
guide vanes of the turbocharger are also opened
completely.
Diagnostics
The monitoring system checks:
the sensor for short circuit to ground/battery and
open control circuit.
the sensor for illogical voltage jumps (illogical
voltage jumps could indicate a loose connection, for
example).
whether the output signal of the MAP sensor
corresponds to the map data.
Vehicles with EOBD
A faulty MAP signal leads to restricted operation of the
boost pressure control as well as of the EGR system and
consequently to increased exhaust emissions. Therefore
this is an MIL active component.
IAT sensor
E65503
Location
In the air intake tract, downstream of the turbocharger
Task / function
The signal serves as a correction factor to take into
account the effect of temperature on the density of the
charge air.
The IAT signal influences the following functions:
Injected fuel quantity
Fuel injection timing
EGR system
Effects of faults
In the event of a signal failure, the PCM performs the
calculations using a predetermined substitute value. This
can lead to loss of power.
Diagnostics
The monitoring system checks:
the sensor for short circuit to ground/battery and
open control circuit.
the sensor for illogical voltage jumps (illogical
voltage jumps could indicate a loose connection, for
example).
Vehicles with EOBD
A faulty IAT signal leads to restricted operation of the
EGR system as well as to inaccurate fuel metering.
Therefore this is a MIL active component.
(G544938) Service Training 20
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Sensors
MAPT sensor
E47839
With the MAPT sensor, the IAT and MAP sensors have
been combined in a single component. The MAPT
sensor therefore performs the same functions as the IAT
and MAP sensors.
Use of the MAPT or IAT and MAP sensor is
version-specific and has no technical reasons.
CHT sensor
Location
Screwed into the cylinder head
Task / function
Example of installation position of the CHT sensor on the
2.4L Duratorq-DI
E47840
1
2
1
3
Cylinder head 1
Sensor tip 2
CHT sensor 3
The CHT sensor (CHT = Cylinder Head Temperature)
replaces the ECT - sensor and the temperature sensor
for the temperature display in the instrument cluster.
The CHT sensor is screwed into the cylinder head and
measures the temperature of the material rather than the
coolant.
As a result, when the engine overheats (e.g. due to loss
of coolant) a more precise temperature measurement is
possible.
Note: Once removed, the CHT sensor must always be
replaced with a new one, and the specified tightening
torque must be observed exactly. Otherwise damage to
the sensor (e.g.. through deformation of the sensor tip)
cannot be ruled out.
21 Service Training (G544938)
Sensors Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
E47841
J
J
1
2
3
5
8
4
6
7
PCM 1
Second resistor ("pull-up") 2
First resistor 3
CHT sensor (NTC) 4
Sensor output signal 5
Analog/digital converter 6
Microprocessor 7
For comparison: ECT sensor 8
The voltage signal is digitized in the analog/digital
converter and transmitted in the form of counts to the
microprocessor, which assigns these to the
corresponding temperature values.
At high temperatures, the resolution of the CHT sensor
is not enough to sufficiently cover the entire temperature
range from 40 C to +214 C. Therefore the
temperature curve is shifted by switching on a second
resistor in the PCM.
E47842
-
-
-
-
(129)
A B
C
1
2
3
2
Counts A
Voltage (V) B
Material (sensor) temperature C
First curve 1
Switch point of "pull-up" resistor 2
Second curve 3
The first curve ranges from a material temperature of
-40 C to approx. +78 C. A transistor in the PCMthen
switches on a second, so-called "pull-up" resistor to
extend the sensor signal function. The second curve
ranges from a material temperature of approx. 62 C to
214 C.
Example: A sensor output voltage of 2.5 V
(= 500 counts) can indicate a material temperature of
35 C as well as one of 129 C (see diagram), depending
on which curve the voltage value is assigned to. When
a pull-up resistor is switched on, the microprocessor
assigns the second curve the value of "500 counts". This
means that the material temperature is in the higher
temperature range (in this case 129 C).
Use of CHT signal:
Injected fuel quantity
Start of injection
Idle speed
(G544938) Service Training 22
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Sensors
Glow plug control
EGR system
Actuation of the temperature gauge and glow-plug
indicator lamp
Effects of faults
Open control circuit:
In an open control loop, the system assumes a
maximum temperature value of 120 C.
In this case, the cooling fan(s) run(s) continuously.
The EGR system and the air conditioning are
switched off. The booster heater is switched off and
the engine runs with reduced power.
Short circuit:
In a short circuit, the system assumes a temperature
of > 132 C.
In this situation, the engine will cut out or cannot be
started.
If the sensor malfunctions or the engine overheats, the
engine overheating safety function is activated.
In this mode, engine power is reduced by injecting less
fuel. If the engine temperature increases further, then
the engine power is reduced further (depending on the
vehicle version).
Note: To avoid engine damage, it is not possible to start
the engine at a cylinder head temperature below
-35 C. The reason for this is the large quantities of fuel
injected, which in this case might result in components
being destroyed. Vehicles for cold climates have special
strategies or engine preheating equipment.
Diagnostics
The monitoring system checks:
the sensor for short circuit to ground/battery and
open control circuit.
the sensor for illogical voltage jumps (illogical
voltage jumps could indicate a loose connection, for
example).
the signal for a plausible temperature increase.
Vehicles with EOBD
A faulty CHT signal has serious effects on the exhaust
gas emissions. Therefore this is a MIL active
component.
APP sensor
E47845
Location
Integrated into the accelerator pedal
Task / function
The PCM needs the accelerator pedal position in order
to control engine power according to driver input.
23 Service Training (G544938)
Sensors Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
The APP sensor houses a total of three sliding contact
potentiometers.
Effects of faults
Failure of a potentiometer has no influence on engine
operation. Only one DTC is (as a rule) stored in the fault
memory.
If two or three potentiometers fail, continued driving is
only possible at engine idle speed.
Diagnostics
The monitoring system checks:
the sensor for short circuit to ground/battery and
open control circuit.
the values of the individual potentiometers for
plausibility.
CKP sensor
E65504
Representation of the CKP signal
CKP signal (similar to sinusoidal voltage curve) A
CKP sensor 1
Voltage (V) 2
17 pulses per 1/2 crankshaft rotation (180) 3
Tooth center 4
10 tooth spacing 5
Extended teeth (reference mark) 6
Center of gap between teeth 7
Circumference of flywheel with 2 x 17 teeth 8
Location
On the cylinder block, close to the flywheel
Task / function
The CKP sensor is an inductive pulse generator. It scans
a uniform tooth structure on the circumference of the
flywheel.
There are a total of 2 x 17 teeth on the circumference
of the flywheel, whereby two extended teeth indicate
the top and bottom dead center are thus situated 180
apart.
The teeth are distributed on the flywheel as follows:
2 x 16 x 10 + 2 x 1 x 20 = 360
A
1
B
2
E65505
Higher engine speed A
Lower engine speed B
Zero passages: Spacing small/amplitude large 1
Zero passages: Spacing large/amplitude small 2
(G544938) Service Training 24
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Sensors
Furthermore, the acceleration of the flywheel with each
power cycle results in a change in the CKP signal.
During the power cycle, the combustion pressure on the
piston causes acceleration of the crankshaft and,
consequently, of the flywheel. This can be identified in
the voltage curve by means of the higher frequencies
and amplitudes of the CKP signal.
Effects of faults
In the event of a signal failure, the engine is stopped,
or the engine no longer starts.
Diagnostics
If a specified maximum time is exceeded after the last
CKP signal, there is a fault (plausibility check). This
check is capable of analyzing driving errors (engine
stalling or cutting out).
Vehicles with EOBD
As the engine cuts out or cannot be started in the case
of a fault, the sensor has no effect on exhaust gas
emissions. Therefore, this is a non MIL active
component.
VSS signal.
E47844
Note: In newer versions with ABS, the wheel speed
signals are transmitted to the PCM via CAN, from which
the PCM generates the vehicle speed.
Location
On the transmission
Task / function
The VSS signal is used:
to calculate the engaged gear,
to reduce engine judder during gear shifting,
as information for the trip computer,
as information on vehicle speed for the instrument
cluster,
as information for the speed control system
incorporated into the PCM.
Effects of faults
Engine judder during gear shifting
Diagnostics
The input signals of the sensor are continuously checked
to ensure that they are functioning correctly.
BARO sensor
E65506
1
2 3
BARO sensor in the 2001 Mondeo
A-pillar reinforcement 1
BARO sensor 2
Retaining clip 3
25 Service Training (G544938)
Sensors Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Location
Behind the instrument panel on the left on the A-pillar
reinforcement
Task / function
The BARO sensor signal is used for value-based
correction of the setpoint values for the boost pressure
control and EGR control circuits.
The different ambient air densities are taken into account
in this case.
For systems with pre-injection only: The BARO
sensor also influences the pre-injected fuel quantity.
The BARO sensor is only used in conjunction with a
variable-geometry turbocharger.
Effects of faults
Possible increased black smoke formation at higher
altitudes.
Diagnostics
The monitoring system checks:
the sensor for short circuit to ground/battery and
open control circuit.
Position sensor in EGR valve
E47849
Location
In the EGR valve
Task / function
Depending on the engine version (as a rule if there is
no MAF sensor installed) a position sensor is integrated
in the EGR valve, which records the current position of
the valve and reports it back to the PCM.
The PCM calculates the current EGR quantity based on
this signal.
Each time the ignition is switched on, the PCM performs
initialization of the end positions of the position sensor.
Consequently, a misaligned closing / opening point of
the EGR valve due to coking is taken into account and
adjusted.
Effects of faults
The EGR system is switched off.
(G544938) Service Training 26
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Sensors
Diagnostics
The monitoring system checks:
the sensor for short circuit to ground/battery and
open control circuit.
logical rise/fall times of the signal. The slide tracks
are thereby checked for faults (e.g. due to dirt). This
type of malfunction can also indicate a loose
connection (e.g. on the wiring harness connector).
for plausibility: A seized or sticking EGR valve is
detected in this manner.
Vehicles with EOBD
Since a malfunction leads to the switching off of the
EGR system, this is a MIL active component.
Stoplamp and BPP switches
E47850
1 2
Brake pedal switch 1
Stoplamp switch 2
Location
At the pedals
Task / function
The signal from the stoplamp switch affects fuel
metering when the brake is actuated and when a gear is
engaged when idling.
Example: In a braking operation, the PCM receives a
signal from the stoplight switch as a result of which the
quantity of fuel for idle control is reduced. This prevents
the idle control from continuing to maintain the idle
speed, thus counteracting the braking action.
On vehicles equipped with speed control, there is an
additional brake pedal switch on the pedal mounting.
Its only function is to switch off the speed control when
the brake is actuated.
CPP
E47851
Location
At the pedals
Task / function
The PCM uses the signal from the CPP switch to
determine whether the clutch is being engaged or
disengaged.
The quantity of injected fuel is briefly reduced during
actuation of the clutch to avoid engine judder during
gearshifts.
The CPP switch is located on the pedal mounting
bracket.
On vehicles with speed control, the CPP switch switches
off the speed control when the clutch is disengaged.
27 Service Training (G544938)
Sensors Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Effects of faults
When changing gears, engine judder will occur.
EGR solenoid valve and wastegate
control solenoid valve
E47856
1 2
EGR solenoid valve 1
Wastegate control solenoid valve 2
Location
In the engine compartment (depending on vehicle and
version)
Task / function
The solenoid valves are supplied with a vacuum by the
vacuum pump.
The signals from the PCM control this vacuum, as a
result of which the boost pressure is regulated by means
of a vacuum unit and the EGR flow is regulated by the
EGR valve.
The duty cycle of the PWM signals determines the
vacuum which is applied at the EGR valve or to the
turbocharger vacuum unit.
Effects of faults
Wastegate control solenoid valve
In the event of failure of the solenoid valve, the boost
pressure can no longer be regulated. Engine performance
is then reduced.
EGR solenoid valve
In the event of failure of the solenoid valve, the EGR
valve remains closed as the control vacuum is no longer
applied at the EGR valve.
Diagnostics
The relevant monitoring system checks:
the respective solenoid valve for short circuit and
open circuit via the output stages in the PCM (based
on the power consumption of the solenoid valve).
Vehicles with EOBD
A faulty EGR or wastegate control solenoid valve has
serious effects on the exhaust gas emissions. Both
components are thus MIL active.
(G544938) Service Training 28
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Sensors
Pump control unit
E65507
Location
Mounted on the distributor fuel injection pump
Note: The pump control unit and the distributor fuel
injection pump form a single unit and can consequently
not be replaced individually during servicing.
Task / function
The pump control unit is equipped with a nine-pin
connector, which connects the pump control unit to the
PCM and via which the two control modules
communicate.
Data is exchanged via the CAN data bus as well as via
hard-wired lines.
The PCM transmits the data for the injected fuel quantity
and the injection timing to the pump control unit. The
pump control unit then actuates the high-pressure
solenoid valve in the distributor fuel injection pump.
There is a fuel temperature sensor located in the base
of the pump control unit. The fuel temperature measured
by the sensor is used by the pump control unit to
calculate the fuel density and thus to adapt the injected
fuel quantity required by the PCM.
In order to actuate the high-pressure solenoid valve and
the timing device solenoid valve precisely, the
distributor fuel injection pump also has a rotational angle
sensor, which determines the exact angular position of
the distributor shaft and transmits it to the pump control
unit.
The pump control unit is cooled with fuel that runs
through a channel under the pump control unit housing.
Note: Make sure that no electrostatic discharge can
occur before touching the pump control unit connector
socket. A spark discharge can lead to failure of the
control module.
Effects of faults
The engine is stopped or can no longer be started in the
event of the following pump control unit faults:
faulty microprocessor,
CAN communication,
supply voltage,
monitoring of the electrical pump components.
Engine power output is reduced in the event of:
faulty fuel temperature signal,
faulty CKP signal from the PCM.
Vehicles with EOBD
Most faults have little or no effect on exhaust gas
emissions and are thus not MIL active.
In the event of a faulty CKP signal from the PCM,
control is impaired to such an extent that the exhaust
emission limits are exceeded; this is therefore an MIL
active fault.
29 Service Training (G544938)
Actuators Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
High-pressure solenoid valve
E65508
8
1
2
7 6 5
3
4
Pump control unit 1
PCM 2
Permanent magnet 3
Coil 4
Solenoid armature 5
Valve needle 6
Closing direction 7
Valve seat 8
Location
Integrated in the distributor fuel injection pump
Task / function
The high-pressure solenoid valve is located centrally in
the distributor head of the injection pump, whereby the
valve needle projects into the distributor shaft and
rotates synchronously with it.
The high-pressure solenoid valve is closed (energized)
or opened (de-energized) by the pump control unit.
The closing time determines the delivery time of the
high-pressure pump. The injected fuel quantity can
thus be metered precisely.
Timing device solenoid valve
E65509
1
2
3
4
5
Timing device 1
Timing device solenoid valve 2
Valve needle 3
Fuel feed from fuel tank 4
Transfer pump (vane-type pump) 5
Location
On the underside of the distributor fuel injection pump
in the fuel discharge channel of the timing device
Task / function
Rapid cyclical actuation of the valve needle causes the
timing device solenoid valve to function as a variable
restrictor.
It can thus constantly influence the control pressure so
that the timing device can assume any position between
the advance and retard positions.
(G544938) Service Training 30
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Actuators
E65510
1
2 3 4 5
6
7
8
Restriction bore 1
Valve body 2
Valve body 3
Solenoid armature 4
Electrical connector 5
Mounting flange 6
Solenoid coil 7
Valve needle 8
The pump control unit controls the timing device piston
via the timing device solenoid valve, which is
continually actuated via PWM signals.
The duty cycle determines the flow rate.
The flow rate is varied such that the timing device
reaches its desired position.
Rotational angle sensor
Rotational angle sensor in the VP44
E65511
Location
Integrated in the distributor fuel injection pump
Task / function
The rotational angle sensor rotates on a bearing ring,
which is fixed to the roller ring (VP30)/cam ring (VP44)
and the timing device.
The rotational angle sensor is located on a rotating
mounting because it needs to generate its signal relative
to the angular position of the cam ring (VP30)/roller
ring (VP44).
31 Service Training (G544938)
Actuators Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
E65512
7
1
6
2
3
4
5
Flexible conducting film 1
Rotational angle sensor 2
Rotating bearing ring 3
Pulse generation wheel (fixed to the drive shaft) 4
Drive shaft 5
Roller ring/cam ring/timing device connection 6
Gap in the teeth 7
The pulse for the rotational angle sensor is generated
by a pulse generation wheel which is fixed onto the
drive shaft. It has four gaps in the teeth evenly
distributed around its circumference (the four gaps
correspond to the number of cylinders in the engine).
A rotational angle sensor scans the sequence of teeth
and gaps.
The rotational angle sensor generates its signal relative
to the angular position of the roller ring/cam ring. For
this reason, it is located on a rotating mounting on the
drive shaft of the distributor fuel injection pump and
rotates with the roller ring/cam ring as the timing device
moves.
For adjustment of the injection timing via the timing
device, the roller ring/cam ring and consequently the
rotational angle sensor is rotated in the "advance" or
"retard" direction.
The signal from the rotational angle sensor is transmitted
via a flexible conductor film to the pump control unit
and then used for the following tasks:
measurement of the current rotational speed of the
distributor fuel injection pump,
determination of the current angular position,
determination of the current position of the timing
device.
(G544938) Service Training 32
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Actuators
The current speed of the distributor fuel injection pump
is one of the input variables for the pump control unit
of the distributor fuel injection pump. The pump control
unit uses it to determine the actuation time of the
high-pressure solenoid valve and the duty cycle for the
timing device solenoid valve.
The designated injection quantity determines the
actuation time of the high-pressure solenoid valve. The
current angular position defines the actuation times
for the high-pressure solenoid valve.
Angular precision is required for the actuation to ensure
that both the opening and the closing of the
high-pressure solenoid valve occur at the correct cam
lift. Precise actuation ensures that the start of injection
and the injected fuel quantity are correct.
The precise angular position is determined by
comparison of the signals from the CKP sensor and the
rotational angle sensor.
The current position of the timing device, which is
required for adjustment of the injection timing, is also
determined by comparing the signals from the CKP
sensor and the rotational angle sensor.
33 Service Training (G544938)
Actuators Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Fuel metering calculations
Diesel engines normally run without the use of a throttle
valve and therefore always operate with an excess of
air.
The torque and power output of the diesel engine are
only changed in the amount of fuel that is made
available (injected fuel quantity).
Two different strategies are used when calculating the
fuel metering:
engine starting,
engine running.
Starting fuel quantity
E65513
1
2
6
3
5
4
Calculation variables when the engine is started
Fuel injector nozzle 1
VP30/VP44 2
Injected fuel quantity signal 3
PCM 4
CHT sensor 5
CKP sensor 6
The injected fuel quantity is calculated based on the
engine temperature and the engine speed during
starting. The starting fuel quantity is delivered from the
time the ignition is switched on until a specific minimum
engine speed is reached. The driver has no influence on
the starting fuel quantity via the accelerator pedal.
Driving
E65514
2
3
4
5
6
1
Calculation variables with engine running
Fuel injector nozzle 1
VP30/VP44 2
Injected fuel quantity signal 3
PCM 4
APP sensor 5
CKP sensor 6
In normal driving mode, the injected fuel quantity is
calculated from the following main variables:
APP
Engine speed
In addition, the calculation of the injected fuel quantity
is influenced by other variables (correction variables),
such as engine temperature and boost pressure.
(G544938) Service Training 34
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Strategies
Calculation of idle speed/accelerator pedal
actuation
E47860
1 2
6
3 4
5
Calculation of accelerator pedal actuation 1
Judder damper 2
Calculation unit 3
Limiter 4
Signal to the injection pump 5
Idle speed calculation 6
While the engine is running, the PCM uses one of the
following two calculations as a basis for fuel metering:
idle speed,
accelerator pedal actuation.
Both calculations are performed continuously in parallel
and independently of each other.
The values calculated from idle speed and accelerator
pedal actuation are compared with each other by a
calculation unit.
This calculation unit then decides which calculation
(idle speed or accelerator pedal actuation) should be
used as the output signal for the injection pump. The
calculation unit always chooses the larger value for the
injected fuel quantity.
Example: Engine cold the idle speed calculation
yields an idle speed of 1,200 rpm and an injected fuel
quantity of 7 mg. There is minimal actuation of the
accelerator pedal, whereby the calculation of the
accelerator pedal actuation allows for an injected fuel
quantity of 6 mg. As the value from the accelerator pedal
actuation calculation is lower than the result for the idle
speed calculation, the idle speed calculation has higher
priority. As soon as the accelerator pedal actuation
calculation specifies a higher injected fuel quantity
(further actuation of the accelerator pedal) than the idle
speed calculation (accelerator pedal actuation calculation
> 7 mg), the accelerator pedal actuation calculation
applies.
Control of the fuel limitation quantity
As the diesel engine works with quality-dependent
control (no throttle plate; torque is controlled exclusively
via the injected fuel quantity), the fuel quantity requested
by the driver or the physically-possible fuel quantity
must not always be injected.
This can have the following reasons:
excessively high exhaust emissions,
mechanical overloading of components owing to
high torque or overspeed,
thermal overload owing to excessively high coolant,
oil or turbocharger temperatures.
The characteristic maps for fuel metering in the PCM
are programmed such that they always comply with the
requirements mentioned above.
Judder damper
E47861
2
3
4
1
5
35 Service Training (G544938)
Strategies Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Sudden actuation of accelerator
Engine speed. 1
Abrupt actuation of accelerator pedal (driver
demand)
2
Engine speed curve without active judder
damping
3
Engine speed curve with active judder damping 4
Time 5
There is a so-called software filter between the
accelerator pedal calculation and the calculation unit.
Sudden actuation or release of the accelerator pedal
results in a major change in the injected fuel quantity
requirements and therefore in the torque output.
Owing to this abrupt load change, unpleasant jerking
of the powertrain is caused in the elastic mountings
(engine speed fluctuations.
These are reduced by the judder damper as follows:
comparatively less fuel is injected when the engine
speed is increasing,
more fuel is injected when the engine speed is
decreasing.
In addition, the software filter prevents an abrupt drop
in engine speed during gear shifting.
Idle speed control
The fuel consumption at idle is mainly determined by
idle speed and efficiency.
It is advantageous to have as low an idle speed as
possible, as idling is of considerable importance when
driving in dense traffic (for minimizing fuel
consumption).
However, the selected idle speed must be sufficient to
ensure that, under any conditions (e.g. when the air
conditioning is switched on, or the vehicle electrical
system is heavily loaded), it will not drop so low that
the engine starts to run roughly or stalls.
To regulate the idle speed, the injected fuel quantity is
varied by the idle speed controller until the measured
actual engine speed is the same as the specified target
engine speed.
Here, the target engine speed and the control
characteristic are influenced by the CHT.
Other variables are:
road speed (engine speed compensation system),
generator control (smart charging), can increase the
idle speed,
speed control.
Idle speed control when speed control is
activated
Example: Vehicle is traveling in 5th gear at a speed of
100 km/h and an engine speed of 2,500 rpm. Under
these conditions, the speed control is then activated.
Of the previously mentioned variables, it is the idle
speed calculation (idle speed control) that will determine
the quantity of injected fuel required to maintain the
desired speed.
Smooth-running control (cylinder
balancing)
In addition to the previously described external load
moments, there are also combustion quality phenomena
and internal friction moments which need to be balanced
out. These change slightly, but continuously, over the
entire service life of the engine.
In addition, the individual cylinders do not generate the
same level of torque for the entire service life of the
engine. The reason for this are the mechanical tolerances
and changes which occur during the service life of the
engine. All this could result in a rough-running engine,
particularly at idle.
(G544938) Service Training 36
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Strategies
The smooth-running control system calculates the
accelerations of the crankshaft via the CKP sensor after
each combustion process and compares them.
Using the differences in engine speed as a basis, the
injected fuel quantity for each cylinder is adjusted
individually so that all the cylinders make as equal a
contribution as possible to the torque produced.
Switching off the engine
Because of the way the diesel engine works, the engine
can only be switched off by interrupting the fuel supply.
In the case of fully electronic engine management, this
is done by the PCM specifying: injected fuel quantity
= 0. The high-pressure solenoid valve is therefore no
longer actuated and the engine is switched off.
Fuel delivery
E65515
3 4
2
5
6
7
8
1
Profile of the cam plate/cam ring of the fuel
injection pump
1
PCM signal to the high-pressure solenoid valve 2
Signal for pre-injection 3
Signal for main injection 4
High-pressure solenoid valve closed 5
High-pressure solenoid valve opened 6
Stroke of nozzle needle of fuel injector nozzle 7
Time 8
Electrically controlled pre-injection is used with the
VP30/VP44 fuel injection system in the Ford Mondeo.
Pre-injection is, alongside conventional two-stage
injection (two-spring nozzle carrier principle), additional
pre-injection that is controlled by the fuel injection
pump.
With two-stage injection the two injection stages have
an overlap, which is regulated solely by the injector
nozzle (two-spring nozzle carrier). The valve needle of
the high-pressure solenoid valve in the fuel injection
pump is only actuated once in this case.
With pre-injection, two-spring nozzle carriers are also
used. In this case, however, a small quantity of fuel is
injected a few milliseconds in advance (pre-injection).
Main injection takes place a few milliseconds later. For
this purpose, the valve needle of the high-pressure
solenoid valve in the fuel injection pump is
actuatedtwice during one cam lift.
37 Service Training (G544938)
Strategies Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Control of the injected fuel quantity (2001
Mondeo only)
E65516
1
4
3
2
PCM 1
Pre-injected and main injected fuel quantity 2
High-pressure solenoid valve 3
Pump control unit 4
The injected fuel quantity and the injection timing are
calculated by the PCM by evaluating the various input
variables (e.g. accelerator pedal position, engine speed,
boost pressure, etc.). The PCM sends a signal for a
specified total injected quantity and the injection timing
to the pump control unit.
The pump control unit splits the incoming signal into
pre-injected fuel quantity and main injected fuel quantity
and actuates the high-pressure solenoid valve
accordingly.
The pre-injected fuel quantity is dependent on the engine
speed and/or the engine load. As the engine speed/engine
load increases, the interval between pre-injection and
main injection is increased accordingly by continuously
reducing the pre-injected fuel quantity.
E65517
1 2
a
Injection signal for the high-pressure solenoid valve
Interval between pre-injection and main injection a
Injected fuel quantity for pre-injection 1
Injected fuel quantity for main injection 2
NOTE: The range in which pre-injection can be carried
out is restricted by physical/mechanical limits. This
means that pre-injection is deactivated after a specific
engine speed and/or engine load has been reached.
Shortly before pre-injection is deactivated, main
injection is advanced. This helps to achieve a smoother
transition.
(G544938) Service Training 38
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Strategies
Synchronization of the fuel injection pump
E65519
1
2
3
4
5
8
9
6
7
CKP sensor 1
PCM 2
Monitoring signal from the pump control unit 3
Missing tooth in the sensor wheel of the
rotational angle sensor
4
Rotational angle sensor 5
Fuel injection pump with pump control units 6
CAN data bus (injected fuel quantity, injection
timing)
7
CKP signal 8
Fuel injection pump relay 9
The fuel injection pump is installed in a fixed position.
This means that fuel injection timing cannot be adjusted
by fuel injection pump rotation.
Mechanical tolerances (elasticity of drive chain/timing
belt as well as material tolerances) therefore require
synchronization of the system.
39 Service Training (G544938)
Strategies Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
To do this, the PCM transmits the incoming CKP signal
to the pump control unit on the fuel injection pump. The
pump control unit compares the CKP signal with the
incoming signal from the rotational angle sensor. Signal
deviations are stored by the pump control unit and taken
into account when transmitting the injection timing.
Safety function
The pump control unit of the fuel injection pump is
monitored for correct operation by the PCM. The pump
control unit sends a monitoring signal to the PCM every
50 milliseconds.
In the event of signal deviations or signal failure, the
PCM cuts off the power for the fuel injection pump
relay and therefore for the pump control unit, and the
engine is switched off.
Due to their high priority, both the monitoring signal
and the CKP signal are transmitted from the PCM to
the pump control unit via a hard-wired line.
Other data exchanged between the PCM and the pump
control unit is transmitted via the CAN data bus.
Configuration of the pump control unit with the
PCM
The pump control unit and the PCM are matched to one
another with regard to engine management and
immobilizer. This means that following replacement of
the fuel injection pump, the new pump control unit must
be configured with the PCM and vice versa.
Configuration must be performed using WDS (
Worldwide Diagnostic System).
(G544938) Service Training 40
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Strategies
EGR system
E47869
2
8
5
1
9
7
4
3
6
10
EGR solenoid valve 1
MAF sensor (variable-geometry turbocharger
only)
2
PCM 3
Oxidation catalytic converter 4
Turbocharger. 5
EGR valve 6
Vacuum pump 7
Position sensor in the EGR valve (only with
turbochargers with fixed turbine geometry)
8
Charge air cooler (not on all versions) 9
EGR cooler (not on all versions) 10
When turbochargers are used (they are deployed on all
the diesel engines described here), the temperatures in
the combustion chamber rise along with compression
and combustion power.
Combustion temperatures are increased even further by
the use of the direct injection process. Both result in the
increased formation of NOX in the exhaust gas.
41 Service Training (G544938)
Strategies Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
In order to keep this NOX content in the exhaust gas
within required limits, an EGR system is used.
In the part load range, exhaust gas recirculation is
achieved by mixing the exhaust gases with the intake
air. This reduces the oxygen concentration in the intake
air. In addition, exhaust gas has a higher specific heat
capacity than air and the proportion of water in the
recirculated exhaust gas also reduces the combustion
temperatures. These effects lower the combustion
temperatures (and thereby the proportion of NOX) and
also reduce the amount of exhaust gas emitted.
The quantity of exhaust gas to be recirculated is
accurately determined by the PCM. An excessive
exhaust gas recirculation rate would lead to an increase
in diesel particulate, CO and HC emissions due to lack
of air.
For this reason, the PCM requires feedback on the
quantity of exhaust gas recirculated. The two different
systems used in this case are distinguished by the
following components:
position sensor in the EGR valve (on engines with
a wastegate-controlled turbocharger),
MAF sensor (on engines with variable-geometry
turbocharger),
On both systems the EGR valve is vacuum-actuated by
the EGR solenoid valve. The duty cycle with which the
EGR solenoid valve is actuated by the PCM determines
the vacuum applied at the EGR valve.
System with position sensor in the EGR valve
The position sensor in the EGR valve signals the current
position of the EGR valve to the PCM. From this, the
PCM can determine the quantity of exhaust gas currently
being recirculated, thus forming a closed control loop.
System with MAF sensor
The quantity of exhaust gas recirculated when the EGR
valve opens has a direct influence on the MAF sensor
measurement.
During exhaust gas recirculation, the reduced air mass
measured by the MAF sensor corresponds exactly to
the value of the recirculated exhaust gases. If the
quantity of recirculated exhaust gas is too high, the
drawn in air mass drops to a specific limit. The PCM
then reduces the proportion of recirculated exhaust gas,
thus forming a closed control loop.
Boost pressure control
In diesel engines with turbochargers, the air is fed to
the engine with positive pressure. This increases the air
mass in the engine cylinder, which, along with a
correspondingly higher fuel quantity, leads to a
increased torque and power at the same swept volume.
As turbochargers achieve the necessary boost pressure
at low engine speeds, any further pressure increase must
be avoided by means of boost pressure control.
Given the constantly more stringent exhaust emissions
limits defined by law, it is also necessary to optimally
adjust the fuel quantity for all operating conditions.
(G544938) Service Training 42
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Strategies
Boost pressure control with wastegate control valve
E65887
4
7
1
2
3
5
8
6
MAP sensor 1
IAT sensor 2
Charge air cooler (not on all versions) 3
Compressor wheel 4
Turbocharger. 5
PCM 6
Turbine 7
Wastegate control valve 8
At higher speeds or higher engine loads, a partial stream
of the exhaust gas is fed into the exhaust system past
the turbine wheel via a wastegate control valve. The
splitting of the exhaust gas stream prevents a further
increase in turbocharger speed, whereby boost pressure
generation is restricted by the compressor wheel.
The boost pressure actual value is measured via the
MAP sensor. The required value depends upon the
engine speed and the injected fuel quantity as well as
the IAT correction factor.
In the event of a malfunction of the boost pressure
control system, engine power is reduced via the fuel
metering system.
43 Service Training (G544938)
Strategies Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Boost pressure control with variable-geometry turbocharger
E65888
5
9
1
2
3
4
6
7
10
8
Wastegate control solenoid valve 1
MAP sensor 2
IAT sensor 3
Charge air cooler (not on all versions) 4
Compressor wheel 5
Turbocharger. 6
Vacuum unit for guide vane adjustment 7
PCM 8
Turbine 9
Vacuum pump 10
On a variable-geometry turbocharger, the boost pressure
is regulated by adjusting the guide vanes. The optimum
boost pressure can therefore be set for every operating
condition.
The boost pressure actual value is measured via the
MAP sensor. The required value is dependent on the
engine speed and the injected fuel quantity as well as
the IAT and BARO correction factors.
When a control deviation occurs, the guide vanes of the
variable-geometry turbocharger are adjusted via the
wastegate control solenoid valve.
In the event of a malfunction, engine power output is
reduced by means of the fuel metering.
(G544938) Service Training 44
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Strategies
Data exchange
E65015
1 2
3 4
1 2
3 4
Transmission control module 1
Instrument cluster 2
PCM 3
ABS/stability assist control module 4
The PCM communicates with other control modules
(ABS/stability assist, automatic transmission) via the
CAN data bus system.
This is used to transmit the data and setpoint values
required for operation and fault monitoring.
On the CAN data bus, the data is transmitted serially,
i.e. the information is sent simultaneously and
consecutively on two lines.
All the connected control modules are equipped with a
serial CAN interface and can therefore send and receive
data via the CAN data bus line.
External intervention into the injected fuel
quantity
In an external intervention into the injected fuel quantity,
the injected fuel quantity is influenced by another
control unit (for example traction control).
The PCM receives the information regarding necessary
interventions via the CAN data bus.
This CAN signal informs the PCM whether and how
much the engine torque and consequently the injected
quantity needs to be changed.
PCM fault strategy
E48114
1
2 3
4 5 6
7
8
PCM connector 1
Microprocessor 2
RAM 3
EEPROM 4
PATS 5
Power supply relay 6
Fuse 7
Battery 8
NOTE: DTCs and adaptation data can be deleted with
the aid of WDS.
NOTE: The PCM has a continuous voltage connection
to the battery. This is used, among other things, to
activate the PATS LED.
To store DTCs and other data, the PCM uses the
EEPROM memory on diesel engines.
The EEPROM memory is a non-volatile memory
(constant value memory) which means that the data
contained in it is retained even if the supply voltage is
interrupted (e.g. if the battery is disconnected).
45 Service Training (G544938)
Strategies Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
During driving, all new trouble codes and engine
adaption data (e.g. fuel adaption data) are initially stored
in the RAM of the PCM.
This data is transferred to the EEPROM data memory
after the engine is switched off and at specified intervals
during operation. To ensure this happens, the power
supply relay remains activated for a further 1.2 seconds
after the ignition is switched off (power latch).
After the ignition is switched on, the DTCs stored in
the EEPROM are transferred to the RAM memory.
EOBD
General
E66152
From 1 January 2003 or from 1 January 2004, the EOBD
was implemented in diesel vehicles as follows:
From 1 January 2003:
for diesel vehicles newly introduced on the
market.
From 1 January 2004:
for all newly registered diesel vehicles.
This means that from these dates onwards, all diesel
vehicles below a permissible total vehicle weight of
2,500 kg can only be registered if they feature the EOBD
system.
The following engines with distributor fuel injection
pump systems are affected by the EOBD:
1.8L Endura-DI (Kent) diesel engine with VP30 (55
and 66 kW) in the 1999 Focus,
2.0L Duratorq-DI (Puma) diesel engine with VP30
(66 kW) in the 2001 Mondeo.
The EOBD system does not use any additional sensors
or actuators to individually measure pollutants in the
exhaust emissions.
The EOBD system is integrated into the software of the
PCM and uses the existing sensors and actuators of the
engine management system.
With the aid of these sensors, actuators and special
software, systems and components significant for
emissions are continually checked during the journey
and exhaust emissions calculated accordingly.
Components significant for emissions are checked with
the so-called monitoring system.
With the introduction of EOBD for European Ford diesel
engines, this comprises the following monitoring
systems for distributor fuel injection pump systems:
monitoring of components significant to emissions
(Comprehensive Component Monitors =CCM),
monitoring of the EGR system,
Monitoring system for components significant
for exhaust emissions (CCM)
The monitoring system for components significant for
emissions (CCM) continually checks to see if the sensors
and actuators significant for emissions are operating
within the specified tolerances when the engine is
running.
(G544938) Service Training 46
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Strategies
If a sensor or actuator is outside the tolerance range,
this is recognized by the monitoring system and a DTC
is stored in the data memory.
Monitoring of the EGR system
The operation of the EGR system is monitored to
identify faults that will lead to increased exhaust
emissions and may exceed the EOBD threshold values.
In this system check it is not the components of the EGR
system themselves that are monitored, but rather the
actual EGR quantity.
MIL
E48311
The MIL is located in the instrument cluster and shows
an engine icon (international standard).
The MIL will warn the driver that the EOBD system
has detected an emissions-related fault in a component
or system.
If an emissions-related fault is detected and if this fault
is confirmed during the third driving cycle, the MIL is
switched on.
Illumination of the MIL ensures that a fault is recognized
in time. The defect can be repaired in good time and the
emission of exhaust gas with high levels of pollutants
is avoided.
Freeze frame data
When an emissions-related fault occurs for the first time,
a fault log containing the freeze frame data is created
in the PCM. Freeze frame data may be:
vehicle speed,
CHT,
engine speed,
engine load state,
distance traveled since the fault was registered for
the first time.
The freeze frame data can be read out using WDS or
with a generic scan tool and thus be used as support for
diagnostics work.
Fault detection and storage
A fault occurring for the first time is labeled as a
suspected fault (pending code) and is stored in the data
memory.
If the fault is not confirmed in the next check, it is
erased.
If it is confirmed during the third drive cycle, the
suspected fault is automatically converted into a
confirmed fault (continuous code). The freeze frame
data does not change; it remains the same as when the
fault first occurred.
The MIL only illuminates when the fault has been stored
as a confirmed fault.
If the fault does not recur in the course of three
consecutive driving cycles, the MIL extinguishes in the
fourth driving cycle. However, the DTC will remain
stored in the data memory.
A DTC is deleted from the fault memory after 40
warm-up cycles if the fault has not occurred again during
this time.
47 Service Training (G544938)
Strategies Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
If a faulty signal is detected during a journey and the
corresponding DTC is stored, all the checks in which
this signal is required as a reference value, will be
interrupted. This prevents follow-up faults from being
stored.
Drive cycle
A drive cycle commences when the engine starts (engine
cold or hot) and ends when the engine is switched off.
Depending on the complexity of the fault, the
monitoring period may vary:
For simple electrical faults, a monitoring period of
less than five minutes is sufficient.
When monitoring the EGR system, where different
operating conditions are required to complete the
test, the test can take up to around 20 minutes.
Warm-up cycle
A warm-up cycle starts when the engine is started, at
which point the coolant temperature must be at least 22
C, and ends as soon as the coolant temperature exceeds
70 C.
(G544938) Service Training 48
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Strategies
Overview of the fuel system
E65489
A
C
B
2
3
4
6
7
8
5
1
Fuel return A
Fuel injection line B
Fuel supply C
Fuel injector nozzle 1
Pump control unit 2
Distributor fuel injection pump VP30/VP44 3
Fuel filter 4
Fuel cooler (VP44 only) 5
Auxiliary fuel pump (VP44 only) 6
Fuel tank 7
PCM 8
49 Service Training (G544938)
Fuel system Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Fuel injectors
E65490
1
3
4
A B
2
Fuel injector nozzle 1.8L Endura-DI (Kent)
diesel engine
A
Fuel injector nozzle 2.0L/2.4L Duratorq-DI
(Puma) diesel engine
B
Sealing ring 1
Retainer 2
Locking sleeve 3
Sealing ring 4
The fuel injector nozzles of these fuel injection systems
function according to the two-spring nozzle carrier
principle.
Fuel injector nozzles from different manufacturers are
used depending on the vehicle and engine version:
Bosch:1.8L Endura (Kent) diesel engine with VP30
(Ford Focus), 2.0L Duratorq-DI (Puma) diesel engine
with VP30/44 (Ford Mondeo),
Delphi: 2.0L Duratorq-DI (Puma) diesel engine with
VP30 (Ford Transit), 2.4L Duratorq-DI (Puma) diesel
engine with VP30/44 (Ford Transit)
In the 1.8L Endura-DI, the fuel injector nozzles are
inserted and fastened in the cylinder head, while the
fuel injector nozzles in the 2.0L and 2.4L Duratorq are
screwed into the cylinder head with a locking sleeve.
(G544938) Service Training 50
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Fuel system
Function of the two-spring nozzle carrier
E65016
1
2
3
A B C
4
5
Injector nozzle closed A
Pre-injection B
Main injection C
Spring 1 1
Spring 2 2
Stroke 1 3
Stroke 1 + stroke 2 4
Stroke 2 5
The two-spring nozzle carrier principle makes a
significant contribution towards smoother combustion.
The two-spring nozzle carrier allows fuel to be injected
in two stages.
The fuel injector nozzle is designed as a five-hole
nozzle.
The nozzle carrier contains two springs of different
strengths.
51 Service Training (G544938)
Fuel system Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
The springs are configured in such a way that the nozzle
needle is only lifted against the force of the first spring
at the start of injection.
A small quantity of fuel is pre-injected through the
resulting small gap at low pressure. This pre-injection
ensures a gradual increase in the combustion pressure
and creates the ignition conditions for the main fuel
quantity.
Due to the fact that the fuel injection pump delivers
more fuel than can flow through the small gap, the
pressure in the injector nozzle increases. The force of
the second spring is overcome and the nozzle needle is
lifted further. Main injection now takes place at a higher
injection pressure.
Injection lines
E65491
NOTE: The injection lines must always be replaced
following disconnection. Please refer to the current
Service Literature.
The injection lines form the connection between the
fuel injection pump and fuel injector nozzles.
The injection lines have a specified length and form and
their design must not be changed.
(G544938) Service Training 52
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Fuel system
Overview
E65492
1
2
3
4
5
8 9 10
11
12
6
7
Vane-type pump 1
Rotational angle sensor 2
Roller ring 3
Pump control unit 4
Connector socket 5
Axial piston 6
High-pressure solenoid valve 7
Delivery valve 8
Start of injection adjustment solenoid valve 9
Timing device 10
Cam plate 11
Rotational angle sensor pulse generator 12
53 Service Training (G544938)
VP30 Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
The VP30 with its modular structure is based on the
principle of the tried and tested VP37 axial piston
distributor fuel injection pump (Ford Galaxy), but with
a fully electronically controlled fuel metering system.
The VP30 is used in the following engine/vehicle
versions:
1.8L Endura-DI (Kent) diesel engine (Ford Focus
and Fiesta)
2.0L/2.4L Duratorq-DI (Puma) diesel engine (Ford
Transit))
2.0L Duratorq-DI (Puma) diesel engine (Ford
Mondeo)
The following requirements are optimally satisfied by
the use of the VP30:
low exhaust emissions,
high fuel economy and
enhanced driving comfort.
The VP30 is an axial piston distributor fuel injection
pump that is controlled by a high-pressure solenoid
valve and features fully electronic regulation of the fuel
quantity and injection timing.
The following components are not used in the VP30:
the control collar that was responsible for the injected
fuel quantity,
the electromagnetic shutoff valve,
the needle lift sensor.
The following components are new in the VP30:
the pulse generation wheel and the rotational angle
sensor,
the high-pressure solenoid valve for regulating the
injected fuel quantity and for shutting off the fuel,
the start of injection timing solenoid valve for the
injection timing and for the injection period,
the pump control unit.
In this fuel injection pump, a pump high pressure of up
to 900 bar is generated, whereby a high atomizing
energy at the nozzle and a fast quantity regulation
response by the fast-switching high-pressure solenoid
valve are achieved.
The pump control unit is mounted on the top of the
injection pump. Using the information from the
rotational angle sensor and the PCM, it calculates the
actuation signals for the high-pressure solenoid valve
and start of injection timing.
The fuel system cannot run dry during vehicle operation.
Based on the signal from the sender in the fuel tank, the
EEC (Electronic Engine Control) V-PCM initiates
engine judder when a specified remaining fuel quantity
is reached.
(G544938) Service Training 54
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
VP30
Fuel supply metering by the high-pressure solenoid valve
E65493
1
1
1
10
5 6 9
2 3 4
5
5 8 9
6
A
B
C
7
Intake A
Delivery B
End of delivery C
Axial piston 1
High-pressure chamber 2
Annular channel (feed) 3
Coil 4
Valve needle 5
Feed channel 6
Stroke direction of the axial piston 7
Channel to the injector nozzle 8
Control slot 9
55 Service Training (G544938)
VP30 Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Return channel 10
Controlled by the pump control unit, the high-pressure
solenoid valve determines the injection quantity for each
individual injection.
The high-pressure solenoid valve closes with the valve
needle via a control pulse from the pump control unit
in the BDC (Bottom Dead Center) position of the cam
plate of the axial piston high-pressure pump. The closing
timing of the valve determines the start of fuel delivery
from the injection pump.
Through electronic detection of the time of closing, the
pump control unit receives exact information about the
start of fuel delivery.
The fuel supply measurement occurs between fuel
injection timing and end of control of the high-pressure
valve and is referred to as the delivery time and
quantity.
Intake
The axial piston is moving backwards. The
high-pressure solenoid valve and therefore the feed
channel are open.
Owing to the pump pressure and the suction effect of
the axial piston, the fuel passes into the high-pressure
chamber.
Delivery
The axial piston is moving forwards, the control slot is
opened.
At this moment, no fuel is supplied because the
high-pressure solenoid valve is still not actuated by the
pump control unit (situation as in illustration C, only
that the axial piston is not so far advanced).
At a moment determined by the pump control unit, the
high-pressure solenoid valve is closed and the needle
valve closes the feed channel.
The moment at which the needle valve closes defines
the instant which is described as fuel injection timing.
From this time the pressure begins to rise within the
high-pressure system.
End of delivery
The axial piston is still moving forwards, the control
slot is still open.
At a moment determined by the pump control unit, the
high-pressure solenoid valve is opened again and the
needle valve opens the feed channel.
The fuel which is still being delivered by the axial piston
can return into the pump housing through the return
channel.
Switching off the engine
Because of the way the diesel engine works, the engine
can only be switched off by interrupting the fuel supply.
In the case of fully electronic powertrain control this is
done by the PCM specifying an injected quantity of 0.
The high-pressure solenoid valve is therefore no longer
actuated and the engine is stopped.
(G544938) Service Training 56
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
VP30
Overview
E65494
1 2
3 4 5
6
7
8
9
10 11
12
Vane-type pump 1
Rotational angle sensor 2
Cam ring 3
Pump control unit 4
Pump control unit connector socket 5
High-pressure pump radial piston 6
Distributor shaft 7
High-pressure solenoid valve 8
Delivery valve 9
Timing device solenoid valve 10
Timing device 11
Rotational angle sensor pulse generation wheel 12
The Bosch VP44 distributor fuel injection pump is used
in vehicles with a distributor fuel injection pump that
exceed the 74 kW (100 hp) power limit.
57 Service Training (G544938)
VP44 Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
The high-pressure generation principle for this
distributor fuel injection pump is based on the Lucas
distributor fuel injection pump DPC(N) (radial piston
high-pressure pump), which is already in use in the Ford
Mondeo (model year '97).
The VP44 is electronically controlled by a pump control
unit as well as by the PCM of the vehicle.
The VP44 is characterized by the following features:
high performance thanks to the compact design,
low weight,
high dynamics for fuel quantity and start of injection
timing,
high fuel pressures at the injector nozzle.
The main components of the VP44 are:
the vane-type pump,
the radial piston high-pressure pump with distributor
shaft and delivery valve,
the high-pressure solenoid valve,
the timing device with timing device solenoid valve,
the rotational angle sensor,
the pump control unit.
By combining these components to create a compact
unit, it is possible to precisely co-ordinate the interaction
between the individual function units.
In this fuel injection pump, a pump high pressure of up
to 1,100 bar and an injection pressure of up to 1,600 bar
(version-dependent) are generated, whereby a high
atomizing energy at the nozzle and a fast quantity
regulation response by the fast-switching high-pressure
solenoid valve are achieved.
The strict requirements are thus met and the required
features are provided.
The fuel system cannot run dry during vehicle operation.
Based on the signal from the sender in the fuel tank, the
EECV-PCM initiates engine judder when a specified
remaining fuel quantity is reached.
(G544938) Service Training 58
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
VP44
Components of the Bosch radial piston distributor fuel injection pump VP44
E65495
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
11 12
13 14
For the sake of clarity, the figure shows all components
on a single level
EECV-PCM 1
Pressure control valve 2
Rotational angle sensor 3
Pump control unit 4
Radial piston high-pressure pump 5
Overflow throttle valve 6
Pressure holding valve 7
Distributor head 8
High-pressure solenoid valve 9
Delivery valve 10
Timing device solenoid valve 11
Timing device 12
Pulse generation wheel for rotational angle
sensor
13
Vane-type pump 14
59 Service Training (G544938)
VP44 Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Overflow throttle valve
E65496
1
2
3
5
4
Valve body 1
Pressure spring 2
Ball valve 3
Return line 4
Throttle bore 5
The overflow throttle valve in the VP44 distributor fuel
injection pump is different to that used in previous
Bosch distributor fuel injection pumps used by Ford.
The overflow throttle valve screwed onto the pump
housing is used for cooling and bleeding the distributor
fuel injection pump, whereby fuel is discharged to the
fuel tank via the ball valve.
Inside the valve body there is a spring-loaded ball valve,
which does not allow fuel to be discharged from the
VP44 until a specified opening pressure is reached.
In the subsidiary flow to the ball valve there is also a
bore hole in the valve body, which is connected to the
pump return via a small restriction bore with a very
small diameter.
This throttled connection facilitates automatic bleeding
of the VP44. The entire low-pressure circuit of the VP44
is designed to allow a defined quantity of fuel to flow
back into the fuel tank via a metering valve.
Auxiliary fuel pump
Given the fact that the VP44 can generate very high fuel
pressure on the pump side (up to 1,050 bar approx.), the
vane-type pump alone cannot guarantee sufficient fuel
circulation through the distributor fuel injection pump
in order to cool it effectively.
For this reason, an electrical auxiliary fuel pump is
integrated in the fuel feed for the purpose of supporting
the vane-type pump.
Fuel cooler
A fuel cooler is integrated in the return line between the
VP44 and the fuel tank. This fuel cooler cools the hot
fuel from the injection pump before it is returned to the
fuel tank.
(G544938) Service Training 60
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
VP44
Fuel metering via the high-pressure solenoid valve
E65497
1
4 5
A
B
C
6
8
10
9
7
2
3
Intake A
Delivery B
End of delivery C
Delivery piston 1
Distributor shaft 2
Fuel return 3
Valve needle 4
Coil 5
Feed channel 6
Cam ring 7
Channel to the injector nozzle 8
Diaphragm space 9
61 Service Training (G544938)
VP44 Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Storage diaphragm 10
The high-pressure solenoid valve is located centrally in
the valve body. This opens and closes the inlet passage
between the radial piston high-pressure pump and the
pressure pipe connection to the injection pump by means
of a valve needle.
The design and function are similar to those of the
high-pressure solenoid valve in the VP30 distributor
fuel injection pump.
The difference in this case is the fact that the valve
needle of this high-pressure solenoid valve projects into
the distributor shaft and rotates synchronously with the
shaft.
The fuel metering function with the high-pressure
solenoid valve in the valve body is explained below.
Intake
The delivery pistons of the radial piston high-pressure
pump move outwards.
The high-pressure solenoid valve and, consequently,
the feed are opened; the high-pressure chamber of the
radial piston high-pressure pump is filled.
Excess fuel is discharged via the fuel return.
Supply
The delivery pistons compress the fuel in the pump
center of the radial piston high-pressure pump.
When the rollers come into contact with the cams of the
cam ring, the high-pressure solenoid valve is closed and
the valve needle closes the feed channel.
The fuel is fed to the injector nozzle via the delivery
valve.
End of supply
When the required injected fuel quantity is reached, the
high-pressure solenoid valve is opened again by means
of a signal from the pump control unit and the valve
needle opens the feed channel.
At this point the radial pistons are still moving in the
direction of the pump center of the radial piston
high-pressure pump.
The fuel required up to the maximum cam lift enters
the diaphragm space via the feed channel.
The high-pressure peaks which act on the low-pressure
side of the fuel injection pump are dampened by a
storage diaphragm.
The fuel quantity stored in the diaphragm space also
supports the filling procedure for the next injection
operation.
Switching off the engine
The PCM sends the signal "Injected fuel quantity = 0"
to the fuel injection pump to switch off the engine. The
valve needle of the high-pressure solenoid valve no
longer seals off the feed channel and no pressure
build-up can take place. The engine cuts out.
(G544938) Service Training 62
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
VP44
Start of injection adjustment function
E65498
1
10
11 12
7
9
6
C
14
8
2 3
4 5
A B
13
Timing device in the initial position A
Start of injection timing "advance" B
Start of injection timing "retard" C
Cam ring 1
Timing device piston compression spring 2
Control piston 3
Control piston compression spring 4
Discharge channel 5
Timing device solenoid almost completely
opened (flow of fuel to the intake side of the
vane-type pump)
6
Annular chamber of the hydraulic stop 7
63 Service Training (G544938)
VP44 Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Pressure side of the vane-type pump 8
Timing device piston 9
Timing device piston volume 10
Discharge channel 11
Control collar 12
Timing device solenoid valve closes 13
To the intake side of the vane-type pump 14
The hydraulically actuated timing device allows
optimum adjustment of the injection timing for the
current operating condition of the engine, thus
contributing to greater fuel economy, lower emissions
and optimum performance. The timing device
"advances" the injection timing as the engine speed
increases.
The timing device is located on the underside of the fuel
injection pump. The complete mechanism for start of
injection timing consists of:
the rotational angle sensor (not shown here),
the timing device,
the timing device solenoid valve (not shown here).
The timing device solenoid valve is actuated on the basis
of a specified duty cycle by the injection timing
mechanism in the pump control unit, which continuously
compares the actual start of injection with the reference
value from the PCM.
The information for the actual value is determined using
the rotational angle sensor.
The figure shows two sectional views of the timing
device: side view and top view.
In Figure A the timing device is in the initial position.
Start of injection "advance" (Figure B)
As the engine speed increases, the timing device
"advances" the fuel injection timing.
If the pressure in the annular chamber of the hydraulic
stop increases (timing device solenoid valve closes),
the pressure increase causes the control piston to move
to the right against the spring force.
When the feed channel is opened by the control collar,
fuel flows into the space behind the timing device piston
and moves it to the right in the "advance" direction.
Start of injection "retard" (Figure C)
Adjustment of start of injection in the "retard" direction
is based on the same principle.
If the pressure in the annular chamber of the hydraulic
stop decreases (timing device solenoid valve opens),
the spring force causes the control piston to move to the
left.
The feed channel is opened by the control collar and
the fuel can flow from the space behind the timing
device piston to the intake side of the vane-type pump.
(G544938) Service Training 64
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
VP44
Tick the correct answer or fill in the gaps.
1. Which input signals can be processed directly by the microprocessor in the PCM?
a. All types of input signals can be processed directly.
b. Digital input signals
c. Inductive input signals
d. Analog input signals
2. With which versions is a MAF sensor used?
a. With all versions
b. Versions with a fixed-geometry turbocharger
c. Versions with a variable-geometry turbocharger
d. Only versions with EOBD
3. How is the CHT curve shifted?
a. By connecting a second CHT sensor
b. By connecting an additional resistor in the PCM
c. By connecting another resistor from the central junction box
d. By briefly opening the CHT sensor circuit
4. What happens when a potentiometer in the APP sensor fails?
a. Continued engine operation is only possible at engine idle speed and a corresponding DTC is set.
b. The engine is stopped immediately; no DTC is set.
c. Strong engine judder during idling and a corresponding DTC is set.
d. No effect on engine operation; only a DTC is set.
5. What must be done following replacement of the distributor fuel injection pump?
a. The pump control unit must be configured with the PCM using WDS.
b. A cylinder comparison check with the WDS
c. Pre-injection calibration with WDS at wide open throttle
d. Pre-injection calibration with the WDS during idling
65 Service Training (G544939)
Test questions Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
6. How is the pump control unit monitored for correct operation by the PCM?
a. The PCM sends a monitoring signal to the pump control unit via the CAN data bus every 50 seconds.
b. The pump control unit sends a monitoring signal to the PCM via the CAN data bus every 50 seconds.
c. The PCM sends a monitoring signal to the pump control unit every 50 milliseconds.
d. The pump control unit sends a monitoring signal to the PCM every 50 milliseconds.
7. What determines the delivery time of the VP30/VP44?
a. The position of a control collar
b. The timing device solenoid valve
c. The closing time of the high-pressure solenoid valve
d. The mechanically actuated metering valve
8. How is the engine switched off?
a. Prompt from the PCM: injected fuel quantity = 0
b. By a separate shut-off valve in the fuel injection pump
c. The current supply to the PCM is suddenly interrupted.
d. By closing an intake manifold flap.
9. What is the maximum pump high pressure generated by the VP44?
a. 900 bar
b. 1100 bar
c. 1350 bar
d. 1600 bar
(G544939) Service Training 66
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection
Systems
Test questions
Lesson 1 General Information
1. c
2. d
3. a
Lesson 2 Distributor Type Fuel Injection Systems
1. b
2. c
3. b
4. d
5. a
6. d
7. c
8. a
9. b
67 Service Training
Answers to the test questions
Anti-lock Brake System ABS
Accelerator Pedal Position APP
Barometric Pressure BARO
Bottom Dead Center BDC
Brake Pedal Position BPP
Before Top Dead Center BTDC
Controller Area Network CAN
Cylinder Head Temperature CHT
Crankshaft Position CKP
Carbon Monoxide CO
Clutch Pedal Position CPP
Data Link Connector DLC
Diagnostic Trouble Code DTC
Engine Coolant Temperature ECT
Electronic Engine Control EEC
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory
EEPROM
Exhaust Gas Recirculation EGR
European On-board Diagnostic EOBD
Flash Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory
FEPROM
Hydrocarbon HC
Intake Air Temperature IAT
Mass Air Flow MAF
Manifold Absolute Pressure MAP
Manifold Absolute Pressure And
Temperature
MAPT
Malfunction Indicator Lamp MIL
Oxides Of Nitrogen NOX
Passive Anti-theft System PATS
Powertrain Control Module PCM
Pulse Width Modulation PWM
Random Access Memory RAM
Standard Corporate Protocol SCP
Top Dead Center TDC
Vehicle Speed Sensor VSS
Worldwide Diagnostic System WDS
Service Training 68
List of Abbreviations