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FOR EARTHING OF POWER SUPPLY INSTALLATIONS FOR 25kV, ac, 50Hz

,
SINGLE PHASE TRACTION SYSTEM
(Thi i a !"#!$%&c'i$( $) R*SO+ CO*E N$, ET-.PSI.-20 (2./-0 0
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1.1 This code of practice caters for general arrangements of system and
equipment earthing at 220/ 25 kV or 132/25 kV or 110/25 kV or 66/25 kV
traction sustations! 25 kV s"itching stations! ooster transformer stations and
au#iliary transformer stations. $o" %oltage &$T' electrical po"er distriution
system! 25 kV o%erhead equipment system as "ell as signal and tele(
communication equipment do not come "ithin the pur%ie" of this code.
2, T"!1i($2$34
2.0 The follo"ing terms "here%er occurring in this code shall! unless e#cluded or
repugnant to the conte#t! ha%e the meaning attriuted thereto as follo"s)(
2.1 *omined +arth ,esistance ) The resistance of an earth electrode &s' "ith
respect to earth! "ith the earth electrode &s' connected to the metal "ork of
electrical equipment other than parts "hich are normally li%e or carry current and
the masts/structures ut "ithout connection "ith the traction rail &s'.
2.2 +arth) The conducti%e mass of the earth! "hose electrical potential at any
point is con%entionally taken as -ero.
2.3 +arth electrode) . conductor mild steel &/0' pipe! or group of conductors in
intimate contact "ith and pro%iding an electrical connection to earth.
2.1 +arthing grid) . system of a numer of interconnected! hori-ontal are
conductors uried in the earth! pro%iding a common ground for electrical de%ices
and metallic structures! usually in one specific location.
2.5 +quipment earthing) +arthing of all metal "ork of electrical equipment other
than parts "hich are normally li%e or current carrying. This is done to ensure
effecti%e operation of the protecti%e gear in the e%ent of leakage through such
metal "ork! the potential of "hich "ith respect to neighouring o2ects may
attain a %alue "hich "ould cause danger to life or risk of fire.
2.6 /esh Voltage &+ mesh') The ma#imum touch %oltage to e found "ithin a
mesh of an earthing grid.
2.3 4o"er supply installation) The electrical equipments and associated structures
pro%ided at a ,ail"ay Traction 0ustation or 0"itching 0tation! or 5ooster/
.u#iliary transformer 0tation on the 25 kV o%er head equipment.
2.6 0ystem earthing) +arthing done to limit the potential of li%e conductors "ith
respect to earth to %alues "hich the insulation of the system is designed to
"ithstand and thus to ensure the security of the system.
2.7 0tep Voltage &+ step') The potential difference et"een t"o points on the
earth8s surface separated y a distance of one pace! that "ill e assumed to e
one metre in the direction of ma#imum potential gradient.
2.10 Traction ,ail means a non track circuited rail of a "ired track! not required
for signalling purposes and "hich may e earthed. 9n non(track circuited sections!
oth the rails of a "ired track are traction rails and in single rail circuited section!
the traction rail is the non(track circuited rail.
2.11 Touch Voltage &+ touch') The potential difference et"een a grounded
metallic structure and a point on the earth8s surface separated y a distance
equal to the normal ma#imum hori-ontal reach of a person! appro#imately one
metre.
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The o2ect of an earthing system is to pro%ide as nearly as possile a surface
under and around a station "hich shall e at a uniform potential and as nearly
-ero or asolute earth potential as possile. The purpose is to ensure that
generally all parts of the equipment! other than li%e parts are at earth potential
and that attending personnel are at earth potential at all times. .lso y pro%iding
such an earth surface of uniform potential under and surrounding the station!
there can e#ist no difference of potential in a short distance ig enough to shock
or in2ure an attendant "hen short circuits or other anormal occurrences take
place. The primary requirements of a good earthing system are)
i' 9t should staili-e circuit potentials "ith respect to ground and limit the o%erall
potential rise.
ii' 9t should protect men and materials from in2ury or damage due to o%er
%oltage.
iii' 9t should pro%ide lo" impedance path to fault current to ensure prompt and
consistent operation of protecti%e de%ices during ground faults.
i%' 9t should keep the ma#imum %oltage gradient along the surface inside and
around the sustation "ithin safe limits during earth faults.
8, G$9"!(i(3 S#"ci)ica'i$(
.ssistance has een taken from the follo"ing standards/ codes of practices in the
preparation of this code of practice)
i' 90)3013(1763 ( *ode of 4ractice for +arthing &first re%ision'
ii' 9ndian +lectricity ,ules ( 1756 &latest edition'
iii' :ational +lectrical *ode ( 1765 of 5ureau of 9ndian 0tandards
i%' 9+++ ;uide for safety in a. c. sustation grounding. :o. .:09/9+++ 0tandard
60(1766.
5, Ea!'h R"i'a(c"
.t each po"er supply installation! an earthing system as specified in this code
shall e pro%ided. The comined resistance of the earthing system shall e not
more than the follo"ing %alues) (
S,
N$,
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"a!'h !"i'a(c" i(
$h1
1. Traction sustation 0.5
2. 0"itching station 2.0
3. 5ooster transformer station 10.0
1. .u#iliary transformer station 10.0
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6.1 The earth electrode shall normally e of mild steel gal%anised perforated pipe
of not less than 10 mm nominal ore! of aout 1 m length pro%ided "ith a spike
at one end and "elded lug suitale for taking directly /0 flat of required si-e at
the other end. The pipe shall e emedded as far as possile %ertically into the
ground! e#cept "hen hard rock is encountered! "here it may e urled inclined to
the %ertical! the inclination eing limited to 30 degree from the %ertical. The
connection of /0 flat to each electrode shall e made through /0 links y olted
2oints to enale isolation of the electrode for testing purposes. . sketch for typical
arrangement of an earth electrode is sho"n in <igure 3.01.
6.2 +arth electrodes shall e emedded as far apart as possile from each other.
/utual separation et"een them shall usually e not less than 6.0 m & "hich is
t"ice the length of the electrode'.
6.3 9f the %alue of earth resistance specified in clause 5 can not e achie%ed "ith
a reasonale numer of electrodes connected in parallel such as 9n rocky soil or
soil of high resisti%ity! the earth surrounding he electrodes shall e chemically
treated. The earth electrode shall e surrounded in an earth(pit y alternate
layers of finely di%ided coke! crushed coal or charcoal and salt at least 150 mm
all(round. Though sustantial reduction in earth resistance can e achie%ed y
coke treated electrode! yet as this method results in rapid corrosion not only of
electrode! ut also of steel frame "ork to "hich it is onded! stoke treatment
shall e used only "here asolutely necessary and such electrodes shall not e
situated "ithin 6.0 m of other metal "ork.
6.1 9n high emankments! it may e difficult to achie%e earth resistance specified
in clause 5 e%en after chemical treatment of electrodes. 9n those locations! use of
electrodes longer than 1 m so as to reach she parent soil is recommended.
6.5 .s far as possile! earth electrodes for traction su(stations/ s"itching
stations shall e installed "ithin and ad2acent to perimeter fence. .t large sites!
apart from securing a sufficiently lo" resistance and adequate current carrying
capacity a reasonale distriution of electrodes is also necessary.
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3.1 +arthing grid.
3.1.1 .n earthing grid is formed y means of are mild steel rod of appropriate
si-e as indicated in clause 3.1.2 uried at a depth of aout 600 mm elo" the
ground le%el and connected to earth electrodes. The connection et"een the
earth electrode and the grid shall e y means of t"o separate and distinct
connections made "ith 35 mm # 6 mm /0 flat. The connection et"een the /0
flat and the /0 rod shall e made y "elding! "hile that et"een the earth
electrode and the /0 flats through /0 links y olted 2oints. The earth electrodes
shall e pro%ided at the outer periphery of the grid as sho"n in <ig.2. .s far as
possile the earthing grid conductors shall not pass through the foundation lock
of the equipments. .ll crossings et"een longitudinal conductors and trans%erse
conductors shall e 2ointed y "elding. The trans%erse and longitudinal
conductors of the earthing grid shall e suitaly spaced so as to keep(the step
and touch potentials "ithin acceptale limits= the. o%erall length of the earthing
grid conductors shall not e less than the calculated length &refer .nne#ure( 9'.
FIG, A 5,0-
3.1.2 The si-e of the earthing grid conductor shall e decided ased on the
incoming system %oltage and fault le%el &refer .nne#ure 9'. The fault le%el
considered shall take into) account the anticipated increase in fault current during
the life span of the station. The si-e shall e as gi%en elo")
0.:o
0ystem %oltage
&kV'
<ault le%el &/V.'
>iameter of the
grid conductor
&/0 rod' in mm
1. 66
upto 1000 32
ao%e 1000 upto 5000 36
ao%e 5000 upto 6000 10
2. 110
upto 6000 32
ao%e 6000 upto 6000 36
ao%e 6000 upto 10000 10
3. 132
upto 3000 32
ao%e 3000 upto 10000 36
1. 220
upto 12000 32
ao%e 12000 upto 16000 36
ao%e 16000 upto 20000 10
3.2 5uried rail.
3.2.1 . steel rail of section 52 kg/m &the one used for the rail"ay track' and
length aout 13 m shall e uried near the track at the traction sustation at a
depth of aout one metre to form part of the earthing system. T"o separate and
distinct connections shall e made y means of 35 mm ? 6 mm /0 flat et"een
the earthing grid and the uried rail. The uried rail shall also e connected y
means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith 35 mm ? 6 mm /0
flat to the traction rail&s' in a single(rail track circuited section and to the neutral
point&s' of the impedance ond&s' in a doule(rail track circuited section.
3.2.2 9n cases "here the feeding post is located separately a"ay from the
traction sustation! the uried rail shall e pro%ided at the feeding post &"here
one terminal of the secondary "inding of the traction po"er transformer of the
sustation is grounded'.
3.3 0ystem earthing.
3.3.1 @ne terminal of the secondary "inding &25 kV "inding' of each traction
po"er transformer shall e earthed directly y connecting it to the earthing grid
y means of one 35 mm # 6 mm /0 flat! and to the uried rail y means of
another 35 mm # 6 mm /0 flat.
3.3.2 @ne designated terminal of the secondary of each potential! current and
au#iliary transformer shall e connected to the earthing grid y means of t"o
separate and distinct earth connections made "ith 50 mm # 6mm /0 flat.
3.1 +quipment earthing.
The metallic frame "ork of all outdoor equipments such as transformers! circuit
reakers! interrupters and isolators! as "ell as steel structures shall e connected
to the earthing grid y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith
/0 flat of si-e as indicated elo"= one connection shall e
FIG, A 5,02
made "ith the nearest longitudinal conductor! "hile the other shall e made to
the nearest trans%erse conductor of the grid)
3.5 +arthing inside control room.
.n earthing ring shall e pro%ided inside the control room y means of 50 mm # 6
mm /0 flat "hich shall e run along the "all on teak "ood locks fi#ed to the
"all at a height of aout 300 mm from the floor le%el. The earthing ring shall e
connected to the main earthing grid y means of t"o separate and distinct
connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat. The earthing ring shall also e
connected to an independent earth electrode y means of t"o separate and
distinct connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat. The metallic frame"ork of
control and relay panels! $T a.c. and d.c. distriution oards! attery chargers!
remote control equipment cainets and such other equipments shall e connected
to the earthing ring y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith
6 0A; gal%anised steel "ire. The connections shall e taken along the "all and in
recesses in the floor. .ll recesses shall e co%ered "ith cement plaster after
finishing the "ork. *onnections et"een the /0 flats shall e made y "elding.
3.6 +arthing of lightning arrester.
9n addition to the earth electrodes pro%ided for the main earthing grid! an
independent earth electrode shall e pro%ided for each lightning arrester. This
earth electrode shall e connected to the ground terminal of the lightning arrester
as "ell as to the main earthing grid y means of t"o separate and distinct
connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat for the 25 kV side lightning
arresters! and "ith 35 mm # 6 mm /0 flat for the primary side lightning
arresters. The earth electrode shall e pro%ided as close as possile to the
lightning arrester and the connections shall e as short and straight as possile
a%oiding unnecessary ends. <or lightning arresters pro%ided for the traction
po"er transformers! there shall also e a connection as direct as possile from
the ground terminal of the lightning arrester to the frame of the transformer
eing protected= this connection shall also e made y means of t"o separate
and distinct connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat for 25 kV side
arresters! and "ith 35 mm # 6 mm /0 flat for primary side lightning arrester.
3.3 +arth screen
The area co%ered y outdoor sustation equipments shall e shielded against
direct strokes of lightning y an o%erhead earth screen comprising 17/2.5 mm
gal%anised steel stranded "ire strung across the pinnacles of the metallic
structures. The earth screen "ires shall e strung at a height as indicated in the
appro%ed traction sustation layouts &not less than 2.5 m ao%e the li%e
conductors' and shall e solidly connected to the traction sustation earthing grid
at each termination y means of 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat.
3. 6 +arthing of fencing uprights and panels.
+ach metallic fencing upright shall e connected to the traction sustation main
earthing grid y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith 50
mm # 6 mm /0 flat. 9n addition! all the metallic fencing panels shall e connected
to the uprights y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith 6
0A; ;.9. "ire. .ll the metallic door panels shall also e connected to the
supporting uprights y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith
6 0A; ;.9."ire.
3.7 +arthing at the point of 210 V ac 50 B- supply for oil filtration plant.
The 210 V ac 50 B- distriution oard for po"er supply to oil filtration plant shall
e connected to the main earthing grid y means of t"o separate and distinct
connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat.
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6.1 . minimum numer of three earth electrodes &e#cluding the one to e
pro%ided separately for the remote control cuicle earthing( refer clause 6.1' shall
e pro%ided at each s"itching station! and they shall e interconnected y means
of 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat forming a closed loop main earthing ring. This ring shall
e connected y t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm
/0 flat! to the traction rail in a single(rail track circuited section and to the
neutral point of the impedance ond in a doule(rail track circuited section of the
nearest track! so as to limit the potential gradient de%eloping in the %icinity of the
s"itching station in the e%ent of a fault.
6.2 0ystem earthing.
@ne designated terminal of the secondary of each potential! current and au#iliary
transformer shall e connected to the main earthing ring y means of t"o
separate and distinct connections made "ith 50 mm # 6mm /0 flat.
6.3 +quipment earthing.
6.3.1 .ll masts! structures! fencing uprights! and all outdoor equipment pedestals
including au#iliary transformer tank shall e connected to the earthing ring y
means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0
flat. .ll fencing panels shall e connected to the supporting uprights y means of
t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith 6 0A; ;.9. "ire .ll the metallic
door panels shall e connected to the supporting uprights y means of t"o
separate and distinct connections made "ith 6 0A; ;.9. "ire.
6.3.2 The metal casing of potential and current transformers shall e connected
to the mast/ structures y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made
"ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat.
6.3.3 The ground terminal of lightning arrester shall e connected directly to the
earth electrode y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith 50
mm # 6 mm /0 flat The earth electrode shall e so placed that the earthing leads
from the lightning arrester may e rought to the earth electrode y as short and
straight a path as possile.
6.1 +arthing inside remote control cuicle.
.n earthing ring shall e pro%ided inside the remote control cuicle y means of
50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat the earthing ring shall e run along the "all on teak "ood
locks fi#ed to the "all at a height of 300 mm from the floor le%el. The earthing
ring shall e connected to the main earthing ring as "ell as to an independent
earth electrode y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith 50
mm # 6 mm /0 flat. The metal casing of $T a.c. and d.c. distriution oard!
attery chargers! terminal oard! remote control equipment cainets and other
such equipments shall e connected to the earthing ring y means of t"o
separate and distinct connections made "ith 6 0A; ;.9. "ire. The connections
shall e taken along the "all and in recesses in the floor. .ll recesses shall e
co%ered "ith cement plaster after finishing the "ork. *onnections of earth strips
to each other shall e made y "elding.
/, Ea!'hi(3 $) N"&'!a2 $) L$ca2 P$="! S&##24 S4'"1
.t traction sustations and s"itching stations "here po"er supply at 115 V/ 210
V! ac! 50 B-! is taken from the local supply authority and ha%ing neutral earth at
some distant point in the premises of the supply authority! the neutral of such
supply shall also e earthed y means of t"o separate and distinct connections
made "ith 6 0A; ;.9. "ire y connecting to an independent earth electrode.
-0, Ea!'hi(3 A!!a(3"1"(' a' >$$'"! T!a()$!1"! S'a'i$(
10.1 The comined earth resistancef at a ooster transformer station shall e not
more than 10 @hm. :ormally one earth electrode shall e sufficient for a ooster
transformer station. The earth electrode shall e connected to the lo"er end of
each mast of the supporting gantry y means of t"o separate and distinct
connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat. 9n addition each mast of the
supporting gantry shall e connected y means of a 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat to the
nearest tractional rail or to the neutral point of the nearest impedance ond in a
doule rail track circuited section.
10.2 The ooster transformer tank shall e connected to the masts of the
supporting gantry y means of t"o separate and distinct connections made "ith
50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat. These connections shall e as short and as straight as
possile "ithout unnecessary ends.
--, Ea!'hi(3 A!!a(3"1"(' a' A&?i2ia!4 T!a()$!1"! S'a'i$(
11.1 The comined earth resistance at an au#iliary transformer station shall e
not more than 10 ohm. :ormally one earth electrode is sufficient for an au#iliary
transformer station. The earth electrode shall e connected to the mast on "hich
the au#iliary transformer is mounted y means of t"o separate and distinct
connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 ram /0 flat. 9n addition the mast shall e
connected to the nearest traction rail or to the neutral point of the nearest
impedance ond in a doule rail track circuited section y means of a 50 mm # 6
mm /0 flat.
11.2 The earthing terminal on the transformer tank shall e connected to the
mast on "hich the transformer is mounted y means of t"o separate and distinct
connections made "ith 50 mm # 6 mm /0 flat @ne terminal of the secondary
"inding of the au#iliary transformer shall e connected to the earthing terminal
on the transformer tank and as "ell as to the mast y means of 50 mm # 6 mm
/0 flat These connections shall e as short and straight as possile and a%oiding
unnecessary ends.
-2, M"'h$% $) 7$i('i(3
.ll the 2oints et"een the /0 flats! /0 rods or et"een /0 flat and /0 rod shall
e made y "elding only :o soldering shall e permitted. <or protection against
corrosion! all the "elded 2oints shall e treated "ith red lead and after"ards
thickly coated "ith itumen compound.
-5, Pai('i(3 $) MS F2a'
<or protection against corrosion! all the e#posed surfaces of earthing connections
&/0 flats' ao%e ground le%el shall e gi%en all around t"o coats of painting to
colour grass green! shade(216 of 90)5.
-8, C!&h"% R$ck S&!)ac" La4"!
.t the traction sustations and s"itching stations! a surface layer of crushed rock
shall e pro%ided to a thickness of aout 100 mm. 9f considered necessary from
the point of %ie" of containing the step and touch %oltages "ithin the acceptale
limits! higher thicknesses may e pro%ided depending on calculation ased on site
conditions.
-5, S'"# a(% T$&ch V$2'a3"
15.1 The formulae for calculating the tolerale touch and step %oltages! estimated
mesh and step %oltages! earth resistance! earth potential rise! si-e of earthing
grid conductor and length of uried grid conductor are gi%en in .nne#ure(9.
15.2 The design for earthing grid shall e done separately for each location
depending on the conditions otaining and those foreseen.
-:, *!a=i(3
The follo"ing dra"ings &latest %ersions' issued y ,>0@ in connection "ith this
code may e used for reference)
i'
Typical earthing layout of traction
sustation.
+T1/409/221(1
ii'
Typical return current connection of uried
rail at traction sustation.
+T9/409/0212(1
iii'
Typical earthing layout of susectioning
and paralleling station.
+T1/409/201(1
i%'
Typical earthing layout of sectioning and
paralleling station.
+T9/409/202(1
%'
Typical earthing layout of ooster
transformer station.
+T9/40)/211(1
%i'
Typical arrangement of an earth electrode
at a traction sustation.
+T1/409/222(1
%ii'
Typical earthing arrangement for an
au#iliary transformer station
+T9/401/306
ANNE@URE -
FORMULAE FOR CALCULATION OF EARTHING GRI* >ASE* ON IEEE
GUI*E FOR SAFETY IN AC SU>STATION GROUN*ING, N$, ANSI.IEEE S'%
<0A-/<:
FIG, A5,05
ANNE@URE 2
SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR THE *ESIGN OF EARTHING MAT FOR A
-52.25kV
TRACTION SU>STATION
-,0 *a'a a&1"% )$! ca2c&2a'i$(B