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Francisco, Mark Paul N.

BSeD- II / PED210-A
Aug. 29 2013


1. Identify the different theory of intelligence that influences individual differences.

A. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence by Sternberg.
This theory points to three major components of intelligent behavior:
information processing skills; experience with a given task or situation; and ability to
adjust one’s behavior to the demands of a context. Information-processing skills are
required to encode, combine, and compare varying kinds of information. Experience of
an individual can atomize information over repeated experiences in doing a task. A
performance of one who experienced doing a particular task for years than one who has
not has a relative difference in intelligence. Context accepts the view that people
function according to different situations and try to adapt to the demands of a situation
by selecting and shaping other situations as necessary to meet their own needs.
Sternberg has developed a theory of successful intelligence as an extension of his
triarchic theory. It states that a man can mold, shape environment to meet his needs
as well as that of society through:
 Analytical abilities- refer to the power to apply logical reasoning to arrive at the best
answer to a question.
 Creative abilities- involve imagining and devising new ways of addressing issues and
concerns including present demands.
 Practical abilities- involve the use of tacit knowledge or common sense. These are
day to day activities people used in the process of social and professional interaction
within the family and in the work place.

B. The Gender Schema Theory
This theory of Sandra Bem has evolved from the social learning approach and is a
variation of the cognitive development theory.
The organized information revolves around what the society defines and classifies in
terms of accepted behavior patterns and individual differences and the principle of
gender.
Better known as society’s genders schema wherein children develop a self-concept,
adapting for themselves the society’s notion of male and female.


C. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner The exponent of the theory of multiple intelligences, opines that human
beings have seven kinds of intelligences. After 1999, he added a new intelligence which he
called as naturalist intelligence. He claimed that the number of intelligences can even be
greater than eight and possibly be nine which he called spiritually or existential intelligence. In
his initial list, three types of intelligence, linguistic, logical-mathematical, and spatial are similar
to the kinds of abilities assessed in traditional intelligence tests. The remaining types have been
much less widely studied, yet according to Gardner, they are equally important to human
functioning.



• 8 multiple intelligences

1. Linguistic- There are people who are proficient in the use of language, can speak
and write, and possess knowledge about grammar and therefore are better off in
oral and written communication.
2. Logical-Mathematical - Facility with numbers and logical problem solving.
Logical-mathematical intelligence affords individuals to learn the science of numbers
more easily and come up with logical solutions to different problems.
3. Visual-Spatial – Ability to appreciate works of art like paintings and sculptures.
4. Bodily Kinesthetic – the ability to move in a coordinated way usually common
among athletes and those involved in athletics.
5. Musical – The ability to appreciate and produce music. This intelligence is seen
among musicians, singers, composer, and conductors who have an eye for music.
6. Interpersonal – Sensitivity to the behavior, moods, and needs of others. People
who have this intelligence are called “Helping” professionals.” Example are
counselors, social workers, ministers, and the like.
7. Intrapersonal – The ability to understand oneself. This intelligence is manifested
by people who are able to identify their strengths and they are good at choosing
their goals in life.
8. Naturalist – The ability to be attached to the natural worlds, being able to
discriminate between the flora and fauna, patterns and designs of human artifacts.


• Jensen proposes two types of learning
Associative learning (Level 1 learning) involves short term memory, rote learning,
attention, and simple associative skills. For example, a set of objects is presented to
a childlike number series and then the child is asked to recall them.
Cognitive learning (Level 2 learning) a child as he moves on to a higher level of
learning can engage in abstract thinking, analyzing symbols, learn concepts, and
even use language in problem solving.


2. Define the following:
a. Analytical- refers to the power apply logical reasoning to arrive at the best answer
to a question.
b. Creativity- involving imagining and devising new ways of addressing issues and
concerns including present demands.
c. Intelligence- is a complex topic. An overview of some of this complexity is provided
in Hunt (1995). Howard Gardner, David Perkins, and Robert Sternberg have all been
quite successful in helping spread knowledge about the meaning of "intelligence"
and applications of this knowledge to education.
d. Psychometric approach-
e. Factors Analyzing and General Intelligence-

3. Describe the factors which affect modern development.

A. Universal Changes. Are changed all individuals undergo as biological organism. We
all go the processes of growth and maturation as we age.
Some changes are universal arising from shared experience that eventually serve as
shared patterns of normal experience like the right time to marry; right time to
enter into a serious relationship, and the right time to live an independent life.
Age norms can lead to ageism, a set of prejudicial attitudes about older adults,
analogues to sexism and racism.
B. Group-Specific Changes. Group specific changes are changes manifested and
observed from members growing up together in a particular group and hence
influenced heavily by the dominant culture. This includes a system of meaning,
customs, language, values, attitudes, traits, laws, beliefs, moral guidelines, and
physical artifacts like tools, works of art, and dwellings.
C. Individual Changes. These are changes typical of particular individuals and which
result from unique, unshared events. Every individual is unique, a product of a
unique combination of genes which sets him apart from anyone.
This is attributed to genetic differences.

Reference:
Acero, V.O., Castro, H.O. and Javier, E.S. (2008). Child and Adolescents Development. First
Edition. Sampaloc, Manila: Rex Book Store, Inc.