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INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION

Clastic Core Workshop, October 1993


THE DEEP MAFUNE SAND FACES OF THE NGRAYONG FORMATION IN THE
TUBAN BLOCK, EAST JAVA BASIN
Wayan Ardhana*
Peter Lunt**
Gerry E. Burgon* * *
The quartz sands of the early Middle Miocene
Ngrayong Formation are the most productive reservoir
in the onshore East J ava Basin. In the complex of
fields in the vicinity of Cepu, such as the Kawengan
Field, and well known outcrops to the north and west,
this formation is present as thickly bedded, commonly
medium-grained, cross-bedded sandstones.
The J oint Operating Body Pertamina - Trend. Tuban
(P-TT) drilled three wells on pod-like seismic
anomalies in an area further south than any known
Ngrayong sands. These features were-correlated as
being equivalent in age to the Ngrayong Formation,
and were hoped to be sand-rich fans or related
sedimentary systems. Cores taken from early Middle
Miocene sections in these wells (Ngasin-1, Gondang-1
and Grigis Barat-1) contained much finer grained
clastics than expected. Grain sizes are typically silt to
fine sand, although some medium-grained quartz is
recorded in some beds.
Palaeontology conclusively places all these cores in a
very deep marine, probably fully bathyal depositional
setting. These sediments are very thinly bedded and
locally have good flow characteristics. The Ngasin-1
well kicked and flowed salt water from a sandstone at
TD at an estimated rate of 2,000 barrels of fluid a day.
The Gondang-1 well tested 538 BOPD from a 25 foot
thick sandy pelagic carbonate. Two cores, totaling 40
feet, from the Grigis Barat-1 well, have porosities of
8.2 to 37.6 percent and permeabilities of up to 193
millidarcies.
The sedimentary facies represented by these cores
appears to be part of a single depositional system even
though the wells drilled different seismic pods. The
chief differences between the cores are the amount of
bioturbation, and variations in the proportions of clay,
silt and sand grains. There are apparently no
significant differences in the clastic components or
depositional processes involved. Detailed
* Union Texas (S.E.A.) Inc.
** Rocktech
***
JOB Pertamina - Santa Fe Tuban
sedimentological studies suggest that although the
clastics required an initial process to originally bring
them into the deep marine setting, the dominant
depositional system involved was controlled by currents
on the deep sea floor, that is, a contourite type process.
The Grigis Barat-1 section appears to have some
features indicative of a distal turbidite with apparently
less modification by bottom currents.
The proof of productive quartz sands in the central and
southern part of the J OB Tuban Block, south of the
previously interpreted southern limit of the Ngrayong
sands, has important implications for exploration in
East J ava, and possibly elsewhere. A more detailed
understanding of the unusual sedimentary facies is
needed to develop play types and predict their
characteristics. Such a detailed study has been
undertaken by J OB geologists and appears to
successfully incorporate the facies seen in existing
fields and outcrops. Success in deep marine sandstone
plays of East J ava may spur efforts to locate similar
plays in other Indonesian basins.
INTRODUCTION
The East J ava Basin covers an area of approximately
50,000 square kilometers over the eastern part of
Central J ava, East J ava and Madura as well as the
adjoining East J ava Sea and Madura Straits (Figure 1).
The Tuban Block which lies in the southern half of the
East J ava Basin originally covered an area of 7,391
square kilometers and the first statutory relinquishment
of 25 % has reduced the Block to its present 5,534
square kilometers.
Early hydrocarbon exploration in the onshore part of
the basin by various Dutch companies resulted in the
discovery of thirty oil fields which produced a
cumulative 200 MMBO from Miocene and younger
sediments (Figure 2). By far the most prolific reservoir
were the Ngrayong sandstones in the Kawengan,
Nglobo, Semanggi and Ledok Fields which have
produced an estimated 150 MMBO; 75% of basin
production.
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The Ngrayong sandstone is extensively exposed along
what is now the northern part of East J ava and Madura
(Figure 3). The sandstone is clean, quartzose,
commonly fine- to medium-grained, well sorted and
frequently cross-bedded.
Dutch workers realized that the Ngrayong sandstones
were fully marine deposits and undoubtedly contain
bathyal indicative fauna in certain Kawengan Field
wells (Bouwens, 193 8). However, southern exploration
wells (Bojonegoro-I, Pegat-2, Gunung Anyar-1,
Gogor-21 and Lidah Kulon-106) failed to locate
Ngrayong sandstones, and later workers interpreted the
sequence as an exclusively shallow-marine shoreface
deposit (Brouwer, 1957 - Figure 4). This interpretation
has been largely accepted by subsequent workers, partly
because the smaller benthic faunal evidence is sparse in
the very sandy facies and the sedimentary structures in
outcrop do have good shallow marine analogies.
The results of the J OB Pertamina-Trend Tuban
fieldwork program in 1989 (J OB P-TT, 1990), showed
that the Ngrayong sequence in the Tuban Block and
Madura was deposited in water depths ranging from a
minimum of about 300 feet to several thousands of
feet. This suggested that significant volumes of
quartzose turbidite sandstones would be present in the
central and southern areas of the block.
This was the impetus behind the drilling of Ngasin-1,
Gondang-1 and Grigis Barat-I in the east of the Tuban
Block during 1990/1991. Seismic data in the general
area of the wells exhibit a series of "pod" anomalies
which were interpreted as a series of sand-rich
submarine fans.
The results of these wells were disappointing in that the
anticipated thick, clean sandstones evident in outcrop
to the north were absent and lithologies were mainly
silty to finely sandy claystones with only thin
sandstones and limestones.
The wells did prove that the whole Ngrayong sequence
intersected was deposited in fully bathyal conditions.
However, although displaced terrigenous shelf material
in the form of quartz sand, carbonaceous debris and
mica is present in significant amounts, the cores show
virtually none of the features associated with turbiditie
processes. It was apparent that the initial J OB P-TT
concepts regarding the deposition and distribution of
sandy Ngrayong facies had been much over-simplified.
A recent, more detailed, study has subsequently been
undertaken by the J OB Pertamina - Trend Tuban
(Ardhana, 1993) which cokprehensively covers the
complex internal facies variations of the Ngrayong
sequence in relation to palaeogeography and
depositional setting.
The results of the study show that the Ngrayong
Formation exhibits complex internal facies variation,
being the product of a wide variety of depositional
environments and a number of sedimentary processes.
Generally, tidally generated cross-bedded quartzose
sandstones capped by sandy bioclastic limestones
(locally becoming reefal) developed on the shelf and
upper slope in the north and northwest while turbidites,
contourites and hemipelagic mudstones developed on
the lower slope and in the deep basin to the south.
The main purpose of this paper is to describe the
sedimentary characteristics of five conventional cores
from the Ngrayong Formation in the Gondang- 1,
Ngasin-1 and Grigis Barat-I wells and to interpret the
depositional environments and sedimentary processes.
The cores from Grigis Barat-1 are 11 feet and 29 feet
long and comprise interbedded argillaceous fine to
medium-grained quartzose sandstones and silty
mudstones. From Gondang-1 two cores of 30.4 foot
and 2.2 foot are mostly silty mudstones, and a twenty
foot core from Ngasin-1 comprises inter-laminated
argillaceous fine-grained sandstones, siltstones and
clay stones.
Due to the differing sedimentological interpretations of
the cores, the interpretation offered here is linked with
the regional depositional model proposed by the JOB
P-TT (Ardhana, 1993) which is based on integration of
all available data including palaeontology,
sedimentology, well log characteristics and seismic
facies.
Although all cores appear to exhibit poor reservoir
characteristics, due to the abundance of muds and
extensive bioturbation, the correct interpretation of
depositional environments and sedimentary processes is
very important in providing an understanding of the
palaeogeography and sedimentary facies variations.
This will greatly help predict the distribution of a much
thicker and better reservoir facies in the Ngrayong
sequence in the undrilled part of East J ava Basin where
large reserves of hydrocarbons are ,possibly trapped.
REGIONAL SETTING AND STRATIGRAPHIC
FRAMEWORK
The East J ava Basin is situated on the southeastern
margin of Sundaland. The present day configuration of
the Basin is a back-arc basin which is bounded to the
south by an east-west aligned Neogene volcanic arc.
The basin is filled by more than 20,000 feet of Tertiary
sediments ranging in age from Middle Eocene to
Recent. These sediments unconformably overly older
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meta-sediments and igneous lithologies, which are
considered economic basement.
The J OB Pertamina-Trend Tuban has identified seven
tectonically induced cycles or sequences of
sedimentation within the Tertiary sediments which were
given formational status (Table 1, Figure 5). Each
complete cycle would ideally have a regression
followed by a transgression. This was based on the
belief that a tectonic event that rejuvenates both
sedimentary sources and basins would lead first to a
clastic dominated phase that would fill a basin, causing
an effective shallowing or regression. As the source
becomes increasingly peneplaned the isostatic
readjustment and possibly other external causes would
see the relative sea level rise faster than the
sedimentary supply and a transgression would result.
These cycles are :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5 .
6.
7.
The Ngimbang Formation; mid-Eocene to mid-
Oligocene (c.44 MYBP to 30 MYBP).
The Kujung Formation; mid-Oligocene to mid-
Early Miocene (30 MYBP to c.19 MYBP).
The Tuban Formation; middle to end Early
Miocene (c.19 MYBP to 15 MYBP).
The Ngrayong Formation; basal Middle Miocene
to mid-Middle Miocene (15 MYBP to c.12
MYBP).
The Wonocolo Formation; mid-Middle Miocene to
virtually the end of the Miocene (c. 12 MYBP to
5.5 MYBP).
The Kawengan Formation; latest Miocene and
Pliocene (5.5 MYBP to 2 MYBP).
The Lidah Formation; Pleistocene (2 MYBP) to
Recent.
The early phase of basin development was
characterised by a mid-Eocene or older tensional
tectonic phase producing a series of northeast-southwest
trending basement ridges and half grabens (Figure 6).
These may have been influenced by pre-existing
structural elements, dating back to the Early
Cretaceous.
In the half-grabens, thicker clastics and deeper marine
carbonates of the Ngimbang and Kujung Formations
accumulated. On the ridges, either Ngimbang or
Kujung (or both) reefs commonly developed.
At the end of Kujung Formation deposition, the basin
was divided by an irregular east-west trending shelf
edge which is located approximately along what is now
the northern coast of J ava and Madura, although it
swings southwestwards (onshore) in the vicinity of
Rembang in the west. To the north of the shelf edge an
extensive carbonate platform had developed while deep
water mudstones and thin limestones accumulated over
much of the area to the south, although locally reefal
facies still thrived on the basement ridges.
The Kujung shelf-edge largely controlled the shelf-edge
of the superceding Tuban Formation which is marked
by a relatively thin (less than 1,500 feet) clastic
sequence on the shelf while to the south over 6,000
feet of bathyal shales accumulated and partially filled
the lows.
This was the regional setting immediately prior to the
deposition of the sand-rich Ngrayong Formation. As a
consequence of this setting, shallower marine sand-rich
clastics and carbonates were deposited on the shelf and
upper slope in the north while deep marine turbidites,
hemipelagic mudstones and contourites accumulated on
the lower slope and in the deep basin to the south. The
distribution of sandy turbidites was largely controlled
by palaeo-topography. Coarser clastics were restricted
to the lows while the highs were by-passed by density
currents and were consequently the sites of dominantly
hemipelagic mud deposition.
There appears to be no major tectonic readjustment of
the basin until the latest Miocene or the end of
Wonocolo Formation sedimentation. Regional studies
of the East J ava Basin indicate that there have been at
least four major tectonic movements since the latest
Miocene (J OB. P-TT 1993). These tectonic phases are
near the end of the Miocene, mid Pliocene, end
Pliocene and intra-Pleistocene in age. They are the
cause of the complex and often severe folding and
faulting seen in the onshore East J ava area, which are
expressed as the famous Rembang and Kendeng
physiographic zones of Van Bemmelen (1 949) (Figure
7).
STRATIGRAPHIC DEFTNITION OF THE
NGRAYONG FORMATION
The stratigraphic nomenclature used in East J ava has
varied considerably since the early Dutch work on J ava
and Madura (Figure 8). In the J OB P-TT classification
used in this paper, the Ngrayong sediments include the
interbedded quartzose sandstones, mudstones and thin
limestones and the overlying sandy, bioclastic
limestones (the Platten or Bulu limestones of earlier
workers) as seen in outcrop in the nortwestern part of
the Tuban Block, as well as age equivalent sediments
in the other parts of the basin, regardless of their facies.
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These sediments represent a complete regressive-
transgressive sedimentary cycle which satisfies the
formational term as defined by the J OB P-TT.
LITHOLOGY AND CORE DESClRIPTION
This part of the paper mainly deals with petrographic
and sedimentological descriptions from studies of the
following wells and cored intervals of the Ngrayong
Formation :
WELL ~ CORE CORE TOTAL
# INTERVAL FOOTAGE
Grigis Core 1 3,424'-3,435' 11'
Barat-1 Core 2 3,581'-3,610' 29'
Gondang-1 Core 1 3,097'-3,127.4' 30.4'
Core 2 3,671'-3,673.2' 2.2'
Ngasin- 1 Core 1 3,223'-3,243' 20'
The wells were drilled in the large Grigis Structure in
the eastern part of the Tuban Block. Grigis Barat-I is
situated in the northern part while Ngasin-1 and
Gondang-1 are located in the southern part of the
structure.
Grigis Barat-1 intersected 2,926 feet of Ngrayong
Formation sediments comprising predominantly silty
mudstones and siltstones with limestone streaks and
two thicker sandstone units in the lower part of the
sequence (Figure 9). The cored intervals represent parts
of the two sandstone units, which from the wireline
logs have respective thicknesses of forty feet (3,400 -
3,440 feet) and seventy-six feet (3,560 - 3,636 feet) and
exhibit an overall coarsening-upwards. The sandstones
are separated by 120 feet of silty claystone. Core-1 is
from the lower part of the forty feet sandstone unit .
Core-2 is from the middle part of the seventy-six feet
sandstone unit.
Seismic facies of the sequence shows parallel, weak to
moderately strong continuous reflectors and the cored
sandstones are represented by two stronger, parallel and
continuous reflectors (Figure lo).
Gondang-1 and Ngasin-1 drilled through a seismically
well-defined prograding pod anomaly (Enclosure 1,
Figures 11 & 12). Ngasin-1 is situated in the thicker
part of the pod and intersected it over the interval
2,369 - 3,895 feet (1,526 feet thick) while Gondang-1
is located at the toes of the pod and intersected it over
the interval 3,000 - 4,360 feet (1,360 feet thick).
The lithologies in both wells are similar and comprise
a fine clastic series with limestone intercalations. The
clastics are predominantly silty mudstones but are
locally interbedded and interlaminated with quartzose
siltstones and fine-grained sandstones.
The limestones comprise argillaceous, silty to very
sandy, planktonic foraminifera1 wackestones to
packstones which are commonly less than ten feet
thick, locally up to thirty-five feet. However, a single
130 feet thick limestone unit is present in the upper
part of the sequence at Ngasin-1 (interval 2,370 - 2,500
feet). In Gondang-1, two thicker limestone units,
seventy and sixty feet thick, are present in the lower
part of the sequence (intervals 3,800 - 3,870 feet and
4200 - 4260 feet).
Internally, the pods are composed of weak reflectors
enclosed by strong relatively continuous reflectors at
the tops and bases of the pods. The weak internal
reflectors represent the fine clastic series, while the
strong bounding reflectors represent the limestones.
The conventional cores from both wells were cut from
the clastic series of the pod.
The following core descriptions are based on the
analyses of Cook (1991) for the Grigis Barat-1 and
Ngasin-1 cores and Schiller (1991) for the Gondang-1
cores.
Grigis Bamt-1, COR-1 (3424' - 34353
Fine-grained, argillaceous, bioturbated sandstones
comprise the upper and lower parts of the core
separated by nearly 4 feet of siltstone and silty
claystone (Enclosure 2). The lower sandstone fines
upwards into silty claystone, whereas the base of the
upper unit is sharp and probably scoured.
Biotulbated Sandstones (3424' - 3426.25' and 3430' -
34353
Light grey to brownish grey, fine-grained, extensively
burrowed and containing only discontinuous traces of
original laminations, including possible cross-bedding.
Fining-upward sequences, with probable scoured bases
marked by slight but abrupt changes in grain size,
range in thickness from a few inches to two feet. Small
penecontemporaneous step faults are locally preserved.
Petrographic analyses have shown that the sandstones
are composed principally of quartz grains (35-43%)
(Plates 1A & lB), with subordinate feldspar (1-4%),
chert grains (<l-l%), phosphate (<1-2%) and organic
material (<1-2%). The feldspar grains are mainly
orthoclase, with local occurrences of plagioclase.
Planktonic foraminifera are the principal skeletal grains
and are usually accompanied by rotalids, larger
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foraminifera (in abraded and fragmented states) and
fragments of echinoderms and molluscs. Rare
occurrences of ostracoda and brachiopod spines were
also locally recorded. Phosphate is amorphous,
occurring both as clasts and as a cement, and is
probably an intraformational penecontemporaneous
precipitate which has been reworked. Organic material
occurs as filaments and as a finely divided form
incorporated in the mud matrix.
The proportion of detrital mud was originally in the
order of 40-50% but has often been diagenetically
modified. Illitic clays appear to be dominant but
chlorite is probably also locally incorporated. The
possible existence of swelling clays is implied from the
effect of water on the core in a thin zone at 3426.
Dolomite and calcite are locally abundant as cements
and their distribution is probably due to concretionary
associations. Siderite replaces muds and forms small
nodules. Visible porosity is typically poor due to the
high proportion of matrix and, to a lesser degree,
carbonate cements.
Biotuhated siltstones (3426,25 - 3430)
Medium brownish grey with yellowish grey lenses of
fine sand. Bioturbation has resulted in destruction of
sedimentary structures, with the exception of possible
current ripple cross-lamination in some sand lenses.
Petrographic studies indicate that the siltstones are
generally of similar composition to the sandstones, the
main differences being higher percentages of mud
matrix (50-65%) and planktonic foraminifera (3-6%).
Rotalids and fragments of larger foraminifera, molluscs
and echinoderms are also represented.
Visible porosity is typically low due to the high
percentage of mud. Sand lenses and burrows are often
clean and contain intergranular porosity.
Gngis Barat-1, Cole-2 (3581 - 3610.37)
This core is divisible into two sandstone facies
(Enclosure 2). It is mainly composed of bioturbated,
fine-grained, argillaceous sandstone with a five feet
thick, cleaner slumped unit at the base.
Biotuhated Sandstones (3581 - 3605)
Light brownish grey to greyish brown, mainly fine-
grained sandstones (Plate 2A), becoming fine to
medium near the base. A series of smaller scale fining-
upward sequences can also be recognised, ranging in
thickness from less than a foot to five feet, with sharp
bases and the tops marked by relics of claystone
laminae (Plate 2B). Relict current ripples and, possibly,
cross-bedding are locally preserved but for the most
part sedimentary structures have been destroyed by
intense burrowing. Small intraformational clay clasts
are strewn along some scour surfaces.
Petrographic analyses have determined that quartz (24-
35%) and skeletal grains (6-12%) are the dominant
framework grains. Minor grain types include feldspar
(1-2%), chert (<l-l%), mica (<1-2%), phosphate (<l -
YO), glauconite pellets (<1%) and heavy minerals
(<I%). Organic material (<1-1%) occurs as relatively
coarse fragments and as finely divided form in the
matrix. Altered lithic fragments of possibly volcanic
origin are locally present. Planktonic foraminifera are
the principal skeletal grains and are usually
accompanied by sparse rotalids, echinoderm and
molluscan fragments and abraded larger foraminifera.
Plagioclase and orthoclase are similarly represented in
the feldspar component. Phosphate occurs both as
grains and cement and (as mentioned for core no.1) is
considered to be reworked pepecontemporaneous
precipitate. The abundant mud matrix (14-39%) is of
illitic composition and has been replaced to various
degrees by secondary siderite. Mud occurs in laminae
and interstitially to grains, the latter distribution being
an effect of bioturbation. Calcite cement has
precipitated preferentially in cleaner sandstones. Visible
porosity varies from moderate to good, dependent on
the distribution of detrital mud and secondary clays.
Slumped Sandstones (3605 - 3610.37)
Light yellowish grey, fine to medium-grained
sandstones (Plates 3A, 3B, 4A & 4B) which are
probably cross-bedded, although the latter has been
deformed by penecontemporaneous slumping.
These sandstones are cleaner, better sorted and less
bioturbated than those above. The principal framework
grains are quartz (40-48%) and skeletal grains (8-12%),
the latter being dominated by planktonic foraminifera,
with locally common larger foraminifera and rotalids,
and rare agglutinated foraminifera and molluscan
fragments (Plate 7B). Minor grain types include
orthoclase (1-3%), chert (<l-l%),mica (<1-2%), heavy
minerals (<1%), phosphate (~ XO), glauconite (<1-1%)
and claystone intraclasts (<1-1%). Organic material (1 -
3%) is sparsely distributed as filaments and as a finely
divided form in the matrix. Detrital mud (13-23%),
occurring as laminae and interstitial matrix, appears to
be a combination of illite and chlorite. Mud distribution
is controlled by bioturbation, which in a relative sense
has been slight to moderate. Burrows are infilled by
fine sand and frequently contain intergranular porosity.
Secondary carbonates have precipitated in a replacive
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capacity and consequently primary porosity has been
preserved. Visible porosity is moderate to good and
comprises a combination of intergranular and
intragranular pores.
Gondang-1, Cole-1 (3097' - 31275")
The core uniformly comprises silty claystone, mostly
light olive grey, calcareous and fossiliferous (Enclosure
3, Plate 5A). It shows faint bedding and burrowing,
along with common planktonic foraminifera and rare
small, thin-walled pelecypods. A thin (5 cm), brownish
grey, interpreted dolomite concretionary bed occurs at
the very base of the core (Plate 5B).
The sedimentary structures are dominated by faint,
uneven, wavy parallel laminations frequently modified
by small, mostly indistinct horizontal bunows and
occasional small-scale current ripples. Rhythmic
bedding, churned bioturbated intervals and burrow
mottling are sometimes evident. Identifiable
ichnofossils include rare small (2-5mm width), flattened
Terebellina sp. (Szphonites sp.) and rare, small (0.5-
lmm), solitary possible Plunolites sp.(?). Rare micro-
scours usually overlain by weakly graded laminaeheds
are also present.
Black, elongate organic fragments are frequent, and
these usually show a preferred orientation on horizontal
core surfaces. This orientation is probably controlled by
current direction.
Although the cored interval is relatively homogeneous,
foram content and bioturbation tend to increase with
core depth, while the frequency of organic fragments,
quartz silts and more defined rhythmic bedding slightly
decreases.
Framework grains comprise 20-42 YO of the examined
thin sections, and include mostly subangular to angular
quartz silts, and silt to fine sand-sized whole and
fragmented planktonic forams. Total quartz content
ranges from 9-18%. Other grains include frequent
organic fragments (often partly pyritised) and trace to
small amounts of feldspar (mostly orthoclase), chert,
chalcedony, indistinct lithic silt, phosphate clasts (some
fish debris), glauconite, muscovite, biotite, chloritised
biotite, small thin-walled pelecypods (both whole and
disarticulated), agglutinated foram tests composed of
quartz silt and heavy minerals. Rare small benthic
forams (rotalids), miliolid forams, ostracods, coccoliths
and possible pteropods (?) were also observed.
Matrix comprises from 56-75% of the claystone
samples, and consists of mostly detrital
illitic/smectitic(?) clays intermixed with lesser
carbonate mud. The proportion of carbonate mud is
estimated to be 10-15 %. The dolomite concretion at
the base of the core is mostly composed of carbonate
mud recrystallised to microspar-sized dolomite (89%)
with minor planktonic forams (4%) and quartz silt
(1%). Foram content was originally higher, as many
planktonic forams have been destroyed by diagenesis in
this zone.
Gondang-1, Cole-2 (3671' - 36732")
The core comprises silty claystone, light olive grey to
more rarely yellowish grey, calcareous and fossiliferous
with well-defined bedding and minor bioturbation
(Enclosure 3, Plates 6A & 6B). Planktonic foraminifera
concentrated along slightly coarser-grained laminations
are common.
Sedimentary structure is dominated by very even and
rhythmic parallel laminations which contain internal
grading. Individual laminae average from 0.5-4mm- in
width, though some up to 10 mmare present. Minor
horizontal burrowing and current ripples are noted, in
addition to occasional micro-faulting. Burrowing is
usually restricted to individual laminae. The parallel
bedding is oriented at an angle of 3-S0, and it is not
known whether this is depositional or a product of
structure or core deviation.
Framework grains comprise 34% of the single sample
examined from this interva!, and include mainly quart2
silt (1 2%), whole and fragmented planktonic
foraminifera (1 2%) and organic fragments (6%). Other
grains. include trace to small amounts of muscovite,
glauconite, feldspar, agglutinated forams (composed of
quartz silts or small planktonic forams), biotite,
miliolids and possible rare small benthic forams
(rotalids).
The matrix comprises 62% of the sample, and is
composed almost entirely of detrital illitic/smectitic (?)
clays with minor carbonate mud (4%).
Ngasin-1, Cole-1 (3223' - 3238'8'!)
The core consists of finely interlaminated light
yellowish grey siltstones and medium brownish grey
claystones with occasional thin (<l' thick) interbeds of
very fine-grained sandstone, which also contain
claystone laminae (Enclosure 4, Plates 7A & 7B). Light
yellowish grey, very fine-grained sandstones with
medium brownish grey clay stones comprise the section
3238'8" - 3243'5" (Plate 8A), but apart from the slight
difference in grain size is of similar appearence to the
overlying interval.
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The lamination of the siltstones and claystones is
mostly even, with slight angular discordances, to gently
wavy. Current ripples and small scours are occasionally
evident in the very fine-grained sandstones, but for the
most part these are also parallel to wapy laminated.
Millimeter scale graded units are particularly apparent
in the sandier sections. The sandstone interbeds have
abrupt contacts. The lamination is locally offset by
smal1, penecontemporaneous normal faults with throws
of a few millimeters. Small scale loading features such
as flame structures are evident along the contacts of
some laminae. Small burrows are common, rarely
exceeding 1 to 2 mmin length and oriented parallel or
gently inclined with respect to bedding.
Petrographic studies have shown that the sandstones
and siltstones have very similar compositions and there
is little, if any variation through the core. The principal
components are quartz silt (40-55%) and mud (40-
55%) , accompanied by sparse K-feldspar (<1%), mica
(<l-l%), skeletal grains (1-3%), phosphate (<1-2%)
and glauconite pellets (Gl-lYo). Organic material ( 1-
3%) is also invarialy present. Planktonic foraminifera
are the predominant skeletal grains, occuring both in
the clay and sandkilt laminae. Sand sized fragments of
molluscs and echinoderms occure mainly in the sand
and silt laminae. Rare textularid and rotalid were
present in a few samples. The phosphatic material
appears to be of detrital origin and most probably
represents fish teeth or bone debris. The mud matrix is
principally composed of illitic clay but also
incorporates a carbonate component.
The sand and silt laminae are typically moderately well
sorted, with grains ranging in size between 25 to 90
pm. Small amounts of intergranular porosity are
commonly preserved. Quartz grains are angular and
have tangential to straight contacts, with matrix support
occuring in the mud laminae. Planktonic foraminifera
show little evidence of abrasion and are probably in
si t u. Echinoderm and molluscan fragments have been
transported.
Secondary minerals are generally sparse and confined
to traces of pyrites (<l-l%), found in association with
organic material, grain-replacing chlorite (<I %),
kaolinite (<1 YO) and ferroan calcite cement (<1 YO). The
exception to this general descripton is a zone at 3228 -
3232' in which silt and sand laminae have been more
extensively cemented by ferroan calcite (15%)
Visible porosity is typically low (<4%) and consists of
intergranular pores contained in sand and silt laminae
combined with traces of intraparticle porosity
associated with planktonic foraminifera.
DEPOSITIONAL MODEL AND
PAJAEOGEOGRAPHY
Palaeontological evidence conclusively indicates that
the Ngrayong Formation sediments intersected by the
Grigis Barat-1, Gondang-1 and Ngasin-1 were
deposited in deep marine bathyal conditions.
However, there are differing interpretations derived
from sedimentological evidence of the cores regarding
their depositional environments and sedimentary
processes. It is necessary therefore that the evidence
from the core should be integrated with other additional
evidence (i.e. wireline log and seismic characteristics)
and be tied to a regional depositional system and
palaeogeography .
One of the results of the recent J OB P-TT regional
study (Ardhana, 1993) has been to provided a model
for the Ngrayong depositional system (Figure 13)
which has subsequently used to establish the
palaeogeography (Figures 14, 15 & 16). This model is
a synthesis of all available data including
palaeontology, sedimentology , well log characteristics
and seismic facies.
The model proposes three depositional units ( Uni t s I,II
and Ill) within the Ngrayong Formation, each having a
different areal extent and sedimentary facies as a
consequence of differing depositional environments and
sedimentary processes.
Unit I comprises cross-bedded sandstones interbedded
with mudstones and thin limestones deposited on the
shelf to upper slope area in the north and northwest.
Unit II comprises Unit I equivalent sediments including
sandy turbidites and hemipelagic muds which
accumulated in the deeper basin to the south.
Unit ID is the overlying sandy bioclastic limestones
("Platten" or "Bulu" limestones) deposited in the north
and equivalent sandy turbidites (mostly channelized),
hemipelagic muds and contourites developed in the
south.
Units I and I1 therefore, represent a facies change
within the lower regressive part of the Ngrayong
Formation. Unit I11represents the upper transgressive
part of the formation and overlies the other two units.
The model also indicates that the pre-Tertiary basement
architecture which controlled the palaeogeography of
the Kujung Formation (Figure 6) , greatly influenced the
depositional pattern within the Ngrayong Formation.
The upper and lower slope boundary of the Ngrayong
Formation is shown with an irregular east-west
orientation which closely follows the trend of the
124
ancestral Kujung Formation shelf-edge although
displaced basinwards.
During the regressive phase, on the shelf and upper
slope area in the north, the thick, clean, quartzose
cross-bedded sandstones of Unit I were deposited by
tidally-influenced tractive currents as a series of sand
dunes and sand waves. The distribution of the
sandstones is widespread with minor facies variations.
The thin bioclastic limestone interbeds contain large
and flat specimens of Cycloclypeus sp. which would
have originated in about 300 feet of water.
To the south in the lower slope and basinal area, the
sandstones of Unit I change facies into a series of
submarine-faddebris apron deposits of Unit 11. It is of
particular importance that the distribution of the sandy
turbidite bodies was strongly controlled by palaeo-
topography. Coarser clastics appear to be restricted to
the palaeo-lows while topographic highs were by-
passed by currents carrying coarser sediments and were
consequently dominated by hemipelagic sedimentation.
Five turbidite bodieslfans have been identified in the
area including :
a)
The Candi Turbidite body lies within the Pati
Trough to the west of the Cepu Block.
b)
The Nglobo Fan, overlying the Kening Trough is
mostly located in the western part of the Cepu
Block.
c) The Kawengan FanDebris Apron lies in the
eastern part of the Cepu Block.
d)
The Bungoh-Grigis Fan is located in the northeast
of the Tuban Block.
e)
The Gondangmgasin Turbidite Body lies in the
east of the Tuban Block and the Madura Strait.
The north-south regional stratigraphic cross-section
across the wells (Enclosure 5 ) shows that the two, forty
and seventy six foot, cored sandstone units in Grigis
Barat-1 are stratigraphically within the lower Ngrayong
Unit I1 and represent the distal part of the Bungoh-
Grigis Fan.
Sedimentary structures in the cores indicate that the
sandstones are gravity flow deposits which can be
assigned to Mutti and Ricci Lucchi (1 972) turbidite
facies TC (Cook, 199 1). These include graded bedding
ranging from inches to up to five feet thick with
probible scoured bases, clay rip-up clasts along scour
surfaces, relict current-ripples and syndepositional
slump-related fold.
Seismically, the sandstones are represented by strong,
parallel and continuous reflectors which indicate a
widespread distribution. Further seismic evidence shows
that the equivalent lower Ngrayong package thins and
downlaps or progrades southwards towards the well
(Figure 17). The geometry changes from north to south
from convex-up to concave-up and finally parallel in
the area of the Grigis Barat-1 well. Such a seismic
facies is similar to that seen in the proven Nglobo Fan.
Much thicker and cleanner sandstones can be expected
in the outer-fan lobe and middle-fan facies to the north
characterized by thicker and convex-up geometry on
seismic.
A four-foot fine to medium-grained and a twenty-four-
foot cleaner, medium-grained quartzose sandstone units
encountered at Gondang-1 and Ngasin-1 respectively
represent the distal facies of the Gondang-Ngasin
Turbidite Body. These sandstone units are
stratigraphically below the cored intervals exhibiting
the seismic "pod" anomalies.
During the trangressive phase, the upper Ngrayong Unit
I11bioclastic limestones were deposited in the shelf and
upper slope area. In the onshore East J ava and Madura,
these limestones are mainly composed of Cycloclypeus
sp, indicating the depositional setting for the majority .
of this sequence was generally no shallower than about
300'. In some places, such as the Kayen-1 location to
the northwest, the Cycloclypeus faunas change to
shallower marine larger foram assemblages, and reefs
can be recognised on seismic. To the south, in the
deeper part of the basin, sedimentation of hemipelagic
muds predominated. A number of submarine channels
still existed but fans no longer developed corresponding
to the diminishing of sand supply. The channelized
turbidites of Unit I11 appear to be restricted to the
flanks of the underlying Unit I1 fans. These channelized
facies have been identified on the flanks of the Nglobo,
Kawengan and Bungoh-Grigis fans.
The Unit I11 contourite pods are clearly defined
seismically in the area of Gondang-1 and Ngasin-1
wells (Enclosure 1). They appear to prograde from east
to west direction and dissipate in the vicinity of the
Ngimbang area in the west as the pods are no longer
visible seismically. The contourites generally comprise
a fine clastic series with limestone intercalations. The
clastics are predominantly silty mudstones but locally
interbedded and interlaminated with quartzose siltstones
and fine-grained sandstones. The limestones comprise
argillaceous, silty to very sandy, planktonic
foraminifera1 wackestones to packstones.
Based on the abundance of planktonic foraminifera in
the limestones, Cook and Schiller suggested that these
125
sediments were deposited in a deep marine, basinal to
deep outermost shelf setting. Cook consideres the
wackestones to be hemipelagic deposits and Schiller
noted that bottom currents probably played a major role
in the accumulation of these sediments by winnowing
out fines and concentrating the larger planktonic
foraminifera tests into grain-supported packstones.
There are some interpretational problems deriving
from the study of the conventional cores from the
clastic series of the pod in both Gondang-1 and Ngasin-
1 wells regarding the facies, sedimentary processes and
depositional environment.
Cook considered the facies of the Ngasin-1 core
corresponds to turbidite facies Td and Te of Bouma
(1962) or facies E of Mutti and Ricci-Lucchi (1972)
which was deposited by turbiditic currents in a
background of hemipelagic settling in a middle to
outer-fan channel overbank or levee environment.
Schiller also came up with a similar interpretation.
Noting the presence of uneven, thin, graded sequences
showing frequent current ripples and horizontal
burrowing, he interpreted the cored interval in Ngasin- 1
as possible thin-bedded turbidites deposited in either
levee or fanfringe areas which have been reworked and
disrupted by some degree by bottom currents and
bioturbation.
Schiller summarized that the sedimentary structures of
each core from Gondang-1 well differ. Core-1 shows
mainly uneven parallel laminations and prolific
bioturbation with some current-rippling and limited
rhythmic bedding. Core-2 contains rhythmic, thin and
even parallel laminations with minor ripples and less'
extensive bioturbation. Core-1 i s best described as a
hemipelagite while Core-2 as a possible contourite.
Nilsen (1992), from his own observations of the
Gondang-1 and Ngasin-1 cores, arrived at a number of
conclusions, some of which are summarized below :
1. The sedimentary facies in cores from both wells
are very similar, with minor differences in the
relative amounts of clay, silt, sand and
bioturbation. Therefore, there are no significant
differences in terms of both depositional
environment and sedimentary processes.
2. Features consistent with turbidites characterising a
channel-marginloverbankllevee were not observed
in the cores. These include Bouma (1962)
sequences, current ripple markings, slumps and
syn-depositional faulting that involves a thickness
of more than one layer of siltstones and
sandstones, major vertical variation in grain size,
concentrations of organic matter and mica into thin
laminae, laterally discontinuous thin coarser-
grained beds with flat bases and wavy tops,(Facies
E of Mutti & Ricci-Lucchi), and uni-directional
palaeocurrent indicative structures within thin
intervals of silts and sands including current ripple
markings, sole markings and convolute
laminations. The features that are present strongly
suggest that the sediments were subjected to
continuous traction currents during their deposition
and accumulation.
3. The cores are very bioturbated, locally almost
completely homogenized particularly in the mud-
rich intervals of the Gondang-1 core, so that only
scattered remnants of laminae are preserved. The
amount and extent of burrowing is far greater than
that characteristic of most turbidite systems,
suggesting a different depositional process.
Due to the differing sedimentologically-derived
interpretations of the facies it is obvious that such
evidence alone is not of sufficient definition to
positively identify the depositional environment.
Seismic data shows the Unit I11sequence consisting of
several slightly sigmoid, prograding pods and with flat
and non to very weakly erosive bases. These
characteristics certainly do not represent channel
associated features. Both seismic data and dip-meter
study indicate a westerly flow direction approximately
parallel to the palaeo-slope. The Ngasin-1 situated east
of Gondang- 1 intersected thicker and coarser-grained
sediments.
These strongly support the interpretation of contourites.
It is therefore concluded that the Upper Ngrayong Unit
111sediments in the Gondang and Ngasin area were
deposited by a westerly flowing contour current. The
origins of slope-parallel contour currents are still poorly
understood. They may have been generated by mixing
of Sunda Shelf and Indian Ocean water masses, or by
lateral deflection of deeper extensions of the tidally -
influenced currents that deposited the cross-bedded and
coarser sandstones in the shelf area to the north
(Nilsen, 1992). The east-west trending narrow or
funnel-shaped palaeo- basin in the Madura Strait,
bounded by the relatively linear palaeo-slope to the
north and BD Ridge to the south, could have provided
favorable conditions for development of contour
currents or deep penetrating tractive currents. In the
Ngasin and Gondang area, the current may have been
controlled by the Kemandung Ridge.
Whatever the flow mechanism, muds, silts and some
sands have been transported and deposited by westerly
flowing slope-parallel contour currents. These fines
may represent sediments that have either been removed
126
from the coarser-grained cross-bedded sands on the
shelf or that by-passed the shelf and slope, and have
consequently been affected by the westerly flowing
currents and deposited in deeper part of the basin
(Nilsen, 1992). The fines may also represent reworked
and dispersed sediments from contemporaneous sandy
turbidites (mostly channelized) flowing downslope or
sediments winnowed from older sandy turbidite bodies
present in this region.
The carbonates, on the other hand, are interpreted to
represent hemipelagic sediments (Cook, 199 1) that were
deposited out of suspension during the cessation of the
flows.
POST-DEPOSITIONAL DIAGENETIC AND/OR
TECTONIC CONTROLS ON RESERVOIR
CHARACTER
The majority of secondary minerals apparent in the
cores appear to be of early diagenetic origin,
precipitating shortly after deposition and of low
diversity. These include siderite, dolomite, calcite,
pyrite, phosphate and chlorite. Later diagenesis
included kaolinite precipitation and dissolution of
feldspar, both of which are of highly localised
occurence.
Siderite and ferroan dolomite are the most widespread
carbonate cements in Grigis Barat-1 core, mostly
occuring in a microcrystalline form as a replacement of
detrital mud, although the amounts are highly variable.
The proportion of siderite (Plates 2A & 10A) varies
from nil to 20% whereas dolomite (Plate 1A) varies
from nil to 45%. Ferroan dolomite also locally
pseudomorphs echinoderm plates and forms a cement
in intergranular and intragranular pores (Plates 9B &
lOA), the later occuring as fine, subhedral to euhedral
crystals in amounts ranging up to 12%.
The interpreted dolomite concretionary bed observed at
the base of Core 1 of Gondang-1 (Plate 5B) probably
formed as a result of fluids enriched with magnesium
and calcite, released from adjacent clay and planktonic
foram-rich zones. The carbonate mud matrix of the
sidewall-cored wackestonelpackstone from Gondang- 1
is partly dolomitised (Plate 8B).
Fenoan calcite cement is of very localised occurrence
and is believed to have a concretionary association. It
forms a fine to medium crystalline, anhedral to blocky
fabric in intergranular and intragranular pores and can
amount to 30% of the bulk rock volume (Plates 8B, 9A
& 9B). The cement fills or most commonly lines the
inside of foram tests. Ferroan calcite precipitated
slightly later than siderite and ferroan dolomite.
Pyrite is a volumetrically minor (<1-2%) although
widespread secqndary mineral and is generally found in
association with organic material. It occurs as a fine
cubic and framboidal forms in the chambers of
foraminifera and occasionally in intergranular pores
(Plates 9B & 10A). Some burrows are infilled by pyrite
and an organic association is again applied. The
precipitation of pyrite was slightly later than siderite
and ferroan dolomite, and was earlier than ferroan
calcite.
Amorphous phosphate infills intergranular pores
adjacent to some phosphate clasts (Plates 4B & 10B).
It is either an in-situ precipitate, which has nucleated
on the clasts, or represents ductile deformation of the
clasts. The latter suggests that some of the phosphate
clasts were soft at the time of deposition, which is
consistent with an intra-formational origin. Phosphate
also occurs as a cement within chambers of
foraminifera and the latter were observed within some
phosphate clasts. Chlorite forms a replacement of
mica and is of very limited abundance (<l%). In rare
instances it was evident as linings of foraminifera1
chambers pl ate 11A). Secondary kaolinite was locally
conspicuous as a replacement of feldspar and within the
chambers of foraminifera (Plate 4A). It is largely
restricted to samples where the proportions of ferroan
calcite and ferroan dolomite are least. The partial
dissolution of feldspar grains has occurred on a minor
and very localised scale. The resultant mouldic pores
do not contain any secondary minerals and so a
relatively late stage origin may be inferred.
The effects of burial compaction have been limited to
the breakage of skeletal grains which were not infilled
by cement at an earlier stage (Plate 11B). The
cushioning influence exerted by the high proportion of
matrix, combined with the early precipitation of
carbonate cement are the principal factors which have
limited compaction. The main control on visible
porosity is the proportion and distribution of detrital
mud, which is partly related to the extent of
bioturbation. Calcite cement causes severe reduction of
porosity on a localised basis and is probably of
concretionary origin.
Visible porosity in the sandstones of the Grigis Barat-1
core is variable, ranging from <1% to 21% and being
best in the cleanest, slightly coarser-grained facies at
the base of the core 2. The porosity is exclusively
primary, contained in intergranular and intragranular
pores, with the exception of very minor and localised
mouldic pores associated with leached feldspars.
The neutron porosity wireline log response for the
sandstone intervals shows a slight overall increase with
depth. This would appear to contradict the assertion
127
made previously that the sandstones coarsen/clean
upwards but can probably be attributed to higher water
saturations associated with the more argillaceous
sandstones deeper in the sequence. The formation
density log response of both sandstone intervals is
typically serrate and the peaks are attributed to the
existence of carbonate concretions. Neutron porosity
responses decrease with increasing density, which is
consistent with the petrographic observations.
Visible intergranular porosity in Ngasin- 1 and
Gondang-1 cores is typically poor to very poor (trace-
1%) due to the high proportion of mud matrix and the
localised influence of calcite cement. However, silt and
sand laminae are typically well sorted and can contain
up to 4% intergranular porosity. The porosity increase
up to 4% is also present in the dolomite concretion in
Gondang-1 core. The chambers of foraminifera are
usually open or partially infilled by secondary minerals,
although this form of primary intragranular porosity
rarely amounts to 1%.
RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE
There are four principal reservoir facies within the
Ngrayong Formation. These are the cross-bedded
sandstone of Unit I, turbidite sandstones of Unit 11,
turbidite sandstones of Unit 111and the limestones
within the contourites of Unit I11(Figure..).
Most of the hydrocarbons from the Ngrayong
Formation have been produced from turbidite
sandstones of both the lower Ngrayong Unit I1 and the
upper Ngrayong Unit 111. Hydrocarbons have also been
testcd from a limestone unit within the contourite facies
of Unit I11 in the Tuban Block. Gas has been
discovered in the cross-bedded sandstones of Unit I in
the East J ava Sea, where the sandstones possess
outstanding reservoir characteristics.
The Unit I Cmss-bedded Sandstones.
The cross-bedded shelf sandstones of the lower
Ngrayong Unit I consistently possess excellent reservoir
characteristics over a wide area both in outcrops and in
the subsurface. Based on analyses of the sandstones
from a number of outcrop samples and sidewall cores,
porosities range from 24-40% with permeabilities in
excess of 1,000 millidarcies. The highest permiability
of 7,080 millidarcies was recorded from the outcrop at
Lodan quarry.
Methane gas has been produced from these sandstones
in the Kepodang-1 and Keladi-1 wells in the Muriah
Trough. Only minor shows were encountered in a
number of other offshore wells and asphaltic sandstones
were located in outcrop in the Tuban Block. The
minor production from these sheet sandstones is a
function of the destruction of the pre-existing structural
traps by extensive erosion. It is considered that a
structural trapping mechanism is required for these sand
sheets.
Unit II Turbidite Sandstones
The sandy turbidite bodies of the lower Ngrayong Unit
11possess a great variation of reservoir characteristics
corresponding to their facies. Good to excellent
reservoir qualities can be expected in the proximal
facies including the inner-fan channel - slope gully
system and in the middle-fan channels where the
sandstones are ussually thicker and cleaner. In the
distal facies the sandstones are generally thinner, siltier
and mud-rich with a decreased reservoir quality.
However, in some distal areas, cleaner sandstones with
good reservoir properties may still be present as outer
fan lobes.
Two sandstone units exposed at Gunung Wangon
represent inner fan channel deposits and the basal
sandstone unit at Kembang Baru-2 roadcut represents
a slope gully deposit. Although no porosity and
permeability data are available, the clean, moderately
well sorted sandstones should provide an excellent
potential reservoir. Two sidewall cores from a seven
meter thick sandstone unit in Camplong-1 exhibited a
Helium injection porosity of 24% at a depth over 1,000
meters, This unit has been interpreted as a slope gully
deposit.
The reservoir quality of the turbidite sandstones in the
Cepu Block is poorly documented. However, in excess
of 150 MMBO have been produced from the
sandstones of both middle to outer-fan or distal
turbidite facies of Unit I1 and the channelized turbidites
of Unit 111.
The four-foot fine to medium-grained sandstone
encountered in Gondang- 1 well represents the distal
turbidite facies. Visual porosity is 7% by point count
but electric logs indicate porosity up to 26.9%. Pressure
buildup analyses from DST indicates a permeability of
only 4.3 millidarcies. Although this sandstone seems to
have poor reservoir characteristics, it flowed 4.2
MMCFGD +170 BOPD with no water during DST.
This up-grades the potential of the reservoir. A cleaner
and thicker, medium-grained distal turbidite sandstone
encountered in Ngasin-1, flowed saltwater at an
estimated rate of 2,000 BPD, attesting to good reservoir
Characteristics. The cored thick distal turbidite
sandstones in Grigis Barat-1 well exhibited Helium
injection porosities between 8.2-27.3% and
permeabilities between 0.15-1 93 millidarcies. Based on
these results and core observations, the facies and
128
reservoir properties of the sandstones show significant
vertical variation. However, seismic evidence suggests
that the sandstones are laterally continuous.
Unit ID Tuhidite Sandstones
The turbidite sandstones of Unit I11are mainly found
as channel deposits associated with channel mouth bar
or terminal lobe sand lenses.
Detailed petrography and reservoir characteristics of
these sandstones are poorly documented. The
sandstones are generally argillaceous and calcareous
and grade to sandy limestones. In the Kawengan Field,
reported porosities range between 17-20% with
permeabilities between 270-350 millidarcies (IPA,
1989). In excess of 150 million barrels of oil have been
produced from the Kawengan Field, but at very
variable flow rates. It is assumed that the engineering
and production procedures of BPM were consistent
during the development of the Kawengan Field and that
the variation in initial flow rates of between 3 and 1604
BOPD is predominantly due to facies variations.
Further investigation has shown that the best production
was realized from stacked turbidite channel sands. The
much higher production from these sequences is
obviously a reflection of the good reservoir properties
within this facies.
Cahonates within Unit III Contourites
The contourite facies is considered to possess relatively
poor reservoir potential. The lithologies of the sequence
at Ngasin-1 and Gondang-1 were silt and mud
dominated. However, the wells intersected thick
dolomitic foraminifera1 limestone sequences.
In Gondang-1, two zones were present sixty and
seventy feet thick. Testing of the lower zone produced
a flow of 538 BOPD with 0.21 MMCFGD with no
water. Log derived porosities range between 10.2%
and 21.9% with an average of 16%. No measured
permeability data is available and the test data is
equivocal as regards reservoir properties.
In Ngasin-1, a single 120 foot laminated silty limestone
was present. Log derived porosities range between
10.6% and 25.5% with an average of 20%. Fair oil
shows were recorded while drilling this sequence but
no tests were conducted.
CONCLUSIONS
The Ngrayong sequence forms a full regressive1
transgressive cycle and has been afforded formational
status.
Three depositional units have been recognised. Units I
and II represent a facies change within the lower,
regressive part of the Ngrayong Formation. Unit III
represents the upper, transgressive part of the cycle and
overlies the other two units.
Within these units there are five principal lithofacies:
- cross-bedded shelf sandstones (Unit I)
- channelized and non-channelized sandy turbidites
(Units 11& 111)
- contourites (Unit 111)
- hemipelagic muds (Units I1 & 111)
- bioclasticheefal limestones (Unit 111)
Four reservoir facies are present; cross-bedded
sandstones, sandy turbidites (Unit II), channelized
sandy turbidites (Unit 111) and carbonates within the
contourites (Unit 111). All of the reservoir facies
remain viable targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the
East J ava Basin.
Of these, the sandy turbidites of Unit I1 which were
deposited in a typical submarine fan facies association
remain the primary target in the Tuban Block.
The cored sandstone units at Grigis Barat-1 represent
the distal turbidite facies of the lower Ngrayong Unit
11, while the cored intervals at Gondang-1 andNgasin-1
represent the clastic series of the contourite faces of the
upper Ngrayong Unit 111.
The recognition of the deep marine sandy turbidites in
the Tuban Block could have important connotations for
future hydrocarbon exploration in other areas of
Indonesia.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank Pertamina, the J OB
Pertamina-Trend Tuban, Trend East J ava Ltd. and
Trends partners (Total Tuban, R.S. Resources Inc. and
Enserch International Exploration Ltd.) for their
approval to publish this paper. We especially thank
J ohn N. Wilson for his support and guidance.
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Potential of the Tuban Block, East J ava, Indonesia
(unpublished).
Mutti,E. & F. Ricci-Lucchi, 1972. Le torbiditi
dell'Appenine settentrionale: introduzione all'analisi di
facies. Memorie Societa Geologica Ztaliana, v. 11, p
161-199. (Translated into English by T. H. Nilsen,
1978, International Geology Review, V. 20, NO. 2, p.
1 25- 166).
Nilsen, T.H., 1992. Sedimentology of the Ngrayong
sandstone, East J ava and Madura Island, Indonesia.
Report prepared for J .O.B. Pertamina - Trend Tuban
(unpublished).
Pringgoprawiro, H., 1983. Biostratigraphy and
palaeogeography of northern East J ava - a new
perspective. Unpublished Phd Thesis, ITB Bandung.
Schiller, D.M., 199 1. Gondang-1 well, East J ava.
Lithofacies description and petrographic analysis of
conventional cores and sidewall cores. Robertson
Research report # 453 prepared for J .O.B. Pertamina -
Trend Tuban (unpublished).
130
TABLE 1
CYCLES OR SEQUENCES OF SEDIMENTATION AS USED BY JOB P - TT FOR THE TUBAN BLOCK.
THICK LINES REPRESENT THE MOST SIGNIFICANT TECTONIC EVENTS IN THE EAST JAVA REGION.
AGE
Quaternary
Pliocene
Late
Miocene
Middle
Miocene
Early
Miocene
Late
Oligocene
-
Early
Oligocene
Late
Eocene
Middle
Eocene
Early,
Eocene
Late
Paleocene
Early
Paleocene
Cretaceous
~
JOB Pertarnina - Trend Tuban (1993)
LIDAH CYCLE: Volconlclastics and marginal to non-marlne deposits
-
7 KAWENGAN CYCLE: mixed facies, strong local tectonic control
WONOCOLO CYCLE: marly mudstones with volcaniclastics In the south
NGRAYONG CYCLE: Onset of major sand deposition over S.E. Sundoland
TUBAN CYCLE: thick mudstone sequence
locally with cap of Rancak Umestone
KUJ UNG Unit i or PRUPUH: thick reefal carbonates
or thin deep marine chalky sediments
KUJ UNG Units I I & 111: carbonate dominated transgression
UPPER NGIMBANG: usually deep marine shales.
Shallow marine sections often lost by mid-Oligocene erosion
LOWER NGIMBANG: thick non-marine clostics passing up Into
shallow marine Ngimbang Carbonate
PRE - NIMBANG: rare. Pre- middle Eocene sediments difficult to prove
biostratigraphicaliy. Appear to be separated from Ngimbang by
angular unconformity
Lightly metamorphosed sediments of Cretaceous age
are considered basement
13 1
Plate 1A
Well 0 Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample 0 3425
Lithology 0 Dolomitic Sandstone
0
Ver y f i ne t o f i ne- gr ai ned, angul ar t o subangul ar quar t zose
sandst one cont ai ni ng pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a, r ot al i ds and common
or gani c mat er i al s ( bl ack) . The or i gi nal mud mat r i x has been
ext ensi vel y r epl aced by mi cr ocr yst al l i ne f er r oan dol omi t e.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm= 0. 3 mm.
Plate 1B
ell . Grigis Barat-1
ore Sample . 3430 I . 6"
ithology . Argillaceous Sandstone
.
0
Fi ne- gr ai ned, angul ar t o subangul ar quar t zose sandst one wi t h common
r gani c mat er i al ( bl ack) , pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a (J12) and
r ot al i ds (D5). Mi cr ocr yst al l i ne si der i t e ( D8 - 14) f or ms smal l
modul es, r epl aci ng det r i t al mud. I nt r apar t i cl e and i nt er gr anul ar
por osi t y ar e evi dent ( bl ue) .
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm= 0. 08 mm.
Plate 2A
CORE-WS
132
A -
I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 l 3 1 4 1 5
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
A
B -
c -
E -
F -
G -
H -
J -
K -
1 2 3 4 5 . 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15
H
J
K
A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
A
B
PLATE 1
133
Plate 2A
.
Well rn Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample . 3582 '
Lithology . Sands tone
.
.
Fi ne- gr ai nedquar t zose sandst one cont ai ni ng pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a
( F7, El l ) , r ot al i ds ( F3) and or gani c mat er i al (H7). Secondar y
si der i t e nodul es (B13) ar e al so shown. I nt r apar t i cl e and
i nt er gr anul ar por osi t i es ar e depi ct ed by bl ue dye.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm= 0. 08 mm.
Plate 2B
rn
Well rn Grigis Barat-1
Core sample rn 3591' - 6"
Lithology . Argillaceous Sandstone
.
Fi ne- gr ai ned quar t zose sandst ones wi t h r el i cs of mud l ami nae.
Pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a ar e common and have associ at ed
i nt r agr anul ar por osi t y ( bl ue) . Opaque pyr i t e (D15) i s evi dent i n
some f or ami ni f er a.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm= 0. 65 mm.
CORE-WS
A -
134
- A
c -
D -
E -
F -
G -
H -
J -
K -
- B
- c
- 0
- E
A
-----F
- G
- J
- K
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
n
J
K
6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
PLATE 2
135
Plate 3A
Well 0 Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample 0 3607'
Lithology Sandstone
Fi ne t o medi um- gr ai ned, moder at el y wel l sor t ed quar t zose sandst one
wi t h good t o excel l ent i nt er gr anul ar por osi t y ( bl ue) .
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 08 mm.
Plate 3B
Well Grigis Barat-1
.
Core Sample e 3607'
Lithology . Sands tone
Fi ne t o medi um- gr ai ned, moder at el y sor t ed quar t zose sandst one.
Secondar y kaol i ni t e (D8) par t i al l y i nf i l l s t he chamber of a
bent honi c f or ami ni f er a ( ? nodosari d) . Vi si bl e por osi t y i s good,
consi st i ng of i nt er gr anul ar and i nt r agr anul ar pores.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 08 mm.
CORE-WS
136
A
A
6 .
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
A
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 s
I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I
- A
- 8
C
-
- 0
-
F
-
- G
J
-
-
l l l l l l l l l l l l i l l
1 2 3 4 5 . 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15
E
PLATE 3
137
Plate 4A
Well 9 Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample 0 3607'
Lithology 9 Sands tone
9
0
Fi ne t o medi umgr ai ned quar t zose sandst one wi t h r el i cs of or gani c-
r i ch l ami nae ( H4 - F10) and common pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a. Good
vi si bl e porosi t y consi st i ng of bot h i nt er gr anul ar and
i nt r agr anul l ar por es (bl ue).
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 32 mm.
Plate 4B
0
Well 0 Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample 0 3605'
Lithology . Sands tone
.
.
Quar t z sands i nf i l l a bur r ow (B1 - G15). Good i nt er gr anul ar
porosi t y i s preserved i n t he bur r ow, al t hough t hi s i s l ocal l y
i nf i l l ed by phosphat e cement (D8) adj acent t o a phosphat e cl ast
(B8). Phosphat e al so i nf i l l s pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a (A7 - B7) near
t he cl ast . Pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a and r ot al i ds ' are concent r at ed
al ongsi de t he bur r ow (H4).
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 32 mm.
CORE-WS
138
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
F -
G -
H -
J -
K -
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 i S
A
-
6
-
C
-
- 0
- E
- F
- G
H
-
- J
K
-
A
-
- B
- c
- D
- E
- F
- G
n
-
- J
- K
A
1 2 3 4 5 . 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
139
Plate 5A
0
Well 0 Gondang-l
Core Sample 3099'
Lithology Silty Claystone
Si l t y cl ayst one wi t h abundant quar t z si l t s ( most whi t e grai ns) ,
common pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a and or gani c mat er i al ( bl ack) . The
chamber s of pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a ar e most l y f i l l ed wi t h cal ci t e
cement (E12) t hough some i nt r apar t i cl e por osi t y has been pr eser ved
(G11). Al so vi si bl e ar e a pyr i t i sed or gani c f r agment (Fl), a
pyr i t e- f i l l ed f or am ( J 13 - 14) and r el i cs of or gani c- r i ch mud
l ami na1 ( El - 10).
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 10 mm.
Plate 5B
Well Gondang-1
Core Sample 3127 3"
D
LIthology 0 Silty, dolomitic mudstone
Si t l y dol omi t i c mudst one cont ai ni ng al t er ed pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a
(Bl, D7), moul di c i nt r apar t i cl e por es (G15, K8) and t he car bonat e
mat r i x composed of anhedr al dol omi t e cr yst al s ( B6, etc).
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 10 mm.
CORE-WS
140
' - B
C
-
- 0
-
- F
G
-
- H
J
-
- K
A
A -
B -
c -
0-
E -
F -
G -
H -
J -
K -
I I l I I 1 I I I I I I I I l
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
A -
B -
c -
D -
E -
F -
G -
H -
J -
K -
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 l J 1 5
6
PLATE 5
14 1
Plate 6A
.
Well . Gondang-1
Core Sample 3672 I
Lithology Silty Claystone
Si l t y cl ayst one wi t h abundant quar t z si l t s ( most whi t e gr ai ns) and
r el i cs of pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a. El ongat e or gani c f r agment s
( bl ack) ar e ver y common al i gned par al l el t o beddi ng.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 10 mm.
Plate 6B
Well Gondang-1
Core Sample 3672 '
Lithology . silty claystone
Si l t y cl ayst one showi ng abundant pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a wi t h no
cement i n t hei r i nt r apar t i cl e por es ( J 5, Hl 2, et c. )
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 10 mm.
CORE-WS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 l S
A -
B -
c -
D -
E -
F -
G -
n -
J -
K -
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
142
-
- c
- D
- E
- F
- G
- H
-----J
- K
A
B
A
PLATE 6
143
Plate 7A
Well 0 Ngasin- 1
Lithology 0 Siltstone
Core Sample 3227'
0
Si l t st one/ ver y f i ne- gr ai ned sandst one composed pr edomi nant l y of
quar t z gr ai ns, common or gani c mat er i al ( bl ack) and pl ankt oni c
f or ami ni f er a. Poor t o f ai r i nt er gr anul ar por osi t y ( bl ue) commonl y
i nf i l l ed by f er r oan cal ci t e cement .
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 10 mm.
Plate 7B
Well . Ngasin-1
Core Sample 0 3227'
Lithology 0 siltstone
0
Si l t 1ami nae. wi t h i nt er gr anul ar por osi t y ( bl ue) al t er nat e wi t h mor e
cl ay- r i ch l ami nae ( brown) . A phosphat e f r agment r esembl i ng a t oot h
i s evi dent at F10 and a pl anct oni c f or ami ni f er a at F13 -F14.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 10 mm.
144
A -
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
B -
c -
0-
E -
F -
G -
H -
J -
K -
__
- c
- 0
- E
A
- F
- G
- H
- J
A -
B -
c -
D -
E -
F -
G -
n -
J -
K -
l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
PLATE 7
145
Plate 8A
.
Well . Ngasin-1
Lithology . Sandstone
Core Sample 3240' .8"
Very f i ne- gr ai ned quar t zose sandst one cont ai ni ng or gani c mat er i al
( J 5) and pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a (J15).
Cr oss pol ar s, 1 cm= 0. 10 mm.
Plate 8 B
Well Gondang-1
Core Sample . Sidewall Core 4209'
Lithology . Planktonic Foraminifera1 Wackestone/Packstone
.
Hi gh magni f i cat i on, showi ng a pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a pant l y f i l l ed
by i sopachous, f i br ous cal ci t e cement set i n a par t l y dol omi t i sed
car bonat e mud mat r i x.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm= 0. 025 mm.
CORE-WS
146
A
A
A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
A
B
J
K
6
PLATE 8
147
Plate 9A
Well Gondang-1
Core Sample . 31303'.5"
Lithology . silty Claystone
Si l t y cl ayst one showi ng a pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a wi t h i t s
i nt r apar t i cl e por e par t l y f i l l ed by bl ocky f er r oan cal ci t e cement .
The f r act ur es coul d have been i nduced by sampl i ng.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm= 0.10 mm.
Plate 9B
Well Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample 3591' .6"
Lithology Argillaceous Sandstone
The chamber s of a pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a cont ai n pyr i t e ( C7) and
f er r oan dol omi t e (F4, A9) whi ch wer e succeeded by f er r oan cal ci t e
(F6) -
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 03 mm.
CORE-WS
148
A
B -
c -
D -
E -
F -
G -
H -
J -
K -
- A
- 6
- c
- 0
- E
- F
- G
- H
- J
- x
G -
H -
J -
K -
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
A
B
C
0
E
F
G
H
J
K
A
6
PLATE 9
149
Plate 10A
.
Well . Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample . 3600'
Lithology . Sideritic/Calcareous Sandstone
The chamber s of pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a have been i nf i l l ed by
f er r oan dol omi t e ( E4 - E5) f ol l owed by pyr i t e ( F3 and C11) and
f er oan cal ci t e ( E13) . The car bonat e mud mat r i x i s most l y
r ecr yst al l i sed i nt o si der i t e cement .
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 08 mm.
Plate 10B
Well . Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample . 3430' .6"
Lithology . Argillaceous Sandstone
.
.
Fi ne- gr ai ned quar t zose sandst one i ncor por at i ng coar se cl ast s of
phosphat e ( G2, G7, et c. ) . The i r r egul ar di st r i but i on of t he
det r i t al mud mat r i x ( El l ) i s due t o bi ot ur bat i on. Or gani c mat er i al
is conspi cuous adj acent t o phosphat e cl ast s (Jl) and di ssemi nat ed
i n t he mat r i x.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 65 mm.
CORE-WS
150
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
I l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
A -
B -
c -
D -
E -
F -
G -
H -
J -
K -
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
- 8
- c
- D
---E
A
- F
- G
- H
- J
- K
B
PLATE 10
151
Plate 11A
Well Grigis Barat-1
0
Core Sampl 0 3433'
Lithology 0 Calcareous Sandstone
0
Secondar y chl or i t e ( E7) l i nes t he chamber s of a pl ankt oni c
f or ami ni f er a, whi ch wer e subsequent l y i nf i l l ed by f er r oan cal ci t e
cement (B9). I nt er gr anul ar por es (G13) al so cont ai n f er r oan
cal ci t e.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm=0. 03 mm.
Plate 11B
.
Well . Grigis Barat-1
Core Sample 0 3591' - 6' '
Lithology 0 Argillaceous Sandstone
.
Pl ankt oni c f or ami ni f er a ( C8, F8) have been cr ushed as a r esul t of
compact i on.
Pl ane pol ar s, 1 cm= 0. 08 mm.
CORE-WS
152
r 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
- A
A
J
K
h
a
C
D
E
F
G
n
J
K
- c
- 0
- E
- F
- G
- H
-.I
- x
A
$ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
I i 1 ' 1 I 1 I I ! I 1 i I I I
PLATE 11
153
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