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Standardization is the process of determining the exact concentration (molarity) of a solution.

Primary Standard A primary standard is a reagent that is extremely pure, stable, it not a
hydrate/has no water of hydration, and has a high molecular weight.
Primary standards are typically used in titrations and other analysis techniques as standardization
solutions. Examples: Sodium chloride (NaCl) is used as a primary standard for silver nitrate (AgNO3)
Secondary standard is a solution that is not stable in its own form, and must first be standardized
before being used. A good example of this is NaOH
Titration is one type of analytical procedure often used in standardization. In a titration, an exact
volume of one substance is reacted with a known amount of another substance.
Titration is the slow addition of one solution of a known concentration (called a titrant) to a known
volume of another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction reaches neutralization, which is
often indicated by a color change. The solution called the titrant must satisfy the necessary requirements
to be a primary or secondary standard.
The point at which the reaction is complete in a titration is referred to as the endpoint.
Equivalence point, or stoichiometric point, of a chemical reaction is the point at which an
added titrant is stoichiometrically equal to the number of moles of substance (known as analyte) present
in the sample.
Acid-Base Equivalence Point - the point at which chemically equivalent quantities of acid and base have
been mixed, can be found as follows:
 pH indicator - by the help of change in pH
 Conductance - by the help of change in EMF
 Color change - if the product produces colored compounds
 Precipitation - if the resultant product produces ppt.
 Thermometric titrimetry - by the change in temperature
 Spectroscopy - b the help of spectrophotometer
Stoichiometric amount or stoichiometric ratio
It is the optimum amount or ratio where, the entire reagent is consumed. There is no deficiency of the
reagent. There is no excess of the reagent.

Acid-Base Titration Reactions
Titration of acid/base reactions involve the process of neutralization in order to determine an unknown
concentration. Acid-Base titrations can be made up of both strong and weak acids or bases. However, in
order to determine the unknown concentration of an acid or base, you must add the opposite so that
neutralization can be reached.
Redox (Oxidizing-Reduction) Titrations
Another type of titration is the Redox, or Oxidizing-Reducing Titration, which is used to determine the
oxidizing or reducing agent in a solution. When performing redox titrations, either the reducing or
oxidizing agent will be used as the titrant against the other agent. The end point of such titrations can be
determined by either a color changing indicator or potentiometer.
Back titration
Back titration is a titration done in reverse; instead of titrating the original sample, a known excess of
standard reagent is added to the solution, and the excess is titrated. A back titration is useful if the
endpoint of the reverse titration is easier to identify than the endpoint of the normal titration, as with
precipitation reactions. Back titrations are also useful if the reaction between the analyte and the titrant
is very slow, or when the analyte is in a non-soluble solid
A chemical substance known as an indicator is used to indicate (signal) the endpoint. The indicator used
in this experiment is phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein, an organic compound, is colorless in acidic
solution and pink in basic solution.
Titer factor: The least amount or volume needed to give a desired result in titration.
Advantages of titration
• Titration is an established analytical technique
• It is fast
• It is a very accurate and precise technique
• A high degree of automation can be implemented
• Titration offers a good price/performance ratio compared to more sophisticated techniques
• It can be used by low-skilled and low-trained operators
• No need for highly specialised chemical knowledge
• Organic Chemistry, Clayden, J., Warren, Oxford University Press
• Basics of titration by Mattler Toledo
Uses of calcium carbonate
1. Calcium carbonate is widely used medicinally as an inexpensive dietary calcium supplement or
gastric antacid
2. It may be used as a phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (primarily in
patients with chronic renal failure).
3. Calcium carbonate is used in the production of toothpaste
4. Used as an acidity regulator, anticaking agent, stabiliser or colour it is approved for usage in the
EU, USA and Australia and New Zealand.
5. It is used in some soy milk and almond milk products as a source of dietary calcium
6. Calcium carbonate is also used as a firming agent in many canned or bottled vegetable products.