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Properties of Fresh Concrete

• The first 48 hours are very important for
the performance of the concrete
• It controls the long term behavior
• It controls the long-term behavior,
influence fc, Ec, creep, and durability.
Þroperues aL Larly Age
• Workability
• Slump Loss
• Segregation/Bleeding
• Plastic Shrinkage Plastic Shrinkage
• Time of Set Temperature
• Temperature -Curing
Þroperues of fresh concreLe
• WorkablllLy
– ease of placemenL
– reslsLance Lo segregauon
– homogeneous mass
• ConslsLency
– ablllLy Lo ßow
Semng and Pardenlng
Slump 1esL
• lnverLed cone
• ñll lL up wlLh Lhree layers
of equal volume
• rod each layer 23 umes
• scrape oñ Lhe surface
Slump 1esL
slump cone
Slump LesL
Slump 1esL
Slump LesL resulLs
• suñ 0-2"
– masslve secuons, llule relnforcemenL
– use vlbrauon
• medlum 2-3"
– columns, beams, reLalnlng walls
• lluld 3-7"
– heavlly relnforced secuon, ßowable concreLe
lacLors añecung slump
• waLer cemenL rauo
– w/c = welghL of waLer / welghL of cemenL
welghL of waLer mlxed aL Lhe planL 292 lbs.
welghL of cemenL 683 lbs./cu. yard
w/c = 292/683 = 0.43
waLer cemenL rauo
lf you add 10 gallons of waLer per cublc yard aL [ob slLe,
exLra waLer
10 gallons/cublc yard * (3.8 llLers/gallon) * (2.2 lbs./kg) *
( 1kg/llLer) = 83.77 lbs.
LoLal waLer 282 + 83.77 = 363.77
new w/c = 363.77 / 683 = 0.334 >> 0.43
lacLors añecung slump-
pasLe conLenL
• consLanL waLer cemenL rauo
– lncrease pasLe conLenL
• lncrease slump
• nC CCCu
• consLanL cemenL conLenL
– lncrease waLer conLenL
• lncrease slump
• nC CCCu
lacLors Añecung Slump-
WaLer ConLenL
• Add waLer aL Lhe consLanL cemenL conLenL, w/
c lncreases, slump lncreases.
• Add waLer aL a consLanL waLer cemenL rauo,
have Lo lncrease cemenL as well, slump
• seL reLardlng admlxLures
• seL acceleraung admlxLures
• waLer reduclng admlxLures
• superplasuclzers
• alr enLralnlng admlxLures
lacLors añecung slump
• AggregaLes
– gradlng Lhe larger Lhe parucle slze, Lhe hlgher Lhe
slump for a glven pasLe conLenL
8leedlng and Segregauon
• Segregauon: coarse aggregaLe Lends Lo segregaLe due
Lo gravlLy. 1yplcal of dry mlxes.
• 8leedlng: waLer rlslng Lo Lhe surface. 1yplcal of weL
• When excesslve, cemenL parucles and waLer go Lo
Lhe surface poroslLy goes up - pasLe can easlly be
abraded --> dusung.
8leedlng and lLs conLrol
• CreaLes problems:
– poor pumpablllLy
– delays ln ñnlshlng
– hlgh w/c aL Lhe Lop
– poor bond beLween
Lwo layers
! causes
! lack of fines
! too much water content
! Remedies
! more fines
! adjust grading
! entrained air
! reduce water content
Alr ConLenL
Larly-Age volume Change
(Larly Cracklng)
lree Shrlnkage,
causes volume change, buL no sLresses
before shrinkage
After Shrinkage
8esLralned Shrlnkage- creaLes sLresses, whlch
may cause cracklng
8esLralned shrlnkage cracklng
Parallel cracking perpendicular
to the direction of shrinkage
Causes of Þlasuc Shrlnkage Cracklng
• waLer evaporaLes fasLer Lhan lL can reach Lhe
Lop surface
• drylng whlle plasuc
• cracklng
Þlasuc Shrlnkage Cracklng-8emedles
• ConLrol Lhe wlnd veloclLy
• reduce Lhe concreLe's LemperaLure
– use lce as mlxlng waLer
• lncrease Lhe humldlLy aL Lhe surface
– fogglng
– cover w/polyeLhylene
– curlng compound
• llber relnforcemenL
• 1he ume needed for Lhe chemlcal reacuon of
porLland cemenL wlLh waLer.
• Clue ls belng made.
• concreLe aûer 14 days of curlng has
compleLed only 40° of lLs poLenual.
• 70 ° aL 28 days.
Curlng ups
• ample waLer
• do noL leL lL dry
• dry concreLe = dead concreLe, all reacuons sLop
• can noL revlLallze concreLe aûer lL drles
• keep LemperaLure aL a moderaLe level
• concreLe wlLh ßyash requlres longer curlng
1emperaLure eñecLs on curlng
• 1he hlgher Lhe LemperaLure Lhe fasLer Lhe curlng
• besL LemperaLure ls room LemperaLure
• sLrongesL concreLe ls made aL LemperaLure around
40 l.(noL pracucal)
• lf concreLe freezes durlng Lhe ñrsL 24 hrs., lL may
never be able Lo aualn lLs orlglnal properues.
1emperaLure eñecLs on curlng
• real hlgh LemperaLures above 120 l can cause
serlous damage slnce cemenL may seL Loo fasL.
• acceleraLed curlng procedures produce sLrong
concreLe, buL durablllLy mlghL suñer.
• auLoclave curlng.