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A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language

Abbreviations
Masc. = aMasculine
Fem. = Feminine
Neut. = Neuter
S., Sansk. = Sanskrit
P.P.P. = Passive Perfect Participle
P.P.A. = Perfect Participle Active
F.P.P. = Future Passive Participle
Adj. = Adjective
Nom. = Nominative
Gen. = Genitive
Dat. = Dative
Acc. = Accusative
Inst. = Instrumental
Al. = Alative
!oc. = !ocative
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter 1
The Alphabet
". #$e Paali Alp$aet consists of %" letters& namel'( )
vo*els, + dip$t$on,s, -+ consonants and one accessor'
nasal sound called Ni,,a$iita.
+. #$e vo*els are divided into s$ort and lon,& t$e s$ort
vo*els are( a, i, u& t$e lon, vo*els are aa, ii, uu.
-. #$e value of a lon, vo*el is aout t*ice t$at of a s$ort
one, so t$at it takes t*ice as muc$ time to pronounce a lon,
vo*el as to pronounce a s$ort one.
%. #$e si,n of a lon, vo*el is a das$ placed over it. .esides
t$e aove t$ree lon, vo*els, all s$ort vo*els are
prosodicall' lon, t$at come efore a conjunct or doule
consonant( for instance, in $ikk$u, ra.t.t$a and pupp$a, t$e
/i efore kk$, t$e /a efore .t.t$ and t$e /u efore pp$ are
said to e lon,.
!on, also are a, i, u *$en follo*ed ' .m 0ni,,a$iita1, as in(
pupp$a.m, 2o*er& cakk$u.m, e'e& kapi.m, monke'.
3. #$e t*o dip$t$on,s are e and o, *$ic$ are al*a's lon,.
#$e' are dip$t$on,s onl' ,rammaticall', ecause t$e' are
supposed to e t$e product of t$e meetin, and contraction
of t*o vo*els 0a 4 i = e& and a 4 u = o1. In realit' and
practicall' t$e' are simple vo*els.
). #$e consonants are divided into( +3 mutes, 3 semi/vo*els,
one siilant and one aspirate 0spirant1. #$e +3 mutes are
divided, accordin, to t$e place of t$eir formation and
utterance, into 3 ,roups of 3 letters eac$.
#$e follo*in, tale s$o*s at a ,lance t$e classi5cation of all
t$e letters(
6onsonants
Mutes
Surds Sonants
7naspi
rate
Aspir
ate
7naspi
rate
Aspir
ate
Nas
als
Semi
/
vo*
els
Spir
ant
Siil
ant
8o*e
ls
!i9ui
ds
,utte
rals
k k$ , ,$ :n $
a,
a
a
e
o
palat
als
c c$ j j$ ;n '
i,
ii
lin,u
als
.t .t$ .d .d$ .n r, .l
denta
ls
t t$ d d$ n l
s
0sur
d1
laial
s
p p$ $ m v
u,
u
u
.m 0ni,,a$iita1 / sonant
<. .l is no* ,enerall' considered to e a semi/vo*el and it is
a li9uid, a modi5cation of l& in palm/leaf MSS l and .l are
constantl' interc$an,ed. .l is not seldom t$e sustitute of .d&
it is a lin,ual ecause it is pronounced as t$e letters of t$at
class 0.t, .t$, etc.1.
=. .m or ni,,a$iita comports, properl' speakin,, no
classi5cation& it is merel' a nasal reat$in, found onl' after
t$e s$ort vo*els( a.m, i.m, u.m.
>. #$e Gutterals are so called from t$eir ein, pronounced in
t$e t$roat&
#$e Palatals, from ein, uttered ' pressin, t$e ton,ue on
t$e front/palate&
#$e !in,uals are formed ' rin,in, t$e up/turned tip of t$e
ton,ue in contact *it$ t$e ack of t$e palate&
#$e Dentals are so called from t$eir ein, pronounced *it$
t$e aid of t$e teet$&
#$e !aials are formed ' means of t$e lips&
#$e Nasals are sounded t$rou,$ t$e nose&
#$e Siilant $as a $issin, sound& and,
#$e Spirant a stron, aspirated reat$in,.
#$e Mutes are so called on account of t$eir not ein, readil'
pronounced *it$out t$e aid of a vo*el&
Surds, are $ard, 2at, and toneless&
#$e Sonants are soft and uttered *it$ a c$ecked tone&
#$e !i9uids, readil' comine *it$ ot$er consonants( 0e?cept,
per$aps, .l1&
#$e Aspirates are pronounced *it$ a stron, reat$in, or $
sound added to t$em&
#$e 7naspirates are pronounced naturall', *it$out e@ort and
*it$out t$e $ sound.
The Pronunciation
The Vowels
"A. a is pronounced like a in art.
aa is pronounced like a in fat$er.
i is pronounced like i in sin, pin.
ii is pronounced like ee in een, s$een.
u is pronounced like u in put, ull.
uu is pronounced like oo in fool, oon.
e is pronounced like a in tale, fate.
o is pronounced like o in one, stone.
The Consonants
"". Bemark. In all cases, t$e aspirates are pronounced like
t$e unaspirates, ut *it$ t$e addition of a stron, $ sound&
$ence t$e pronunciation of t$e unaspirates onl' is ,iven.
k is pronounced like k in kin,.
, is pronounced like ,arden, ,o.
:n is pronounced like n, in kin,, rin,.
c is pronounced like c$ in c$urc$, c$ip.
j is pronounced like jail, jar.
;n is pronounced like n' in an'an.
t is pronounced like t in tale, tack.
t$, it must e orne in mind, is never pronounced like t$e
Cn,lis$ /t$, in suc$ *ords as( t$e, t$in, etc. It is merel' /t,
uttered *it$ an e@ort.
d is pronounced like d in deed.
n is pronounced like n in na,.
p is pronounced like p in part.
p$, it must e remarked, is simpl' t$e aspirate of p, and
ou,$t not to e pronounced like f 0as in( p$ilosop$'1.
is pronounced like in ook.
m, ', r, l, s, $ are pronounced like t$e correspondin, Cn,lis$
letters.
v, not preceded ' a consonant $as t$e sound of v, in vine,
vile. .ut preceded ' a consonant, it is sounded like * in
*ind, *in& tvaa, t$erefore, is pronounced t*aa.
.m, 0ni,,a$iita1, found al*a's at t$e end of *ords is, in
.urma, pronounced like m in, jam, ram& in 6e'lon, it is ,iven
t$e sound of n, in, rin,, kin,.
Conjunct Consonants
"+. #*o consonants comin, to,et$er form *$at is called a
conjunct or doule consonant. For instance, in( vassa, katt$a
and pandaapeti, t$e ss, tt$, and nd, are conjunct
consonants.
"-. Dnl' t$e letters of a same va,,a or ,roup 0viE., t$e 5ve
divisions of t$e mutes( ,utterals, palatals, etc.1, can e
rou,$t to,et$er to form a conjunct consonant( t$e 5rst and
second, and t$e t$ird and fourt$ onl'( t$e 5ft$ letter of eac$
,roup, t$at is t$e nasal, can e coupled *it$ an' of t$e ot$er
four consonants in its ,roup.
Chapter II
Sanhi !"uphon#$
"%. Sand$i 0union1 is t$at part of t$e ,rammar *$ic$ treats
of t$e eup$onic c$an,es t$at occur *$en one *ord is joined
to anot$er.
"3. Generall' t$ese c$an,es occur
0a1 F$en a *ord endin, in a vo*el is joined to a *ord
e,innin, *it$ a vo*el.
01 F$en a *ord endin, in a vo*el, is joined to anot$er *ord
e,innin, *it$ a consonant.
0c1 F$en a *ord endin, in ni,,a$iita 0.m1 is follo*ed ' a
*ord e,innin, eit$er *it$ a vo*el or *it$ a consonant.
"). From t$e aove it *ill e seen t$at sand$i is of t$ree
kinds(
0I1 8o*el/sand$i, 0II1 Mi?ed sand$i and 0III1 Ni,,a$iita/sand$i.
%emar&s' It is not asolutel' necessar' t$at t$e student
s$ould master t$orou,$l' t$e rules of sand$i efore
e,innin, t$e stud' of t$e ot$er c$apters& ut $e s$ould
read t$em once carefull', and al*a's refer to t$em
*$enever in t$e course of $is readin, $e 5nds forms and
cominations t$at puEEle $im.
I' Vowel(Sanhi
"<. A vo*el efore anot$er vo*el is elided.
")amples
Clision of a, 'assa 4 indri'aani = 'assindri'aani.
ajja 4 uposat$o = ajjuposat$o.
Clision of
aa,
maa 4 aavuso evaruupa.m akaasi =
maavuso, etc.
tadaa 4 u.t.t$a$i = tadu.t.t$a$i.
Clision of i, udad$i 4 uumi'o = udad$uumi'o.
a,,i 4 aa$ito = a,,aa$ito.
Clision of ii, $ikk$unii 4 ovaado = $ikk$unovaado.
mi,ii 4 iva = mi,iva.
Clision of u, d$aatu 4 aa'atanaani = d$aataa'atanaani.
d$aatu 4 indri'aani = d$aatindri'aani.
Clision of
uu,
jamuu 4 aadiini = jamaadiini.
jamuu 4 iirita vaatena = jamiirita
vaatena.
Clision of e, ladd$o me 4 okaaso = ladd$o mGokaaso.
,aat$aa me 4 udiiritaa = ,aat$aa
mGudiiritaa.
Clision of o, eso 4 aavuso aa'asmaa = esGaavuso
aa'asmaa.
%emar&s' F$en ii is follo*ed ' a vo*el it is ver' seldom
elided( in t$e e?pression tu.n$assa, $o*ever, *e $ave an
e?ample of its elision& tu.n$assa = tu.n$ii 4 assa& tu.n$ii
a$esu.m, remains *it$out c$an,e.
"=. A vo*el comin, after anot$er vo*el ma', if it is
dissimilar, e elided.
")amples
0i1 cakk$u 4 indri'a.m = cakk$undri'a.m.
0ii1 'assa 4 idaani = 'assGidaani.
">. #$e 5rst vo*el $avin, een elided t$e follo*in, vo*el
ma' e len,t$ened.
")amples
0i1 tatra 4 a'a.m = tatraa'a.m.
0ii1 sa 4 att$ika = saatt$ika.
0iii1 kiki 4 iva = kikiiva.
0iv1 kamma 4 upanissa'o = kammuupanissa'o.
0Note( A s$ort vo*el, a, i, u, is len,t$ened ' puttin, a H/H
0Das$1 over it1.
+A. Sometimes t$e second vo*el $avin, een elided, t$e
precedin, vo*el is len,t$ened.
")amples
0i1 vi 4 atimaanenti = viitimaanenti.
0ii1 ki.msu 4 id$a vitta.m = ki.msuud$a vitta.m.
+". Generall'(
0i1 a or aa 4 i or ii = e.
0ii1 a or aa 4 u or uu = o.
")amples
I' a or aa * i or ii
0i1 upa 4 ikk$ati = upekk$ati.
0ii1 jina 4 iiritana'o = jineritana'o.
0iii1 ava 4 ecca = avecca.
0iv1 and$ussa 4 iva = and$usseva.
")ceptions
0a1 iti preceded ' a ecomes aati, as(
0i1 tassa 4 iti = tassaati.
0ii1 tissa 4 iti = tissaati.
01 i ma' e elided after a& as(
0i1 pana 4 ime = panaGme.
0ii1 tena 4 ime = tenaGme.
0c1 Sometimes aa 4 i ecomes i& as(
se''at$aa 4 ida.m = se''at$ida.m.
II' a or aa * u or uu
0i1 canda 4 uda'o = candoda'o.
0ii1 na 4 upeti = nopeti.
0iii1 udaka 4 uumi = udakomi.
0iv1 'at$aa 4 udaka = 'at$odaka.
++. F$en t*o vo*els of t$e same or,an meet, t$e result is
,enerall' lon,( t$at is,
a 4 a = aa, a 4 aa = aa, aa 4 a = aa, aa 4 aa = aa.
i 4 i = ii, i 4 ii = ii, ii 4 i = ii, ii 4 ii = ii.
u 4 u = uu, u 4 uu = uu, uu 4 u = uu, uu 4 uu = uu.
")amples
0i1 ;naa.na 4 aalokena = ;naa.naalokena.
0ii1 demi 4 iti = demiiti.
+-. i and u ma', efore vers e,innin, *it$ a vo*el, remain
unc$an,ed.
")amples
0i1 ,aat$aa$i ajj$a$aasi.
0ii1 ad$ivaasesi avi$a;n;namaano.
0iii1 satt$u adaasi.
+%. A 5nal vo*el ma' remain unc$an,ed efore an' ot$er
vo*el *$en not follo*ed ' iti, in t$e follo*in, cases(
0a1 In nouns in t$e vocative case( kassappa eta.m.
01 In a *ord endin, in a lon, vo*el if it does not form a
compound *it$ t$e follo*in, *ord( $a,avaa
u.t.t$aa'aasanaa.
0c1 After particles, vo*els remain unc$an,ed.
")amples
0i1 at$o 4 anto ca = at$o anto ca.
0ii1 at$a k$o 4 aa'asmaa = at$a k$o aa'asmaa.
0iii1 no 4 atikkamo = no atikkamo.
%emar&s' #$e particles, called nipaata, are indeclinale&
t$e' are rat$er numerous. #$e follo*in, are a fe* of t$em
and t$e most common( at$o, at$a, 'eva, ad$o, 'at$aa,
tat$aa, taava, 'aava, eva, ivaa, va, re, are, ca, $i, tu, kacci,
k$o, k$alu, kira, pana, ce, nanu, nuuna, naama, etc., etc.
"
"
#$ere are t*o kinds of indeclinale *ords( t$e nipaata or
advers and t$e upasa,,a, or prepositions. #$e latter
numer onl' +A( aa, u, ati, pati, pa, pari, ava, paraa, ad$i,
a$i, anu, upa, apa, api, sa.m, vi, ni, nii, su, du, 0saddaniiti(
catupadavi$aa,a1. All t$e ot$er indeclinales are of course
nipaata.
+ote' Final vo*els efore particles e,innin, *it$ a, i, e, as(
at$a, iva, eva, follo* t$e rules of sand$i, as&
0i1 itt$ii 4 iti = itt$iiti.
0ii1 sae 4 eva = saeGva.
0iii1 so 4 eva = sveva.
0iv1 na 4 ett$a = nGett$a.
0d1 i and u efore a ver ma' remain unc$an,ed( 0see +-1
+3. #$e vo*el e, *$en follo*ed ' a lon, dissimilar vo*el
and also *$en follo*ed ' a s$ort dissimilar vo*el follo*ed
' a conjunct consonant, ma' e elided.
")amples
0i1 me 4 aasi = mGaasi.
0ii1 sace 4 assa = sacGassa.
+). After o, a vo*el is usuall' elided.
")amples
0i1 'o 4 a$a.m = 'oG$a.m.
0ii1 cattaaro 4 ime = cattaaroGme.
Transformation of Vowels into Semi(vowels
+<. #$e vo*els i, u, e, o, *$en follo*ed ' anot$er vo*el
ma' e transformed into t$eir semi/vo*els
0i1 #$e semi/vo*el of i, and e, is '.
0ii1 #$e semi/vo*el of u and o, is v.
0a1 Final i, efore a dissimilar vo*el is c$an,ed to '.
")amples
0i1 vi 4 aakaasi = v'aakaasi.
0ii1 vitti 4 anu$u''ate = vitt'anu$u''ate.
0iii1 daasi 4 a$a.m = daas'aa$a.m.
%emar&s' iti 4 eva = itveva.
01 In suc$ *ords as( me, te, ke, 'e, etc., e is c$an,ed to ',
and, if t$e a follo*in, e stands efore a sin,le consonant it is
len,t$ened to aa.
")amples
0i1 me 4 a$a.m = m'aa$a.m.
0ii1 me 4 a'a.m = m'aa'a.m.
0iii1 te 4 a'a.m = t'aa'a.m.
0iv1 te 4 a$a.m = t'aa$a.m.
0v1 ke 4 assa = k'assa 0-%1.
")ceptions
0a1 Final e ma' e elided efore a lon, vo*el( me 4 aasi =
mGaasi.
01 Final e ma' e elided efore a s$ort vo*el follo*ed ' a
doule consonant( sace 4 assa = sacGassa.
0c1 Final e sometimes elides a follo*in, vo*el(
0i1 te 4 ime = teGme.
0ii1 sace 4 ajja = saceGjja.
0d1 Final e 4 a ma' ,ive aa( sace 4 a'a.m = sacaa'a.m.
0c1 F$en u is follo*ed ' a dissimilar vo*el, it is c$an,ed to
v.
")amples
0i1 anu 4 eti = anveti.
0ii1 d$aatu 4 anta = d$aatvanta.
0iii1 d$aatu 4 att$a = d$aatvatt$a.
0iv1 a$u 4 aaaad$o = a$vaaaad$o.
0v1 su 4 aa,ata.m = svaa,ata.m.
0vi1 anu 4 a.d.d$amaasa.m = anva.d.d$amaasa.m.
")ceptions
0a1 Final u ma' e elided efore a dissimilar vo*el( sametu 4
aa'asmaa = sametGaa'asmaa.
01 Not seldom, u 4 i ,ives uu( saad$u 4 iti = saad$uuti.
0d1 Final o, ma' e c$an,ed to v efore a dissimilar vo*el.
")amples
0i1 ko 4 att$o = kvatt$o.
0ii1 a,amaa nu k$o 4 id$a = a,amaa nu k$vid$a.
0iii1 'ato 4 ad$ikara.na.m = 'atvad$ikara.na.m.
0iv1 'o 4 a'a.m = 'vaa'a.m.
")ceptions
Final o efore a lon, vo*el or a s$ort vo*el follo*ed ' a
doule consonant, is ,enerall' elided(
0i1 kuto 4 ett$a = kutGett$a.
0ii1 tato 4 udd$a.m = tatGudd$a.m.
0iii1 ta'o 4 assu = ta'Gassu.
%emar&s'
". #$e c$an,e of u and o, to v occurs c$ie2' *$en u or o,
comes after one of t$e follo*in, consonants( k, k$, t, t$, d,
na, ', s and $ 0saddaniiti, part III sand$isuttamaalaa1.
+. Sometimes, after i or ii, ' is inserted efore a *ord
e,innin, *it$ a vo*el, to avoid $iatus(
0i1 a,,i 4 aa,aare = a,,i'aa,aare.
0ii1 sattamii 4 att$e = sattamii'att$e.
-. Similarl', to avoid a $iatus, a v is inserted et*een 5nal u
and anot$er vo*el(
0i1 du 4 a:n,ika.m = duva:n,ika.m.
0ii1 $ikk$u 4 aasane = $ikk$uvaasane. 0See elo*
6onsonantal Insertions.1
Consonantal Insertions
+=. 0a1 Not seldom, to avoid a $iatus, a consonant is inserted
et*een t*o vo*els.
01 #$e consonants t$us inserted are( ', v, m, d, n, t, r, l0=
.l1, and $. 0Saddaniitii ,ives also, $.1
0c1 Df t$ese, t$e most fre9uentl' used are( d, r, m, ' and v.
%emar&s' Some of t$ese consonants are mere revivals from
t$e older lan,ua,e, as in( puna 4 eva = punareva. Iere, t$e
r is simpl' revived.
")amples of Insertion of Consonants
Insertion of '(
0i1 na 4 imassa = na'imassa.
0ii1 maa 4 evam = maa'eva.m.
0iii1 santi 4 eva = santi'eva.
Insertion of v(
0i1 $uu 4 aadaa'a = $uuvaadaa'a.
0ii1 mi,ii $antaa 4 udikk$ati = mi,ii $antaa vudikk$ati.
0iii1 pa 4 uccati = pavuccati.
Insertion of m(
0i1 id$a 4 aa$u = id$amaa$u.
0ii1 la$u 4 essati = la$umessati.
0iii1 $aa'ati 4 eva = $aa'atimeva.
Insertion of d(
0i1 saki 4 eva = sakideva.
0ii1 taava 4 eva = taavadeva.
0iii1 sammaa 4 a;n;naa = sammaada;n;naa.
%emar&s' #$e insertion of d, is constant after t$e particle u,
and ver' fre9uent after( saki.m, kenaci, ki;nci, kinni;nci,
koci, sammaa, 'aava, taava, puna& as *ell as after t$e ases
of pronouns suc$ as( 'a, ta, sa etc.
+
, as(
u 4 a,,o = uda,,o&
u 4 apaadi = udapaadi&
kenaci 4 eva = kenacideva&
'aava 4 att$a.m = 'aavadatt$a.m&
puna 4 eva = punadeva&
ta 4 att$a.m = tadatt$a.m&
ta 4 antaro = tadantaro&
eta 4 att$a.m = etadatt$a.m.
Insertion of n(
0i1 ito 4 aa'ati = itonaa'ati.
0ii1 cira.m 4 aa'ati = cira.m naa'ati or cirannaa'ati 0-A1.
Insertion of t(
0i1 'asmaa 4 i$a = 'asmaati$a.
0ii1 ajja 4 a,,e = ajjata,,e.
%emar&s' #$e insertion of t, mostl' takes place after t$e
*ords( 'aava, taava, ajja, efore i$a and a,,a.
Insertion of r(
0i1 ni 4 antara.m = nirantara.m.
0ii1 ni 4 oja.m = niroja.m.
0iii1 du 4 atikkamo = duratikkamo.
0iv1 du 4 aajaano = duraajaano.
0v1 paatu 4 a$osi = paatura$osi.
0vi1 catu 4 aarakk$aa = caturaarakk$aa.
+
ma$aaruupasidd$i 0sand$i1. It must, $o*ever, e remarked
t$at t$e d is, in most *ords, a survivance from t$e older
lan,ua,e& Sansk, $as invarial' preserved it. #$us u, of t$e
native Paali ,rammarians is ut t$e Sansk( ud& so ...ci, ...cid.
etc.
%emar&s'
". .et*een tat$aa eva and 'at$aa eva, ri is often inserted&
t$e aa precedin, is s$ortened and t$e e of eva elided(
tat$ariva, 'at$ariva.
+. #$is consonant r, is ,enerall' inserted after( t$e particles(
ni, du, paatu, puna, d$i, paata, catu, and a fe* ot$ers. In
most cases it is simpl' revived.
Insertion of l = .l(
0i1 c$a 4 a:n,aam = c$a.la:n,a.m.
0ii1 c$a 4 a.msa = c$a.la.msa.
%emar&s' l = .l is ,enerall' inserted after c$a 0si?1.
Insertion of $(
0i1 su 4 ujuca = su$ujuca.
0ii1 su 4 u.t.t$ita.m = su$u.t.t$ita.m.
II' Consonantal Sanhi
+>. 6onsonantal sand$i occurs *$en a *ord endin, in a
vo*el is follo*ed ' a *ord e,innin, *it$ a consonant.
-A. In t$e majorit' of cases, 6onsonantal sand$i is resorted
to, to meet t$e e?i,encies of metres ut not al*a's.
-". .efore a consonant, a lon, vo*el ma' e s$ortened(
0i1 'at$aa 4 $aavi 4 ,u.nena = 'at$a$aavi,u.nena.
0ii1 'i.t.t$a.m vaa $uta.m vaa loke = 'i.t.t$a.m va $uta.m va
loke.
-+. A vo*el, efore a consonant, if s$ort, ma' e
len,t$ened(
0i1 eva.m ,aame muni care = eva.m ,aame muni care.
0ii1 du 4 rakk$a.m = duurakk$a.m.
0iii1 su 4 rakk$a.m = suurakk$a.m.
--. A consonant follo*in, a *ord or a particle endin, in a
vo*el, is ,enerall' reduplicated.
")amples
0i1 id$a 4 pamaado = id$appamaado.
0ii1 su 4 pa.t.t$ito = suppa.t.t$ito.
0iii1 vi 4 pa'utto = vippa'utto.
0iv1 a 4 pativatti'o = appativatti'o.
0v1 pa 4 kamo = pakkamo.
0vi1 'at$aa 4 kama.m = 'at$akkama.m. 0-%1
0vii1 anu 4 ,a$o = anu,,a$o.
0viii1 vi 4 jotati = vijjotati.
0i?1 kata 4 ;nuu = kata;n;nuu.
0?1 du 4 la$o = dulla$o.
0?i1 du 4 siilo = dussiilo.
%emar&s'
". v, after a vo*el ecomes (
0i1 ni 4 vaana.m = niaana.m.
0ii1 ni 4 vaa'ati = niaa'ati.
0iii1 du 4 vinicc$a'o = duinicc$a'o.
+. Beduplication of t$e consonants takes place ,enerall'
after t$e pre5?es( u, upa, pari, ati, pa, a, anu, etc.
-. #$e constant rule in reduplication is t$at an aspirate is
reduplicated ' an unaspirate, and an unaspirate ' an
unaspirate. #$at is to sa', an unaspirate is reduplicated '
itself.
-%. #$e vo*el precedin, a conjunct consonant ein,
prosodicall' lon,, t$e naturall' lon, vo*els( aa, ii, uu, are
not allo*ed to stand efore a doule consonant.
-3. F$en, accordin, to para 0--1, a consonant is
reduplicated after a particle endin, in a lon, vo*el, t$is
vo*el is s$ortened(
0i1 aa 4 kamati = akkamati.
0ii1 paraa 4 kamo = parakkamo.
")ceptions
#$ere are, $o*ever, a fe* e?ceptions to paras -%, -3. #$e
follo*in, are t$e most common e?amples(
0i1 na 4 a;n;na = naa;n;na.
0ii1 na 4 assa = naassa.
0iii1 na 4 assu = naassu.
0iv1 kasmaa 4 assa = kasmaassa.
0v1 tatra 4 assa = tatraassa.
0vi1 sa 4 antevaasiko = saantevaasiko.
0vii1 sa 4 att$i = saatt$i.
0viii1 vedanaa 4 k$and$o = vedanaakk$and$o, etc.
-). 0a1 .efore a consonant, t$e o in so, eso, ma' e c$an,ed
to a(
0i1 eso d$ammo or esa d$ammo.
0ii1 so muni or sa muni.
01 Sometimes, t$is c$an,e occurs even efore a vo*el, t$us
creatin, a $iatus, *$ic$ is allo*ed to remain( so att$o or sa
att$o.
0c1 #$e same c$an,e 0of o to a1, occurs also, ut not so
fre9uentl', in( a'o 0iron1, mano 0t$e mind1, tamo 0darkness1,
paro 0ot$er1, tapo 0penance, morti5cation1 and a fe* ot$ers(
a'opatta.m or a'apatta.m, etc.
III' +iggahiita Sanhi
-<. Ni,,a$iita sand$i takes place *$en a *ord endin, in .m
0ni,,a$iita1 is follo*ed ' a *ord e,innin, *it$ a vo*el, or
*it$ a consonant.
-=. Ni,,a$iita *$en follo*ed ' a consonant, ma', remain
unc$an,ed.
")amples
0i1 ta.m d$amma.m kata.m.
0ii1 ta.m k$a.na.m.
0iii1 ta.m patto.
->. Ni,,a$iita, follo*ed ' a consonant, ma' e transformed
to t$e nasal of t$e class to *$ic$ t$at consonant elon,s.
")amples
0i1 ra.na.m 4 ja$o = rana;nja$o.
0ii1 ta.n$a.m 4 karo = ta.n$a:nkaro.
0iii1 sa.m 4 .t$ito = sa.n.t$ito.
0iv1 juti.m 4 d$aro = jutind$aro.
0v1 sa.m 4 mato = sammato.
0vi1 eva.m 4 k$o = eva:n k$o.
0vii1 d$amma.m 4 ca = d$amma;nca.
0viii1 ta.m 4 niccuta.m = tanniccuta.m.
%emar&s' .efore initial l, t$e ni,,a$ita of sa.m and pu.m is
c$an,ed to l(
0i1 sa.m 4 lakk$a.naa = sallakk$a.naa.
0ii1 pa.ti sa.m liino = pa.tisalliino.
0iii1 sa.m 4 lekko = sallek$o.
0iv1 pu.m 4 li:n,a.m = pulli:n,a.m.
%A. Ni,,a$iita, follo*ed ' e or $ is c$an,ed to ;n;n and
;n$ respectivel'.
0i1 ta.m 4 eva = ta;n;neva.
0ii1 paccantara.m 4 eva = paccantara;n;neva.
0iii1 eva.m 4 $i k$o = eva;n$i k$o.
0iv1 ta.m 4 $itassa = ta;n$itassa.
%". ' follo*in, ni,,a$iita, ecomes assimilated to it, and
ot$ to,et$er ma' ecome ;n;n(
0i1 sa.m 4 'utta.m = sa;n;nutta.m.
0ii1 sa.m 4 'o,o = sa;n;no,o.
%emar&s' Not seldom, no coalescence takes place, and ot$
letters remain unc$an,ed( sa.m'utta.m& sa.m'ojana.m.
%+. F$en precedin, a vo*el, ni,,a$iita ecomes m(
0i1 ta.m 4 att$a.m = tam att$a.m.
0ii1 'a.m 4 aa$u = 'am aa$u.
0iii1 ki.m 4 eta.m = kim eta.m.
%emar&s' Bules -> and %+, are not strictl' ad$ered to in
te?ts edited in Boman c$aracters& in prose aove all,
ni,,a$iita is allo*ed to remain unc$an,ed efore a vo*el or
a consonant, even in t$e middle of a *ord sometimes& in
poetr', t$e retention of ni,,a$iita or its c$an,e to m efore
a vo*el, is re,ulated ' t$e e?i,encies of t$e metres.
%-. Sometimes, ni,,a$iita efore a vo*el, ma' ecome d(
0i1 eta.m 4 att$o = etadatt$o.
0ii1 eta.m 4 eva = etadeva.
0iii1 eta.m 4 avoca = etadavoca.
0iv1 'a.m 4 anantara.m = 'adanantara.m.
0v1 'a.m 4 ida.m = 'adida.m.
%emar&s' #$e c$an,e of ni,,a$iita into d is more 5ctitious
t$an real& in most e?amples, t$e d is simpl' a survivance.
0See Insertion of consonants1.
%%. Ni,,a$iita, efore a vo*el or a consonant ma' e elided(
0i1 taasa.m 4 a$a.m santike = taasaa$a.m santike.
0ii1 ari'asaccaana.m 4 dassana.m =
ari'asaccaanadassana.m.
0iii1 eta.m udd$aana.m 4 saasana.m = eta.m
udd$aanasaasana.m.
%3. A ni,,a$iita ma' sometimes e inserted efore a vo*el
or a consonant(
0i1 ava siro = ava.msiro.
0ii1 manopua ,amaa = manopua:n,amaa.
0iii1 cakk$u 4 udapaadi = cakk$u.m udapaadi.
0iv1 'aava cGid$a $ikk$ave = 'aava;ncGid$a.
%). After ni,,a$iita, a vo*el ma' e elided(
0i1 ki.m 4 iti = kinti.
0ii1 ida.m 4 api = ida.m pi.
0iii1 cakka.m 4 iva = cakka.m va.
0iv1 kali.m 4 idaani = kali.m Gdaani or kalin daani.
Interchange of Letters
%<. Not unfre9uentl' an interc$an,e of letters takes place(
0i1 d$ ecomes $& rud$ira = ru$ira.
0ii1 d ecomes t& su,ado = su,ato.
0iii1 t ecomes .t& pa$ato = pa$a.to.
0iv1 t ecomes d& ,antaa = ,andaa.
0v1 , ecomes k& $att$upa,a = $att$upaka.
0vi1 r ecomes l& paripanno = palipanno.
0vii1 ' ecomes j& ,ava'o = ,avajo.
0viii1 k ecomes '& sake pure = sa'e pure.
0i?1 j ecomes '& nija.mputta.m = ni'a.mputta.m.
0?1 t ecomes k& ni'ato = ni'ako.
0?i1 k ecomes k$& nikamati = nik$amati.
Signs
%=. As $as alread' een said a das$ 0/1 indicates a lon,
vo*el(
0i1 a$a.m sakk$ii a$a.m sakk$ii = I am *itnessJ
0ii1 pajjalantaani paatakuu.taani maalaa,u.la$aava.m
aapannaani disvaa = seein, t$e laEin, mountain peaks $ad
turned into nose,a's.....
%>. 6rasis, t$e contraction of t*o s'llales into one, is s$o*n
' t$e circum2e? accent 0K1(
0i1 saad$u $oti, lacc$asLti. all ri,$tJ 'ouGll ,et it.
0ii1 ta.m... ,a.n$issaamLti. IGll seiEe $imJ
%emar&s' In most te?ts, crasis is e?pressed ' a 0/1 das$, as
used for t$e lon, vo*els.
3A. #$e elision of a vo*el is e?pressed ' an apostrop$e 0G1(
0i1 ekenGuuno = ekena uuno.
0ii1 idaanGeva = idaani eva.
0iii1 piGssa = pi assa.
0iv1 tassGekadivasa.m = tassa ekadivasa.m.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter III
Assimilation
3". #$e matter included in t$is c$apter s$ould per$aps $ave
come under t$e $ead of Hsand$iH for assimilation is not$in,
ut c$an,es t$at occur for t$e sake of eup$on'.
I $ave remarked t$at, alt$ou,$ t$e rules of sand$i, as
e?plained in t$e precedin, c$apter, are readil' understood
and applied ' t$e 'oun, students, t$e la*s of assimilation
puEEle t$em not a little, and retard t$eir readin, muc$ more
t$an is necessar'. #$e diMcult' t$us e?perienced arises from
t$eir i,norance of Sanskrit, *it$out at least a sli,$t
kno*led,e of *$ic$, t$e stud' of Paali ecomes sensil'
more diMcult.
In t$e follo*in, para,rap$s, I s$all tr' and e?plain as
succinctl' and as clearl' as possile, t$e rules of
assimilation. #$e student cannot e too muc$ recommended
to stud' t$orou,$l' t$is c$apter and to refer to it constantl'
in t$e course of $is studies.
3+. Assimilation is t$e lendin, into one of t*o consonantal
sounds. It involves t$e c$an,e of one sound to anot$er of
t$e same series, ut sometimes also to a sound of anot$er
series. 0See c$art at end of para )1.
3-. Assimilation is of t*o kinds(
0i1 #$e initial consonant is assimilated to t$e 5nal consonant
of t$e precedin, *ord. #$is is called Pro,ressive Assimilation.
0ii1 #$e 5nal consonant of t$e precedin, *ord is assimilated
to t$e initial consonant of t$e *ord t$at follo*s. #$is is called
Be,ressive Assimilation.
I' Progressive Assimilation
0a1 Nla, 0to clin,1 4 na = la,na = la,,a 0clun,1.
01 Nud$ 0to kno*1 4 ta = ud$ta = udd$a 0kno*n1.
It *ill e remarked t$at in e?ample 0a1 t$e n 0dental1 $as
een assimilated to t$e , *$ic$ elon,s to anot$er series
0,utteral1. In 01, t$e t, ecome d, assimilates to t$e
precedin, d$, ot$ ein, sounds of t$e same series
0dentals1.
II' %egressive Assimilation
0a1 Nlip 0to smear1 4 ta = lipta = litta 0smeared1.
01 Ndam 0to sudue1 4 ta = damta = danta 0sudued1.
In t$ese t*o e?amples, p in 0a1, is assimilated to initial t and
passes to anot$er series of sounds. In 01, m like*ise passin,
to anot$er series, assimilates itself to t and ecomes n.
General %ules of Assimilation
3%. Assimilation takes place mostl' in t$e formation of t$e
Passive 8oice, t$e Passive Perfect Participle, t$e ase of
vers of t$e t$ird conju,ation, of t$e In5nitive, Gerund, t$e
Potential Passive Participle and in t$e formation of t$e
Desiderative& also under t$e in2uence of certain suM?es in
t$e derivation of *ords.
33. In Paali, re,ressive assimilation is t$e more common.
3). F$en a mute meets *it$ an initial mute 0non/nasal1,
t$ere is re,ressive assimilation ,enerall', t$at is t$e 5rst
consonant is assimilated to t$e second(
0i1 sak 4 ta = sakta = satta.
0ii1 sak 4 t$i = sakt$i = satt$i.
3<. A ,uttural assimilates t$e follo*in, dental(
0i1 la, 4 na = la,na = la,,a.
0ii1 sak 4 no = sakno = sakko 4 ti = sakkoti.
3=. A ,utteral assimilates a 5nal dental(
0i1 ud 4 kamaapeti = ukkamaapeti.
0ii1 tad 4 karo = takkaro.
0iii1 ud 4 ,acc$ati = u,,acc$ati.
3>. A 5nal palatal
"
ein, follo*ed ' a dental surd or sonore,
assimilates it into a lin,ual(
0i1 Nmaj 4 ta = ma.t.t$a or ma.t.ta.
0ii1 Npucc$ 4 ta = pu.t.t$a.
0iii1 Nicc$ 4 ta = i.t.t$a.
0a1 j $o*ever sometimes is assimilated to t$e follo*in, t(
0iv1 N$uj 4 ta = $utta.
01 c also ecomes assimilated to t(
0v1 Nmuc 4 ta = mutta.
"
#o etter understand t$ese c$an,es, t$e student ou,$t to
ear in mind t$at no *ord can end in a palatal nor in $,
ecause t$ese letters are not primitive letters t$e palatals
$ave sprun, into e?istence from t$e contact of ,utteral
consonants *it$ certain vo*els& and $ represents an old ,$
and is t$e aspirate of j& t$e ori,inal ,utturals, t$erefore,
reappear at t$e end of *ords eit$er pure or transformed into
a lin,ual, and t$en assimilate or are assimilated ' t$e
follo*in, dental. For instance( Npucc$ = pu.t$ 4 ta =
pu.t.t$a, ut, Nmuc = muk 4 ta = mukta = mutta& N$uj =
$uk 4 ta = $ukta = $utta& a,ain, Nmaj = ma.t 0.t =
Sansk. s1 4 ta = ma.t.ta. In Sansk., Nm.rj 4 ta = mrsta =
0Paali(1 ma.t.ta.
)A. .ut an initial palatal assimilates a 5nal dental in palatal(
0i1 ud 4 cinati = uccinati.
0ii1 ud 4 c$edii = ucc$edii.
0iii1 ud 4 jala = ujjala.
0iv1 ud 4 j$aa'ati = ujj$aa'ati.
)". A 5nal lin,ual assimilates a follo*in, surd dental, 0t1(
Nku.t.t 4 ta = ku.t.t$a.
)+. A 5nal dental is assimilated to t$e follo*in, consonant(
0i1 ud 4 ,a.n$aati = u,,a.n$aati.
0ii1 ud 4 k$ipati = ukk$ipati.
0iii1 ud 4 c$indati = ucc$indati.
0iv1 ud 4 j$aa'ati = ujj$aa'ati.
0v1 ud 4 saa$a = ussaa$a.
0vi1 ud 4 ti.n.na = utti.n.na.
0vii1 ud 4 loketi = ulloketi.
)-. F$en initial t, follo*s a sonant aspirate, t$e assimilation
is pro,ressive( t$e 5nal sonant aspirate loses its aspiration,
t$e follo*in, t 0surd1 ecomes sonant, viE& d, and takin, t$e
aspiration *$ic$ t$e 5nal sonant $as lost, ecomes d$.
")amples
Nrud$ 4 ta = rud$ 4 da = rud 4 d$a = rudd$a.
%emar&' In t$e case of 5nal $, initial t $avin, ecome d$,
re,ressive assimilation takes place& Nla$ 4 ta = la$ 4 d =
la 4 d$a = ladd$a.
)%. .efore an initial dental surd, a ,uttural or a laial surd
unaspirate is ,enerall' assimilated(
0i1 tap 4 ta = tapta = tatta.
0ii1 sak 4 ta = sakta = satta.
0iii1 sakt 4 $i = sakt$i = satt$i.
0iv1 kam 4 ta = kamta = kanta.
)3. An initial laial ,enerall' assimilates a precedin, dental
surd or sonant unaspirate(
0i1 tad 4 purisa = tappurisa.
0ii1 ud 4 $ijjati = u$ijjati.
0iii1 ud 4 pajjati = uppajjati.
0iv1 ud 4 majjati = ummajjati.
)). A 5nal laial ma' assimilate an initial nasal(
paap 4 no 4 ti = paapno 4 ti = pappoti.
Assimilation of +asals
)<. Final m efore t is assimilated(
N,am 4 tvaa = ,amtvaa = ,antvaa.
)=. #$e ,roup sm is preserved( tasmi.m, $asmaa, asmaa,
usmaa.
)>. An initial nasal assimilates a precedin, dental(
ud 4 ma,,a = un 4 ma,,a = umma,,a.
%emar&' Iere 5nal d, ein, efore a nasal, is 5rst c$an,ed
to t$e nasal of its class, t$at is n, and t$is n 0dental1 is t$en
assimilated to m 0laial1. So for ,antvaa in 0)<1.
0i1 ud 4 nadati = unnadati.
0ii1 Nc$id 4 na = c$inna.
Assimilation of ,
<A. ' is re,ularl' assimilated to t$e precedin, consonant '
pro,ressive assimilation.
<". #$e assimilation of ' takes place principall' in t$e
Passive 8oice in t$e formation of veral ases of t$e -rd
conju,ation, of some ,erunds and of numerous derived
nouns.
0i1 N,am 4 'a = ,am'a = ,amma.
0ii1 Npac 4 'a = pac'a = pacca.
0iii1 Nmad 4 'a = mad'a = majja.
0iv1 N$a.n 4 'a = $an'a = $a;n;na.
0v1 Ndiv 4 'a = divva = dia.
0vi1 Nk$aad 4 'a = k$aad'a = k$ajja 0-%1.
0vii1 Nk$an 4 'a = k$an'a = k$a;n;na.
<+. #$is rule $olds ,ood also in t$e middle of a compound
*ord( 5nal i $avin, ecome ' ' Bule +< 0i1 0a1, is
assimilated to t$e precedin,, consonant, and t$e follo*in,
*ord is joined on to form a compound.
")amples
0i1 pali
+
4 a:nko = pal' a:nkso = palla:nko.
0ii1 vipali
+
4 aaso = vipal' aaso = vipallaaso.
0iii1 vipali 4 att$a.m = vipal' att$a.m = vipallatt$a.m.
0iv1 api 4 ekacce = ap' ekacce = appekacce.
0v1 api 4 ekadaa = ap' ekadaa = appekadaa.
0vi1 a$i 4 u,,acc$ati = a$' u,,acc$ati = a$u,,acc$ati.
0vii1 a$i 4 okira.na.m = a$' okira.na.m = a$okira.na.m.
0viii1 a$i 4 a;njana.m = a$' a;njana.m =
a$a;njana.m.
0i?1 aani 4 aa'o = aanv aa'o = a;n;naa'o. 0-%, -31
+
#$e preposition pari, is often c$an,ed into pali.
<-. .' far t$e most common c$an,es occurrin, t$rou,$ t$e
assimilation of ' 05nal as in t$e aove e?amples1 or of '
0initial as in <"1, take place *$en t$e dental surd unaspirate
t or t$e dental sonore aspirate or unaspirate d, d$, precedes.
#o state t$e rule s$ortl'(
<%. 0i1 5nal ti 4 an' dissimilar vo*el ecomes cc 4 t$at
vo*el.
0ii1 5nal d$i 4 an' dissimilar vo*el ecomes jj$ 4 t$at vo*el.
0iii1 5nal di 4 an' dissimilar vo*el ecomes jj 4 t$at vo*el.
0iv1 5nal t 4 ' = cc.
0v1 5nal d 4 ' = jj.
0vi1 5nal d$ 4 ' = jj$.
")amples
0i1 ati 4 anta.m = at' anta.m = accanta.m.
0ii1 pati 4 a'o = pat' a'o = pacca'o.
0iii1 pati 4 eti = pat' eti = pacceti.
0iv1 iti 4 assa = it' assa = iccassa.
0v1 iti 4 aadi = it' aadi = iccaadi.
0vi1 jaati 4 and$o = jaat' and$o = jaccand$o. 0-%, -31
0vii1 ad$i 4 aa,amo = ad$' aa,amo = ajj$aa,amo.
0viii1 ad$i 4 o,aa$itvaa = ad$' o,aa$itvaa = ajj$o,aa$itvaa.
0i?1 ad$i 4 upa,ato = ad$' upa,ato = ajj$upa,ato.
0?1 ad$i 4 eti = ad$' eti = ajj$eti.
0?i1 nadii 4 aa = nad' aa = najjaa.
0?ii1 'adi 4 eva.m = 'ad' eva.m = 'ajjeva.m.
0?iii1 sat 4 'a = sat'a = sacca.
0?iv1 pa.n.dita 4 'a = pa.n.dit'a = pa.n.dicca.
0?v1 Nmad 4 'a = mad'a = majja.
0?vi1 Nvad 4 'a = vad'a = vajja.
0?vii1 Nrud$ 4 'a = rud$'a = rujj$a.
<3. Final t$ 4 ' = cc$(
tat$ 4 'a = tat$'a = tacc$a.
<). A 5nal siilant ma' assimilate a follo*in, '(
0i1 Npas 4 'a = pas'a = passa.
0ii1 Ndis 4 'a = dis'a = dissa.
<<. v 4 ' ecomes (
0i1 Ndiv 4 'a = div'a = dia.
0ii1 Nsiv 4 'a = siv'a = sia.
%emar&s' At t$e e,innin, of a *ord, $o*ever, t$e ' 0t$e
semi/vo*el of i1 is retained, and v, is c$an,ed to (
0i1 vi 4 aakara.na.m = v'aakara.na.m = 'aakara.na.m.
0ii1 vi 4 a;njana.m = v'a;njana.m = 'a;njana.m.
<=. F$en ' follo*s $, metat$esis, t$e transposition of
letters, takes place(
0i1 Nsa$ 4 'a = sa$'a, and ' metat$esis = sa'$a.
0ii1 N,u$ 4 'a = ,u$'a = ,u'$a.
<>. Initial ', ma' assimilate a 5nal dental, non/nasal(
0i1 ud 4 'u;njati = u''u;njati.
0ii1 ud 4 'aati = u''aati.
0iii1 ud 4 'aana = u''aana.
Assimilation of %
=A. Final r is often assimilated to a follo*in, mute(
0i1 Nkar 4 taa = kattaa.
0ii1 Nkar 4 taa = kattaa.
0iii1 Nkar 4 'a = ka''a.
0iv1 Nd$ar 4 ma = d$amma.
=". 8er' often too, 5nal r is dropped(
0i1 Nmar 4 ta = mata.
0ii1 Nkar 4 ta = kata.
=+. Sometimes, r $avin, een dropped, t$e vo*el a efore it,
is len,t$ened(
0i1 Nkar 4 taa = kaataa.
0ii1 Nkar 4 tu.m = kaatu.m.
=-. r follo*ed ' n, lin,ualiEes t$e n, and t$en ecomes
assimilated to it(
Ncar 4 na = car.na = ci.n.na.
#$e student *ill understand t$e insertion of i *$en readin,
t$e c$apter on Passive Perfect Participles.
=%. Final r ma' e assimilated to a follo*in, l(
dur 0=du1 4 la$o = dulla$o.
Assimilation of S
=3. s 0or sa1 is assimilated ' t$e precedin, consonant,
$avin, 5rst een transformed into a ,utteral or a palatal.
=). Final j 4 sa = kk$a(
0i1 titij 4 sa = titikk$a.
0ii1 u$uj 4 sa = u$ukk$a.
=<. Final p 4 sa = cc$a(
ji,up 4 sa = ji,ucc$a.
==. Final t 4 sa = cc$(
tikit 4 sa = tikicc$a.
=>. Final s 4 sa = cc$a(
ji,$as 4 sa = ji,$acc$a.
>A. Final s assimilates a follo*in, '(
Nnas 4 'a = nassa. 0See para <)1.
>". .ut sometimes t$e comination remains unc$an,ed(
alasa 4 'a = aalas'a.
>+. Final s, assimilates an initial t into a lin,ual(
0i1 Nkas 4 ta = ka.t.t$a.
0ii1 Nkilis 4 ta = kili.t.t$a.
0iii1 Ndas 4 ta = da.t.t$a.
>-. Initial s assimilates a precedin, dental(
0i1 ud 0or ut1 4 saa$a = ussaa$a.
0ii1 ud 0or ut1 4 suka = ussuka.
>%. Prett' often, s 4 t = t(
Nj$as 4 ta = j$atta.
>3. Sometimes too, s 4 t = tt$(
Nvas 4 ta = vutt$a.
Assimilation of -
>). Initial $ sometimes is c$an,ed to t$e mute aspirate of
t$e class of t$e precedin, 5nal consonant(
0i1 ud 4 $arati = udd$arati.
0ii1 ud 4 $ara.na = udd$ara.na.
0iii1 ud 4 $ata 0N$an1 = udd$ata.
><. F$en 5nal $ is follo*ed ' a nasal, t$e ,roup ,enerall'
under,oes metat$esis 0see <=, note1(
N,a$ 4 .na = ,a$.na = ,a.n$a.
>=. Metat$esis also occurs in t$e ,roups $' and $v(
0i1 ma$'a.m ecomes ma'$a.m.
0ii1 oru$ 4 'a ecomes oru'$a.
0iii1 ji$vaa ecomes jiv$aa.
%emar&s' 8er' seldom, $ is assimilated to t$e follo*in, ',
le$ 4 'a = le''a.
>>. $ is sometimes c$an,ed to ,$
-
& principall' in t$e root
$an, to kill.
$anati, to kill, or ,$a.teti, to kill.
,$a;n;na, killin,, from N$an 0$an or ,$an 4 'a =
,$a;n;na1. ,$ammati, to ,o = $ammati, to ,o.
-
It must e rememered t$at $ is t$e aspirate of j, since it
no* represents an ancient ,$ 03>, note1, and t$erefore, in
eup$on', it is treated e?actl' as j, t$at is to sa' *$en 5nal it
ecomes sometimes k and sometimes t. #$e aove rules,
*$ic$ ma' seem aritrar' are familiar to t$e Sanskritist.
"AA. Final $ 4 t ecomes ,enerall' dd$a(
Ndu$ 4 ta = dudd$a.
"A". Sometimes also $ 4 t = d$(
Nli$ 4 tu.m = led$u.m.
0For t$e c$an,e of i to e see HStren,t$enin,H1
"A+. It $as een said aove 0<1 t$at .l is ver' often
interc$an,eale *it$ .d& *$en t$e .d is aspirate viE, .d$, its
sustitute also ecomes aspirate, viE., .l$.
No*, accordin, to para 0"A"1, *e $ave seen t$at $ 4 t
ecomes .d$& for t$is .d$ ma' e sustituted .l$, so t$at *e
$ave t$e follo*in, form(
Nmu$ 4 ta = muu.d$a = muu.l$a.
Nru$ 4 ta = ruu.d$a = ruu.l$a.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter IV
Strengthening
!a$ Strengthening Process
"A-. Stren,t$enin, is t$e process of c$an,in, a vo*el sound
into anot$er vo*el sound.
"A%. #$e vo*els *$ic$ under,o stren,t$enin, are( a, i, ii, u
and uu.
"A3. #$us(
a ein, stren,t$ened, ecomes aa.
i ein, stren,t$ened, ecomes e.
ii ein, stren,t$ened, ecomes e.
u ein, stren,t$ened, ecomes o.
uu ein, stren,t$ened, ecomes o.
"A). #$e result t$us otained is also called ,u.na 09ualit'1.
"A<. #$erefore, t$e ,u.na of a is aa, t$at of i and ii is e, t$at
of u and uu is o.
"A=. Furt$er, as *e alread' kno* 0' rules +<0i1a, +<0ii11,
5nal e and o *$en follo*ed ' a vo*el ma' e c$an,ed into
t$eir semi/vo*el 4 t$at vo*el.
"A>. #$e follo*in, tale of t$ese ver' useful c$an,es s$ould
e orne in mind.
Simple
vo*el
Stren,t$enin, or
,u.na
8o*el and semi/
vo*el
a aa none
i, ii e a'
u, uu o av
""A. Stren,t$enin, occurs fre9uentl' in t$e formation of
veral ases, of 8erals 0See c$apter on 8ers1 and in t$e
derivation of *ords under t$e in2uence of certain suM?es.
%emar&s' In t$e derivation of Primar' and Secondar' Nouns
0see Derivation1, it *ill simplif' matters to assume at once
t$at(
i or ii 4 a = a'a.
u or uu 4 a = ava.
e 4 a = a'a.
o 4 a = ava.
!b$ .etathesis
""". C?amples of metat$esis $ave alread' 0<=1 een ,iven.
""+. Metat$esis is t$e transposition of letters or of s'llales
in a *ord& t$e follo*in, are furt$er instances of t$is
transposition(
0i1 pari'udaa$aasi ecomes pa'irudaa$aasi.
0ii1 ari'a ecomes a'ira.
0iii1 kari'aa ecomes ka'iraa.
0iv1 masaka ecomes makasa.
0v1 rasmi ecomes ra.msi.
0vi1 na a$ine''a ecomes ana$ine''a.
0vii1 cilimikaa ecomes cimilikaa.
!c$ "penthesis
""-. Cpent$esis is t$e insertion of a letter in t$e middle of a
*ord.
""%. Cpent$esis is resorted to mostl' to avoid a $iatus of t$e
collocation of consonants of di@erent or,ans(
")amples
0i1 klesa ecomes kilesa.
0ii1 aacaar'a ecomes aacaari'a.
0iii1 tia:n,ula ecomes tiva:n,ula.
0iv1 $'o ecomes $ii'o or $i''o.
0v1 ar$isa ecomes ari$isa.
0vi1 $rada ecomes $arada.
0vii1 ar$ati ecomes ara$ati.
0viii1 srii ecomes sirii.
0i?1 $rii ecomes $irii.
0?1 plavati ecomes pilavati.
!$ /ropping of S#llables
""3. Sometimes, for t$e sake of t$e metre, or to facilitate
pronunciation, *$ole s'llales are dropped(
0i1 a$i;n;naa'a sacc$ikatvaa, ecomes, a$i;n;naa
sacc$ikatvaa.
0ii1 jamudiipa.m avekk$anto addasa, ecomes,
jamudiipa.m avekk$anto adda.
0iii1 dasasa$assii, ecomes, dasa$assi.
0iv1 c$ada:n,ula, ecomes, c$a:n,ula.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter V
/eclension
""). 0a1 Declension is t$e addin, to t$e stems of nouns and
adjectives certain suM?es *$ic$ s$o* case, ,ender and
numer.
01 #$e stem or ase of a noun is t$at noun as it stands
efore an' suM? $as een added to it.
0c1 Paali $as t$ree ,enders( t$e masculine, t$e feminine and
t$e neuter.
0d1 Paali does not strictl' follo* t$e natural division of male,
female, etc, in assi,nin, ,ender to nouns, man' nouns *$ic$
are masculine in Cn,lis$ are feminine or neuter in Paali and
vice/versa& a ,reat numer of nouns *$ic$ *e consider as
neuter are, some masculine, some feminine in Paali. #$is is
called ,rammatical ,ender.
0e1 #$ere are t*o numers( t$e sin,ular and t$e plural.
0f1 #$ere are ei,$t cases.
". Nominative, s$o*in, t$e suject of t$e sentence.
+. Genitive, s$o*in, possession 0of, Gs1.
-. Dative, s$o*in, t$e oject or person to or for *$om
somet$in, is ,iven or done.
%. Accusative, t$is is t$e oject of t$e sentence.
3. Instrumentive, s$o*s t$e oject or person *it$ or '
*$om somet$in, is performed.
). Alative, ,enerall' s$o*in, separation, e?pressed '
from.
<. !ocative, s$o*in, place 0in, on, at, upon, etc.1.
=. 8ocative, used in addressin, persons.
%emar&s' #$e student *ill 5nd fuller e?planations of t$e
uses of t$e cases in t$e c$apter on S'nta?.
""<. #$e declension of nouns is divided into t*o ,reat
divisions(
0a1 8o*el/declension, comprisin, all t$e stems t$at end in a
vo*el.
01 6onsonantal declension, in *$ic$ are included all t$e
stems endin, in a consonant.
0c1 8o*el/declension is ,enerall', for t$e sake of clearness,
divided a,ain into t$ree classes(
0i1 t$e declension of stems endin, in a or aa.
0ii1 t$e declension of stems endin, in i or ii.
0iii1 t$e declension of stems endin, in u or uu.
""=. 0a1 Native ,rammarians ,ive t$e follo*in, as t$e
re,ular case endin,s or suM?es for all nouns.
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
s
Nom
.
'o
Gen. ssa Gen. na.m
Dat. ssa Dat. na.m
Acc. a.m Acc. 'o
Ins. aa Ins. $i
Al. smaa Al. $i
!oc. smi.m !oc. su
8oc.
0like t$e stem of
Nom.1
8oc.
0like t$e
Nom.1
01 Most of t$e aove suM?es are t$eoretical onl', in practice
t$e' di@er consideral' accordin, to ,ender and case. #$e
actual suM?es *ill e ,iven *it$ eac$ declension.
Vowel /eclension
/eclension of stems ening in a !short$
"">. 0a1 #$e ,reat ulk of nouns and adjectives elon, to
t$is declension, and as t$e ot$er declensions $ave orro*ed
several of its suM?es, its t$orou,$ master' is most
important and *ill ,reatl' facilitate t$e stud' of t$e ot$er
declensions.
01 Nouns endin, in a, are all masculine or neuter.
"+A. #$e follo*in, are t$e suM?es of masculine nouns t$e
stem of *$ic$ ends in a(
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
o
Nom
.
aa,
aase
Gen. ssa Gen. na.m
Dat. ssa, aa'a Dat. na.m
Acc. .m Acc. e
Ins. ina Ins.
e$i,
e$i
Al.
aa, smaa, m$aa,
to
Al.
e$i,
e$i
!oc. i, smi.m, m$i !oc. su
8oc.
0like t$e stem1 and
aa
8oc. a
"+". #$ese suM?es $ave to e attac$ed to t$e stems, takin,
care to oserve t$e sand$i rules *$ic$ ma' appl' *$en
suM?es e,in *it$ a vo*el& in ever' case t$e student s$ould
accustom $imself to look up t$e rules, *$ic$ *ill e referred
to ' t$eir numers, and accustom $imself to account for
ever' form $e meets *it$, *$et$er nominal, veral or
derivative. Ie s$ould rememer t$at a s'stematic stud'
from t$e start *ill ensure t$orou,$ness and eventuall' save
$im a ,reat deal of laour and time.
"++. Declension of deva, ,od, an,el
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
devo, a ,od devaa, ,ods
Gen. devassa, a ,odGs devaana.m, ,odsG, of ,ods
Dat. devassa, to or for a ,od devaana.m, to or for ,ods
Acc. deva.m, a ,od deve, ,ods
Ins.
devena, ', *it$ or on
account of, a ,od
deve$i, deve$i, ', *it$,
or on account, of ,ods
Al.
devaa, devasmaa,
devam$aa, devato, from a
,od
deve$i, deve$i, from ,ods
!oc.
deve, in, on, or upon a ,od
devasmi.m, on, or upon a
,od
devam$i, on, or upon, a
,od
devesu, in, on, or upon
,ods
8oc. deva, devaa, D ,odJ devaa, D ,odsJ
")ercise' Decline like deva 0masc.1(
nara, man.
maata:n,a, elep$ant.
'a,,$a, ti,er.
sii$a, lion.
mi,a, deer.
orod$a, a sera,lio.
,and$aa, musician.
d$amma, doctrine, ri,$t.
kacc$apa, tortoise.
putta, son.
satta, ein,.
kuupa, a mast.
su.msumaara, crocodile.
makara, a sea monster.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e true Dat. sin,. in aa'a $as no* ,enerall' een
displaced ' t$e suM? of t$e ,en. ssa& t$e Dat. aa'a is
almost e9ual to an ln5nitive and mostl' denotes intention.
01 smaa and m$aa of t$e Al. and smi.m and m$i of t$e !oc.
$ave een orro*ed from t$e pronominal declension 0see
Declension of Pronouns1.
0c1 so is sometimes used also as an Al. sin,. suM?(
va,,aso, ' ,roups, $aa,aso, ' s$are.
0d1 saa is also found as an Ins. sin,. suM?, as( alasaa, '
force, forcil', talasaa, *it$ t$e sole of t$e foot.
0e1 #$e Nom. plur. in aase, ver' scarce, corresponds to t$e
8edic Nom. plur.
0f1 e$i, of t$e Ins. and Al. plural, is mostl' used in poetr',
and proal' comes from t$e 8edic /e$is.
0,1 .efore o, Nom. sin,., e$i, e$i, Ins. and Al. plur. and e,
Acc. plur. 5nal a of t$e stem is dropped( deva 4 o = dev 4 o
= devo, deva 4 e$i = dev 4 e$i = deve$i.
0$1 .efore su, !oc. plur. 5nal a of stem is c$an,ed to e.
0i1 In t$e Dat., Ins., Al. and !oc. sin,.& and in Nom. and 8oc.
plur. t$e usual rules of Sand$i are re,ularl' follo*ed(
Sin,ular
Ins.
deva 4 ina =
devena
0+"/
i1
Dat.
deva 4 aa'a =
devaa'a
0++1
!oc. deva 4 i = deve
0+"/
i1
Al. deva 4 aa = devaa 0++1
Plural
Nom
.
deva 4 a = devaa
deva 4 aase =
devaase
0iid
1
8oc. devaa 4 a = devaa
0iid
1
0j1 .efore na.m, Gen. and Dat. plur., 5nal a of t$e stem is
len,t$ened.
deva 4 na.m = devaa 4 na.m = devaana.m.
"+-. Neuter nouns in a 0s$ort1
Su0)es
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
.m ni, a
Gen. ssa na.m
Dat. ssa, aa'a na.m
Acc. .m ni, e
Ins. ina
e$i,
e$i
Al.
aa, smaa,
m$aa, to
e$i,
e$i
!oc. i, smi.m, m$i su
8oc. 0like t$e stem1 ni, a
"+%. Declension of ruupa 0neuter1, form
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ruupa.m
ruupaani,
ruupaa
Gen. ruupassa ruupaana.m
Dat. ruupassa, ruupaa'a ruupaana.m
Acc. ruupa.m ruupaani, ruupe
Ins. ruupena
ruupe$i,
ruupe$i
Al.
rupaa, ruupasmaa, ruupam$aa,
ruupato
ruupe$i,
ruupe$i
!oc. ruupe, ruupasmi.m, ruupam$i ruupesu
8oc. ruupa
ruupaani,
ruupaa
%emar&s'
0a1 ni is essentiall' t$e distinctive si,n of neuter nouns in t$e
Nom., Acc., and 8oc. plur. in all declensions.
01 #$e 5nal vo*el of t$e stem is len,t$ened efore ni.
")ercise' Decline like ruupa(
citta, mind.
sota, ear.
muula, root, price.
ve.luri'a, coral.
upa.t.t$aana, service.
a$ata, clot$ 0ne*1.
jala, *ater.
osaana, end.
lo.na, salt.
savana, $earin,.
vajira, diamond.
saa.taka, ,arment.
vaata, *ind.
pesana, despatc$, sendin,.
'otta, rope.
pa.t.tana, a sea port.
'udd$a, 5,$t.
pa.n.na, leaf.
%emar&s'
0a1 It *ill e noticed t$at neuter nouns in a di@er from t$e
masculine in a, in t$e Nom. sin,. and in t$e Nom. Acc. and
8oc. plur.& all t$e ot$er cases are identical.
01 In t$e plur. t$e Nom., Acc. and 8oc. $ave t$e same form.
0c1 #$e form in aani, of t$e Nom., Acc. and 8oc. plur. is t$e
most common.
/eclension of nouns in aa !long$
"+3. All nouns endin, in aa are feminine.
"+). SuM?es
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
/
aa,
'o
Gen. aa'a na.m
Dat. aa'a na.m
Acc. .m
aa,
'o
Ins. aa'a
$i,
$i
Al. aa'a, to
$i,
$i
!oc.
aa'a.m,
aa'a
su
8oc. e
aa,
'o
"+<. Declension of ka;n;naa 0fem.1, a vir,in
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ka;n;naa
ka;n;naa,
ka;n;naa'o
Gen. ka;n;naa'a ka;n;naana.m
Dat. ka;n;naa'a ka;n;naana.m
Acc. ka;n;na.m
ka;n;naa,
ka;n;naa'o
Ins. ka;n;naa'a
ka;n;naa$i,
ka;n;naa$i
Al.
ka;n;naa'a,
ka;n;nato
ka;n;naa$i,
ka;n;naa$i
!oc.
ka;n;naa'a.m,
ka;n;naa'a
ka;n;naasu
8oc. ka;n;naa, ka;n;ne
ka;n;naa,
ka;n;naa'o
%emar&s'
0a1 .efore to of t$e Al. sin,. t$e 5nal vo*el, if lon,, is
s$ortened. So also efore .m of Acc. sin,.
01 #$e follo*in, *ords all meanin, mot$er $ave t*o forms
in t$e 8oc. sin,( ammaa amaa annaa taataa 8oc. Sin,.
ammaa amaa annaa taataa amma ama anna taata.
0c1 In t$e Acc. sin,. 5nal aa is s$ortened.
")ercise' Decline like ka;n;naa(
sadd$aa, fait$.
med$aa, intelli,ence.
vijjaa, science.
pa;n;naa, *isdom.
ta.n$aa, lust, t$irst.
mettaa, love.
icc$aa, desire.
$ikk$aa, e,,ed/food.
,aat$aa, stanEa.
maalaa, ,arland.
k$i.d.daa, pla', sport.
puujaa, $onour.
senaa, arm'.
c$aa'aa, s$ado*.
naavaa, oat.
pipaasaa, t$irst.
,iivaa, t$roat.
velaa, time.
"+=. Masculine nouns in aa 0lon,1
It $as een said aove 0"+31 t$at all nouns endin, in aa are
feminine& ut t$ere are a ver' fe* e?amples of masculine
nouns endin, in aa. Fe ,ive elo* t$eir declension.
/eclension of saa1 og
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
saa saa
Gen. sassa saana.m
Dat. sassa, saa'a saana.m
Acc. sa.m saane
Ins. sena
saa$i,
saa$i
Al.
saa, sasmaa,
sam$aa
saa$i,
saa$i
!oc.
se, sasmi.m,
sam$i
saasu
8oc. sa saa
%emar&s'
0a1 t$e declension aove ,iven is accordin, to ruupasidd$i
,rammar ook.
01 #$e declension ,iven in t$e Saddaniti di@ers sli,$tl'(

Sin,ula
r
Plural
Nom
.
saa saa, saano
Gen. sassa saana.m
Dat. sassa saana.m
Acc.
saana.
m
saane
Ins. saanaa
saane$i,
saane$i
Al. saanaa
saane$i,
saane$i
!oc. saane saanesu
8oc. sa saa, saano
#$e follo*in, are declined like saa(
paccakk$ad$ammaa, one to *$om t$e Doctrine is
evident.
,a.n.diivand$avaa, Arjuna.
maa, t$e moon.
ra$aaO, sin.
Oniruttidiipanii, a sc$olium on mo,,allaanav'aakara.na, a
,rammar $eld in $i,$ esteem in 6e'lon and .urma.
%emar&s' Masculine nouns in aa elon, to t$e consonantal
declension, ut native ,rammarians, consider t$em as stems
endin, in a vo*el.
/eclension of nouns in i !short$
"+>. Nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in i are masculine,
feminine, and neuter. #$e' do not form a ver' numerous
class.
"-A. Masc. nouns in i
Su0)es
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
/ ii, 'o
Gen. ssa, no na.m
Dat. ssa, no na.m
Acc. .m ii, 'o
Ins. naa
$i,
$i
Al.
naa, smaa,
m$aa
$i,
$i
!oc. smi.m, m$i su
8oc. / ii, 'o
"-". Declension of kapi 0masc.1, monke'
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
kapi kapii, kapa'o
Gen. kapissa, kapino kapiina.m
Dat. kapissa, kapino kapiina.m
Acc. kapi.m kapii, kapa'o
Ins. kapinaa
kapii$i,
kapii$i
Al.
kapinaa, kapismaa,
kapim$aa
kapii$i,
kapii$i
!oc. kapismi.m, kapim$i kapiisu
8oc. kapi kapii, kapa'o
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e Nom. and 8oc. sin,. are like t$e stem.
01 In t$e Nom., Acc. and 8oc. plur., 5nal i is c$an,ed to a
efore suM? 'o.
0c1 Io*ever 5nal i is sometimes preserved efore 'o, so t$at
*e also $ave t$e form kapi'o 0rare1.
0d1 In t$e plural, efore suM?es( na.m, $i, $i, su, 5nal i is
len,t$ened.
0e1 Some rare and old forms are sometimes found(
0i1 Gen. sin,. endin, in /e, as( mune.
0ii1 !oc. sin,. endin, in /o, as( aado, and also
0iii1 !oc. sin,. endin, in /e, as( ,ire.
0iv1 Ins. sin,. endin, in /ena, as( ra.msena.
0v1 Nom. plur. endin, in /no, as( saramatino.
0f1 Not seldom, t$e stem itself is used for almost all t$e cases
in t$e sin,ular.
")ercise' Fords declined like kapi 0masc.1(
a,,i, 5re.
kali, sin.
sand$i, union.
nid$i, a depositor'.
saarat$i, a c$arioteer.
'ati, a monk.
a;njali, salutation.
ari, an enem'.
ondi, od'.
,iri, a mountain.
uumi, a *ave.
ali, olation.
senaapati, a ,eneral.
,a$apati, $ouse$older.
"-+. Feminine nouns in i 0s$ort1
Su0)es

Sin,ula
r
Plural
Nom
.
/ ii, 'o
Gen. aa na.m
Dat. aa na.m
Acc. .m ii, 'o
Ins. aa
$i,
$i
Al. aa
$i,
$i
!oc. aa, a.m su
8oc. / ii, 'o
"--. 0a1 Declension of ratti 0fem.1, ni,$t
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ratti
rattii, ratti'o,
rat'o
Gen. ratti'aa, rat'aa rattiina.m
Dat. ratti'aa, rat'aa rattiina.m
Acc. ratti.m
rattii, ratti'o,
rat'o
Ins. ratti'aa, rat'aa rattii$i, rattii$i
Al. ratti'aa, rat'aa rattii$i, rattii$i
!oc.
rati'aa, rat'aa, ratti'a.m,
rat'a.m
rattiisu
8oc. ratti
rattii, ratti'o,
rat'o
%emar&s'
0a1 #$ere is an ancient !oc. sin,. in o( ratto.
01 An Al. sin,. in to, is also found( rattito.
0c1 In t$e Gen., Dat., Ins., Al. and !oc. sin,. a ' is inserted
et*een t$e stem and t$e suM? aa to avoid a $iatus, 0See
+<0ii1 Bemark +1& so also in t$e !oc. sin,. efore a.m.
0d1 .efore aa, of t$e same cases, 5nal i of t$e stem ma'
ecome ' ' rule +<0i1/a& and as in Paali t$ere can e no
,roup of t$ree consonantsO one t is dropped. Ience *e ,et(
ratti 4 aa = ratt'aa = rat'aa. POC?cept ntr, as in antra, etc.Q
0e1 .efore suM?es, na.m, $i, $i, su of t$e plural, t$e i of t$e
stem is len,t$ened.
01 Declension of jaati 0fem.1, irt$
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
jaati
jaatii, jaati'o,
jat'o, jacco
Gen. jaati'aa, jat'aa, jaccaa jaatiina.m
Dat. jaati'aa, jat'aa, jaccaa jaatiina.m
Acc. jati.m
jaatii, jaati'o,
jat'o, jacco
Ins. jaati'aa, jat'aa, jaccaa jaatii$i, jaatii$i
Al. jaati'aa, jat'aa, jaccaa jaatii$i, jaatii$i
!oc.
jaati'aa, jat'aa, jaccaa, jaati'a.m,
jat'a.m, jacca.m
jaatiisu
8oc. jaati
jaatii, jaati'o,
jat'o, jacco
%emar&s'
0a1 For t$e forms, jaccaa and jacca.m see rule 0<%1.
01 Racco is otained ' t$e assimilation of ' after t$e elision
of 5nal i. 0<", <%1.
0c1 It *ill e remarked t$at, *$ereas in masc. nouns in i t$e i
of t$e stem is c$an,ed to a efore 'o, in fem. nouns it is
retained.
")ercise' Nouns declined like ratti 0fem.1(
$uumi, eart$.
ke.li, amusement.
satti, ailit'.
nandi, jo'.
patti, attainment.
mati, understandin,.
tu.t.t$i, satisfaction.
mutti, deliverance.
aasatti, attac$ment.
vudd$i, increase.
d$uuli, dust.
ruci, splendour.
tanti, a strin,.
c$avi, t$e skin.
,ati, ,oin,, reirt$.
cuti, disappearance.
sati, recollection.
di.t.t$i, si,$t, elief.
"-%. Neuter nouns in i 0s$ort1
Su0)es
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
/ ni, ii
Gen. ssa, no na.m
Dat. ssa, no na.m
Acc. .m ni, ii
Ins. naa
$i,
$i
Al.
naa, smaa,
m$aa
$i,
$i
!oc. smi.m, m$i su
8oc. / nii, ii
/eclension of vaari !neut'$1 water
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
vaari vaariini, vaarii
Gen. vaarissa, vaarino vaarina.m
Dat. vaarissa, vaarino vaarina.m
Acc. vaari.m vaariini, vaarii
Ins. vaarinaa
vaarii$i,
vaarii$i
Al.
vaarinaa, vaarismaa,
vaarim$aa
vaarii$i,
vaarii$i
!oc. vaarismi.m, vaarim$i vaariisu
8oc. vaari vaarini, vaarii
%emar&s'
0a1 #$ere is also found a Nom. sin,. in .m like t$e Acc., as,
a.t.t$i.m, one, akk$i.m, e'e, etc.
01 As usual, 5nal i is len,t$ened efore ni, na.m, $i, $i and
su in t$e plural.
")ercise' Decline like vaari 0neut1(
a.t.t$i, one.
satt$i, t$e t$i,$.
akk$i, e'e.
dad$i, milk curds.
sappi, ,$ee.
acc$i, e'e.
c$adi, roof.
ruupi, silver.
/eclensions of nouns in ii !Iong$
"-3. #$ere are no neuter nouns endin, in ii 0lon,1.
"-). Masculine nouns in ii 0lon,1
Su0)es
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ii ii, no
Gen. ssa, no na.m
Dat. ssa, no na.m
Acc. .m, na.m ii, no
Ins. naa
$i,
$i
Al.
naa, smaa,
m$aa
$i,
$i
!oc. smi.m, m$i su
8oc. ii ii, no
/eclension of a'n'ii !masc'$1 menicant
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
da.n.dii da.n.dii, da.n.dino
Gen. da.n.dissa, da.n.dino da.n.dina.m
Dat. da.n.dissa, da.n.dino da.n.dina.m
Acc.
da.n.di.m,
da.n.dina.m
da.n.dii, da.n.dino
Ins. da.n.dinaa
da.n.dii$i,
da.n.dii$i
Al.
dandinaa,
da.n.dismaa
da.n.dii$i,
da.n.dii$i
!oc.
da.n.dismi.m,
da.n.dim$i
da.n.diisu
8oc. da.n.dii da.n.dii, da.n.dino
%emar&s'
0a1 A Nom sin,. in i 0s$ort1 is sometimes met *it$( da.n.di.
01 8oc. sin,. in ni is also found( da.n.dini.
0c1 Note t$at in all t$e oli9ue cases of t$e sin,ular t$e 5nal i
of t$e stem is s$ortened efore t$e suM?es.
0d1 In t$e Nom. plur. a rare form in 'o is found formed on t$e
analo,' of masc. in i 0s$ort1& as da.n.di'o.
0e1 An Acc. plur. in 'e is occasionall' met *it$( da.n.di'e.
0f1 It s$ould e noticed t$at efore no of t$e Nom., Acc. and
8oc. plur. ii of t$e ase is s$ortened.
0,1 An Acc. sin,. in a.m *it$ t$e semi/vo*el ' developed
efore it is met *it$( da.n.di'a.m.
0$1 An Al. sin,. in to is found prett' fre9uentl' da.n.dito.
")ercise' Decline like da.n.dii 0masc1(
saamii, lord.
senaanii, a ,eneral.
kapa.nii, pauper.
sakk$ii, a *itness.
mantii, minister.
'odd$ii, *arrior.
"-<. Most masc. nouns in ii are not pure sustantives, t$e'
are adjectives used sustantivel'& t$eir true stem is in in, t$e
Nom. sin,. ein, ii. #$e true stem of da.n.dii t$erefore is
da.n.din. Properl', all t$ese *ords elon, to t$e consonantal
declension.
"-=. Feminine nouns ii 0lon,1
Su0)es

Sin,ula
r
Plural
Nom
.
ii ii, 'o
Gen. aa na.m
Dat. aa na.m
Acc. .m ii, 'o
Ins. aa
$i,
$i
Al. aa
$i,
$i
!oc. a, a.m su
8oc. ii ii, 'o
"->. Declension of nadii 0fem.1, river
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
nadii
nadii, nadi'o,
najjo
Gen. nadi'aa, nad'aa, najjaa nadina.m
Dat. nadi'aa, nad'aa, najjaa nadina.m
Acc. nadi.m
nadii, nadi'o,
najjo
Ins. nadi'aa, nad'aa, najjaa
nadii$i,
nadii$i
Al. nadi'aa, nad'aa, najjaa
nadii$i,
nadii$i
!oc.
nadi'aa, nad'aa, najjaa, nadi'a.m,
nad'a.m, najja.m
nadiisu
8oc. nadii
nadii, nadi'o,
najjo
%emar&s'
0a1 #$ere is a Gen. plur. in aana.m, nadi'aana.m.
01 In all t$e oli9ue cases of t$e sin,, 5nal ii of t$e ase is
s$ortened& also efore 'o in t$e plural.
0c1 For insertion of ' efore suM?es e,innin, *it$ a vo*el,
see +<, Bemark +.
0d1 For t$e forms nad'aa, najjaa, and najja.m see Bules <",
<%.
0e1 In t$e form najjo, 'o is assimilated after t$e elision of
5nal i.
")ercise' Decline like nadii 0fem.1(
pa.tii, canvas.
.aaraa.nasii, .enares.
lakk$ii, prosperit'.
raajinii, 9ueen.
sii$ii, lioness.
daii, spoon.
paatii, o*l.
$isii, mat.
kumaarii, ,irl.
sak$ii, a female friend.
raa$ma.nii, a ra$min *oman.
taru.nii, 'oun, *oman.
$ikk$unii, nun.
kaakii, a female cro*.
vaanarii, ape.
ma$ii, t$e eart$.
'akk$ii, o,ress.
mi,ii, a doe.
devii, n'mp$.
vaapii, a reservoir, tank.
/elension of nouns in u !short$
"%A. #$e nouns endin, in u 0s$ort1, are eit$er masculine,
feminine or neuter.
"%". Masculine nouns in u 0s$ort1
Su0)es
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
/ uu, o
Gen. ssa, no na.m
Dat. ssa, no na.m
Acc. .m uu, o
Ins. naa $i, $i
Al.
naa, smaa,
m$aa
$i, $i
!oc. smi.m, m$i su
8oc. /
uu, o,
e
/eclension of bhi&&hu !masc'$1 mon&
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
$ikk$u $ikk$uu, $ikk$avo
Gen. $ikk$ussa, $ikk$uno $ikk$uuna.m
Dat. $ikk$ussa, $ikk$uno $ikk$uuna.m
Acc. $ikk$u.m $ikk$uu, $ikk$avo
Ins. $ikk$unaa $ikk$uu$i, $ikk$uu$i
Al.
$ikk$unaa, $isk$usmaa,
$ikk$um$aa
$ikk$uu$i, $ikk$uu$i
!oc. $ikk$um$i, $ikk$usmi.m $ikk$uusu
8oc. $ikk$u
$ikk$uu, $ikk$avo,
$ikk$ave
%emar&s'
0a1 In a Nom. and an Acc. plural, 'o are sometimes met *it$
in some *ords( jantu'o, $etu'o.
01 .efore suM?es o and e, in t$e plural u of t$e stem or
ase is stren,t$ened and ecomes av. 0+<0ii1/a1
")ercise' Nouns declined like $ikk$u 0masc.1(
pasu, ,oat.
velu, amoo.
and$u, relative.
$aa.nu, t$e sun.
maccu, deat$.
ucc$u, su,ar/cane.
aa$u, arm.
setu, rid,e.
ketu, 2a,.
katu, sacri5ce.
p$arasu, a?e.
ruru, a deer.
taru, tree.
$etu, cause.
"%+. Feminine nouns in u 0s$ort1
Su0)es
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
/
uu,
'o
Gen. 'aa na.m
Dat. 'aa na.m
Acc. m
uu,
'o
Ins. 'aa
$i,
$i
Al. 'aa
$i,
$i
!oc.
'a.m,
'aa
su
8oc. /
uu,
'o
"%-. Declension of d$enu 0fem.1, co*
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
d$enu d$enuu, d$enu'o
Gen. d$enu'aa d$enuuna.m
Dat. d$enu'aa d$enuuna.m
Acc. d$enu.m d$enuu, d$enu'o
Ins. d$enu'aa
d$enuu$i,
d$enuu$i
Al. d$enu'aa d$enuu$i,
d$enuu$i
!oc.
d$enu'a.m,
d$enu'aa
d$enuusu
8oc. d$enu d$enuu, d$enu'o
%emar&s'
0a1 An Al. sin,. in to is common( d$enuto, jamuto.
01 A Nom. plur. in o occurs *it$out stren,t$enin, of 5nal u
ut *it$ insertion of v( d$enuuvo.
0c1 Final u is, in t$e plural, len,t$ened efore na.m, $i, $i
and su.
")ercise' Decline like d$enu(
d$aatu, an element.
'aa,u, rice ,ruel.
rajju, strin,.
kare.nu, elep$ant.
ku, t$e eart$.
$anu, ja*.
daddu, rin,*orm.
va.n.nu, sand.
kaasu, a $ole, pit.
ka.n.du, itc$.
kacc$u, sca.
pi'a:n,u, a medicinal plant.
natt$u, nose.
vijju, li,$tnin,.
"%%. Neuter nouns in u 0s$ort1
Su0)es
Sin,ular Plural
Nom. Acc.
8oc.
0!ike t$e
Masculine1
uu, ni
0#$e rest like t$e masc.1
"%3. Declension of cakk$u 0neut.1, e'e
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
cakk$u cakk$uuni, cakk$uu
Gen. cakk$ussa, cakk$uno
cakk$uno,
cakk$uuna.m
Dat. cakk$ussa, cakk$uno cakk$uuna.m
Acc. cakk$u.m cakk$uuni, cakk$uu
Ins. cakk$unaa
cakk$uu$i,
cakk$uu$i
Al.
cakk$unaa, cakk$usmaa,
cakk$um$aa
cakk$uu$i,
cakk$uu$i
!oc. cakk$usmi.m, cakk$um$i cakk$uusu
8oc. cakk$u cakk$uuni, cakk$uu
%emar&s' #$ere is a form of t$e Nom. sin,. in .m cakk$u.m.
")ercise' Fords declined like cakk$u 0neut.1(
d$anu, a o*.
amu, *ater.
daaru, *ood.
aru, a *ound.
mad$u, $one'.
janu, t$e knee.
massu, t$e eard.
vatt$u, a stor'.
matt$u, *$e'.
aa'u, a,e.
assu, a tear.
vasu, *ealt$.
/eclension of nouns uu !long$
"%). 0a1 #$is declension includes masculine and feminine
nouns onl'.
01 #$e suM?es are muc$ t$e same as t$ose of t$e u 0s$ort1
declension, and present no diMcult'.
"%<. Declension of Sa'am$uu 0masc.1, an epit$et of t$e
.udd$a
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
sa'am$uu
sa'am$uu,
sa'am$uvo
Gen. sa'am$ussa, sa'am$uno sa'am$uuna.m
Dat. sa'am$ussa, sa'am$uno sa'am$uuna.m
Acc. sa'am$u.m
sa'am$uu,
sa'am$uvo
Ins. sa'am$unaa
sa'am$uu$i,
sa'am$uu$i
Al.
sa'am$unaa, sa'am$usmaa,
sa'am$um$aa
sa'am$uu$i,
sa'am$uu$i
!oc. sa'am$usmi.m, sa'am$um$i sa'am$uu
8oc. sa'am$uu
sa'am$uu,
sa'am$uvo
%emar&s'
0a1 In t$e Nom., Acc. and 8oc. plur., v is inserted et*een t$e
suM? o and t$e stem after t$e s$ortenin, of uu.
01 Final uu of t$e stem is s$ortened to u in t$e oli9ue cases
of t$e sin,ular.
"%=. Declension of vad$uu 0fem.1, a *ido*
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
vad$uu vad$uu, vad$u'o
Gen. vad$u'aa vad$uuna.m
Dat. vad$u'aa vad$uuna.m
Acc. vad$u.m vad$uu, vad$u'o
Ins. vad$u'aa
vad$uu$i,
vad$uu$i
Al. vad$u'aa
vad$uu$i,
vad$uu$i
!oc.
vad$u'aa,
vad$u'a.m
vad$uusu
8oc. vad$uu vad$uu, vad$u'o
%emar&s'
0a1 As in t$e masc., 5nal uu is s$ortened in t$e oli9ue cases
of t$e sin,.
01 A form in to is also found in t$e Al. sin,., vad$uto.
0c1 In t$e plural, efore 'o, 5nal uu is s$ortened.
Stems ening in a iphthong
"%>. All dip$t$on,ic stems $ave disappeared in Paali& onl'
one suc$ stem remains, it is t$e *ord ,o, a co*.
Special +ouns
"3A. 0I1 Declension of ,o 0dip$t$on,ic stem1, a co*
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
,o ,avo, ,aavo
Gen. ,avassa, ,aavassa
,ava.m, ,ona.m,
,unna.m
Dat. ,avassa, ,aavassa
,ava.m, ,ona.m,
,unna.m
Acc. ,ava.m, ,aava.m, ,avu.m, ,aavu.m ,avo, ,aavo
Ins. ,avena, ,aavena
,o$i, ,o$i,
,ave$i
Al.
,avaa, ,aavaa, ,avasmaa,
,aavasmaa, ,avam$aa, ,aavam$aa
,o$i, ,o$i,
,ave$i
!oc.
,ave, ,aave, ,avasmi.m,
,aavasmi.m, ,avam$i, ,aavam$i
,osu, ,avesu,
,aavesu
8oc. ,o ,avo, ,aavo
"3". 0II1 Declension of sak$aa, a friend 0Sansk. sak$i. #$e
stem is irre,ular. Masc.1
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
sak$aa
sak$aa'o, sak$aano, sak$ino,
sak$aa
Gen. sak$ino, sak$issa
sak$aaraana.m, sak$iina.m,
sak$aana.m
Dat. sak$ino, sak$issa
sak$aaraana.m, sak$iina.m,
sak$aana.m
Acc.
sak$aana.m, sak$a.m,
sak$aara.m
sak$ii, sak$aa'o, sak$aano,
sak$ino
Ins. sak$inaa
sak$aare$i, sak$aare$i,
sak$e$i, sak$e$i
Al.
sak$inaa, sak$aaraa,
sak$arasmaa
sak$aare$i, sak$aare$i,
sak$e$i, sak$e$i
!oc.
sak$aarasmi.m,
sak$aarim$i
sak$aaresu, sak$esu
8oc.
sak$a, sak$aa, sak$i,
sak$ii, sak$e
sak$aa'o, sak$aano, sak$ino,
sak$aa
%emar&s' #$e student *ill perceive t$at sak$aa $as forms
elon,in, to stems in ar and ot$ers to stems in in. 0See(
6onsonantal Declension.1
Consonantal /eclension
"3+. 0a1 #$e consonantal declension includes all nouns and
adjectives *$ose stem ends in a consonant.
01 Nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in a consonant, are rat$er
fe* and special, t$e majorit' of t$e *ords included in t$is
declension ein, adjectives endin, in vat or mat, and all
*ords endin, in a nasal 0n1 ein, considered as elon,in, to
t$e vo*el declension, ' native ,rammarians.
0c1 Most of t$e *ords of t$e consonantal declension seem to
follo* t*o declensions& some suM?es elon, to t$e vo*el,
and ot$ers to t$e consonantal declension.
"3-. 0I1 Stems endin, in a nasal 0n1
"3%. Declension of attaa 0stem attan1, self 0stem in an,
masc.1
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
attaa attaano, attaa
Gen. attano, attassa attaana.m
Dat. attano, attassa attaana.m
Acc.
attaana.m, atta.m,
attana.m
attaano, atte
Ins. attanaa, attena
attane$i,
attane$i
Al.
attanaa, attasmaa,
attam$aa
attane$i,
attane$i
!oc.
attani, attasmi.m,
attam$i
attanesu
8oc. atta, attaa attaano, attaa
!ike attaa 0stem( attan1 are declined(
aatumaa, self.
mudd$aa, $ead.
asmaa, stone.
add$aa, road, distance, time.
"33. Declension of .ra$maa 0stem ra$man, masc.1, .ra$ma
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ra$maa ra$maano, ra$maa
Gen.
ra$muno,
ra$massa
ra$maanam, ra$muna.m
Dat.
ra$muno,
ra$massa
ra$maanam, ra$muna.m
Acc.
ra$maana.m,
ra$ma.m
ra$maano
Ins.
ra$manaa,
ra$munaa
ra$me$i, ra$me$i, ra$muu$i,
ra$muu$i
Al.
ra$manaa,
ra$munaa
ra$me$i, ra$me$i, ra$muu$i,
ra$muu$i
!oc. ra$me, ra$mani ra$mesu
8oc. ra$me ra$maano, ra$maa
%emar&s' In t$e !oc. sin,. *e meet *it$ t$e forms in /
smi.m, m$i( ra$masmi.m, ra$mam$i.
"3). Declension of raajaa 0stem raajan, masc.1, a kin,
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
raajaa raajaano, raajaa
Gen. ra;n;no, raajino, raajassa
ra;n;nam, raajuuna.m,
raajaana.m
Dat. ra;n;no, raajino, raajassa
ra;n;nam, raajuuna.m,
raajaana.m
Acc. raajaana.m, raaja.m raajaano
Ins. ra;n;naa, raajena, raajinaa
raajuu$i, raajuu$i,
raaje$i, raaje$i
Al.
ra;n;naa, raajasmaa,
raajam$aa
raajuu$i, raajuu$i,
raaje$i, raaje$i
!oc.
ra;n;ne, ra;n;ni, raajini,
raajim$i, raajismi.m
raajuusu, raajesu
8oc. raaja, raajaa raajaano, raajaa
%emar&s'
0a1 F$en t$e *ord raajaa is used ' itself in a sentence, it
follo*s t$e aove declension, ut *$en it forms t$e last part
of a compound as for instance in d$ammaraajaa,
ma$aaraajaa, etc., it follo*s t$e declension of masculine
nouns in a, like deva.
01 #$e forms of t$e plural seem to point to a ase or stem in
u( raaju.
0c1 A fe* nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in an, follo* t$e a
declension of masc. nouns like deva& t$e' are(
vissakamma, t$e arc$itect of t$e ,ods.
vivattacc$addo, $e ' *$om t$e veil 0of i,norance1 is
rolled ack 0from t$is *orld1.
put$uloma, a 5s$.
'akana, t$e liver.
at$aana, t$e fourt$ veda
and some ot$ers.
"3<. Declension of pumaa 0stem puman1, a man
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
pumaa pumaano, pumaa
Gen. pumuno, pumassa pumaana.m
Dat. pumuno, pumassa pumaana.m
Acc. pumaana.m, puma.m pumaano, pume
Ins.
pumaanaa, pumunaa,
pumena
pumaane$i,
pumaane$i, pume$i,
pume$i
Al.
pumunaa, pumaanaa,
pumaa, pumasmaa,
pumam$aa
pumaane$i,
pumaane$i, pume$i,
pume$i
!oc.
pumaane, pume,
pumasmi.m, pumam$i
pumaanesu, pumaasu,
pumesu
8oc. puma.m, puma pumaano, pumaa
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e in2uence of t$e a declension masculine, is clearl'
discernile t$rou,$out.
01 #$e *ord saa a do,, ,iven at 0"+=1, properl' elon,s to
t$is declension& t$is ,ives t$e stem, san, from Sanskrit Svan.
#$e declension of nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in /in, $as
alread' een ,iven 0"-A1& t$ese *ords declined like da.n.di
0stem da.n.din1 and rat$er numerous, form t$e transition
et*een t$e pure vo*el declension and t$e declension of
consonantal/stems.
"3=. 0II1 Stems endin, in s
"3>. Declension of mano 0stem manas1, t$e mind
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
mano, mana.m manaa
Gen. manaso, manassa manaana.m
Dat. manaso, manassa manina.m
Acc. mano, mana.m mane
Ins. manasaa, manena
mane$i,
mane$i
Al.
manasaa, manasmaa, manam$aa,
manaa
mane$i,
mane$i
!oc.
manasi, mane, manasmi.m,
manam$i
manesu
8oc. mano, mana.m, manaa, mana manaa
%emar&s'
0a1 It s$ould e orne in mind t$at mano is never used in t$e
plural, alt$ou,$ t$e forms are ,iven ' some ,rammarians.
01 #$e in2uence of t$e a declension is $ere also clearl'
seen, principall' in t$e plural, of *$ic$ in fact, all t$e forms
are after t$e a declension.
0c1 #$ere is also a neuter form in ni in t$e plural( manaani.
")A. Native ,rammarians ,ive t$e follo*in, nouns as
elon,in, to t$e manas declension, t$eir stems endin, in as(
vaco, discourse.
tejo, po*er.
va'o, a,e.
tapo, $eat.
ceto, t$ou,$t.
tamo, darkness.
'aso, ,lor', fame.
a'o, iron.
pa'o, a evera,e.
siro, t$e $ead.
c$ando, metrics, prosod'.
saro, a lake.
uro, reast.
ra$o, solitude, privac'.
a$o, da'.
rajo, dust, passion.
ojo, splendour& stren,t$.
t$aamo, stren,t$, vi,our.
vaaso, clot$, clot$in,.
%emar&s'
0a1 a$a, da', in t$e !oc. sin,. $as t$e follo*in, forms(
a$asmi.m, a$am$i, a$e, a$u, a$asi, a$uni.
01 #$e *ords( rajo, ojo, t$aamo and vaaso are included in
t$e manas declension ' t$e Sin$alese ,rammarians.
0c1 #$e comparative adjectives endin, in 'o, i''o, as for
instance se''o, ,ari'o, follo* t$e manas declension.
")". Declension of aa'u 0stem aa'us1, life
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
aa'u, a'u.m aa'uu, aa'uuni
Gen.
aa'ussa,
aa'uno
aa'uuna.m,
aa'usa.m
Dat.
aa'ussa,
aa'uno
aa'uuna.m,
aa'usa.m
Acc. aa'u, aa'u.m aa'uu, aa'uuni
Ins.
aa'unaa,
aa'usaa
aa'uu$i, aa'uu$i
Al.
aa'unaa,
aa'usaa
aa'uu$i, aa'uu$i
!oc. aa'uni, aa'usi aa'uusu
8oc. aa'u, aa'u.m aa'uu, aa'uuni
")+. 0III1 Stems endin, in ar 0=Sansk. .r1
")-. Declension of Satt$aa, t$e #eac$er 0.udd$a1 0stem
satt$ar, Sansk castr1
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
satt$aa satt$aaro, satt$aa
Gen. satt$u, satt$ussa, satt$aana.m, satt$aaraana.m,
satt$uno satt$uuna.m
Dat.
satt$u, satt$ussa,
satt$uno
satt$aana.m, satt$aaraana.m,
satt$uuna.m
Acc.
satt$aara.m,
satt$ara.m
satt$aaro, satt$aare
Ins.
satt$araa, satt$aaraa,
satt$unaa
satt$aare$i, satt$aare$i
Al.
satt$araa, satt$aaraa,
satt$unaa
satt$aare$i, satt$aare$i
!oc. satt$ari satt$aaresu, satt$uusu
8oc. satt$a, satt$aa satt$aaro, satt$aa
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e form of t$e Gen. sin,. in u( satt$u, is t$e ase
emplo'ed in t$e formation of compound *ords.
01 Stems endin, in ar 0Sansk. .r1 $ave t$eir Nom. sin,. in aa
as pitar 0=Sansk. pit.r1, Nom. sin,. pitaa& so maatar
0=maat.r1, Nom. sin,. maataa. #$eir ase in composition is
,enerall' in u.
0c1 .efore suM? to of t$e Al. sin,. stems in ar often take t$e
vo*el i& as pitito, maatito, and sometimes a ase piti, maati
is used in composition( pitipakk$e.
0d1 Some *ords *$ose stem is in ar, follo* t$e a declension
0of deva1, for instance( sallakatta 0stem sallakattar1, a
p$'sician& kattara 0stem kattarar1, a *eak person& sota 0stem
sotar1, a $earer.
")ercise' Decline like satt$aa(
netaa, a ,uide.
nattaa, a ,randson.
maataa, mot$er.
pitaa, fat$er.
jetaa, a con9ueror.
daataa, a ,iver.
kattaa, an a,ent.
$aataa, rot$er.
#$e *ords pitaa and maataa present some peculiarities.
")%. Declension of maataa, mot$er 0stem maatar, Sansk.
maat.r1
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
maataa maataro, maataa
Gen.
maatu, maatu'aa,
maat'aa
maataraana.m,
maataana.m, maatuuna.m,
maatunna.m
Dat.
maatu, maatu'aa,
maat'aa
maataraana.m,
maataana.m, maatuuna.m,
maatunna.m
Acc. maatara.m maataro, matare
Ins.
maataraa, maatu'aa,
maat'aa
maatare$i, maataare$i,
maatuu$i, maatuu$i
Al.
maataraa, maatu'aa,
maat'aa
maatare$i, maataare$i,
maatuu$i, maatuu$i
!oc.
maatari, maatu'aa,
maat'aa, maatu'a.m,
maat'a.m
maataresu, maatuusu
8oc. maata, maataa maataro, maataa
%emar&s'
0a1 In t$e oli9ue cases of t$e sin,ular, t$e student *ill
readil' reco,niEe t$e in2uence of t$e feminine declension in
t$e suM?es aa and .m.
01 #$ere is also found, rarel', a Gen. sin,. in ssa( maatussa.
Declension of pitaa, fat$er 0stem pitar, Sansk. pit.r1
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
pitaa pitaro
Gen. pitu, pituno, pitussa
pitaraana.m, pitaana.m,
pitunna.m, pituuna.m
Dat. pitu, pituno, pitussa pitaraana.m, pitaana.m,
pitunna.m, pituuna.m
Acc. pitara.m, pitu.m pitaro, pitare
Ins.
pitaraa, pitunaa,
pit'aa, pet'aa
pitare$i, pitare$i, pituu$i,
pituu$i
Al.
pitaraa, pitu, pit'aa,
pet'aa
pitare$i, pitare$i, pituu$i,
pituu$i
!oc. pitari pitaresu, pituusu
8oc. pita, pitaa pitaro
%emar&s' In t$e Dat. and Gen. plur. of maataa and pitaa t$e
n is douled to compensate for t$e s$ortenin, of uu 0lon,1&
$ence( maatunna.m, maatuuna.m and pitunna.m, pituuna.m.
")3. 0I81 #$e *ords endin, in( at 0or ant1, vat 0or vant1, mat
0or mant1, are mostl' adjectives and t$eir declension *ill e
,iven in t$e c$apter on Adjectives. Fe s$all, $o*ever, ,ive
$ere t$e declension of a fe* nouns, in at or vant.
")). Declension of $ava.m, Sir 0stem in at, or ant1
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
$ava.m, $anto $avanto, $avantaa, $onto
Gen.
$avantassa, $avato,
$oto
$avata.m, $avantaana.m
Dat.
$avantassa, $avato,
$oto
$avata.m, $avantaana.m
Acc. $avanta.m, $ota.m $avante, $onte
Ins.
$avantena, $avataa,
$otaa
$avante$i, $avante$i
Al.
$avataa, $avantaa,
$otaa
$avante$i, $avante$i
!oc. $avati, $avante $avantesu
8oc. $o, $onta, $ante
$avanto, $onto, $ante,
$avantaa
%emar&s'
0a1 .$ava.m is a polite term of address, and it ma' e
translated ' HTour IonourH.
01 Native ,rammarians invarial' use it as t$e si,n of t$e
8ocative case.
0c1 #$e feminine, $otii, HmadamH is re,ularl' declined after
t$e ii declension feminine, 0adii1.
")<. Declension of ara$a.m, saint 0stem in at, or ant1
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ara$a.m, ara$aa ara$anto, ara$aa
Gen. ara$ato, ara$antassa
ara$ata.m,
ara$antaana.m
Dat. ara$ato, ara$antassa
ara$ata.m,
ara$antaana.m
Acc. ara$anta.m ara$ante
Ins. ara$ataa, ara$antena
ara$ante$i,
ara$ante$i
Al.
ara$ataa, ara$antaa,
ara$antasmaa, ara$antam$aa
ara$ante$i,
ara$ante$i
!oc.
ara$ati, ara$ante, ara$antasmi.m,
ara$antam$i
ara$antesu
8oc. ara$anta ara$anto
Similarl' is declined santa, meanin, a ,ood man.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter VI2
3ormation of 3eminine 4ases of +ouns an Ajectives
O#$is c$apter $as for t$e most part een adopted from t$e
niruttiidipanii.
")=. From *$at $as een alread' said 0""), d1 aout
,rammatical ,ender, it *ill e easil' understood t$at t$e
,ender of sustantives *ill e etter learned from t$e
dictionar'. #$e student *ill alread' $ave remarked, $o*ever,
t$at(
")>. All nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in a, and t$e Nom.
sin,. in o, are masculine.
")amples
Stem
Nom. Sin,.
Masc.
sii$a, lion. sii$o.
assa, $orse. asso.
$att$a, t$e
$and.
$att$o.
daara, *ife. daaro.
"<A. All nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in o, and t$e Nom.
sin,. in a.m, are neuter.
")amples
Stem
Nom. Sin,.
Neut.
citta, t$e
mind.
citta.m.
ruupa, an
ima,e.
ruupa.m.
$atta, rice. $atta.m.
$ita, ene5t. $ita.m.
$a'a, fear. $a'a.m.
"<". All nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in aa, and t$e Nom.
sin,. in aa are feminine.
")amples
Stem
Nom. Sin,.
Fem.
vaacaa, a
*ord.
vaacaa.
naavaa, a oat. naavaa.
saalaa, a $all. saalaa.
,aat$aa, a
stanEa.
,aat$aa.
puujaa,
*ors$ip.
puujaa.
%emar&s' #$e masculine nouns *it$ stems in aa 0"+=1 are
ver' fe* in numer and rarel' met *it$. Alt$ou,$ included
' all native ,rammarians, as $as alread' een remarked, in
t$e vo*el/declension, t$e' properl' elon, to t$e
consonantal/declension. For instance, t$e true stem of saa, a
do, is san 0Sanskrit Svan1& t$at of maa, t$e moon, is mas
0Sansk. maas1& a,ain, t$e true stem of ,a.n.diivad$anva,
Arjuna, is ,a.n.diivad$anvan.
"<+. All nouns *$ose stem ends in ii and t$e Nom. sin,. also
in ii are feminine.
")amples
Stem
Nom. Sin,.
Fem.
ma$ii, t$e eart$. ma$ii.
sii$ii, lioness. sii$ii.
$isii, a mat. $isii.
raajinii, a 9ueen. raajinii.
$uumii, t$e
eart$.
$uumii.
"<-. #$ere are also some masculine nouns *$ose Nom. sin,
ends in ii. As a ,eneral rule, t$e masc. nouns of t$is class are
adjectives used sustantivel'& t$e' properl' elon, to t$e
consonantal/declension, and t$eir stems end in /in.
"<%. #$ere are no neuter nouns in ii.
"<3. Nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in u, are eit$er
masculine, feminine or neuter. #$e ,ender is est learned
from t$e dictionar'.
"<). All pure sustantives *$ose stem ends in uu and t$e
Nom sin,, also in uu are feminine.
")amples
Stem
Nom. Sin,.
Fem.
camuu, an arm'. camuu.
paaduu, a s$oe. paaduu.
sassuu, mot$er/in/la*. sassuu.
$uu, t$e eart$. $uu.
vad$uu, dau,$ter/in/
la*.
vad$uu.
%emar&s' #$is class is not numerous.
"<<. Masculine nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in u and t$e
Nom. sin,. in uu, are properl' not pure sustantives, ut
adjectives, sometimes used sustantivel'.
")amples
Stem
Adjective
sustantival use
Nom. Sin,.
Masc.
a$i$uu, masterin,. c$ief, con9ueror. a$i$uu.
veda,uu, kno*in, t$e
vedas.
a sa,e, a savant. veda,uu.
ma,,a;n;nuu, kno*in,
t$e Fa'.
a saint.
ma,,a;n;nu
u.
"<=. #$ere are no neuter nouns t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in
uu.
"<>. #$e aove rules, t$ou,$ mea,re, *ill some*$at $elp
t$e student to discriminate t$e ,ender of nouns.
"=A. As in ot$er lan,ua,es, man' feminine sustantives are
derived from t$e ase or stem of masculine sustantives '
means of certain suM?es.
"=". #$e suM?es used in Paali to form feminine ases are(
". aa, ikaa, akaa.
+. ii, ikinii.
-. nii, inii.
%. aa, nii.
"=+. Feminine .ases of Sustantives
"=-. Man' feminine ases are derived from masculine ones
endin, in a ' means of aa and ii.
"=%. C?amples *it$ aa
%emar&s' Feminine ases formed *it$ aa, are not ver'
numerous, and most of t$em can also e formed *it$ ii or
inii, or ikaa.
Masc. ase Fem. ase
maanusa a man. maanusaa, a *oman.
assa, a $orse. assaa, a mare.
kum$akaara, a
potter.
kum$akaaraa, a potterGs
*ife.
ka.tapuutana, a
demon.
ka.tapuutanaa, a s$e/
demon.
valla$a, a
favourite.
valla$aa, a favourite
*oman.
"=3. C?amples *it$ ii
%emar&s' Feminine ases derived from t$e masculine '
means of ii are ver' numerous.
Masc. ase Fem. ase
sii$a, lion. sii$ii, lioness.
mi,a, deer. mi,ii, doe.
kumaara, o',
prince.
kumaarii, ,irl, princess.
maa.nava, a 'oun,
man.
maa.navii, a 'oun,
*oman.
saama.nera, a
novice.
saama.nerii, a novice
0fem.1
"=). #$e feminine of man' patron'mics is also formed '
means of ii.
Masc. ase Fem. ase
kacc$aa'an
a.
kacc$aa'an
ii.
vaase.t.t$a. vase.t.t$ii.
,otama. ,otamii.
"=<. Nouns in ka 0mostl' adjectives used sustantivel'1 form
t$eir feminine in ikaa or ikinii.
Masc. ase Fem. ase
naavika, a oatman. naavikaa, naavikinii.
pariaajaka, a *anderin,
ascetic.
pariaajikaa, pariaajikinii.
pa.msukuulika, a monk
*earin, roes made of
picked/up ra,s.
pa.msukuulikinii,
pa.msukuulikaa, a nun *earin,
roes made of picked/up ra,s.
kumaaraka, a o'. kumaarikaa, a ,irl.
"==. C?amples *it$ inii
Masc. ase Fem. ase
raajaa, kin,. raajinii, 9ueen.
kum$akaara,
potter.
kum$akaarinii, potterGs
*ife.
mi,a, deer. mi,inii, doe.
sii$a, lion. sii$inii, lioness.
'akk$a, an o,re. 'akk$inii, an o,ress.
"=>. C?amples *it$ nii
%emar&s' #$e suM? nii is used after masculine ases
endin, in i, ii, and u, uu. #$e ii and uu of t$e ase are
s$ortened efore nii.
Masc. ase Fem. ase
$ikk$u, .udd$ist monk. $ikk$unii, .udd$ist nun.
and$u, a relative. and$unii, a female relative.
pa.tu, a *ise man. pa.tunii, a *ise *oman.
d$amma;n;nuu, a
pious man.
d$amma;n;nunii, a pious *oman.
da.n.dii, a mendicant. da.n.dinii, a female mendicant.
ra$macaarii, one *$o
lives t$e $i,$er life.
ra$macaarinii, a *oman *$o lives
t$e $i,$er life, a reli,ious student.
$att$i, an elep$ant. $att$inii, female elep$ant.
">A. C?amples *it$ aanii
">". A fe* nouns form t$eir feminine ' means of t$e suM?
aanii.
Masc. ase Fem. ase
maatula, uncle. maatulaanii, aunt.
vaaru.na. varu.naanii.
k$atti'a, a
noleman.
k$atti'aanii, a nole*oman.
aacari'a, a teac$er. aacari'aanii.
,a$apati,
$ouse$older.
,a$apataanii, $ouse$olderGs
*ife.
%emar&s' Note t$at in ,a$apati, 5nal i is dropped efore
aanii.
">+. Some nouns assume t*o or more feminine forms.
Masc. ase Fem. ase
att$akaama, one *is$in,
to e useful.
att$akaamaa, att$akaamii,
att$akaaminii.
kum$akaara, potter.
kum$akaaraa, kum$akaarii,
kum$akaarinii.
'akk$a, o,re. 'akk$ii, 'akk$inii.
naa,a, snake, elep$ant. naa,ii, naa,inii.
mi,a, deer. mi,ii, mi,inii.
sii$a, lion. sii$ii, sii$inii.
'a,,$a, ti,er. 'a,,$ii, 'a,,$inii.
kaakaa, a cro*. kaakii, kaakinii.
maanusa, a man. maanusaa, maanusii, maanusinii.
">-. #$e suM?es used for t$e formation of adjectival
feminine ases are t$e same as t$ose ,iven aove 0"="1,
t$at is(/
">%. Df adjectives t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in a, some form
t$eir feminine in aa, some in ii.
">3. Adjectives endin, in i, ii, and u, uu, form t$eir feminine
' addin, nii 0"=>1, efore *$ic$ lon, ii and uu are
s$ortened. 0For e?amples see 6$apter 8II. Adjectives.1
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter VII
Ajectives
/eclension
">). Adjectives, like nouns, ma' e divided into t$ose *$ose
stem ends in a vo*el and t$ose t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in a
consonant.
#o t$e student *$o $as mastered t$e declension of nouns,
t$at of adjectives *ill present no diMculties.
"><. /eclension of ajectives in a
Adjectives in a form t$eir feminine ' means of aa mostl'&
some ' means of ii.
">=. #$e neuter is otained ' addin, .m to t$e stem.
">>. #$e masculine is declined like deva 0"++1& t$e feminine
like ka;n;naa 0"+<1, and t$e neuter like ruupa.m 0"+%1.
Feminines in i are declined like nadii 0"->1.
+AA. /eclension of baala !stem$1 foolish

Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
aalo aalaa aala.m
Gen. aalassa aalaa'a aalassa
Dat. aalassa, aalaa'a aalaa'a aalassa, aalaa'a
Acc. aala.m aala.m aala.m
Ins. aalena aalaa'a aalena
Al.
aalaa, aalasmaa,
aalam$aa, aalato
aalaa'a
aalaa, aalasmaa,
aalam$aa, aalato
!oc.
aale, aalasmi.m,
aalam$i
aalaa'a,
aalaa'a.m
aale, aalasmi.m,
aalam$i
8oc. aala, aalaa aalaa, aale aala

Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
aalaa aalaa, aalaa'o
aalaani,
aalaa
Gen. aalaana.m aalaana.m aalaana.m
Dat. aalaana.m aalaana.m aalaana.m
Acc. aale aalaa, aalaa'o
aalaani,
aale
Ins.
aale$i,
aale$i
aalaa$i,
aalaa$i
aale$i,
aale$i
Al.
aale$i,
aale$i
aalaa$i,
aalaa$i
aale$i,
aale$i
!oc. aalesu aalaasu aalesu
8oc. aalaa aalaa, aalaa'o
aalaani,
aalaa
")ercise Adjectives declined like deva, ka;n;naa and
ruupa.m.
Stem Masc. Fem. Neut.
duura, far duuro duuraa duura.m
taru.na, taru.no taru.naa taru.na.m
'oun,
dii,$a, lon, dii,$o dii,$aa dii,$a.m
rassa, s$ort rasso rassaa rassa.m
,am$iira,
deep
,am$iir
o
,am$iira
a
,am$iira.
m
p$arusa,
$ars$
p$aruso p$arusaa p$arusa.m
sukk$a, dr' sukk$o sukk$aa sukk$a.m
aamaka, ra* aamako aamakaa aamaka.m
paapa, evil paapo paapaa paapa.m
k$ema, calm k$emo k$emaa k$ema.m
+A". Fe ,ive $ere onl' a fe* e?amples of feminine
adjectives formed ' means of ii from stems in a.
paapa, evil paapo paapii
taru.na, 'oun,
taru.n
o
taru.nii
diipana,
illuminatin,
diipan
o
diipani
i
%emar&s' As said aove t$ese adjectives are declined like
nadii and t$erefore present no diMcult'.
+A+. Ajectives in ii !short$
+A-. Adjectives endin, in i are declined like kapi, in t$e
masculine, and like vaari, in t$e neuter. #$e feminine formed
' means of ni is declined like nadii.
+A%. /eclension of bhuuri !stem$1 abunant

Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
$uuri $uurinii $uuri
Gen. $uurissa, $uurini'aa $uurissa,
$uurino $uurino
Dat.
$uurissa,
$uurino
$uurini'aa
$uurissa,
$uurino
Acc. $uuri.m $uurini.m $uuri.m
Ins. $uurinaa $uurini'aa $uurinaa
Al.
$uurinaa,
$uurismaa,
$uurim$aa
$uurini'aa
$uurinaa,
$uurismaa,
$uurim$aa
!oc.
$uurismi.m,
$uurim$i
$uurini'aa,
$uurini'a.m
$uurismi.m,
$uurim$i
8oc. $uuri $uurini $uuri

Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
$uurii,
$uuraa'o
$uurinii,
$uurini'o
$uurinii,
$uurii
Gen. $uuriina.m $uuriniina.m $uurina.m
Dat. $uuriina.m $uuriniina.m $uurina.m
Acc.
$uurii,
$uuraa'o
$uurinii,
$uurini'o
$uurinii,
$uurii
Ins.
$uurii$i,
$uurii$i
$uurinii$i,
$uurinii$i
$uurii$i,
$uurii$i
Al.
$uurii$i,
$uurii$i
$uurinii$i,
$uurinii$i
$uurii$i,
$uurii$i
!oc. $uuriisu $uuriniisu $uuriisu
8oc.
$uurii,
$uura'o
$uurini,
$uurinii'o
$uurini, $uurii
+A3. Ajectives in ii !long$
+A). A numerous class of masculine adjectives are derived
from nouns ' means of suM? i 0an adjectival suM? not to e
confounded *it$ t$e feminine suM? ii1 0"=", +& "=31.
")amples
Sustantives Adjectives
paapa, sin paapii, sinful
d$amma,
reli,ion
d$ammii, reli,ious,
pious
maana, pride maanii, proud
soka, sorro* sokii, sorro*ful
ro,a, sickness ro,ii, sick
makk$a,
$'pocris'
makk$ii, $'pocritical
+A<. #$e masculine is declined like da.n.di.
+A=. #$e feminine is formed ' addin, ni, efore *$ic$ 5nal
ii is s$ortened& it is declined like nadii.
+A>. In t$e neuter 5nal ii is s$ortened to i and is declined like
vaari.
+"A. /eclension of esii1 wishing

Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
esii esinii esi
Gen. esissa, esino esini'aa esissa, esino
Dat. esissa, esino esini'aa esissa, esino
Acc. esi.m esini.m esi.m
Ins. esinaa esini'aa esinaa
Al.
esinaa, esismaa,
esim$aa
esini'aa
esinaa, esismaa,
esim$aa
!oc. esismi.m, esim$i
esini'aa,
esini'a.m
esismi.m, esim$i
8oc. esi esinii esi

Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
esii, esino esinii, esini'o esiini, esii
Gen. esiina.m esiniina.m esiina.m
Dat. esiina.m esiniina.m esiina.m
Acc. esii esinii, esini'o esiini, esi
Ins.
esii$i,
esii$i
esinii$i,
esinii$i
esii$i,
esii$i
Al.
esii$i,
esii$i
esinii$i,
esinii$i
esii$i,
esii$i
!oc. esiisu esiniisu esiisu
8oc. esii esinii esii
Decline like esii.
Masculine Feminine Neuter
ekaakii, solitar' ekaakinii, ekaaki
caarii, roamin, caarinii caari
ekakk$ii, one
e'ed
ekakk$inii ekakk$i
macc$arii,
ni,,ardl'
macc$arin
ii
macc$a
ri
suurii, *ise suurinii suuri
ja'ii, victorious ja'inii ja'i
+"". Ajectives in u !short$
+"+. #$ese are declined in t$e masculine like $ikk$u, in t$e
feminine like nadii, and in t$e neuter like cakk$u.
+"-. #$e feminine ase is formed ' t$e addition of ni.
+"%. /eclension of garu !stem$1 heav#
Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
,aru ,arunii ,aru
Gen. ,arussa, ,aruno ,aruni'aa ,arussa, ,aruno
Dat. ,arussa, ,aruno ,aruni'aa ,arussa, ,aruno
Acc. ,aru.m ,aruni.m ,aru.m
Ins. ,arunaa ,aruni'aa ,arunaa
Al.
,arunaa,
,arusmaa,
,arum$aa
,aruni'aa
,arunaa,
,arusmaa,
,arum$aa
!oc.
,arusmi.m,
,arum$i
,aruni'aa,
,aruni'a.m
,arusmi.m,
,arum$i
8oc. ,aru ,arunii ,aru

Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
,aruu, ,aravo ,arunii, ,aruni'o ,aruuni, ,aruu
Gen. ,aruuna.m ,aruniina.m ,aruuna.m
Dat. ,aruuna.m ,aruniina.m ,aruuna.m
Acc. ,aruu, ,aravo ,arunii, ,aruni'o ,aruuni, ,aruu
Ins.
,aruu$i,
,aruu$i
,arunii$i,
,arunii$i
,aruu$i,
,aruu$i
Al.
,aruu$i,
,aruu$i
,arunii$i,
,arunii$i
,aruu$i,
,aruu$i
!oc. ,aruusu ,aruniisu ,aruusu
8oc. ,aruu, ,aravo ,arunii, ,aruni'o ,aruuni, ,aruu
Decline like ,aru.
Masculine Feminin Neute
e r
a$u, man' a$unii a$u
saadu,
a,reeale
saadunii saadu
saad$u, ,ood
saad$un
ii
saad$
u
dattu, stupid dattunii dattu
+"3. Ajectives in uu !long$
+"). Adjectives in uu form t$eir feminine ' means of nii, uu
ein, s$ortened efore it.
+"<. #$e' are declined, in t$e masc. like sa'am$uu, and in
t$e feminine like nadii and in t$e neut. like cakk$u.
+"=. /eclension of vi5n5nuu1 wise

Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
vi;n;nuu vi;n;nunii vi;n;nuu
Gen.
vi;n;nussa,
vi;n;nuno
vi;n;nuni'aa
vi;n;nussa,
vi;n;nuno
Dat.
vi;n;nussa,
vi;n;nuno
vi;n;nuni'aa
vi;n;nussa,
vi;n;nuno
Acc. vi;n;nu.m vi;n;nuni.m vi;n;nu.m
Ins. vi;n;nunaa vi;n;nuni'aa vi;n;nunaa
Al.
vi;n;nunaa,
vi;n;nusmaa,
vi;n;num$aa
vi;n;nuni'aa
vi;n;nunaa,
vi;n;nusmaa,
vi;n;num$aa
!oc.
vi;n;nusmi.m,
vi;n;num$i
vi;n;nuni'aa,
vi;n;nuni'a.m
vi;n;nusmi.m,
vi;n;num$i
8oc. vi;n;nuu vi;n;nunii vi;n;nuu
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
vi;n;nuu,
vi;n;nuvo
vi;n;nunii,
vi;n;nuni'o
vi;n;nuuni,
vi;n;nuu
Gen. vi;n;nuuna.m vi;n;nuniina.m vi;n;nuuna.m
Dat. vi;n;nuuna.m vi;n;nuniina.m vi;n;nuuna.m
Acc.
vi;n;nuu,
vi;n;nuvo
vi;n;nunii,
vi;n;nuni'o
vi;n;nuuni,
vi;n;nuu
Ins.
vi;n;nuu$i,
vi;n;nuu$i
vi;n;nunii$i,
vi;n;nunii$i
vi;n;nuu$i,
vi;n;nuu$i
Al.
vi;n;nuu$i,
vi;n;nuu$i
vi;n;nunii$i,
vi;n;nunii$i
vi;n;nuu$i,
vi;n;nuu$i
!oc. vi;n;nuusu vi;n;nuniisu vi;n;nuusu
8oc.
vi;n;nuu,
vi;n;nuvo
vi;n;nunii,
vi;n;nuni'o
vi;n;nuuni,
vi;n;nuu
Decline like vi;n;nuu, in t$e masculine, feminine and
neuter.
niddaaluu, sleep'.
pa$uu, po*erful.
matta;n;nuu, temperate.
kata;n;nuu, ,rateful.
+">. Ajectives with consonantal bases
++A. Adjectives *it$ consonantal ases are of t$ree kinds(
". t$ose t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in at or ant.
+. t$ose t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in mat or mant.
-. t$ose t$e stem of *$ic$ ends in vat or vant.
++". All t$e adjectives in mat, mant, and vat, vant, are
formed from nouns ' means of suM?es maa and vaa,
0*$ose ori,inal ase is mat and vat1, *$ic$ e?press
possession of t$e 9ualit' or state indicated ' t$e noun to
*$ic$ t$e' are aM?ed.
+++. It must, $o*ever, e remarked t$at vaa and maa are
not aM?ed indiscriminatel'. #$e follo*in, rule is invariale.
a. SuM? vaa is added onl' to nouns endin, in a.
. SuM? maa is al*a's added to nouns endin, in i and u.
")ample
Noun Adj.
maana,
pride
maanavaa, $avin, pride, viE, proud
,u.na,
virtue
,unavaa, $avin, virtue, viE., virtuous
$o,a,
*ealt$
$o,avaa, possessin, *ealt$, viE.,
*ealt$'
ala,
stren,t$
alavaa, possessin, stren,t$, viE.,
stron,
")ample
Noun Adj.
suci, purit' sucimaa, endo*ed *it$ purit', viE., pure
sati,
mindfulness
satimaa, possessed of mindfulness, viE.,
mindful
k$anti,
patience
k$antimaa, endo*ed *it$ patience, viE.,
patient
$etu, cause $etumaa, $avin, a cause, causal
and$u,
relative
and$umaa, $avin, a relative
++-. #$e feminine is formed ' addin, ii to eit$er of t$e
ases viE, mat, mant or vat, vant& for instance(
Stem
Masculin
e
Feminine
,u.navat
,u.navaa
,u.navatii
,u.nava
nt
,u.navant
ii
jutimat
jutimaa
jutimatii
jutimant jutimantii
++%. In t$e Nom., Acc., and 8oc. sin,. t$e neuter is formed
' addin, .m after vaa and maa, t$e lon, aa ein,
s$ortened 0%, -%1& and ni to t$e stem in vant and mant, for
t$e Nom., Acc., and 8oc. plural.
Stem
Masculin
e
Feminine
Sin,ular Plural
jutimant jutimaa jutima.m jutimantaani
,u.nava
nt
,u.navaa
,u.nava.
m
,u.navantaa
ni
++3. /eclension of ajectives in at or ant
++). /eclension of mahaa 0stem( ma$at, ma$ant1

Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
ma$a.m,
ma$anto
ma$atii,
ma$antii
ma$a.m,
ma$anta.m
Gen.
ma$ato,
ma$antassa
ma$ati'aa,
ma$anti'aa
ma$ato,
ma$antassa
Dat.
ma$ato,
ma$antassa
ma$ati'aa,
ma$anti'aa
ma$ato,
ma$antassa
Acc. ma$anta.m
ma$ati.m,
ma$anti.m
ma$anta.m
Ins.
ma$ataa,
ma$antena
ma$ati'aa,
ma$anti'aa
ma$ataa,
ma$antena
Al.
ma$ataa,
ma$antasmaa,
ma$antam$aa
ma$ati'aa,
ma$anti'aa
ma$ataa,
ma$antasmaa,
ma$antam$aa
!oc.
ma$ati, ma$ante,
ma$antasmi.m,
ma$antam$i
ma$ati'aa,
ma$anti'aa,
ma$ati'a.m,
ma$anti'a.m
ma$ati, ma$ante,
ma$antasmi.m,
ma$antam$i
8oc. ma$a.m, ma$aa, ma$atii, ma$a.m, ma$aa,
ma$a ma$antii ma$a

Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
ma$anto,
ma$antaa
ma$atii, ma$ati'o,
ma$antii, ma$anti'o
ma$antaani,
ma$antaa
Gen.
ma$ata.m,
ma$antaana.m
ma$atiinam,
ma$antiina.m
ma$ata.m,
ma$antaana.m
Dat.
ma$ata.m,
ma$antaana.m
ma$atiinam,
ma$antiina.m
ma$ata.m,
ma$antaana.m
Acc.
ma$ante,
ma$antaa,
ma$anto
ma$atii, ma$ati'o,
ma$antii, ma$anti'o
ma$antaani,
ma$antaa
Ins.
ma$ante$i,
ma$ante$i
ma$antii$i,
ma$antii$i,
ma$atii$i,
ma$atii$i
ma$ante$i,
ma$ante$i
Al.
ma$ante$i,
ma$ante$i
ma$antii$i,
ma$antii$i,
ma$atii$i,
ma$atii$i
ma$ante$i,
ma$ante$i
!oc. ma$antesu
ma$atiisu,
ma$antiisu
ma$antesu
8oc.
ma$antaa,
ma$anto
ma$atii, ma$ati'o,
ma$antii, ma$anti'o
ma$antaani,
ma$antaa
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e declension of ma$aa s$ould e carefull' studied, as
all t$e Present Participles, in at and ant, as for instance
,acc$a.m or ,acc$anto, kara.m or karanto, paca.m or
pacanto, are declined like it.
01 Fe $ave alread' ,iven 0")<1 t$e declension of ara$a.m
*$ic$, in t$e Nom. sin,, $as also t$e form ara$aa.
0c1 #$e *ord santo 0")<1 meanin, a ,ood man, is similarl'
declined& t$e form sa$i, $o*ever, is also found in t$e Ins.
and Al. plural.
")ercise Decline like ma$a.m 0stem( ma$at, ma$ant1, in t$e
masculine, feminine and neuter.
cara.m, caranto 0stem( carat, carant1 *alkin,, roamin,.
$u;nja.m, $u;njanto 0stem( $u;nja.t, $u;njant1
eatin,.
kara.m, karanto 0stem( karat, karant1 doin,.
sara.m, saranto 0stem( sarat, sarant1 rememerin,.
vasa.m, vasanto 0stem( vasat, vasant1 livin,.
pucc$a.m, pucc$anto 0stem( pucc$at, pucc$ant1 askin,.
++<. /eclension of ajectives in mat or mant
++=. /eclension of hiimaa1 wise 0stem( d$iimat,
d$iimant1

Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
d$iimaa,
d$iimanto
d$iimatii,
d$iimantii
d$iima.m,
d$iimantam
Gen.
d$iimato,
d$iimantassa
d$iimati'aa,
d$iimanti'aa
d$iimato,
d$imantassa
Dat.
d$iimato,
d$iimantassa
d$iimati'aa,
d$iimanti'aa
d$iimato,
d$imantassa
Acc.
d$iima.m,
d$iimanta.m
d$iimati.m,
d$iimanti.m
d$iima.m,
d$iimanta.m
Ins.
d$iimataa,
d$iimantena
d$iimati'aa,
d$iimanti'aa
d$iimataa,
d$iimantena
Al.
d$iimataa,
d$iimantaa,
d$iimantasmaa,
d$iimantam$aa
d$iimanti'aa,
d$iimati'aa
d$iimataa,
d$iimantaa,
d$iimantasmaa,
d$iimantam$aa
!oc. d$iimati,
d$iimante,
d$iimantasmi.m,
d$iimati'aa,
d$iimanti'aa,
d$iimati'a.m,
d$iimati,
d$iimante,
d$iimantasmi.m,
d$iimantam$i d$iimanti'a.m d$iimantam$i
8oc.
d$iima.m,
d$iimaa, d$iima,
d$iimantaa,
d$iimanta
d$iimatii,
d$iimantii
d$iima.m,
d$iimaa, d$iima,
d$iimanta,
d$iimantaa

Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
d$iimantaa,
d$iimanto,
d$iimaa
d$iimatii,
d$iimati'o,
d$iimantii,
d$iimanti'o
d$iimantaani,
d$iimantaa
Gen.
d$iimata.m,
d$iimantaana.m
d$iimatiina.m,
d$iimantiina.m
d$iimata.m,
d$iimantaana.m
Dat.
d$iimata.m,
d$iimantaana.m
d$iimatiina.m,
d$iimantiina.m
d$iimata.m,
d$iimantaana.m
Acc. d$iimante
d$iimatii,
d$iimati'o,
d$iimantii,
d$iimanti'o
d$iimantaani,
d$iimantaa
Ins.
d$iimante$i,
d$iimante$i
d$iimatii$i,
d$iimatii$i,
d$iimantii$i,
d$iimantii$i
d$iimante$i,
d$iimante$i
Al.
d$iimante$i,
d$iimante$i
d$iimatii$i,
d$iimatii$i,
d$iimantii$i,
d$iimantii$i
d$iimante$i,
d$iimante$i
!oc. d$iimantesu
d$iimantiisu,
d$iimatiisu
d$iimantesu
8oc. d$iimantaa,
d$iimanto,
d$iimaa
d$iimatii,
d$iimati'o,
d$iimantii,
d$iimantaani,
d$iimantaa
d$iimanti'o
")ercise Decline like d$imaa 0stem( d$iimat, d$iimant1, in
t$e masculine, feminine and neuter(
,omaa 0stem( ,omat, ,omant1 a cattle o*ner.
puttimaa 0stem( puttimat, puttimant1 $avin, sons.
k$aanumaa 0stem( k$aanumat, k$aanumant1 $avin,
stumps.
ketumaa 0stem( ketumat, ketumant1 ,lorious, victorious
lit., $avin, anners.
$etumaa 0stem( $etumat, $etumant1 $avin, a cause.
cakk$umaa 0stem( cakk$umat cakk$umant1
enli,$tened.
++>. /eclension of ajectives in vat or vant
%emar&s' #$e declension of adjectives in vat, vant is t$e
same as t$at of t$ose in mat, mant& t$e onl' di@erence
ein, t$at, of course, v replaces m t$rou,$out.
+-A. /eclension of gu'navaa1 virtuous 0stem( ,u.navat,
,u.navant1

Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
,u.navaa,
,u.navanto
,u.navatii,
,u.navantii
,u.nava.m,
,u.navantam
Gen.
,u.navato,
,u.navantassa
,u.navati'aa,
,u.navanti'aa
,u.navato,
,u.navantassa
Dat.
,u.navato,
,u.navantassa
,u.navati'aa,
,u.navanti'aa
,u.navato,
,u.navantassa
Acc.
,u.nava.m,
,u.navanta.m
,u.navati.m,
,u.navanti.m
,u.nava.m,
,u.navanta.m
Ins.
,u.navataa,
,u.navantena
,u.navati'aa,
,u.navanti'aa
,u.navataa,
,u.navantena
Al.
,u.navataa,
,u.navantaa,
,u.navantasmaa,
,u.navantam$aa
,u.navanti'aa,
,u.navati'aa
,u.navataa,
,u.navantaa,
,u.navantasmaa,
,u.navantam$aa
!oc.
,u.navati,
,u.navante,
,u.navantasmi.m,
,u.navantam$i
,u.navati'aa,
,u.navati'a.m,
,u.navanti'aa,
,u.navanti'a.m
,u.navati,
,u.navante,
,u.navantasmi.m,
,u.navantam$i
8oc.
,u.nava.m,
,u.navaa,
,u.nava,
,u.navantaa,
,u.navanta
,u.navatii,
,u.navantii
,u.nava.m,
,u.navaa,
,u.nava,
,u.navanta,
,u.navantaa

Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
,u.navantaa,
,u.navanto,
,u.navaa
,u.navatii,
,u.navati'o,
,u.navantii,
,u.navanti'o
,u.navantaani,
,u.navantaa
Gen.
,u.navata.m,
,u.navantaana.
m
,u.navatiina.m,
,u.navantiina.m
,u.navata.m,
,u.navantaana.
m
Dat.
,u.navata.m,
,u.navantaana.
m
,u.navatiina.m,
,u.navantiina.m
,u.navata.m,
,u.navantaana.
m
Acc. ,u.navante
,u.navatii,
,u.navati'o,
,u.navantii,
,u.navanti'o
,u.navantaani,
,u.navantaa
Ins.
,u.navante$i,
,u.navante$i
,u.navatii$i,
,u.navatii$i,
,u.navantii$i,
,u.navantii$i
,u.navante$i,
,u.navante$i
Al.
,u.navante$i,
,u.navante$i
,u.navatii$i,
,u.navatii$i,
,u.navantii$i,
,u.navantii$i
,u.navante$i,
,u.navante$i
!oc. ,u.navantesu
,u.navantiisu,
,u.navatiisu
,u.navantesu
8oc.
,u.navantaa,
,u.navanto,
,u.navaa
,u.navatii,
,u.navati'o,
,u.navantii,
,u.navanti'o
,u.navantaani,
,u.navantaa
+-". #$ere is anot$er not ver' numerous class of adjectives
formed from nouns and roots ' means of suM?es aavii and
vii.
+-+. #$e ori,inal stem of aavii and vii is aavin and vin and
t$e' t$erefore elon, to t$e consonantal declension. 8ii is
used after nouns, and aavii after roots.
+--. #$e feminine is formed ' addin, t$e feminine suM?
nii, efore *$ic$ 5nal lon, ii is s$ortened.
+-%. In t$e neuter, 5nal i is s$ortened in t$e nom. and voc.
sin,ular& in t$e plural, efore neuter suM? ni 5nal ii remains
unc$an,ed.
+-3. vii, like maa and vaa, e?presses possession.
")amples
Noun
Adj.
Masc.
Adj. Fem.
Neuter
Sin,ular Plural
med$aa,
*isdom
med$aav
ii
med$aavin
ii
med$aa
vi
med$aaviin
ii
Npass, to see passaavii passaavinii passaavi passaaviinii
#$e declension of t$ese adjectives presents no diMcult'.
#$e' are declined in t$e masculine like da.n.dii, in t$e
feminine like nadii and in t$e neuter like vaari.
+-). +egative ajectives
+-<. Ne,ative adjectives are otained ' pre5?in, to
aMrmative adjectives t$e pre5? a and ana.
%emar&s' a is used efore a consonant, and ana efore a
vo*el.
")amples
dii,$a, lon,.
adii,$a, not lon,.
aakula, turid.
anaakula, not turid, clear.
Comparison
+-=. #$e comparison of adjectives is formed in t*o *a's(
0"1 ' addin, tara for t$e comparative and tama for t$e
superlative, to t$e masculine ases of t$e positive.
0+1 ' addin, i'a or i''a for t$e comparative, and i.t.t$a,
issika for t$e superlative, to t$e masculine ases of t$e
positive.
+->. #$e comparative and superlative are declined in t$e
masculine like deva, in t$e feminine like ka;n;na and in t$e
neuter like ruupa.m.
")amples
0"1 tara, tama.
Positive 6omparative Superlative
suci, pure sucitara, purer sucitama, purest
paapa,
evil
paapatara, more
evil
paapatama, most
evil
omaka,
vile
omakatara, viler omakatama, vilest
$ari,
,reen
$aritara, ,reener $aritama, ,reenest
%emar&s' Df t$e aove comparative and superlative ases,
t$e masculine is, sucitaro, sucitamo& t$e feminine, sucitaraa,
sucitamaa, and t$e neuter, sucitara.m, etc., etc.
0+1 i'a 0i''a1, i.t.t$a, issika.
Positive 6omparative Superlative
paapa, evil
paapii'a, more
evil
paapi.t.t$a, most
evil
paapi''a more
evil
paapissika, most
evil
k$ippa,
9uick
k$ippi'a, 9uicker
k$ippi.t.t$a,
9uickest
k$ippi''a, k$ippissika,
9uicker 9uickest
ka.t.t$a,
ad
ka.t.t$i'a, *orse
ka.t.t$i.t.t$a,
*orst
ka.t.t$i''a,
*orse
ka.t.t$issika, *orst
+%A. Fit$ man', *e s$ould sa' most, adjectives, t$e suM?es
of 0+-=/"1 tara, tama or of 0+1 i'a, i''a, i.t.t$a, issika, ma' e
used interc$an,eal'.
")amples
paapatara or paapi'a.
k$ippatara or k$ippi'a.
paapatama or paapi.t.t$a or paapissika, etc.
+%". #$e comparatives in i'a, i''a, are declined like mano
0"3>1.
It *ill e remarked t$at, efore i'a, i''a, i.t.t$a and issika,
t$e 5nal vo*el of t$e positive adjective is dropped.
+%-. Adjectives formed ' means of t$e possessive suM?es,
ma 0mat1, vaa 0vat1 0++"1, and vii, vin 0+-"1, drop t$ese
suM?es and t$e vo*el *$ic$ precedes t$em, efore i'a,
i''a, i.t.t$a and issika.
")amples
0a1 ,u.navaa4i'o = ,u.na4i'o = ,u.n4i'o = ,u.ni'o
Similarl'( ,u.n4i''o, ,u.ni''o( ,u.n/i.t.t$a, etc.
01 med$aavii4i'o = med$aa4i'o = med$4i'o = med$i'o
Similarl'( med$/i''o, med$i''o& med$/i.t.t$a, med$i.t.t$a,
etc.
0c1 satimaa4i'o = sati4i'o = sat4i'o = sati'o
Similarl'( sat/i''o = sati''o& sat/i.t.t$a = sati.t.t$a, etc.
+%%. #ara ma' e superadded to t$e superlative i.t.t$a, as,
paapi.t.t$atara.
+%3. #$e Acc. sin,. of most adjectives is used adveriall'.
")amples
Adjective Adver
k$ippa,
9uick
k$ippa.m,
9uickl'
suk$a, suk$a.m, $appil'
$app'
sii,$a, s*ift sii,$a.m, s*iftl'
manda,
stupid
manda.m,
stupidl'
+%). #$e asolute superlative is formed ' pre5?in, ati to
t$e positive adjective( atik$ippa, ver' 9uick, e?tremel'
9uick, too 9uick. atippasatt$a, ver' e?cellent. atit$oka, ver'
little, too little, e?cessivel' little.
+%<. Some adjectives form t$eir comparison irre,ularl'.
Positive 6omparative Superlative
antika, near nedi'a, nearer nedi.t.t$a, nearest
aa.l$a, stron,
saad$i'a,
stron,er
saad$i.t.t$a, stron,est
saad$i''a,
stron,er
appa, fe* ka.ni'a, fe*er kani.t.t$a, fe*est
'uva, 'oun, ka.ni'a, 'oun,er kani.t.t$a, 'oun,est
vu.d.d$a, old je''a, older je.t.t$a, oldest
pasatt$a, e?cellent,
,ood
se''a, etter
se.t.t$a, most
e?cellent, est
,aru, $eav' ,ari'a, $eavier ,ari.t.t$a, $eaviest
+%=. An' sustantive is used in t$e sense of an adjective
*$en it is t$e last memer of a a$ui$i compound 0see
c$apter on compounds, a$ui$i1 9ualif'in, a noun or a
pronoun e?pressed or understood.
+%>. #$e noun t$us used, *$et$er feminine or neuter,
assumes t$e form of t$e masculine.
")ample
Noun As adjective
0i1 dassana.m
0neut.1 lookin,
ruddadassano kum$iilo, a 5erce/lookin,
crocodile
0ii1 ja:n,$aa
0fem.1 le,
dii,$aja:n,$o puriso, a lon,/le,,ed man
0iii1 pa;n;naa
0fem.1 *isdom
ma$aapa;n;no, $avin, ,reat *isdom,
ver' *ise
0iv1 siila.m 0neut.1
moralit'
sampannasiilo, one *$o is full of moralit'(
moral, virtuous
0v1 $att$o 0masc.1
$and
c$inna$att$ena purisena kato, done ' a
man *$ose $ands $ave een cut o@
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter VIII
+umerals
+3A. #$e numerals are as follo*s(
+3". Table of carinals an orinals
6ardinals Drdinals
". eka, one pa.t$ama, 5rst
+. dve, t*o duti'a, second
-. ta'o, t$ree tati'a, t$ird
%. cattaaro catutt$a, turii'a
3. pa;nca
pa;ncat$a,
pa;ncama
). c$a
c$a.t.t$a,
c$att$ama
<. satta satt$a, sattama
=. a.t.t$a a.t.t$ama
>. nava navama
"A. dasa, rasa, lasa, .lasa dasama
"". ekaarasa, ekaadasa ekarasama
"+. aarasa, dvaarasa aarasama
"-. tedasa, terasa, telasa tedasama
"%. catuddasa, cuddasa, coddasa catuddasama
"3. pa;ncadasa, pa.n.narasa,
pannarasa
pa;ncadasama
"). so.lasa, sorasa so.lasama
"<. sattadasa, sattarasa sattadasama
"=. a.t.t$aadasa, a.t.t$aarasa a.t.t$aadasama
">. ekuunaviisati, ekuunaviisa.m ekuunaviisatima
+A. viisati, viisa.m viisatima
+". ekaviisati, ekaviisa.m ekaviisatima
++. dvaaviisati dvaaviisatima
+-. teviisati teviisatima
+%. catuviisati catuviisatima
+3. pa;ncaviisati pa;ncaviisatima
+). c$aiisati c$aiisatima
+<. sattaiisati, sattaviisati sattaiisatima
+=. a.t.t$aviisa.m a.t.t$aviisatima
+>. ekuunati.msati,
ekuunati.msa.m
ekuunati.msatima
-A. ti.msati, ti.msa.m ti.msatima
-". ekati.msati ekati.msatima
-+. dvatti.msati dvatti.msatima
%A. cattaaliisa.m, cattaariisa.m cattaalisatiima
3A. pa;n;naasa, pa;n;naasa.m pa;n;naasama
)A. sa.t.t$i sa.t.t$ima
<A. sattati sattatima
=A. asiiti asiitima
>A. navuti navutima
"AA. sata.m satama
+AA. aasata.m, dvaasata.m aasatama
"AAA. sa$assa.m sa$assama
"A,AAA. dasasa$assa.m dasasa$assama
"A,AAA,AAA. ko.ti ko.tima
+3+. !I$ Carinals
+3-. Cka, one, is in t$e sin,ular ver' often used in an
inde5nite sense, meanin,( a certain, a& as, eko naaviko, a
oatman, a certain oatman. ekaa kumaarikaa, a princess, a
certain princess. In t$e plural, it means( some, as, eke
purisaa, some men... ekaa maanusini, some *omen...
+3%. #$e cardinals, eka, ta'a and cattaaro are declined in
t$e plural in t$e t$ree ,enders& eka, alone of course, $avin,
sin,ular forms.
+33. /eclension of e&a1 one

Sin,ular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
eko ekaa eka.m
Gen. ekassa
ekissaa,
ekissaa'a
ekassa
Dat. ekassa
ekissaa,
ekissaa'a
ekassa
Acc. eka.m eka.m eka.m
Ins. ekena ekaa'a ekena
Al.
ekasmaa,
ekam$aa
ekaa'a
ekasmaa,
ekam$aa
!oc.
ekasmi.m,
ekam$i
ekaa'a,
ekissa.m
ekasmi.m,
ekam$i
8oc. eka eke eka

Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
eke ekaa, ekaa'o ekaani
Gen. ekesa.m ekaasa.m ekesa.m
Dat. ekesa.m ekaasa.m ekesa.m
Acc. eke ekaa, ekaa'o ekaani
Ins.
eke$i,
eke$i
ekaa$i,
ek$aa$i
eke$i,
eke$i
Al.
eke$i,
eke$i
ekaa$i,
ek$aa$i
eke$i,
eke$i
!oc. ekesu ekaasu ekesu
8oc. eke ekaa, ekaa'o ekaani
%emar&s' #$e aove declension is c$ie2' pronominal. 0See
Pronouns, 6$apter IU1
+3). /eclension of ta#o1 three

Plural 0No Sin,ular1
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
ta'o tisso ti.ni
Gen.
ti.n.na.m,
ti.n.nanna.m
tissanna.m,
tissa.m
ti.n.na.m,
ti.n.nanna.m
Dat.
ti.n.na.m,
ti.n.nanna.m
tissanna.m,
tissa.m
ti.n.na.m,
ti.n.nanna.m
Acc. ta'o tisso tii.ni
Ins. tii$i, tii$i tii$i, tii$i tii$i, tii$i
Al. tii$i, tii$i tii$i, tii$i tii$i, tii$i
!oc. tiisu tiisu tiisu
+3<. /eclension of cattaaro1 caturo1 four
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom
.
cattaaro, caturo catasso cattaari
Gen. catunna.m
catassanna.m,
cattassa.m
catunna.m
Dat. catunna.m
catassanna.m,
cattassa.m
catunna.m
Acc. cattaaro, caturo catasso cattaari
Ins.
catu$i,
catuu$i, catuu$i
catu$i, catuu$i,
catuu$i
catu$i,
catuu$i, catuu$i
Al.
catu$i,
catuu$i, catuu$i
catu$i, catuu$i,
catuu$i
catu$i,
catuu$i, catuu$i
!oc. catuusu catuusu catuusu
+3=. 0a1 In composition, t$e ase of ta'o, is ti, as,
tiloka$itada, esto*in, ene5ts on t$e t$ree *orlds.
01 Not seldom, tri also is met *it$( trikum$ana,ara.m, t$e
Ht$ree/Iillock/6it'H 0Ban,oon1.
0c1 #$e ase of cattaaro in composition is catu efore a
consonant, t$e consonant ein, often reduplicated& and
catur efore a vo*el( catumuk$o, $avin, four faces.
catuppado, a 9uadruped. catuparisa.m, t$e four assemlies.
catura:n,ii 0catu/r/a:n,ii1, $avin, four divisions. caturasso
0catu/r/asso1, $avin, four corners, 9uadran,ular.
+3>. #$e Dual $as completel' disappeared in Paali& t$e onl'
t*o vesti,es t$at $ave come do*n to us ein, dve or duve,
t*o, and u$o, ot$. .ut even in t$ese t*o *ords, t$e
student *ill remark t$at t$e in2ection of t$e plural $as
almost entirel' superseded t$at of t$e dual.
+)A. Dve or duve and u$o, are of t$e t$ree ,enders, and
used in t$e plural onl'.
Dve, #*o 7$o, .ot$
Nom
.
dve, duve u$o, u$e
Gen.
dvinna.m,
duvinna.m
u$inna.m
Dat.
dvinna.m,
duvinna.m
u$inna.m
Acc. dve, duve u$o, u$e
Ins. dvii$i, dvii$i
u$o$i, u$o$i, u$e$i,
u$e$i
Al. dvii$i, dvii$i
u$o$i, u$o$i, u$e$i,
u$e$i
!oc. dviisu u$osu, u$esu
+)". 0a1 #$e ase of dve, duve in composition is dvi and also
di, du and dve( dvijo, t*ice orn, a ra$min. dvijiv$o, doule/
ton,ued, a snake. dvipo, drinkin, t*ice, an elep$ant. dipado,
t*o/le,,ed, a iped. di,u.no, t*o/fold. duvid$o, of t*o kinds.
dve$uumako, $avin, t*o stories. dvepakk$o, t*o factions
or parties.
01 dva, dvaa are also used as t$e ases of dve, ut c$ie2'
in composition *it$ ot$er numers( dvattikk$atu.m 0dva/ti/
k$attu.m1, t*o or t$ree times. dvati.msati, t$irt' t*o.
dvaasa.t.t$i, si?t'/t*o. dvaaviisati, t*ent'/t*o.
0c1 aa is similarl' used as a ase. aarasa, aadasa, t*elve.
aaviisati, t*ent'/t*o.
+)+. Pa;nca, 5ve, is, like dve, of t$e t$ree ,enders. It is
declined as follo*s(
Nom
.
pa;nca
Gen.
pa;ncanna.
m
Dat.
pa;ncanna.
m
Acc. pa;nca
Ins. pa;nca$i
Al. pa;nca$i
!oc. pa;ncasu
+)-. #$e ot$er numers up to "= included, are also of t$e
t$ree ,enders, and are declined as follo*s(
Nom., Acc. V
8oc.
Gen. V
Dat.
Ins. V
Al.
!oc.
si?, c$a c$anna.m c$a$i c$asu
seven, satta
sattanna.
m
satta$i sattasu
ei,$t, a.t.t$a
a.t.t$anna.
m
a.t.t$a$i
a.t.t$as
u
nine, nava navanna.m nava$i navasu
ten, dasa dasanna.m dasa$i dasasu
+)%. #$e numerals from "" to "= are declined in e?actl' t$e
same *a'.
+)3. Iere it must e oserved t$at "A $as t$ree forms( dasa,
rasa, lasa, t$e last t*o ein, used onl' in composition *it$
ot$er numerals& .lasa is also found.
+)). #$e numerals from "> to >> are feminine& as t$e' are
formed ' pre5?in, t$e numerals from " to > to t$e decades,
t$e decades are $ere ,iven separatel'.
+A. viisati, viisa
-A. ti.msati, ti.msa
%A. cattaaliisa, cattaalisa, cattaarisa,
taalisa, taalisa
3A. pa;n;naasa, pa.n.naasa
)A. sa.t.t$i
<A. sattati
=A. asiti
>A. navuti
+)<. #$e numerals endin, in i are declined like t$e feminines
in i 0jaati, ratti1.
+)=. #$ose in a take in t$e Nom. sometimes t$e form in aa,
like ka;n;naa, ut usuall' t$e' assume in t$e Nom. neuter
form in a.m.
+)>. #$e follo*in, *ill serve as a model for t$e declension of
numerals from +A to >>(
/eclension of viisati1 67
Nom. V 8oc. Acc.
Gen. V
Dat.
Ins. V
Al.
!oc.
"st form(
viisa.m, viisa
visa.m visaa'a visaa'a
visaa'a,
visaa'a.m
+nd form(
viisati
viisati.
m
visati'aa visati'aa
visati'aa,
visati'a.m
%emar&s' Numerals in i follo* t$e +nd form and t$ose in a
t$e "st form.
+<A. #o e?press full decades ut one, as ">, +>, ->, etc(
ekuuna 0eka, one 4 uuna, de5cient '1 is pre5?ed to t$e
decades, as( ekuunaviisati, ">, viE., +A de5cient ' one.
ekuunati.msa, +> viE. -A de5cient ' one, etc.
+<". #$e ver' $i,$ numerals as, ko.ti, ten millions, pako.ti,
one $undred illions, etc., are declined like viisati.
+<+. Sata.m "AA, sa$assa.m "AAA, lak$a.m "AA,AAA, are
neuter sustantives, and t$erefore declined as suc$ on t$e
model of ruupa.m 0"+%1.
+<-. !II$ 8rinals
+<%. #$e ordinals are formed from t$e cardinals, from 3
up*ards, ' means of t$e suM? ma(
6ardinal
s
Drdinals
3.
pa;nca
pa;ncama,
3t$
). c$a c$ama, )t$
<. satta sattama, <t$
=.
a.t.t$a
a.t.t$ama,
=t$, etc.
+<3. Drdinals 3t$, )t$ and <t$, $ave t*o forms( ...
3t$, pa;ncat$a,
pa;ncama
)t$, c$a.t.t$a,
c$a.t.t$ama
<t$, satt$a, sattama
+<). From 3 up*ards, t$e ordinals form t$eir feminine '
means of suM? ii 0"=", +1 and t$eir neuter is formed in a.m.
#$e' are t$erefore declined like devo, nadii and ruupa.m.
")amples
Masc.
Nom.
Fem.
Nom.
Neut. Nom.
pa;ncam
o
pa;ncami
i
pa;ncama.m
c$a.t.t$a
mo
c$a.t.t$a
mii
c$a.t.t$ama.m
sattamo sattamii sattama.m
a.t.t$amo a.t.t$amii
a.t.t$ama.m,
etc.
+<<. From "" up*ards, $o*ever, t$e cardinals t$emselves
are not seldom used as ordinals& so t$at *e $ave t$e c$oice
of t*o forms, and can sa' eit$er,
ekaarasa, ""t$, or ekaarasama, ""t$.
pa;ncadasa, "3t$, or pa;ncadasama, "3t$.
catuviisati +%t$, or catuviisatima, +%t$, etc.
+<=. #$e 5rst four ordinals are as follo*s(
Masc.
Nom.
Fem.
Nom.
Neut.
Nom.
pa.t$amo pa.t$ama pa.t$ama.
a m
duti'o duti'aa duti'a.m
tati'o tati'aa tati'a.m
catutt$o catutt$aa
catutt$a.
m
%emar&s' #$e' are conse9uentl' declined like deva,
ka;n;naa and ruupa.m.
+<>. !III$ Averbial erivatives from numerals
+=A. Man' important advers are derived from numerals '
means of some suM?es.
+=". .' means of suM? d$aa are formed advers si,nif'in,(
*a's, times, fold and sometimes kinds.
")amples
ekad$aa, once.
dvid$aa, in t*o *a's& in t*o& of t*o kinds.
tid$aa, in t$ree *a's& t$ree/fold, in t$ree parts.
+=+. #$e *ord ,u.na, t$ou,$ not a suM?, is often emplo'ed
like d$aa *it$ t$e meanin,s of times, fold. In t$e sense of
times, it ,enerall' takes t$e neuter form in a.m.
")amples
dasa,u.na.m, ten times& or ten/fold.
ti,u.na.m, t$ree times& or t$ree/fold.
catu,u.na.m, four times& or, four/fold.
%emar&s' In t$e sense of fold, t$e compound ein, an
adjective, is treated as suc$ and is declined like deva,
ka;n;naa and ruupa.m.
+=-. d$aa is also used in t$e same *a' after a fe*
adjectives(
a$ud$aa, in man' *a's.
anekad$aa, in more t$an one *a'.
+=%. Distriutive advers are formed from numerals '
means of suM? so 0Sansk. Sas1.
")amples
ekaso, one ' one.
pa;ncaso, 5ve ' 5ve.
+=3. From k$attu.m, multiplicative advers are formed.
")amples
dvikk$attu.m, t*ice.
sattakk$attu.m, seven times.
satasa$assakk$attu.m, one $undred t$ousand times.
+=). #$e t*o follo*in, suM?es, from sustantives and
adjectives ka and 'a, form collective nouns and adjectives.
")amples
catukka, four/fold, consistin, of four, a collection of four
t$in,s& a place *$ere four roads meet.
dva'a, of t*o sorts, consistin, of t*o a pair.
dvika, duka, consistin, of t*o, a pair.
tika, ta'a, ta'i, consistin, of t$ree, a triad, etc.
+=<. #$ere is an adver, meanin, once, at once, never used
in composition *it$ numerals, it is saki.m, 0Sansk, sak.rt1.
F$en used efore *ords e,innin, *it$ a vo*el it
sometimes takes t$e forms sakid or sakad.
")amples
saki.m passanto, seein, 0$im1 once.
saki.m 'eva, at once, simultaneousl'.
sakid eva, at once, simultaneousl'.
sakadaa,amii 0aa,ami1, returnin, once onl'.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter I9
Pronouns1 Pronominal Ajectives1 an Pronominal
/erivatives
+==. !I$ Personal Pronouns
+=>. /eclension of aha'm1 I
Df all ,enders.
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
a$a.m( I
ma'a.m, am$e, va'a.m(
*e
Gen.
mama, ma'$a.m, mama.m,
am$a.m( m', mine
am$aaka.m, am$a.m,
asmaaka.m, no( our, ours
Dat.
mama, ma'$a.m, mama.m,
am$a.m, me( to me, for me
am$aaka.m, am$a.m,
asmaaka.m, no( to us, for
us
Acc. ma.m, mama.m( me am$e, am$aaka.m, asme,
am$e, no( us
Ins. ma'aa, me( ' me
am$e$i, am$e$i, no( '
us
Al. ma'aa, me( from me
am$e$i, am$e$i, no(
from us
!oc. ma'i( in, on, upon me
am$esu, asmaasu,
asmesu( in, on, upon us
%emar&s' 0a1 #$e sin,ular ase of a$a.m is mad accordin,
to Sanskrit commentators& it is properl' ma and mam.
Pronominal derivatives are, $o*ever, formed from t$e t$ree
ases( mad, mam and ma, t$e latter sometimes *it$ t$e a
len,t$ened( maa 0See Pronominal Derivation at t$e end of
t$e present c$apter.1
01 #$e form me, of t$e Gen., Dat., Ins., Al., sin,., is enclitic&
it is never used at t$e e,innin, of a sentence.
0c1 #$e form no, of t$e same cases in t$e plural is also
enclitic, and never used at t$e e,innin, of a sentence.
0d1 #$e plural ase is am$a, or am$ad.
+>A. /eclension of tva'm1 thou
Df all ,enders.
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
tva.m, tuva.m, ta.m( t$ou tum$e( 'ou
Gen.
tava, tava.m, tu'$a.m,
tum$a.m, te( t$', t$ine
tum$aaka.m, tum$a.m,
vo( 'our, 'ours
Dat.
tava, tava.m, tu'$a.m,
tum$a.m, te( to t$ee, for
t$ee
tum$aaka.m, tum$a.m,
vo( to 'ou, for 'ou
Acc.
tava.m, ta.m, tuva.m, tva.m,
t'a.m( t$ee
tum$e, tum$aaka.m, vo(
'ou
Ins. tva'aa, ta'aa, te( ' t$ee
tum$e$i, tum$e$i, vo(
' 'ou
Al. tva'aa, ta'aa, tvam$aa, te( tum$e$i, tum$e$i, vo(
from t$ee from 'ou
!oc. tva'i, ta'i, in, on, upon t$ee
tum$esu, in, on, upon
'ou
%emar&s' 0a1 #$e ases are tad and ta 0sometimes
len,t$ened to taa, in t$e sin,ular1.
01 tum$a 0tum$ad1, is t$e plural ase.
0c1 te like me of a$a.m, is an enclitic form and never e,ins a
sentence& so is vo for t$e plural.
0d1 vo is also found in t$e Nom. plural.
0e1 lt *ill e remarked t$at pronouns $ave no forms for t$e
8ocative case.
+>". !II$ /emonstrative Personal Pronouns
/eclension of so1 saa1 ta'm: this1 that1 he1 she1 it
+>+. Masculine( so, $e, t$is, t$at
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
so, sa te
Gen. tassa
tesa.m,
tesaana.m
Dat. tassa
tesa.m,
tesaana.m
Acc. ta.m te
Ins. tena te$i, te$i
Al.
tasmaa,
tam$aa
te$i, te$i
!oc.
tasmi.m,
tam$i
tesu
+>-. Feminine( saa, s$e, t$is, t$at
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
saa taa, taa'o
Gen. tassaa, tassaa'a, tissaa, taasa.m,
tissaa'a, taa'a taasaanam
Dat.
tassaa, tassaa'a, tissaa,
tissaa'a, taa'a
taasa.m,
taasaanam
Acc. ta.m taa, taa'o
Ins. taa'a taa$i, taa$i
Al. taa'a taa$i, taa$i
!oc. tassa.m, tissa.m, taa'a.m taasu
+>%. Neuter( ta.m, it, t$is, t$at
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ta.m, tad taani
Gen. tassa
tesa.m,
tesaana.m
Dat. tassa
tesa.m,
tesaana.m
Acc. ta.m, tad taani
Ins. tena te$i, te$i
Al.
tasmaa,
tam$aa
te$i, te$i
!oc.
tasmi.m,
tam$i
tesu
%emar&s' 0a1 In t$e Gen., Dat., Al., and !oc. sin,ular for
t$e masc. and neut., a form from pronominal stem( a, is also
used( assa, asmaa, asmi.m in t$e feminine too, for t$e Gen.,
Dat. and !oc. sin,ular( assaa, assa.m 0!oc.1.
01 ln t$e neuter, t$e form tad is used mostl' in compound
*ords, as( tad 0=ta.m1 karo=takkaro, Hdoin, t$isH, and also
efore a vo*el.
0c1 It *ill $ave een remarked t$at t$e stem ta, -rd personal
pronoun 0so, saa, ta.m1, is also used as a demonstrative.
0d1 ta is t$e ase or stem of so, saa, ta.m& as aove said
0Note 1, t$e form tad of t$e ase is also used.
0e1 8er' often, t$e aove pronoun ma' e translated as t$e
de5nite pronoun.
0f1 It is, too, often used pleonasticall' *it$ t$e pronouns
a$a.m and tva.m, as are, in fact, most demonstrative
pronouns& for instance( soG$a.m = t$is I, viE., I. tassa me
0Dat.1 = to t$is me, viE., to me. saaG'am 0=saa a'a.m1
ta.n$aa = t$is lon,in,.
0,1 attaa self& o*n 0"3%1, is, in its oli9ue cases, ver' muc$
used in a re2e?ive sense, instead of t$e t$ree personal
pronouns.
+>3. #$ere is a common sustitute of so, saa, ta.m, otained
' replacin, t *$erever it occurs, ' n, for t$e t$ree
,enders. #$us *e $ave(
Masculine Feminine Neuter
nassa=tassa naa'a=taa'a na.m=ta.m
nena=tena nassaa=tassaa nena=tena
na.m=ta.m
nassaa'a=tassa
a'a
na.m=ta.m
nasmaa=tasma
a
nassa.m=tassa.
m
nasmaa=tasma
a
nasmi.m=tasmi
.m
naa'a.m=taa'a.
m
nasmi.m=tasmi
.m
ne=te naa=taa, taa'o ne=te
ne$i=te$i naa$i=taa$i ne$i=te$i
nesa.m=tesa.m
naasa.m=taasa.
m
nesa.m=tesa.m
nesu=tesu naasu=taasu nesu=tesu
+>). #$e forms *it$ n as aove ,iven are ,enerall' used
*$en a noun *$ic$ $as een alread' mentioned, is referred
to& as, ta.m k$aadaapessaami nan Gti, IGll make 'ou eat $im
0viE., a monke' previousl' mentioned1.
+><. /emonstrative Pronouns
+>=. /eclension of eso1 esaa1 eta'm: this
+>>. #$e student *ill readil' perceive t$at t$e aove
Demonstratives are formed simpl' ' pre5?in, e to so, saa
and ta.m. #$e' are declined e?actl' like so, saa, ta.m.
-AA. As in t$e case of so, saa and ta.m, so also *it$ eso,
esaa and eta.m, t$e t ma' e replaced all t$rou,$ ' n, so
t$at *e otain t$e forms( enena, ena.m, enaa'a, etc., *$ose
declension presents no diMcult' *$atever. #$ese forms are
also used in referrin, to a noun alread' mentioned.
-A". eso, esaa, eta.m ma' e translated ' Ht$atH
sometimes.
-A+. #$e neuter etad 0=eta.m1 is used in composition efore
a vo*el.
-A-. #$is pronoun is also used pleonasticall' *it$ a personal
pronoun 0+>%, f1.
-A%. e, is considered as t$e ase of pronouns ena, eta, etc. It
is muc$ used in derivation.
/eclension of a#a'm: this; this here
-A3. Masculine(
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
a'a.m ime
Gen. assa, imassa
imesaana.m, imesa.m,
esaana.m, esa.m
Dat. assa, imassa
imesaana.m, imesa.m,
esaana.m, esa.m
Acc. ima.m ime
Ins. anena, iminaa ime$i, ime$i, e$i, e$i
Al.
asmaa, imasmaa,
imam$aa
ime$i, ime$i, e$i, e$i
!oc.
asmi.m, imasmi.m,
imam$i
imesu, esu
-A). Feminine(
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
a'a.m imaa, imaa'o
Gen.
assaa'a, assaa, imissaa'a, imissaa,
imaa'a
imaasaana.m,
imaasa.m
Dat.
assaa'a, assaa, imissaa'a, imissaa,
imaa'a
imaasaana.m,
imaasa.m
Acc. ima.m imaa, imaa'o
Ins. imaa'a, assaa, imissaa imaa$i, imaa$i
Al. imaa'a, assaa, imissaa imaa$i, imaa$i
!oc.
assa.m, imissa.m, assaa, imissaa,
imaa'a.m, imaa'a
imaasu
-A<. Neuter(
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ida.m, ima.m imaani
Gen. imassa, assa
imesa.m, imesaana.m,
esaana.m, esa.m
Dat. imassa, assa
imesa.m, imesaana.m,
esaana.m, esa.m
Acc. ida.m, ima.m imaani
Ins. iminaa, anena ime$i, ime$i, e$i, e$i
Al.
imasmaa, am$aa,
asmaa
ime$i, ime$i, e$i, e$i
!oc.
imasmi.m, asmi.m,
imam$i
imesu, esu
%emar&s' 0a1 #$e student *ill remark t$at t$e declension of
a'a.m is ased on t*o stems( a and i.
01 A'a.m is used sustantivel' as *ell as pronominall'.
/eclension of asu1 that
-A=. Masculine(
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
asu amuu, amu'o
Gen. amussa, adussa, amuno
amuusa.m,
amuusaana.m
Dat. amussa, adussa, amuno
amuusa.m,
amuusaana.m
Acc. amu.m amuu, amu'o
Ins. amunaa amuu$i, amuu$i
Al.
amusmaa, amum$aa,
amunaa
amuu$i, amuu$i
!oc. amusmi.m, amum$i amuusu
-A>. Feminine(
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
asu amuu, amu'o
Gen. amussaa, amu'aa
amuusa.m,
amuusaana.m
Dat. amussaa, amu'aa
amuusa.m,
amuusaana.m
Acc. amu.m amuu, amu'o
Ins. amu'aa amuu$i, amuu$i
Al. amu'aa amuu$i, amuu$i
!oc.
amussa.m,
amu'a.m
amuusu
-"A. Neuter(
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
adu.m, amu.m amuuni, amuu
Gen. amussa, adussa
amuusa.m,
amuusaana.m
Dat. amussa, adussa
amuusa.m,
amuusaana.m
Acc. adu.m, amu.m amuuni, amuu
Ins. amunaa amuu$i, amuu$i
Al.
amusmaa, amum$aa,
amunaa
amuu$i, amuu$i
!oc. amusmi.m, amum$i amuusu
%emar&s' 0a1 Some native ,rammarians also ,ive amu for
t$e Nom. sin,. in t$e masculine and feminine.
01 It *ill e noticed t$at t$e stem is amu& in t$e neuter,
t$ere are a fe* forms on t$e stem adu.
0c1 #o e?press( suc$, so and so ka is added to t$e stem, as,
asuka, amuka.
0d1 #$e forms asuka and amuka are often used to e?press
some contempt.
0e1 #$ese t*o forms $ave in t$e plural masc. and neut. Acc.
asuke, amuke.
-"". %elative Pronouns
/eclensions of #o1 #aa1 #a'm
-"+. Masculine( 'o, *$o& $e *$o& *$oever& *$at
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
'o 'e
Gen. 'assa 'esa.m
Dat. 'assa 'esa.m
Acc. 'a.m 'e
Ins. 'ena
'e$i,
'e$i
Al.
'asmaa,
'am$aa
'e$i,
'e$i
!oc.
'asmi.m,
'am$i
'esu
-"-. Feminine( 'aa, s$e& s$e *$o& *$oever& *$at
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
'aa 'aa, 'aa'o
Gen. 'aa'a, 'assaa 'aasa.m
Dat. 'aa'a, 'assaa 'aasa.m
Acc. 'a.m 'aa, 'aa'o
Ins. 'aa'a
'aa$i,
'aa$i
Al. 'aa'a
'aa$i,
'aa$i
!oc.
'aa'a.m,
'assa.m
'aasu
-"%. Neuter( 'a.m, it& *$ic$& t$at *$ic$
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
'a.m, 'ad 'aani
Gen. 'assa 'esa.m
Dat. 'assa 'esa.m
Acc. 'a.m, 'ad 'aani
Ins. 'ena
'e$i,
'e$i
Al.
'asmaa,
'am$aa
'e$i,
'e$i
!oc.
'asmi.m,
'am$i
'esu
%emar&s' 0a1 For t$e sake of ,reater emp$asis, t$e personal
pronouns, and so also a'a.m and eso are used pleonasticall'
*it$ 'o.
01 To is used *it$ koci 0-+-1, in t$e t$ree Genders as 'o
koci, 'ena kenaci, 'a.m ki;nci, etc., ot$ pronouns to,et$er
meanin,( *$osoever, *$oever, *$atever, an'one, an't$in,,
etc.
0c1 #$e form 'ad of t$e neuter sin,ular, is used efore
vo*els and in composition.
0d1 #$e ase of 'o is 'a.
-"3. Interrogative Pronouns
/eclension of &o1 &aa1 &i'm
-"). Masculine( ko, *$oW *$atW
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ko ke
Gen. kassa, kissa
kesa.m,
kesaana.m
Dat. kassa, kissa
kesa.m,
kesaana.m
Acc. ka.m ke
Ins. kena ke$i, ke$i
Al. kasmaa, kam$aa ke$i, ke$i
!oc.
kasmi.m, kam$i, kismi.m,
kim$i
kesu
-"<. Feminine( kaa, *$oW *$atW
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
kaa kaa, kaa'o
Gen. kaa'a, kassaa
kaasa.m,
kasaana.m
Dat. kaa'a, kassaa kaasa.m,
kasaana.m
Acc. ka.m kaa, kaa'o
Ins. kaa'a kaa$i, kaa$i
Al. kaa'a kaa$i, kaa$i
!oc.
kaa'a, kassaa, kaa'a.m,
kassa.m
kaasu
-"=. Neuter( ki.m, *$atW
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
ki.m kaani
Gen. kissa, kassa
kesa.m,
kesaana.m
Dat. kissa, kassa
kesa.m,
kesaana.m
Acc. ki.m kaani
Ins. kena ke$i, ke$i
Al. kasmaa, kam$aa ke$i, ke$i
!oc.
kasmi.m, kam$i, kismi.m,
kim$i
kesu
%emar&s' 0a1 #$e ase of ko assumes several forms( ka, ku
0kud1, ki 0kid1.
01 kud and kid are used efore vo*els and in composition.
-">. Ine<nite Pronouns
-+A. #$e inde5nite pronouns are formed ' addin, ci 0cid1,
api and cana, to t$e interro,ative pronouns.
-+". ci, or, efore a vo*el cid is t$e suM? most commonl'
used to form t$ese pronouns.
-++. cana.m=cana, is also found& ot$ are sometimes
s$ortened to ca.
/eclension of &oci1 &aaci an &i5nci
-+-. Masculine( koci, an', some, an'one
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
koci keci
Gen. kassaci
kesa;n
ci
Dat. kassaci
kesa;n
ci
Acc. ka;nci, ki;nci keci
Ins. kenaci ke$ici
Al. kasmaaci ke$ici
!oc.
kasmi;nci, kam$ici, kismi;nci,
kim$ici
kesuci
-+%. Feminine( kaaci, an', some, an'one
Sin,ular Plural
Nom
.
kaaci
kaaci,
kaa'oci
Gen. kaa'aci, kassaaci kaasa;nci
Dat. kaa'aci, kassaaci kaasa;nci
Acc. ka;nci
kaaci,
kaa'oci
Ins. kaa'aci kaa$ici
Al. kaa'aci kaa$ici
!oc.
kaa'aci, kaa'a;nci,
kassa;nci
kaasuci
-+3. Neuter( ki;nci, an', some, an't$in,
#$e neuter is declined like t$e masculine, e?cept(

Sin,ula
r
Plural
Nom.V ki;nci kaanic
Acc. i
-+). .' placin, na, not, efore t$e inde5nite pronouns *e
,et t$e meanin,s( none, no one, not$in,, etc.
-+<. ci, cana ma' also e placed after advers, to ,ive t$em
an inde5nite sense, as( ku$i.m, *$ereW ku$i;nci,
ku$i;ncana.m, an'*$ere. kudaa, *$enW kudaacana.m, ever,
sometimes. kadaa, *$enW kadaaci, sometimes.
8ther Pronouns
-+=. attaa, self, o*n, oneself 0"3%1, is ver' muc$ used as a
re2e?ive pronoun& so also are( aatumaa, self, o*n, etc.,
*$ic$ is ut anot$er form of attaa, and ver' rarel' used in
.udd$ist *ritin,s( tuma, $avin, t$e same meanin,, is still
less fre9uent.
-+>. In composition t$e ases are( atto, atuma and tuma.
--A. sa'a.m, oneself, ' oneself and saama.m, self, ot$
indeclinale, are often used as Be2e?ive Cmp$atic Pronouns.
--". attaa, aatumaa and tuma are properl' nouns used
pronominall'.
--+. A fe* ot$er nouns are t$us used pronominall'& t$e
follo*in, are t$e most usual.
---. $ava.m, lord, sir, 0"))1. It is a ver' respectful term of
address, used for t$e second pers. pronoun& t$e ver is put
in t$e t$ird person.
--%. A''a, lord, master& a .udd$ist monk& it is used c$ie2' in
addressin, .udd$ist monks, and is t$en often used *it$
$ante 0"))1.
--3. aavuso, friend, rot$er& is also used as a pronoun
sometimes. It is used mostl' ' senior monks to junior
monks, aavuso is indeclinale.
Pronominal /erivatives
Possessive Pronouns
--). A fe* possessive pronouns are formed from t$e ases
of t$e 5rst and second personal pronouns ' means of
suM?es( ii'a and aka, t$e vo*el of t$e ases ein,
sometimes len,t$ened efore aka. .ase possessive pronoun
mad 0+=>, a1 madii'a, mine, m', m' o*n. mam 0+=>, a1
maamaka, mamaka, mine, m', m' o*n. am$ad 0+=>, d1
am$adi'a, ours, our o*n. tad 0+>A, a1 tadi'a, t$ine, t$', t$'
o*n. tava 0Gen.1 taavaka, t$ine, t$', t$' o*n.
%emar&s' 0a1 aamaka, mamaka, as *ell as taavaka, ma' e
derived from t$e sin,ular ,enitive form ' t$e addition of ka.
01 #$e aove pronouns are declined like deva, ka;n;naa
and ruupa.m.
--<. A ,reat numer of adjectives and advers are derived
from pronominal ases ' means of suM?es, t$e principal of
*$ic$ are t$e follo*in,(
0a1 di 0dii1, disa, disaka, risa, tara, tama, ka.
01 daa, daani, tra, t$a, t$aa, t$a.m, ti, to, va 0vat1, ra$i,
$a.m, $a, $i.m, va, va.m, di.
#$e former 0a1 are used to form adjectives, and t$e latter,
01, advers.
#$e follo*in, are t$e principal derivatives ' means of t$e
aove suM?es.
--=. !a$ Ajectives
-->. di 0dii1, disa, disaka and risa, e?press likeness,
resemlance& t$e vo*el of t$e stem ein, len,t$ened efore
t$em.
")amples
Pronominal
ase
Adjective
ma 0+=>, a1
maadii, maadisa, maarisa, like me, suc$
as I
ta 0+>A, a1
taadi, taadisa, taadisaka, like $im, like
t$at, suc$
am$a 0+=>, d1 am$aadisa, like us
tum$a 0+>A, 1 tum$aadisa, like 'ou
i 0-A<, a1
iidii, iidisa, iirisa, iidisako, like t$is, suc$ as
t$is
e 0-A%1 edii, edisa, erisa, like t$is, suc$ as t$is
eta 0+>=, -A+1
etaadisa, etaarisa, suc$ as t$is or t$at,
suc$
ki 0-"=, a, 1
kiidii, kiidisa, kiirisa, like *$atW of *$at
kindW
-%A. #$e suM? dikk$a, $as t$e same meanin, as disa, etc. It
is otained ' assimilation from t$e Sanskrit d.rk.sa. Ience
*e $ave also t$e forms(
taadikk$a = taadisa,
kiidikk$a = kiidisa,
edikk$a = edisa,
iidikk$a = iidisa, etc.
-%". In edi, edisa, etc., t$e stem i is stren,t$ened 0"A31, in
iidisa, etc., it is merel' len,t$ened 0">1.
-%+. #ara and tama, *$ic$ are used for t$e comparison of
adjectives 0+-=1, are also added to t$e intero,ative stem to
form pronominal adjectives *$ic$, in meanin,, di@er ut
little from t$e sin,le stem. Ience *e $ave(
katara, *$ic$W *$atW
katama, *$ic$W *$atW
-%-. Some adjectives assume a rat$er anomalous form& suc$
are, for instance( kittaka, tattaka, 'attaka, ettaka, etc. A
,lance *ill suMce to s$o* t$at t$e' are formed on
pronominal ases( 'a, eta, ki, 0ka1, etc. #$e diMcult' is to
account 0for most of t$em1 for t$e doule tt. It is ovious
t$ese adjectives *ere formed ' addin, t$e adjectival suM?
ka to t$e adverial instrumentive in taa 0from vat, vant( cf.,
Sansk. taavaataa from taavat& 'aavataa from 'aavat1. #$e
Paali forms are simpl' contractions from t$e Sanskrit forms&
as( taavataa 4 ka = taavataaka( t$e loss of medial va ein,
compensated ' t$e doulin, of t$e last taa& t$e aa ein,
s$ortened efore ka, and t$e aa of t$e 5rst taa as *ell,
accordin, to eup$onic la*s. So t$at(
kittaka, $o* muc$W Io* man'W Io* ,reatW
kittaka = kiivataaka.
ettako, so ,reat, so muc$, so man'.
ettako = etaavataaka.
'attaka, $o*ever muc$& $o*ever i, or lar,e.
'attaka = 'aavataaka.
tattaka, as man', as ,reat, as i, or lar,e.
tattaka = taavataaka.
.ut see also suc$ Sansk. forms as( i'attaka 0i/'ad/ta/ka1&
ki'attaka 0ki/'ad/ta/ka1.
#$e form etta=ettaka, ma' e accounted for ' t$e furt$er
droppin, of 5nal ka, t$e adver etto, t$ence, is proal' a
contracted form etato 0Al. of eta.m1& in ettavataa=etaavat,
t$e consonant of t$e ase is douled.
-%%. !b$ Averbial /erivatives
Adverial derivatives from pronominal ases constitute a
lar,e and useful class of *ords.
#$e principal suM?es used to form t$ese advers $ave een
,iven aove 0--<, 1. Fe *ill ,ive $ere a fe* e?amples of
suc$ formation.
-%3. daa, daani, ra$i e?press time.
")amples
Pronominal
ase
Adver
ka 0-"=, a1 kara$i, kadaa, *$en
i 0-A<, a1 idaani, no*& at t$is time
ta 0+>A, a1
tara$i, tadaa, tadaani, t$en& at
t$at time
eta 0+>=, -A+1 etara$i, no*
-%). to, tra, t$a, d$a, $a, $a.m, $i.m, form advers of place.
.efore a s$ort vo*el t$e t of t$a is douled.
")amples
Pronominal
ase
Adver
ka, ku 0-"=,
a1
katt$a, kutra, kutt$a, ka$a.m, ku$a.m, ku$i.m,
*$ereW *$it$erW *$ereinW in *$at placeW
'a 0-"%, d1
'atra, 'att$a, *$ere, *$erein, *$it$er. 'a 'ato,
from *$atW
e 0-A%1 ett$a, $ere, $erein
a 0-A<, a1 atra, att$a, $ere
ta 0+>A, a1
tatt$a, tatra, ta$a.m, ta$i.m, t$ere, t$it$er. ta
tato, t$ence, from t$at place
i 0-A<, a1 i$a, id$a, $ere in t$is place
i ito, $ence, from t$is place
eta 0+>=,
-A+1
etto, t$rou,$. etato 0-%-1, $ence
-%<. t$aa, va, va.m, t$a.m, ti, form advers of manner
")amples
Pronominal
ase
Adver
ta tat$aa, t$us, so, like t$at
ka kat$a.m, $o*W
i
itt$a.m, t$us, in t$is
manner
i
iva, like t$is, as, as it
*ere
i iti, t$us, in t$is manner
e eva, eva.m, so, just so
'a 'at$aa, as, like
-%=. Anot$er suM? va, from vat, 0=Sansk. vat1, forms
advers of time and cause from t$e pronominal ases ta, 'a,
ki. #$e 5nal t of vat is dropped accordin, to t$e p$onetic
la*s otainin,, in Paali, *$ic$ do not su@er an' consonant to
remain at t$e end of a *ord, e?cept .m& efore a vo*el
$o*ever, t$e 5nal t is revived in t$e form of a d& as for
instance( taava& ut& taavad eva.
Pronominal
ase
Adver
'a
'aava, until& as lon, as& in order
t$at
ta taava, so lon,, still, 'et
%emar&s' Final a of t$e ase is len,t$ened efore va 0vat1,
*$ic$, as *e $ave seen alread', 0+">1, forms adjectives from
nouns. #$e Al. sin,. suM? taa, is also added to suc$ forms
as t$e aove.
")amples
'aavataa, as far as, ecause.
taavataa, so far, to t$at e?tent, on t$at account.
From ot$er pronominal ases *e $ave(
Pronominal
ase
Adver
eta 0+>=1
ettaavataa, to t$at e?tent, so
far, t$us
ki 0-"=, a1
kittaavataa, to *$at e?tentW
$o* farW
-%>. It $as een seen t$at ' addin, ka to t$ese forms *e
otain adjectives of co,nate meanin,.
-3A. #$e suM? di, e?pressin, condition, is found onl' in 'adi,
if.
-3". #$e suM? ti, is found in( kati, $o* man'W 'ati, as man',
and tati, so man'.
Ajectives /ecline Pronominall#
-3-. A fe* adjectives take t$e pronominal declension. #$e'
are(
katara, *$ic$W *$atW
u$a'a, ot$.
a;n;na, ot$er.
a;n;natara, one of several, a certain.
pua, 5rst, former.
para, distant, ot$er.
apara, suse9uent, ot$er.
uttara, upper, $i,$er.
dakk$i.na, ri,$t, 0not left1.
ad$ara, lo*er, inferior.
vissa, all.
amuka, so and so, suc$. 0-"A, c1
asuka, so and so, suc$.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter 9
Verbs
-3%. 6onju,ation, or t$e in2ection of vers, consists in
makin, t$e veral root under,o certain c$an,es in form, '
t$e addition to it of certain pre5?es and terminations to s$o*
t$e di@erence of voice, of tense, of mode, of person, and of
numer.
-33. #$ere are t*o voices(
". #$e Active, called in Paali( parassapada 0lit. a *ord for
anot$er1 and
+. #$e Be2ective in Paali called attanopada 0lit. a *ord for
oneGs self1.
-3). #$e active voice, or parassapada ma' e said to e
used, *$en t$e fruit or conse9uence of t$e action& e?pressed
' t$e ver passes on to anot$er person or t$in, ot$er t$an
t$e suject or a,ent& t$e re2ective voice or attanopada, is
used *$en t$e fruit or t$e conse9uence e?pressed ' t$e
ver accrues to no one else ut to t$e t$e a,ent. #$e
re2ective voice merel' implies t$at t$e a,ent $as t$e ailit'
to do t$at action or su@er t$at state *$ic$ is denoted ' t$e
root.
-3<. It must $ere e remarked t$at t$e re2ective voice $as
lost ver' muc$ of its importance, and t$at t$e distinction
et*een active and re2ective $as een almost if not
alto,et$er e@aced, and t$at t$e c$oice et*een t$e active
or re2ective is mostl' determined no* ' metrical
e?i,encies. It t$erefore follo*s t$e re2ective voice or t$e
HMiddle 8oice,H as it is also called, is con5ned to poetr', and
is ut rarel' found in prose.
-3=. #$ere are si? tenses(
". #$e Present& and its preterite.
+. #$e Imperfect& used ori,inall' to e?press a de5nite
past.
-. #$e Aorist, e?pressin, time recentl' past. #$is is no*
t$e onl' true past tense in Paali, and is ver' e?tensivel'
used.
%. #$e Perfect, ori,inall' an inde5nite past. #$is tense is of
ver' rare occurrence.
3. #$e Future, e?pressin, future time in ,eneral and its
preterite.
). #$e 6onditional, e?pressin, future time relativel' to
somet$in, t$at is past, and an action unale to e
performed on account of some diMcult' in t$e *a' of
its e?ecution.
-3>. #$ere are t$ree modes of t$e present tense(
". #$e Indicative.
+. #$e Imperative.
-. #$e Dptative.
-)A. #$e present, t$e perfect and t$e future tenses, $ave
eac$ a Participle, called after t$em(
". #$e Present Participle.
+. #$e Perfect Participle.
-. #$e Future Participle.
%emar&s' #$e perfect participle, mostl' formed from t$e
root, is principall' of past and passive meanin,& sometimes
also of neuter meanin,.
-)". #$ere is also a Participle of Necessit', also called Future
Passive Participle and Potential Participle, *$ic$ is ut a
veral adjective.
-)+. Accordin, to t$e ase on *$ic$ t$e' are formed t$e
present and t$e future participles ma' e active or passive
in sense.
-)-. #$ere are t*o veral nouns(
". #$e In5nitive, in t$e Accusative case/form& sometimes
0rarel'1, in t$e Dative case/form& *$ic$ $as not$in, to
do *it$ t$e conju,ation and t$e tense s'stems& and $as
t$e sense of a re,ular in5nitive.
+. A Gerund so/called, *$ic$ is ut t$e case/form of a
derivative noun $avin, t$e force of an asolute
participle.
-)%. #$ere are t*o numers( t$e Sin,ular and t$e Plural.
-)3. #$ere are t$ree persons( t$e First, Second and #$ird
Persons.
-)). From *$at $as een said aove, it *ill e seen t$at t$e
tenses ,roup t$emselves into four *ell de5ned classes or
s'stems.
0"1 #$e Present S'stem, composed of(
a. #$e Present Indicative, and its preterite.
. #$e Imperfect.
c. #$e Present Imperative.
d. #$e Present Dptative.
e. #$e Present Participle.
0+1 #$e Aorist S'stem, composed of(
a. #$e Aorist #ense onl'.
0-1 #$e Perfect S'stem, comprisin,(
a. #$e Perfect #ense.
. #$e Perfect Participle.
0%1 #$e Future S'stem composed of(
a. #$e Future #ense.
. #$e 6onditional.
c. #$e Future Participle.
-)<. #$ere is a division of t$e tenses, more 5ctitious t$an
real, into HSpecial #ensesH and HGeneral #ensesH. From suc$ a
division, one *ould e inclined to t$ink t$at t$e former are
formed on a special ase or modi5ed form of t$e root, and
t$e latter, t$erefore, from t$e root itself. .ut suc$ in fact is
not t$e case, for it *ill later on e remarked t$at t$e special
and t$e ,eneral tenses not seldom interc$an,e t$eir ases.
-)=. As, $o*ever t$e Present S'stem is ' far t$e most
important, and as it is made t$e asis of t$e di@erent
conju,ations or classi5cations of vers, *e *ill in t$e ne?t
section e?plain t$e formation of t$e several stems or ases
of t$e Present S'stem 0ot$er*ise called HSpecial #ensesH1 of
*$ic$ t$ere are ten, divided into seven conju,ations. #$ese
ases are in conse9uence called HSpecial .asesH.
-)>. #$e conju,ation of vers is furt$ermore divided into
Primitive and Derivative 6onju,ations.
!A$ Primitive Verbs
3ormation of the Special 4ases of the Present S#stem
Conjugation
-<A. #$e vers of t$e First 6onju,ation form t$e Present
stem or ase in four *a's, as follo*s(
0"1 #$e roots end in a consonant, and, to form t$e ase or
stem, simpl' add a.
")amples
Boots .ases
Npac, to cook paca
Nla$, to otain la$a
Nmar, to die mara
Nrakk$, to keep,
,uard
rakk$
a
N'aac, to entreat,
e,
'aaca
Nvad, to tell, sa' vada
Ntar, to cross tara
Njiiv, to live jiiva
N$ar, to carr' $ara
-<". #o t$is division elon, t$ose roots *$ic$, endin, in a
consonant preceded ' i or u, sometimes do, and sometimes
do not stren,t$en t$e vo*el 0i, u1.
")amples
0Fit$out Stren,t$enin,1
Boots
.ase
s
Ntud, to kno*,
destro'
tuda
Np$us, to touc$
p$us
a
Nlik$, to *rite lik$a
Nnud, to remove nuda
0Fit$ Stren,t$enin,1
Boots
.ase
s
N,up, to keep, *atc$ ,opa
Nsu$, to s$ine, e
eautiful
so$
a
0+1 #$e roots of t$is division do not take t$e conju,ation si,n
a( t$e personal endin,s of t$e tenses are added directl' to
t$e root.
")amples
Boots
.ase
s
N'aa, to ,o 'aa
Nvaa, to lo* vaa
N.t$aa, to stand .t$aa
Nk$'aa, to tell 0*it$ pre5?
aa1
k$'a
a
Nruu, to speak ruu
%emar&s' 0a1 #o t$is class ma' e said to elon, t$e roots
endin, in i, ii or u, uu *$ic$, *$en a is added to t$em, do not
take t$eir semi/vo*el sustitute, ut are merel' ,unated
0"A>, "A%/"A<1.
Boots .ases
Nnii, to lead
ne 0or na'a1 0-rd
Division1
Nji, to
con9uer
je 0or java1 0-rd
Division1
N$uu, to e $o
Nku, to
sound
ko 0or kava1 0-rd
Division1
%emar&s' 01 #o t$ese transformed roots, *$ic$ at 5rst si,$t
appear to e pure roots, t$e personal endin,s are added, as
after t$e roots( 'aa, vaa, .t$aa, etc., 0+nd Division1.
0c1 So t$at t$ese roots assume t*o special ases( one in e or
a'a, and one in o or ava, accordin, as t$e last vo*el is i, ii or
u, uu.
0-1 #$e roots of t$is division end in i, ii or u, uu *$ic$, efore
t$e conju,ational si,n a, are respectivel' c$an,ed to a' and
av 0"A-/""A1.
")amples
Boots .ases
Nnii, to lead, ,uide 0Nnii 4 a =1 na'a
Nji, to con9uer 0Nji 4 a =1 ja'a
N$uu, to e
0N$uu 4 a =1
$ava
Nku, to make a
sound
0Nku 4 a =1 kava
Nk$i, to ,overn
0Nk$i 4 a =1
k$a'a
0See aove no. + Bemarks 0a, c11.
0%1 #$e vers of t$e Fourt$ Division of t$e First 6oju,ation
form t$eir special ases ' reduplicatin, t$e root.
")amples
Boots .ases
N.t$aa, to
stand
ti.t.t$a
a
Ndaa, to ,ive dadaa
Nd$aa, to
$old
dad$a
a
N$a, to
forsake
ja$aa
N$u, to
sacri5ce
ju$o
%emar&' #$ese retain t$e lon, aa efore t$e personal
endin,s of t$e Present and of t$e Imperative.
-<+. #$e rules of reduplication are as follo*s(
". Beduplication consists in t$e doulin, of t$e 5rst
consonant in a root to,et$er *it$ a vo*el t$at follo*s
it. If t$e root e,ins *it$ a vo*el, t$at vo*el alone is
reduplicated.
+. A ,utteral is reduplicated ' its correspondin, palatal.
-. An unaspirate is al*a's reduplicated ' an unaspirate
0See c$art para >1 *$ic$ means t$at an unaspirate is
reduplicated ' itself.
%. #$e initial $ of a root, is reduplicated ' j.
3. An aspirate is reduplicated ' its unaspirate.
). v is ,enerall' reduplicated ' u.
<. A lon, vo*el is s$ortened in t$e reduplicated s'llale.
#$at is(
a. a or aa takes a in reduplication, and sometimes(
. i or ii takes i.
c. u or uu takes u ut sometimes a.
d. i is occasionall' c$an,ed to e.
e. u is c$an,ed to o, sometimes.
f. a of t$e root, follo*in, t$e 5rst consonant, is
sometimes len,t$ened to aa.
")amples
Simple roots
Beduplicated
ases
Nd$aa, to $old 0Bule -<+, 3,
</a1
dad$aa
Ndaa, to ,ive 0Bule -<+, -, </
a1
dadaa
Nkit, to cure 0Bule -<+, +, </
& ==1
cikicc$a
N,am, to ,o 0Bule -<+, +, </
a1
ja,ama
Nk$a:n, to di, 0Bule -<+, +,
</a1
cak$ana
N$ar, to ear 0Bule -<+, %, </
a, f1
ja$aara
N$as, to lau,$ 0Bule -<+, %,
</a, f1
ja$aasa
Nud$, to kno* 0Bule -<+, -,
</e1
uod$a
Nsuc, to mourn 0Bule -<+, -,
</e1
susoca
Npac, to cook 0Bule -<+, -,
</a1
papaca
Nc$id, to cut 0Bule -<+, 3, </
d1
cic$eda
N$uu, to e 0Bule -<+, 3, </
c1
a$uva
Nvas, to live 0Bule -<+, ), </
f1
uvaasa
Nvad, to sa' 0Bule -<+, ), </
f1
uvaada
Na$, to sa' 0Bule -<+, "& ++1 aa$a
%emar&s' #$e aove rules of reduplication appl' as *ell to
t$e Perfect #ense& ut as t$e Perfect is ver' seldom used in
Paali, t$e student ou,$t not to assume e?istence of an' form
unless it e actuall' found in t$e course of $is readin,.
-<-. #$e vers of t$e Second 6onju,ation form t$eir special
ases ' insertin, ni,,a$iita efore t$e last consonant of t$e
root, and t$en addin, a, as in t$e First 6onju,ation.
Ni,,a$ita follo*s t$e usual rules of sand$i 0->1.
")amples
Boots .ases
Nrud$, to
restrain
rund$a
Nmuc, to free
mu;nc
a
Nc$id, to cut c$inda
Nlip, to smear limpa
N$uj, to eat
$u;nj
a
Npis, to ,rind pimsa
-<%. #$e si,n of t$e #$ird 6onju,ation is 'a, *$ic$ is added
to t$e root& t$e rules for t$e assimilation of 'a 0<A @.1, are
re,ularl' applied.
")amples
Boots .ases
N'ud$, to
5,$t
N'ud$ 4 'a 0<%,
vi1
=
'ujj$a
Nud$, to
kno*
Nud$ 4 'a 0<%,
vi1
=
ujj$a
Npas, to see Npas 4 'a 0<), i1
=
passa
Ndus, to ve? Ndus 4 'a 0<), i1
=
dussa
N,aa, to sin, N,aa 4 'a
=
,aa'a
Nj$aa, to
t$ink
Nj$aa 4 'a
=
j$aa'a
%emar&' #$e roots of t$is conju,ation endin, in lon, aa are
sometimes ,iven under t$e form of e also& t$us(
,e = ,aa, to sin,.
ve = vaa, to *eave.
j$e = j$aa, to t$ink, meditate.
-<3. #$e forms in aa 0,aa, etc.1 elon,, as *e $ave alread'
seen, to t$e #$ird 6onju,ation, ut t$ose in e elon, to t$e
First 6onju,ation 0-rd Division1, and form t$eir ases ' t$e
addition of a. #$us(
,e 4 a = ,aa'a.
ve 4 a = vaa'a.
%emar&' Note *ell t$at 5nal e 4 a = aa'a *it$ len,t$enin,
of t$e 5rst a.
-<). #$e vers of t$e Fourt$ 6onju,ation form t$e Present
stem or ase ' t$e addition of .nu, or .na if t$e root end in a
vo*el& ut u.nu, or u.naa, if t$e root end in a consonant.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e u of .nu and u.nu ma' e stren,t$ened to o.
01 #$is u or o ma', efore a personal endin, e,innin, *it$
a vo*el, e c$an,ed to va 0+<ii a, 1.
")amples
Boots .ases
Nsu, to $ear. su.naa or su.no.
Naap 0*it$ pre5? pa = paap1 to
attain.
paapu.naa or
paapu.no.
0c1 #$e lon, aa of .naa, u.naa is retained efore t$e personal
endin,s of t$e Present and of t$e Imperative e?cept t$e -rd
Person Plural. Dccasionall', $o*ever, it is found s$ortened.
0d1 In a fe* cases t$e .n is de/lin,ualiEed and c$an,ed to t$e
dental nasal, viE., n, follo*in, in t$is t$e analo,' of t$e
Sanskrit.
-<<. 8ers of t$e Fift$ 6onju,ation form t$eir ases '
addin, naa to t$e root, *$ic$ as a rule ends in a vo*el.
%emar&s'
0a1 If t$e 5nal vo*el of t$e root is lon, 0+1, it is s$ortened
efore naa.
01 7nder t$e in2uence of a precedin, Sanskrit r or X, t$is
naa is sometimes lin,ualised and ecomes .naa.
")amples
Boots .ases
Nci, to $eap, collect. cinaa.
Nkii, to u', arter. 0Sansk.
krii1
kii.naa, or
ki.naa.
Nd$uu, to s$ake. d$unaa.
Nji, to con9uer, *in. jinaa.
Nas, to eat. asnaa.
Njaa, to kno*. jaanaa.
N'u, to mi?, associate. 'unaa.
%emar&s' #$e lon, aa of naa is retained in all t$e persons of
t$e Present and Imperative, e?cept in t$e -rd Plural. #$e
s$ort form in na is also often found.
-<=. #$e vers of t$e Si?t$ 6onju,ation form t$eir special
ases ' addin, u to t$e root& t$is u ,enerall' stren,t$ens to
o, *$ic$ efore an endin, e,innin, *it$ a vo*el is c$an,ed
to va 0+<1.
")amples
Boots
.ase
s
Nkar, to do, make. karo.
Ntan, to stretc$,
e?pand.
tano.
Nku.n, to make a
sound.
ku.no
.
Nvan, to e,, ask for. vano.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e conju,ation of Nkar is $i,$l' irre,ular and formed on
several ases and *ill e ,iven in full later on.
01 #$e roots elon,in, to t$is conju,ation are remarkal'
fe*.
-<>. #$e vers of t$e Sevent$ 6onju,ation form t$eir special
ases ' addin, to t$e root a'a, *$ic$ ' contraction ma'
e replaced ' e. #$e forms in e are more commonl' met
t$an t$ose in a'a. 06ompare( "st 6onju,ation, -rd Division1.
%emar&s' #$e follo*in, s$ould e carefull' noted(
0a1 F$en t$e radical vo*el is u, it is c$an,ed to o, provided
it e not follo*ed ' a 6onjunct 6onsonant.
01 Badical a, if follo*ed ' a sin,le consonant, is ,enerall'
len,t$ened, in some cases, $o*ever, it remains s$ort.
0c1 It *ill e perceived from t$e aove t$at t$e vers of t$e
Sevent$ 6onju,ation $ave t*o ases( one in e and one in
a'a 06ompare( "st 6onju,ation, -rd Division1.
")amples
Boot .ase
Ncur, to steal. core or cora'a.
N,up, to ,uard, s$ine. ,ope or ,opa'a.
Npus, to nouris$. pose or posa'a.
Nand$, to ind.
and$e or
and$a'a.
Ntiir, to 5nis$,
accomplis$.
tire or tiira'a.
Nc$a.d.d, to t$ro*
a*a'.
c$a.d.de or
c$a.d.da'a.
Nkat$, to sa'. kat$e or kat$a'a.
-=A. A ,reat man' roots can form t$eir ases accordin, to
t*o or t$ree or even most conju,ations, in *$ic$ case t$e
meanin, of eac$ special ase from t$e same root, di@ers, in
most instances, from t$e ori,inal meanin, of t$e root itself.
#$is *ill e etter understood ' several e?amples. #$e
numers after t$e ases refer to t$e conju,ations.
")amples
Boots .ases
su$ so$a 0"1, to s$ine. Nsu$ 4 a = so$a.
su$ sum$a 0+1, strike.
Nsu$ 4 .m 4 a =
sum$a.
kus kosa 0"1, to call, cut. Nkus 4 a = kosa.
kus kussa 0-1, to emrace.
Nkus 4 'a, kus'a =
kussa 0<)1.
tik teka 0"1, to ,o. Ntik 4 a = teka.
tik tiku:naa 0%1, to oppress.
Ntik 4 u:naa =
tiku:naa.
rii re 0"1, to e?pand. Nrii 4 a = re.
rii rii.naa 031, to inform. Nrii 4 .naa = rii.naa.
lii la'a 0"1 to li9uif'. Nlii 4 a = la'a.
lii liinaa 031, to approac$. Nlii 4 naa = liinaa.
tan tana 0"1, to aid, assist. Ntan 4 a = tana.
tan tano 0)1, to e?pand, stretc$.
Ntan 4 u 0=o1 =
tano.
va.d.d
$
va.d.d$a 0"1, to ,ro*, increase.
Nva.d.d$ 4 a =
va.d.d$a.
va.d.d
$
va.d.d$e 0<1, to pour from one
vessel into anot$er.
Nva.d.d$ 4 e =
va.d.d$e.
vid vida 0"1, to kno*. Nvid 4 a = vida.
vid vijja 0-1, to e, $ave.
Nvid 4 'a = vid'a =
vijja.
vid vind 0+1, to 5nd, ,et, enjo'.
Nvid 4 .m 4 a =
vinda.
vid vede, veda'a 0<1, to feel, speak.
Nvid 4 e = vede or
veda'a.
Conjugation of the Present S#stem
3irst Conjugation
-=". #$e ases of t$e vers $avin, een formed accordin,
to t$e rules ,iven in t$e precedin, para,rap$s, t$ere onl'
remains to add to t$em t$e appropriate Personal Cndin,s.
Fe no* ,ive t$e Personal Cndin,s for t$e tense of t$e
Present/S'stem, *$ic$ is ' far t$e most important, omittin,
t$e Present Participle, *$ic$ *ill e treated in a special
c$apter.
Present Inicative

Present Active
8oice
Present Be2ective
8oice
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"st
Person
mi ma e m$e
+nd
Person
si t$a se v$e
-rd
Person
ti nti te nte, re
Imperfect

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
a, a.m
am$a
a
i.m
m$as
e
+
.
o tt$a se v$a.m
-
.
a u tt$a
tt$u.
m
Imperative

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plura
l
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
mi ma e
aamas
e
+
.
$i t$a ssu v$o
-
.
tu ntu ta.m nta.m
8ptative

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
e''aa
mi
e''aam
a
e''a.m
e''aam$
e
+
.
e''aasi
e''aat$
a
et$o e''av$o
-
.
e''a e''u.m et$a era.m
%emar&s'
0a1 In t$e sin,ular Dptative active voice, e ma' e
sustituted for e''aami, e''aasi and e''a.
01 #$e vo*el of t$e ase is dropped efore a personal
endin, e,innin, *it$ a vo*el.
0c1 .efore mi and ma of t$e Present Indicative, t$e a of t$e
ase is len,t$ened.
0d1 In t$e +nd person sin,ular active of t$e Imperative, $i
ma' e dropped and t$e ase or stem alone used. Note t$at
efore $i t$e a of t$e ase is len,t$ened.
-=+. As $as een said aove 0-<A1 t$e 5rst conju,ation $as
four divisions. #$e roots endin, in a consonant and addin, a
to form t$e ase, are e?tremel' numerous.
-=-. #$e follo*in, is t$e paradi,m of Npac, to cook.
Present Inicative

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
pacaami, I
cook
pacaama,
*e cook
pace, I cook
pacaam$e, *e
cook
+
.
pacasi, t$ou
cook
pacat$a, 'ou
cook
pacase,
t$ou cook
pacav$e, 'ou
cook
-
.
pacati, $e
cooks
pacanti, t$e'
cook
pacate, $e
cooks
pacante, pacare,
t$e' cook
Imperfect
I cooked, etc.

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
apaca,
apaca.m
apacam$
aa
apaci.m
apacaam$ase,
apacam$ase
+
.
apaco apacatt$a apacase apacav$a.m
-
.
apaca apacu
apacatt
$a
apacatt$u.m
Imperative
!et me cook, etc.

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
pacaami
pacaam
a
pace
pacaama
se
+
.
pacaa$i,
paca
pacat$
a
pacassu pacav$o
-
.
pacatu
pacant
u
pacata.
m
pacanta.
m
8ptative
I ma', s$ould, can, could cook. etc.

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
pace''aami,
pace
pace''aa
ma
pace''a.
m
pace''aam
$e
+
.
pace''aasi,
pace
pace''aat
$a
pacet$o pace''av$o
-
.
pace''a, pace pace''u.m pacet$a pacera.m
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e au,ment a of t$e Imperfect ma' e omitted, so t$at
*e also $ave t$e forms( paca, paca.m, paco, etc.
01 #$e 5nal vo*el of t$e -rd person sin,ular active ma' also
e lon,( apacaa, apacuu.
-=%. #$e aove personal/endin,s of t$e special tenses are
aM?ed to t$e special ase of t$e seven conju,ations, after
t$e model of Npac.
-=3. Boots of t$e "st conju,ation in i, ii and u, uu, re9uire no
e?planations. #$e ase ein, otained, 0-<", -1 t$e aove
endin,s are merel' added to it.
")amples
Present Active

N$uu, to e, ase(
$ava
Nnii, to lead, ase(
na'a
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$avaami $avaama na'aami na'aama
+
.
$avasi $avat$a na'asi na'at$a
-
.
$avati $avanti na'ati na'anti
Present %e=ective

Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
$ave
$avaam
$e
na'e
na'aam$
e
+
.
$avas
e
$avav$e na'ase na'av$e
-
.
$avat
e
$avante na'ate na'ante
Imperfect Active
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
a$ava,
a$ava.m
a$avam$
aa
ana'a,
ana'a.m
ana'am$
aa
+
.
a$avo a$avatt$a ana'o ana'att$a
-
.
a$ava a$avu ana'a ana'u
Imperfect %e=ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
a$avi.m
a$avaam$a
se
ana'i.m
ana'aam$a
se
+
.
a$avase
a$avav$a.
m
ana'ase
ana'av$a.
m
-
.
a$avatt
$a
a$avatt$u.
m
ana'att
$a
ana'att$u.
m
Imperative Active
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$avaami
$avaam
a
na'aami
na'aam
a
+
.
$avaa$i,
$ava
$avat$
a
na'aa$i,
na'a
na'at$a
-
.
$avatu
$avant
u
na'atu na'antu
Imperative %e=ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$ave
$avaama
se
na'e
na'aama
se
+
.
$avassu $avav$o na'assu na'av$o
-
.
$avata.
m
$avanta.
m
na'ata.
m
na'anta.
m
8ptative Active
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$ave''aami,
$ave
$ave''aa
ma
na'e''aami,
na'e
na'e''aa
ma
+
.
$ave''aasi,
$ave
$ave''aat
$a
na'e''aasi,
na'e
na'e''aat
$a
- $ave''a, $ave $ave''u.m na'e''a, na'e na'e''u.m
.
8ptative %e=ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$ave''a.
m
$ave''aam
$e
na'e''a
m
na'e''aam
$e
+
.
$avet$o $ave''av$o na'et$o na'e''av$o
-
.
$avet$a $avera.m na'et$a na'era.m
-=). #$e roots of t$e 5rst conju,ation *$ic$ take t$e
personal endin,s directl' 0-<", +1 are not numerous.
-=<. It must e $ere noted t$at in Paali, all t$e roots are not
conju,ated in t$e Active and t$e Be2ective voices for all t$e
tenses. Cspeciall' so is t$e case *it$ t$e roots t$at take t$e
personal endin,s directl'.
")amples
N'aa, to ,o Nvaa, to lo* N$aa, to s$ine

Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
'aami
'aam
a
vaami
vaam
a
$aami
$aam
a
+
.
'aasi
'aat$
a
vaasi
vaat$
a
$aasi
$aat$
a
-
.
'aati 'anti vaati vanti $aati $anti
%emar&s' .efore nti, -rd plural, aa of t$e root is s$ortened.
-==. In t$e Dptative, a ' is inserted efore t$e personal
endin,s( 'aa'e''aami, 'aape''a, vaa'e''a, vaa'e, etc.
-=>. Some roots of t$is class are ,u.nated 0""A1 ,enerall' in
t$e re2ective and -rd plural Present active( Nruu, to speak.
Active Be2ective
Sin,ula Plural Sin,ula Plural
r r
"
.
ruumi
ruum
a
rave
ruum$
e
+
.
ruusi
ruut$
a
ruuse ruuv$e
-
.
ruuti
ravan
ti
rute
ravant
e
%emar&s' In t$e plural "st and +nd persons re2ective, t$e u
is sometimes found s$ortened.
->A. Dt$er roots of t$is conju,ation are(
N$an, to strike, kill, -rd sin,ular = $anti. ut -rd plural
= $ananti. In t$e Aorist *e $ave( a$ani, $ani, etc.
Ni to ,o, stren,t$ened to e& t$e *eak ase 'a is also
used 0cf. "st conju,ation -rd division, suc$ roots as Nnii,
stron, ase ne and *eak ase na'a. Similarl'( Nji,
stron, ase je and *eak ase ja'a.1. Fe t$erefore
otain(
". emiema
+. esiet$a
-. etienti and 'anti
N.t$a, to stand, .t$aati, .t$aasi, etc.
Npaa, to ,uard, protect, paati, paasi, etc.
%emar&s'
0a1 Boots of t$is class ma' like ot$ers elon,in, to di@erent
conju,ations, e compounded *it$ veral pre5?es.
")amples
Nk$'aa, to tell 4 aa = aak$'aa 4 ti = aak$'aati.
N.t$aa 4 ni = ni.t.t$aa 4 ti = ni.t.t$aati, to e 5nis$ed.
N$an 4 ni = ni$an 4 ti = ni$anti, to strike do*n.
Ni 4 upa = upe 0+"1 4 ti = upeti, to approac$.
01 t$e aa of N.t$aa is s$ortened to a *$en t$e root is
reduplicated 0"st 6onju,ation, %t$ division1.
0c1 N.t$aa, in composition *it$ 8eral Pre5?es, often
assumes t$e special ase .t$a$a.
")amples
N.t$aa 4 sa.m = sa.n.t$aati, or sa.n.t$a$ati, or
santi.t.t$ati 0See ni,,a$ita sand$i1, to stand.
N.t$aa 4 pati = pati.t.t$aati or pati.t.t$a$ati, to stand
fast, 5rml'.
N.t$aa 4 ud = u.t.t$aati or u.t.t$a$ati, to stand up.
->". Similarl', Nd$aa, *$ic$ at 5rst si,$t *ould appear to
elon, to t$e "st conju,ation, +nd division, de/aspirates
itself into da$a, and mi,rates into t$e Npac class 0-<A, "1.
Moreover it is used onl' *it$ veral pre5?es. #$is root also
elon,s to t$e reduplicatin,/class 0-<+1 and conse9uentl'
$as also t$e ase dad$aa. A ase d$e, of t$e same root, is
e?tensivel' used.
")amples
Nd$aa to carr', ear, $old 4 ni = nida$ati, or
nidad$aati, or nid$eti, to put do*n, $old aside, la'
aside.
Nd$aa 4 a$i = a$ida$ati, or a$idad$aati, or
a$id$eti, to declare, point out.
->+. Some roots elon,in, to t$e reduplicatin, class 0-<",
%t$ Division1, also take t$e personal endin,s directl' in t$e
Present tense and t$e lmperative.O
O#$rou,$out all t$is c$apter man' Paali ,rammars $ave
een consulted, suc$ as( Saddaniiti, Niruttidiipanii,
Galonp'an, Ak$'aatapadamaala, etc.
->-. .' false analo,', some roots in i, 0-<", -rd division1,
seem to elon, to t$e class of roots *$ic$ take t$e endin,s
directl'& ut in realit', t$ese roots elon, not to t$e +nd
division, ut to t$e -rd division, t$e endin,s ein, added,
not after t$e root, ut after t$e stren,t$ened ase 0"A31, i or
ii $avin, 5rst een c$an,ed to e under t$e in2uence of a
0+", i1. #$ose ases are conju,ated e?actl' like Ncur, ase
core, t$e paradi,m of *$ic$ is ,iven elo*. #$e re2ective
voice of suc$ roots is formed from t$e ase in a'a.
")amples
Nnii, ase( ne or na'a
Present

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plura
l
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
nemi
nem
a
na'e
na'aam$
e
+
.
nesi
net$
a
na'ase na'av$e
-
.
neti nenti na'ate na'ante
Imperative

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plura
l
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
nemi
nem
a
na'e
na'aama
se
+
.
ne$i
net$
a
na'assu na'av$o
-
.
netu
nent
u
na'ata.
m
na'anta.
m
%emar&' #$e Dptative ma' also e formed on t$e ase in ne
as(
8ptative

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
ne''aa
mi
ne''aam
a
ne''a.
m
ne''aam$
e
+
.
ne''aas
i
ne''aat$
a
net$o ne''av$o
-
.
ne''a ne''u.m
na'et$
a
na'era.m
->%. Dt$er roots are(
Nsii, to lie do*n, ase( se or sa'a.
Nji, to con9uer, ase( je or ja'a.
N.di, to set a net, ase( .de 0in o.d.deti1.
%emar&' #$e most important root of t$e Boot/6lass is Nas,
to e& *$ic$ is rat$er defective& it *ill e ,iven a special
c$apter 0See Defective 8ers1.
%euplicating Class
->3. #$e vers of t$is class are c$aracterised ' takin, a
reduplicatin, s'llale( t$e rules $ave een ,iven aove
0-<+1. #$e conju,ation presents no diMcult', e.,. Ndaa, to
,ive.
Present Active

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
dadaa
mi
dadaam
a
+
.
dadaasi
dadaat$
a
-
.
dadaati dadanti
Imperfect Active

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
adada
adadam$
a
+
.
adado
adadatt$
a
-
.
adada adadu
8ptative Active
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
dade''aami
dade''aam
a
+
.
dade''aasi
dade''aat
$a
-
.
dade''a,
dade
dade''u.m
Imperative Active
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
dadaami
dadaam
a
+
.
dadaa$i,
dadaa
dadaat$
a
-
.
dadaatu dadantu
->). Some tenses of t$is ver are formed directl' from t$e
ase& t$e' *ill e ,iven in t$eir proper place.
%emar&s'
0a1 Df Ndaa, *e also 5nd t$e ases dajj and de, formed '
false analo,'( dajjaami, dajjasi, dajjati, dajjaama, dajjat$a,
dajjanti, etc., demi, desi, deti& dema, det$a, denti, etc.
01 #$ere is an anomalous form of t$e sin,ular present ver'
proal' formed on t$e analo,' of t$e plural( dammi, dasi,
dati.
0c1 #$e re2ective forms do not e?ist for most of t$e tenses,
onl' a ver' fe* are met *it$( t$e 5rst sin,ular and 5rst
plural( dade, dadaamase.
0d1 In t$e root N.t$a t$e 5nal aa of t$e ase is preserved lon,
onl' in t$e 5rst sin,ular and plural present.
Sin,ularPlural
ti.t.t$aamiti.t.t$aama
ti.t.t$asiti.t.t$at$a, .t$aat$a
ti.t.t$atiti.t.t$anti
It *ill e remarked t$at .t$aat$a, +nd person plural, is
formed directl' from t$e root.
The 6n1 >r1 ?th1 @th1 Ath1 an Bth Conjugations
-><. #$e conju,ation of t$e +nd, -rd, %t$, 3t$, )t$ and <t$
classes does not present an' diMcult'& t$e personal endin,s
are added as $as alread' een s$o*n for t$e 5rst
conju,ation.
Secon Conjugation
->=. Nc$id, ase( c$inda 0-<-1, to cut.

Present Active Present Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
c$indaa
mi
c$indaam
a
c$inde
c$indaam$
e
+
.
c$indasi c$indat$a
c$indas
e
c$indav$e
-
.
c$indati c$indanti
c$indat
e
c$indante
->>. #$e ot$er tenses are formed re,ularl', as(
c$inde''aami, c$inde''aasi, c$inde''a, or c$inde&
c$inde''aama, c$indaa''at$a, c$inde''u.m. And so on for
t$e ot$er tenses.
%emar&' #$e root Nrud$, to ostruct, $as 5ve ases(
rund$ati, rund$iti& rund$iiti, rund$eti and rund$oti.
Thir Conjugation
%AA. Ndiv, ase( dia 0<<1, to pla'.

Present Active Present Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
diaa
mi
diaam
a
die
diaam$
e
+
.
diasi diat$a
dias
e
diav$e
-
.
diati dianti diate diante
#$e ot$er tenses are formed re,ularl', as(
Imperfect( adia, adio, adia, adiam$aa, adiatt$a,
adiu.
Dptative( die, die''a, die''aami, die''aasi, etc.
3ourth Conjugation
%A". Nsu, ase( su.naa 0-<)1, or suno, to $ear.
Present Active
Sin,ular Plural or
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
su.naa
mi
su.naam
a

su.nom
i
su.noma
+
.
su.naasi
su.naat$
a
su.nosi su.not$a
-
.
su.naati su.nanti su.noti
su.nonti,
sunvanti
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e ot$er tenses are formed on t$e ase( su.naa 5nal aa
ein, dropped efore initial i and e, as( su.ne''ami,
su.ne''aasi etc, su.nissaami, su.nissaama, su.nissasi, etc.
01 Nsak, to e ale, elon,s to t$is conju,ation, ut $as
developed several ases( sakku.naati *it$ t$e k douled&
sakkoti, ' assimilation 03<1 sak4no=sakno,
sakko4ti=sakkoti. Similarl', t$ere is a form sakkaati
otained ' t$e same process& sak4naa=sakna,
sakkaa4ti=sakkaati& and still anot$er form occurs, *it$ s$ort
a( sakkati.
0c1 Naap, to attain, *it$ pre5? pa 0pa4aap=paap1, s$o*s -
forms( pappoti, paapu.naati, paapu.noti. N,a$, to take, seiEe
$as for ase( ,a.n$aa *it$ metat$esis 0""", p.-31(
,a.n$aami, ,a.n$aasi, etc.
0d1 Fe $ave alread' said t$at t$e .n is ver' often de/
lin,ualised 0-<), d1. #$at is to sa', man' of t$e roots
elon,in, to t$e %t$ conju,ation form t$eir ases accordin,
to t$e >t$ conju,ation of Sanskrit vers, ' addin, naa to
t$e root. For instance from Nci, to collect, to $eap, *e $ave(
cinaati, to ,at$er& ocinaati, ocinati, to pick up, to ,at$er.
Bemark t$at t$e ase ma' e *it$ s$ort a as *ell as *it$
lon, aa and t$at t$is is t$e case *it$ man' of t$e roots of
t$is conju,ation, cf. sa;ncinati, sa;ncinoti, sa;ncinaati, to
accumulate.
0e1 From N$uu *e $ave a ver a$isam$unati and
a$isam$unoti, to otain. #$e root of t$is ver is said '
some ,rammarians to e Sanskrit N$Xii, ut t$is is most
improale. Some native ,rammarians ,ive a root sam$uu,
found onl' in t$e D$ammapada, not perceivin, it is merel' a
compound of pre5? sam4N$u.
3ifth Conjugution
%A+. Nd$uu, to s$ake& ase( d$unaa 0-<<1.

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
d$unaa
mi
d$unaam
a
d$une d$unaam$e
+
.
d$unaasi
d$unaat$
a
d$unas
e
d$unav$e
-
.
d$unaati d$unanti
d$unat
e
d$unante,
d$unare
%emar&s'
0a1 Dt$er vers elon,in, to t$is class are( Nj;naa, jaa,
;naa, to kno*, ase( jaana. Nas, to eat, ase( asnaa.
Nmun=Nman, to t$ink, ase( munaa.
01 #$e student *ill $ave remarked t$at t$e %t$ and 3t$
conju,ations ver' often interc$an,e t$eir ases. #$is is
o*in, to t$e false analo,' of Sanskrit roots.
Si)th Conjugation
%A-. Nkar, to make, to do& ase( karo 0-<=1.
Present

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
karomi
karom
a
+
.
karosi
karot$
a
-
.
karoti karonti
%emar&s'
0a1 #$ere are several ases of t$e root Nkar as( karo, kara,
ku& t$e conju,ation of t$is ver, as alread' said 0-<=, a1
*ill e ,iven in full in t$e c$apter on Defective 8ers.
Ntan, to stretc$& ase( tano 0stron,1, *eak ase=tanu.
Present

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
tanomi
tanom
a
tanve
0+<1
tanum$e
+
.
tanosi
tanot$
a
tanuse tanuv$e
-
.
tanoti
tanont
i
tanute
tanvante
0+<1
01 #$e roots elon,in, to t$is class are ver' fe*.
Seventh Conjugation
%A%. #$e roots of t$e <t$ conu,ation, as $as een remarked
aove 0-<>1, $ave t*o ases( one in e and one in a'a, *$ic$
are conju,ated e?actl' like t$e roots of t$e "st conju,ation,
-rd class, 0see ->-1.
Irregular 4ases
Some roots form t$eir special ases accordin, to none of t$e
aove ,iven rules& and t$e' are in conse9uence called
irre,ular. #$e principal are $ere ,iven.
N,am, to ,oSpecial ase ,acc$a.
N'am, to restrainSpecial ase 'acc$a.
N,u$, to $ideSpecial ase ,uu$e.
Nd$aa, to $oldSpecial ase da$a, d$e 0->"1.
Ndaa, to ,iveSpecial ase dajja.
Njaa, Njan, to e ornSpecial ase jaa'a.
Npaa, to drinkSpecial ase piva.
N.da.ms, to iteSpecial ase .dasa.
Nd$maa, to lo*Special ase d$ama.
Nv'ad$, 0=vad$1Special ase vad$a.
Nsad, to sitSpecial ase siida.
N.t$aa, to standSpecial ase ti.t.t$aa.
Nis, to *is$Special ase icc$a.
Nvad, to speak, sa'Special ase vajja, vajje, vada, vaade.
Nmar, to dieSpecial ase mi'a, mi''a, mara.
N,a$ to take, seiEeSpecial ase ,$eppa.O
N,am, to ,oSpecial ase ,$amma, ,a,,$a.O
Njir, to ,o* old, deca'Special ase ji'a, ji''a.
Ndis, das to seeSpecial ase dakk$a, dacc$a.O
O#$ese forms are ,iven ' t$e Saddaniiti and t$e
Ak$'atapadamaalaa. #$e' are re,ularl' conju,ated like
,acc$a( ,$ammaami ,$ammasi ,$ammati etc.& ,$a,,$ami
,$a,,$asi ,$a,,$ati etc.& ,$amme''a ,a,,$e ,a,,$e''a
etc. #$e ases dakk$a and dacc$a from Nda, Ndis are formed
on t$e false analo,' of t$e future ase, *$ic$ *e s$all see
*$en treatin, of t$e future. Most of t$e c$an,es noticed
aove correspond to similar c$an,es *$ic$ occur in t$e "st,
%t$ and )t$ conju,ations of Sanskrit vers.
The Aorist
%A3. #$e Aorist is t$e onl' true past tense in Paali. #$e
personal endin,s of t$e Imperfect and t$ose of t$e Aorist
$ave ecome $opelessl' mi?ed up and t$e native
,rammarians are at a loss to di@erentiate et*een t$e
Imperfect and t$e Aorist& ut t$e Aorist $as ,enerall'
superseded t$e Imperfect. #$ere are man' anomalies *$ic$
t$e student cannot possil' understand *it$out a sli,$t
kno*ed,e of Sanskrit ,rammar& $e need not $o*ever, e
detained ' t$ese considerations just no*. #$e usual
endin,s of t$e Imperfect $ave alread' een ,iven 0-="1&
muc$ *ill e ac$ieved if $e, for t$e present, devotes $is
attention to t$e follo*in, para,rap$s.
%A). #$e Aorist is supposed to e formed from t$e root ut
as a matter of fact, it is formed indi@erentl' eit$er from t$e
root or from t$e ase.
%A<. #$e desinences 0endin,s1 of t$e Aorist are(

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
" a.m, .m, i.m, a, im$a, im$aa a im$e
. aa
+
.
i, o, aa tt$a se v$a.m
-
.
aa, i, ii
u.m, i.msu,
uu
aa, a
tt$u.m,
att$u.m
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e student *ill remark, on comparin, t$e aove endin,s
*it$ t$ose of t$e Imperfect, t$at it is diMcult to make out t$e
Imperfect from t$e Aorist 0t$e lendin, of Imperfect and
Aorist is *ell kno*n to students of 6omparative P$ilolo,'1&
t$e onl' criterion is, t$at t$e Imperfect is ,enerall' formed
on t$e special ase, and t$e Aorist, on t$e root. .ut even t$is
is not an asolute criterion, and t$e fact remains t$at t$ese
t*o tenses can scarcel' e di@erentiated.
01 Df t$e aove endin,s, $o*ever, t$e most commonl' used
and most distinctivel' Aoristic are(

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
i.m
im$a,
im$aa
+
.
i itt$a
-
.
i
i.msu,
0isu.m1
0c1 #$e nasal of a.m is often omitted, and a alone remains.
0d1 #$e Aorist of t$e ,reat majorit' of vers is formed *it$
t$e desinences ,iven in 01.
%A=. #$e Aorist ma' e divided into t$ree t'pes(
i. Badical Aorist
ii. Stem or .ase Aorist
iii. Si,matic Aorist
%emar&s'
0a1 As its name indicates, t$e Badical Aorist is formed
directl' from t$e root.
01 #$e Stem Aorist is formed on t$e special ase.
0c1 #$e Si,matic Aorist is distin,uis$ed ' an s t$at comes
et*een t$e root and t$e personal endin,s ,iven in 0%A<, 1.
!i$ The %aical Aorist
%A>. #$is Aorist is not ver' common. Fe *ill ,ive a fe*
e?amples. !et it e 5rst remarked t$at t$e Aorist ma' also
take t$e au,ment a efore it, as does t$e imperfect.
%"A. From N,am, and N,aa and N,uu 0susidiar' forms of
N,am, to ,o1, *e $ave(
0a1
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
a,a.m, a,amaa,
a,ami.m
a,um$a
+
.
a,aa, a,amaa a,utt$a
-
.
a,aa, a,ami
a,u.m,
a,ami.msu
01 Nas, to e 0*it$ au,ment a1

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
aasi.m aasim$a
+
.
aasi aasitt$a
-
.
aasi
aasu.m,
aasi.msu
%"". N.t$aa.

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
a.t.t$a.
m
a.t.t$am$a
+
.
a.t.t$o a.t.t$att$a
-
.
a.t.t$a
a.t.t$a.msu,
a.t.t$u.m
%emar&' For t$e doulin, of initial .t$ see --.
%"+. From Nkar *e 5nd( aka.m 0"st sin,ular1, no dout
formed on t$e analo,' of( akaa 0"st, +nd and -rd sin,ular1&
akaa ein, itself from t$e 8edic form( akar, t$e loss of t$e r
is compensated ' t$e len,t$enin, of t$e 5nal a.
In t$e "st sin,ular *e also $ave( akara.m, akari.m.
In t$e plural( +. akatt$a& -. akaru.m, akaruu, akari.msu.
%"-. N$uu 0a form of N$uu1 to e.
-rd sin,ular( a$uu, a$u, and efore a vo*el, a$ud.
"st plural( a$um$aa& -rd plural( a$u.m.
%"%. Nda.
"st sin,ular( adaa, *$ic$ is also +nd and -rd sin,ular.
In t$e plural *e 5nd( -rd adu.m, ada.msu, adaasu.m.
%"3. #$e au,ment a is not inseparale from t$e Aorist, so
t$at *e meet *it$ suc$ forms as( ,aa=a,aa, etc.
!ii$ Stem Aorist
%"). As $as alread' een said, t$is aorist is formed on t$e
stem or ase, not on t$e root. #$e au,ment ma' or ma' not
e retained.
Npaa, ase( piva, to drink.

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
pivi.m pivim$a
+
.
pivi pivitt$a
-
.
pivi
pivi.ms
u
For t$e Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
pive pivim$e
+
.
pivise piviv$a.m
-
.
piva,
pivaa
pivu, pivu.m, pivi.msu,
pivisu.m
%"<. #$e ,reat ulk of primitive vers 0-)>1 form t$eir Aorist
accordin, to t$e aove 0piva1& it is t$erefore e?tremel'
common, ot$ *it$ and *it$out t$e au,ment& let it e stated
once for all t$at t$is au,ment is of muc$ more fre9uent
occurence in prose t$an in poetr'& in t$e latter its retention
or rejection is re,ulated ' metrical e?i,encies. Fe *ill no*
,ive a fe* more e?amples(
N$uj, to eat& ase( $u;nja
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$u;nji.
m
$u;nijim$a,
$u;njim$aa
+
.
$u;nji $u;njitt$a
-
.
$u;nji $u;njimsu
N,am, to ,o& ase( ,acc$a
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
,acc$i.m
,acc$im$a,
,acc$im$aa
+
.
,acc$i ,acc$itt$a
-
.
,acc$i,
,a;nc$i
,acc$i.msu
!iii$ Sigmatic Aorist
%"=. Si,matic Aorist is formed ' insertin, s et*een t$e
radical vo*el or t$e vo*el of t$e ase and t$e personal
endin,s ,iven aove 0%A<, 1.
%">. So t$at *e otain t$e follo*in, desinences(
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
si.m
0=s4i.m1
sim$a
0=s4im$a1
+
.
si 0=s4i1
sitt$a
0=s4itt$a1
-
.
si 0=s4i1
su.m
0=s4u.m1
%+A. As *ill e readil' understood, t$is formation of t$e
Aorist is used *it$ roots endin, in vo*els, and t$e s is
inserted to join t$e endin,s to t$e root or to t$e ase. It *ill
e seen lo*er do*n, $o*ever, t$at t$e' are added also to
some roots endin, in a consonant *$en t$e s ecomes
assimilated to t$at consonant.
%+". #$e si,matic desinences are used mostl' *it$ t$e
Derivative vers, principall' t$e 6ausative vers 0See(
Derivative 6onju,ation1, *$ic$ end in t$e vo*el e. #$e vers
of t$e <t$ conju,ation, *$ic$ also end in e, form t$eir Aorist
in t$e same *a'.
")amples
06ausative 8ers1
%++. N$aa, to aandon& 6ausative ase( $aape.
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$aapesi.
m
$aapesim
$a
+
.
$aapesi
$aapesitt$
a
-
.
$aapesi
$aapesu.
m
Ntas, to tremle& 6ausative ase( taase.
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
taasesi.
m
taasesim
$a
+ taasesi taasesitt$
. a
-
.
taasesi
taasesu.
m
%emar&s' In t$e -rd plural t$e form in i.msu is also
fre9uent( $aapesi.msu. taasesi.msu. 08ers of t$e <t$
conju,ation1.
%+-. Ncur, to steal& ase( core.

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
coresi.
m
coresim$a
+
.
coresi coresitt$a
-
.
coresi
coresu.m,
coresi.msu
Nkat$, to tell& ase( kat$e.
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
kat$esi.
m
kat$esim$a
+
.
kat$esi kat$esitt$a
-
.
kat$esi
kat$esu.m,
kat$esi.msu
%emar&s' 0a1 #o t$e ase in a'a endin,s ,iven in 0%A<, 1
ma' e added directl' *it$out t$e insertion of si,matic s, so
t$at *e $ave also(

Sin,ula
r
Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
cora'i.
m
cora'im$a
kat$a'i.
m
kat$a'im$a
+ cora'i cora'itt$a kat$a'i kat$a'itt$a
.
-
.
cora'i
cora'u.m,
cora'i.msu
kat$a'i
kat$a'u.m,
kat$a'i.msu
01 #$is $olds ,ood for t$e 6ausative vers *$ic$ $ave also
a ase in a'a.
%+%. #$e si,matic Aorist desinences are placed after some
roots *$ic$ do not elon, to t$e <t$ conju,ation or to t$e
derivative vers(
i. After roots endin, in a vo*el, *it$ or *it$out t$e
au,ment a.
ii. After some roots endin, in a consonant, in *$ic$ case
t$e usual rules of assimilation 0=31 are strictl' applied.
")amples of !i$
Ndaa, to ,ive( adaasi.m, adaasi, adaasim$a, etc.
N.t$a, to stand( a.t.t$aasi.m, a.t.t$aasim$a, etc.
N$aa, to aandon( a$aasi.m, a$aasi, a$aasim$a, etc.
Nsu, to $ear, assosi.m, assosi, assosim$a, etc.
N'aa, to ,o( 'aasim, 'aasi, 'aasim$a, etc.
%emar&' From an illusor' Nkaa 0=Nkar, to do1, *e 5nd(
akaasi.m, akaasi, akaasim$a, etc. From N;naa, to kno*(
a;n;naasi.m, a;n;naasi, a;n;naasim$a, etc.
")amples of !ii$
%+3. At a 5rst readin,, t$e student $ad per$aps etter leave
unnoticed t$e fe* references to Sanskrit ,rammar *$ic$ *ill
e found in t$e ne?t fe* para,ra$s. !et $im merel' assume
t$e forms as t$e' are ,iven( t$e more advanced student
ou,$t, of course, to read t$em *it$ attention.
%+). #$e s 0initial1 of Si,matic desinences, as aove ,iven
0%">1, assimilates itself to t$e last consonant of t$e root
accordin, to t$e usual rules of assimilation(
a. From Ndis=0Sanskrit1NdXS, *e 5nd
addakki=0Sanskrit1adrak/Y/is. #$e follo*in, forms are
also found( addakk$ii, adakk$i, dakk$i.
. From Nsak, to e ale=0Sans1NSak, *e $ave sakk$i,
asakk$i& Sanskrit=Sak/Y/is.
c. Nkus, to revile=0Sanskrit1NkruS, ,ives akkocc$i, ut
akkosi, *it$out t$e si,matic s, is also met *it$.
d. N$a;nj, to reak, ,ives Aorist $a:nki.
%emar&' #$e aove e?amples *ill, I t$ink, e suMcient to
make t$e student understand t$e nature of t$e c$an,es
*$ic$ occur in t$e formation of t$e Si,matic Aorist *$en t$e
roots end in a consonant& t$is consonant is ,enerall' s
0=Sanskrit S1 and sometimes j. In Sanskrit, 5nal S 0=Paali s1 is
re,ularl' c$an,ed to k efore t$e initial s of veral endin,s
t$us ,ivin, t$e ,roup kYa, *$ic$ in Paali ecomes kk$a.
A,ain, ' anot$er rule of Sanskrit p$onetics, 5nal j ecomes
,, and as no *ord can end in a mute sonant, t$is , is
c$an,ed to its correspondin, surd, t$at is to k. #$is class of
t$e Si,matic Aorist, $o*ever, is not numerous.
S#stem of the Perfect
%+<. As $as een seen, t$e Perfect s'stem consists of t$e
Perfect tense and t$e Perfect participle. #$e participle *ill e
treated of in t$e c$apter on Participles.
%+=. #$e Perfect is c$aracterised ' t$e reduplication of t$e
root. #$e rules $ave alread' een ,iven 0-<+1 and s$ould
no* e read over carefull'.
%+>. #$e endin,s are(
Perfect

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plura
l
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
a m$a i m$e
+
.
e tt$a tt$o v$o
-
.
a u tt$a re
%emar&s'
0a1 Boots endin, in a consonant insert an efore t$e aove
endin,s e,innin, *it$ a consonant.
01 #$e Perfect is of ver' rare occurence.
%-A. Npac& Perfect ase( papac.
Active
Sin,ula Plural
r
"
.
papaca
papacim$
a
+
.
papace
papacitt$
a
-
.
papaca papacu
%e=ective
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
papaci
papacim$
e
+
.
papacitt$
o
papaciv$
o
-
.
papacitt$
a
papacire
N$uu& Perfect ase( a$uuv.
Active
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
a$uuv
a
a$uuvim$
a
+
.
a$uuv
e
a$uuvitt$
a
-
.
a$uuv
a
a$uuvu
%e=ective
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
a$uuvi
a$uuvim$
e
+
.
a$uuvitt$
o
a$uuviv$
e
-
.
a$uuvitt$
a
a$uuvire
The 3uture S#stem
%-". #$is s'stem includes t$e Future, t$e 6onditional and
t$e Future participle. #$e participle *ill e considered in a
special c$apter.
%-+. #$e Future s'stem $as for special c$aracteristic t$e
si,n( ssa inserted et*een t$e root and t$e personal
endin,s.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e Future s'stem is fre9uentl' formed on t$e Present
ase.
01 #$e vo*el i is often inserted et*een t$e ssa and t$e
root or ase& in t$is case t$e 5nal vo*el of t$e root or ase is
dropped.
0c1 F$en t$e ssa is added directl' to a root endin, in a
consonant, t$e same c$an,es *$ic$ occur in t$e Aorist occur
also in t$e Future s'stem, t$rou,$ t$e assimilation of t$e
initial s of ssa.
%--. #$e personal endin,s for t$e Future are(

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plura
l
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
mi ma .m m$e
+
.
si t$a se v$e
-
.
ti nti te
nte,
re
%emar&s'
0a1 It *ill e seen t$at in t$e active t$e endin,s are t$e same
as t$ose of t$e present indicative. 0-="1
01 .efore mi, ma and m$e, t$e a of ssa is len,t$ened.
")amples
%-%. !i$ without connecting vowel i'
0a1 Ni, to ,o& special ase( e 0->A1& future ase( essa.

Active Be2ective
Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
essaa
mi
essaa
ma
essa.m
essaam
$e
+
.
essasi
essat$
a
essase essav$e
-
.
essati essanti essate essante
Nnii to lead& special ase( ne 0-<", -1& future ase( nessa.
Sin,ular Plural
nessaa
mi
nessaama
nessasi nessat$a
nessati
nessanti,
...etc.
01 N.t$aa, to stand.
Sin,ular Plural
.
t$assaa
mi
.t$assaama
.t$assasi .t$assat$a
.t$assati
.
t$assanti,
...etc.
%emar&s' In t$e aove, ssa is added directl' to t$e root& for
t$e s$ortenin, of radical a see 0-%1.
A,ain( Ndaa, to ,ive.
Sin,ular Plural
dassaa dassaama
mi
dassasi dassat$a
dassati
dassanti,
...etc.
!ii$ with connecting vowel i'
0c1 N$uu, to e& special ase( $ava& future ase( $avissa.

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$avissaa
mi
$avisssaa
ma
$avissa.
m
$avissaam
$e
+
.
$avissasi $avissat$a
$avissas
e
$avissav$e
-
.
$avissati $avissanti
$avissat
e
$avisante
!iii$ with assimilation of ssa
0d1 N$uj, to eat, ,ives $okk$a as future ase. 0Sanskrit
N$uj = $ok 4 Y'a = $okY'a1 and *e $ave( $okk$ati,
$okk$ate, $okk$a.m, etc.
Nc$id. to cut, ,ives( c$ecc$a 0Sanskrit Nc$id = c$et 4 Y'a =
cetY'a1 t$en( c$ecc$aami, c$ecc$asi, c$ecc$ati, etc.
Ndis, to see, ,ives a Future( dakk$a 0Sanskrit NdXc = drak 4
Y'a = drakY'a1 from t$is *e 5nd / dakk$ati, ut more
fre9uentl' dakk$iti. Similarl' from t$e root Nsak, to e ale,
is otained sakk$iti.
%-3. A doule Future is also found formed from ases like
$okk$a, dakka, *$ic$, as $as een just no* e?plained are
alread' Future, ' addin, to t$em ssa *it$ t$e connection
vo*el /i.
")ample
Nsak& future ase( sakk$a& sakk$issaami, sakk$issasi,
sakk$issati, sakk$issaama, etc.
%-). From $oti, t$e contracted form of $avati, to e, *e 5nd
t$e follo*in, numerous forms for t$e Future(
Sin,ular
". $emi, $e$aami, $o$aami, $essaami, $e$issaami,
$o$issaami. I s$all e.
+. $esi. $e$isi, $o$isi, $essasi, $e$issasi, $o$issasi. #$ou
*ill e.
-. $eti, $e$iti, $o$iti, $essati, $e$issati, $o$issati. Ie *ill
e.
Plural
". $ema, $e$aama, $o$aama, $essaama, $e$issaama,
$o$issaama. Fe s$all e.
+. $et$a, $e$it$a, $o$it$a, $essat$a, $e$issat$a,
$o$issat$a. Tou *ill e.
-. $enti, $e$inti, $o$inti, $essanti& $e$issanti $o$issanti.
#$e' *ill e.
Nkar, to do, ,ives(
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
kaa$aami. I s$all do. kaa$aama. Fe s$all do.
+
.
kaa$asi, kaa$isi. #$ou *ilt
do.
kaa$at$a. Tou *ill do.
-
.
kaa$ati, kaa$iti. Ie *ill do.
kaa$anti, kaa$inti. #$e' *ill
do.
The Conitional
%-<. #$e 6onditional takes t$e au,ment a efore t$e root.
%-=. #$e personal endin,s are as follo*s(

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
ssa
ssam$a
a
ssa.m
ssaam$a
se
+
.
sse, ssa,
ssasi
ssat$a ssase ssav$e
-
.
ssaa, ssa,
ssati
ssa.ms
u
ssat$a ssi.msu
%emar&' #$e aove endin,s are ,enerall' joined to t$e root
or t$e ase ' means of t$e connectin, vo*el i.
Npac, to cook(

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
apacissa.m
apacissam$
aa
apacissa.
m
apacissaam$a
se
+
.
apacisse, apacissa,
apacissi
apacissat$a
apacissas
e
apacissav$e
-
.
apacissaa,
apacissa,
apacissati
apacissa.ms
u
apacissat
$a
apacissi.msu
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e conditional ma' e translated ' Hif I could cook,H or
H If I s$ould cook,H etc.
01 #$e conditional is not ver' fre9uentl' used.
The Participles
Present Participle Active
%->. All participles are of t$e nature of veral adjectives, and
must a,ree *it$ t$eir nouns, in numer, ,ender and case.
%%A. #$e terminations of t$e present participle active are(
nta, a.m or .m& nta and .m are added to t$e ase, a.m is
added to t$e root.
")amples
Boot .ase
Present Participle Active
.ase

Npac, to
cook
paca paca.m, pacanta cookin,
Nkar, to do kara kara.m, karonta doin,
Nc$id, to cut
c$ind
a
c$inda.m, c$indanta cuttin,
N$a.n, to
sa'
$a.n
a
$a.na.m, $a.nanta sa'in,
N$uu, to
e
$ava $ava.m, $avanta ein,
Npaa, to
drink
piva piva.m, pivanta
drinkin
,
%%". 8eral ases endin, in e 0"st 6onj. -rd Division& <t$
6onj. and causal ases. See HDerivative or secondar'
conju,ationH1 *$ic$ $ave also anot$er ase in a'a take onl'
t$e termination nta after t$e ase in e, and ot$ nta and .m
after t$e ase in a'a.
")amples
"st and <t$ 6onju,ations
Boot .ase
Present Participle Active
.ase
Ncur, to
steal
core, cora'a
corenta, cora'a.m,
cora'anta
Nkat$, to tell
kat$e,
kat$a'a
kat$enta, kat$a'a.m,
kat$a'anta
Nnii, to lead ne, na'a nenta, na'a.m, na'anta
Nji, to
con9uer
je, ja'a jenta, ja'a.m, ja'anta
6ausative
Boot 6ausal .ase Present Participle Active .ase
Nd$ar to
$old
d$aare, d$aara'a
d$aarenta, d$aara'a.m,
d$aara'anta
d$aaraape,
d$aaraapa'a
d$aaraapenta, d$aaraa'a.m,
d$aaraapa'anta
Nmar, to
die
maare, maara'a
maarenta, maara'a.m,
maara'anta
maaraape,
maaraapa'a
maaraapenta, maaraapa'a.m,
maaraapa'anta
Nc$id, to
cut
c$ede, c$eda'a c$edenta, c$eda'a.m,
c$eda'anta
c$edaape,
c$edaapa'a
c$edaapenta, c$edaapa'a.m,
c$edaapa'anta
%%+. .ases in .naa, no, u.naa, u.no 0%t$ 6onj.1 and naa 03t$
6onj.1 ,enerall' take t$e termination nta.
")amples
Boot .ase
Present Participle Active
.ase
Nsu, to
$ear
su.naa,
su.no
su.nanta, su.nonta
Nkii, to
u'
ki.naa ki.nanta
%%-. #$e stem or ase of t$is Present Participle is in at, or
ant as(
Boot
Present Participle Stem
Nom.
Sin,ular
Masculine
Npac pacat, pacant paca.m, pacanto
Ncar carat, carant cara.m, caranto
N$a.
n
$a.nat, $a.nant
$a.na.m,
$a.nanto
%%%. #$e feminine is formed ' addin, ii to t$e stems or
ases in at and nta.
%%3. #$e neuter is in .m like t$e masculine.
")amples
Boot Stem
Masculin
e
Feminine Neuter
Npac
pacat paca.m pacatii paca.m
pacant pacanto pacantii pacanta.m
Nc$i
d
c$indat c$inda.m c$indatii c$inda.m
c$indan
t
c$indant
o
c$indant
ii
c$indanta.
m
%%). #$ese participles are declined like ma$aa 0++)1 in t$e
masculine, feminine and neuter.
#$e Present Participle ma' often e translated ' H*$en ...,
*$ile ...H etc.
%e=ective Participle
%%<. #$e Be2ective Participle is formed ' t$e addition of
maana to t$e ase. It is declined like purisa, ka;n;naa, and
ruupa.m.
")amples
%e=ective Participle
Boot Masculine Feminine Neuter
Npa
c
pacamaan
o
pacamaana
a
pacamaana.
m
Ncar caramaano caramaanaa caramaana.m
Nda
a
dadaamaa
no
dadaamaan
aa
dadaamaana.
m
Nsu
su.namaan
o
su.namaana
a
su.namaana.
m
%%=. Anot$er Be2ective Participle, muc$ less fre9uent t$an
t$e aove, is formed ' addin, aana to t$e root. It is
declined like t$at in maana.
")amples
%e=ective Participle
Boot
Masculin
e
Feminin
e
Neuter
Npa
c
pacaano
pacaana
a
pacaana.
m
Ncar caraano
caraana
a
caraana.
m
Nda
a
dadaano
dadaana
a
dadaana.
m
%emar&s' As ma' e seen from t$e last e?ample, dadaana,
t$is participle ma' also e formed from t$e ase.
The 3uture Participle
%%>. #$e Future Participle is eit$er active or re2ective.
a. In t$e active, it takes t$e endin,s of t$e Present
Participle active, nta, .m 0or a.m1, and is declined like
ma$aa.
. In t$e re2ective, t$e endin,s are maana and aana, and
it is declined like purisa, ka;n;naa and ruupa.m.
c. All t$ese endin,s are added to t$e future ase.
")amples
!i$ 3uture Participle Active
Boo
t
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Npa
c
pacissa.m pacissatii pacissa.m
pacissant
o
pacissanti
i
pacissanta.
m
Nca
r
carissa.m carissatii carissa.m
carissant
o
carissantii
carissanta.
m
Nsu
su.nissa.
m
su.nissatii su.nissa.m
su.nissan
to
su.nissant
ii
su.nissanta.
m
!ii$ 3uture Participle %e=ective
Boo
t
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Npa
c
pacissamaan
o
pacissamaa.n
a
pacissamaana.
m
pacissaano pacissaanaa pacissaana.m
Nca
r
carissamaan
o
carissamaana
a
carissamaana.
m
carissaano carissaanaa carissaana.m
Nsu su.nissamaa
no
su.nissamaan
aa
su.nissamaana
.m
su.nissaano su.nissaanaa su.nissaana.m
The Passive Perfect Participle
%3A. #$is participle is ver' *idel' used. It is formed from t$e
root ' aM?in, to it t$e suM? ta or t$e suM? na.
%emar&' #$e suM? ta is ' far t$e most commonl' used in
t$e formation of t$is participle.
%3". ta is aM?ed in several *a's(
i. If t$e root ends in a vo*el, it is added directl' *it$out
an' c$an,e takin, place in t$e root.
ii. F$en t$e root ends in a consonant, ta ma' e joined to
it ' means of connectin, vo*el i.
iii. F$en t$e root ends in a consonant, ta ma' ecome
assimilated to it accordin, to t$e usual rules.
%emar&' At t$is sta,e t$e student ou,$t to read carefull'
t$e c$apter on Asssmilation 03".1
")amples
%3+. !i$ %oots ening in a vowel
Boot Present
Passive Perfect
Participle
Nna$aa, to at$e
na$aa'ati, $e
at$es
na$aata, at$ed
Nuu, to e,
ecome
$avati, $e is,
ecomes
$uuta, een,
ecome
Nnii, to lead
neti, na'ati, $e
leads
niita, led
Nji, to con9uer
jeti, ja'ati, $e
con9uers
jita, con9uered
Nci, to collect cinaati, $e collects cita, collected
N$ii, to e afraid
$aa'ati, $e is
afraid
$iita, afraid,
fri,$tened
N'aa, to ,o,
under,o
'aati, $e ,oes
'aata, ,one,
under,one
N;naa, to kno* jaanaati, $e kno*s ;naata, kno*n
%emar&' #$ere are a fe* e?ceptions to roots in 5nal aa.
Npaa, to drink( pita, drunk.
N.t$aa, to stand( .t$ita, stood, standin,.
Nd$aa, to $old( $ita, $eld.
Ndaa, to ,ive( dinna, ,iven.
!ii$ %oots ening in a consonant an ta&ing vowel i
before ta
Boot Present
Passive Perfect
Participle
Npac, to cook pacati, $e cooks pacita, cooked
Ncal, to s$ake calati, $e s$akes calita, s$aken
N,a$, to take
,a.n$aati, $e
takes
,a$ita, taken
Nkapp, to
arran,e
kappeti, $e
arran,es
kappita, arran,ed
Nk$aad, to eat k$aadati, $e eats k$adita, eaten
Nlik$, to *rite lik$ati, $e *rites lik$ita, *ritten
Nma.n.d, to
adorn
ma.n.deti, $e
adorns
ma.n.dita, adorned
N,il, to s*allo* ,ilati, $e s*allo*s ,ilita, s*allo*ed
Nkat$, to tell kat$eti, $e tells kat$ita, told
%emar&s'
0a1 Participles like pacita, calita, etc., are declined like purisa,
ka;n;naa and ruupa.m.
01 In t$e neuter, t$ese participles are often used as nouns(
N$as, to smile& 0Passive Perfect Participle(1 $asita, smiled&
0Neuter(1 $asita.m, a smile.
N,ajj, to t$under& 0Passive Perfect Participle(1 ,ajjitta,
t$undered& 0Neuter(1 ,ajjita.m, t$e t$under.
Njiiv, to live& 0Passive Perfect Participle(1 jiivita, lived&
0Neuter(1 jiivita.m, life.
%3-. !iii$ ta assimilate to the root
#$e suM? ta assimilates, or is assimilated to t$e last
consonant of t$e root(
Boot Passive Perfect Participle
Bules of
Assimilation
N$uj, to eat $utta, eaten 03>, a1
Nmuc, to free mutta, freed 03>, 1
Nis, to *is$ i.t.t$a, *is$ed 03>, ii/iii1
Nkas, to
plou,$
ka.t.t$a, plou,$ed 0>+1
N.das, to ite da.t.t$a, itten 0>+1
Ndam, to tame danta, tamed 0)<1
Nkam, to
proceed
kanta, proceeded, ,one 0)<1
Nrud$, to
ostruct
rudd$a, ostructed 0)-1
Nud$, to
kno*
udd$a, kno*n 0)-1
Nla$, to
otain
ladd$a, otained 0)-, Bemark.1
Nmajj, to
polis$
ma.t.t$a 0also ma.t.ta1,
polis$ed
03>, i1
Nmu$, to err
mu.l$a 0also mudd$a1,
erred
0"AA, "A", "A+1
Nru$, to
ascend
ruu.l$a, ascended 0"AA, "A", "A+1
Nli$, to lick li.l$a, licked 0"AA, "A", "A+1
Nj$as, to $urt j$atta, $urt 0>%1
Npat, to fall patta, fallen 0)+1
Ntap, to urn tatta, urned 0)%, i1
Ndu$, to milk dudd$a, milked 0"AA1
%3%. 0a1 Boots in r ,enerall' drop t$e r efore ta.
")amples
Boot
Passive Perfect
Participle
Bules of
Assimilation
Nkar, to make kata, made 0="1
Nsar, to
rememer
sata, rememered 0="1
Nmar, to die mata, dead 0="1
%33. 01 Boots in n ,enerall' drop 5nal n efore ta.
")amples
Boot Passive Perfect Participle
Nman, to t$ink mata, t$ou,$t
Nk$an, or Nk$a.n,
to di,
k$ata 0also( k$aata, from a collateral form
k$aa=k$an1, du,
N$an, to kill $ata, killed
%3). 0c1 Sometimes 5nal .m is also dropped.
")amples
N,am, to ,o ,ata, ,one
Nram, to
sport
rata, amused,
deli,$ted
%3<. 0d1 In a fe* cases, 5nal r lin,ualiEes t$e follo*in, t, as(
N$ar, to seiEe,
carr'
$a.ta, seiEed,
carried
%3=. Passive Perfect Participle which ta&e na
#$e suM? na is muc$ less common t$an ta, and like it(
i. It ma' e joined to t$e root ' means of connectin,
vo*el i, or
ii. it ma' e joined directl' to roots endin, in a vo*el&
iii. *$en added directl' to roots endin, in a consonant,
t$at consonant is assimilated to n of na, and sometimes
t$e n of na is assimilated to t$e 5nal consonant.
%emar&' na is added ,enerall' to roots in d and r.
%3>. C?amples of 0i1
Boot
Passive Perfect
Participle
Bules of
Assimilation
Nsad, to
settle
sinna, settled 0)>, ii, iii1
%emar&s' #$e form sinna is found onl' for t$e ver nisiidati,
to sit do*n = Nsad 4 ni 0pre5?1& *$en Nsad is preceded '
ot$er pre5?es, t$e Passive Perfect Participle assumes t$e
form, sanna, as(
sad/ava = 0Passive Perfect Participle(1 ava sanna, sunk,
settled.
sad4pa = 0Passive Perfect Participle(1 pasanna, settled.
0Note t$at t$e ase of root sad is siida.1
Boot
Passive Perfect
Participle
Bules of
Assimilation
Nc$id, to cut c$inna, cut 0)>, ii, iii1
Nc$ad, to
cover
c$anna, covered 0)>, ii, iii1
Ndaa, to ,ive dinna, ,iven 0)>, ii, iii1
In t$is last e?ample, aa of t$e root $as een dropped, and
t$e n douled to compensate for its loss& t$e form datta
,iven 0=daa4ta, *it$ t$e t douled to make for t$e
s$ortenin, of aa1, is found sometimes.
%emar&' It *ill e seen from t$e aove four e?amples t$at
t$e insertion of i is to a ,reat e?tent optional.
Ntar, to cross ti.n.na, crossed
0=-
1
Ncar, to
*ander
ci.n.na,
*andered
0=-
1
Nkir, to
scatter
ki.n.na,
scattered
0=-
1
%emar&' In t$ese e?amples, i is inserted and t$en
reduplicated and lin,ualiEed accordin, to rule 0=-1.
%)A. C?amples of 0iii1
Boot
Passive Perfect
Participle
Bules of
Assimilation
N$aj, to reak $a,,a, roken 03<1
Nvij, to e
a,itated
vi,,a, a,itated 03<1
In t$ese t*o e?amples, 5nal j of t$e root, $avin, ecome,
a,ainst t$e usual p$onetic la*s ,, t$e n of suM? na, is
assimilated to it ' rule 3< 0%+), Bemark1.
Nla,, to
ad$ere
la,,a,
ad$ered
03<
1
%)". C?amples of 0ii1
Boot Passive Perfect Participle
Nlii, to clin, to liina, clun, to
Nluu, to cut, reap luuna, reaped, cut
Nk$i, to deca', cease
k$iina, deca'ed 05nal i is
len,t$ened1
N,ilaa 0,laa, ""-1, to
e ill
,ilaana, ill
N$aa, to e *eak, lo* $iina, lo*, *asted, inferior
In t$e last e?ample, radical aa is replaced ' ii.
%)+. A fe* Passive Perfect Participles are irre,ular, suc$ as(
j$aama, urnt, from Nj$aa, to urn&
p$ulla, e?panded, split, from Np$al, to e?pand, split&
ut t$ese are, properl' speakin,, derivative adjectives used
as participles.
%)-. Sometimes t*o forms of t$e Passive Perfect Participles
for t$e same root are met *it$(
Boot
Passive Perfect
Participle
Nla,, to
ad$ere
la,,a and la,ita
N,am, to ,o ,ata and ,amita
Ndaa, to ,ive dinna and datta
Nkas, to
plou,$
ka.t.t$a and kasita
%)%. #$e participles in ta and na are declined like purisa,
ka;n;naa and ruupa.m.
Perfect Participle Active
%)3. #$e Perfect Participle Active 0P.P.A.1, is formed ' addin,
vaa to t$e Passive Perfect Participle 0P.P.P.1.
")amples
Boot P.P.P. P.P.A.
Npac, to
cook
pacita,
cooked
pacitavaa, $avin,
cooked
N$uj, to
eat
$utta,
eaten
$uttavaa, $avin,
eaten
Nkar, to do kata, made katavaa, $avin, made
%emar&s'
0a1 #$ese Perfect Participles Active are declined like
,u.navaa.
")amples
pacitavaa, pacitavatii or pacitavantii, pacitava.m or
pacitavanta.m.
01 #$e Perfect Participles Active is also formed *it$ suM? vii
0+-"1, in t$is case t$e a efore vii is len,t$ened to aa. #$e'
are declined like med$aavi, 0+-31 0t$at is, like da.n.dii, nadii
and vaari as( pacitaavii $avin, cooked& $uttaavii, $avin,
eaten.1
3uture Passive Participle
%)). #$is participle, also called participle of necessit',
potential participle and ,erundive, is formed ' addin, to
t$e root t$e suM?es( taa, 'a, anii'a and ii'a.
%emar&s'
0a1 Boots endin, in u, uu, ,enerall' form t$e Future Passive
Participle from t$e special ase.
01 #$is participle is passive in sense, e?presses suitailit',
5tness, propriet' and ma' e translated ' H5t to e...H,
Hmust e...H, Hou,$t to e...H, Hto e...H t$at *$ic$ is
e?pressed ' t$e root.
0c1 #$ese participles, like t$ose alread' treated of, are
adjectives and are treated as suc$& t$e' are declined like
purisa, ka;n;naa and ruupa.m.
Tabba
%)<. #$is suM? is t$e most common. It is added(
i. Directl' to roots endin, in a vo*el.
ii. #o roots endin, in a consonant, it ma' e joined '
means of connectin, vo*el i.
iii. F$en added directl' *it$out connectin, vo*el i to
roots endin, in a consonant, initial t of taa is
assimilated to or assimilates t$e last consonant of t$e
root in e?actl' t$e same manner as in t$e formation of
t$e Passive Perfect Participle.
")amples of !i$
Boot Future Passive Participle
N$aa, to
aandon
$aataa, 5t to e, t$at ou,$t to e, t$at
must e aandoned
Ndaa, to ,ive
daataa, 5t to e, t$at ou,$t to e, t$at
must e ,iven
Npa, to drink paataa, 5t to e, t$at ou,$t to e drunk
%emar&s'
0a1 Boots endin, in i, ii, c$an,e i, ii, to e efore taa(
Boot Future Passive Participle
Nnii, to lead netaa, 5t to e, t$at must e led
Nji, to
con9uer
jetaa, 5t to e, t$at must e
con9uered
Ni, to ,o
etaa, 5t to e, t$at must e ,one
to
01 Boots in u, uu form t$e Future Passive Participle on t$e
special ase(
Boot Future Passive Participle
N$uu, to
e
$avitaa, 5t to e, t$at ou,$t to, t$at must
e
Nku, to
sin,
kavitaa, 5t to e, t$at ou,$t to e, t$at must
e sun,
In t$e case of root su, to $ear, *e 5nd t$e u merel'
stren,t$ened( sotaa, 5t, etc., to e $eard.
")amples of !ii$
Boot Future Passive Participle
Npac, to
cook
pacitaa, 5t to e, t$at ou,$t to e, t$at must
e cooked
Nk$an, to
di,
k$anitaa, 5t to e, t$at ou,$t to e, t$at
must e du,
Npucc$, to
ask
pucc$itaa, 5t to e, t$at ou,$t to e, t$at
must e asked
")amples of !iii$
Boot Future Passive Participle
N,am, to ,o ,antaa, 5t, etc., to e ,one to 0)<1
Nkar, to do
kattaa 0=A1& kaataa 0=+1, 5t to e
done, etc.
Nla$, to
receive
ladd$aa, 5t, etc., to e received 0)-,
Bemark1
,a
%)=. #$e initial ' ecomes assimilated to t$e last consonant
of t$e root accordin, to t$e usual rules of assimilation 0<>1.
Sometimes t$e radical vo*el is stren,t$ened.
")amples
Boot Future Passive Participle
Bules of
assimilation
N,am, to ,o
,amma, 5t, proper, etc, to
e ,one to
0<", i1
Nsak, to e sakka, ale to e done 0<"1
ale
Nk$aad, to
eat, c$e*
k$ajja, t$at can e c$e*ed 0<", vi1
Nvaj, to avoid
vajja, t$at ou,$t to e
avoided
0<", <%1
N$uu, to e
$aa, t$at ou,$t to e,
proper, possile
0<<1
In t$is last e?ample, t$e radical vo*el uu $as een
stren,t$ened efore 'a( $uu 4 'a = $av 4 'a = $av'a =
$aa.
Boot Future Passive Participle
Bules of
assimilation
Nla$, to
otain
la$a, 5t, *ort$' to e
otained
0<"1
N$uj, to eat
$ojja, to e eaten,
eatales, food
0<"1
N$id, to
reak
$ijja, to e roken 0<", vi1
Nli$, to lick,
sip
le''a, to e licked, sipped 0>=, Bemark1
N$as, to
lau,$
$assa, 5t to e lau,$ed at 0<)1
N,a$, to take
,a'$a, t$at can e taken,
seiEed
0<=, iii1
0a1 'a is, in a fe* cases, cases, joined to t$e root ' means
of vo*el i. For instance(
Nkar, to do, make, *e $ave(
kaari'a, t$at ou,$t to e, or can e done, *it$
len,t$enin, of radical a.
ka''a, t$at ou,$t, etc., to e done, *it$ assimilation of
5nal r to 'a.
ka'iira, t$at ou,$t, etc, *it$ metat$esis 0iii1.
N$ar, to support(
$aari'a, t$at ou,$t to e maintained, *it$ len,t$enin,
of radical a.
01 After roots endin, in aa lon, initial ' of 'a is douled and
5nal a of t$e root is c$an,ed to e.
Boot Future Passive Participle
N$aa, to
aandon
$e''a, to e aandoned, t$at ou,$t to e
aandoned
Npaa, to drink pe''a, t$at can, ma', or ou,$t to e drunk
Ndaa, to ,ive
de''a, to e ,iven, t$at ou,$t to or can e
,iven
0c1 'a is like*ise douled after roots in i, ii and t$e i or ii is
c$an,ed to e.
Boot Future Passive Participle
Nnii, to lead ne''a, to e led, t$at ou,$t to e led
Nji, to
con9uer
je''a, to e con9uered, t$at can e
con9uered
Anii#a
%)>. #$e suM? anii'a is added to t$e root or to t$e ase.
Boot Future Passive Participle
Npac, to cook pacanii'a, 5t to e cooked
Npuj, to $onour pujanii'a, *ort$' to e $onoured
Nkar, to do, make
kara.nii'a, t$at ou,$t to e made or
done
0Dserve t$at t$e n is lin,ualised t$rou,$ t$e in2uence of
radical r, =-1
N$uu, to e 0ase(
$ava1
$avanii'a, t$at ou,$t to e
The Gerun
%<A. #$e ,erund is formed ' means of suM?es( tvaa,
tvaana, tuuna, 'a, and t'a. It is indeclinale and partakes of
t$e nature of a participle.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e suM? tvaa is most commonl' met *it$& tvaana,
tuuna, and sometimes tuuna.m are used as sustitutes of
tvaa and are met *it$ in poetr' muc$ more t$an in prose.
01 'a is not so restricted in use as tvaana and tuuna.
0c1 t'a *$ic$ ecomes re,ularl' cca 0<%, iv1, is merel' a form
of 'a, initial t ein, inserted et*een t$e ,erundian, suM?
'a and a root endin, in a vo*el. 0e.,. pa 4 Ni, to depart 4 'a
= pa 4 i 4 t 4 'a = pet'a = pecca, $avin, departed, ""A1.
In Paali, 'a is added indiscriminatel' to simple roots or to
roots compounded *it$ pre5?es& ut, as in Sanskrit 0in *$ic$
it is never used after simple roots1, it is muc$ more common
after compound vers.
Tvaa1 Tvaana1 Tuuna
%<". #$e suM? tvaa ma' e(
i. Roined to t$e root ' means of connectin, vo*el i.
ii. #$e initial t of t$e suM? is, in a fe* cases assimilated to
t$e last consonant of t$e root.
iii. #$e vo*el of t$e root is ,u.nated.
iv. Sometimes t$e last consonant of t$e root is dropped
efore suM?es tvaa, tvaana and tuuna.
v. #$e 5nal lon, vo*el of a root is s$ortened efore t$ese
suM?es.
vi. #$e suM?es are added to t$e special ase as *ell as to
t$e root.
")amples
Boot Gerund
Npac, to cook pacitvaa, $avin, cooked 0i1
Nk$aad, to eat k$aaditvaa $avin, eaten 0i1
Nla$, to otain
ladd$aa, otained 0ii1 0)-,
Bemark1
la$itvaa, $avin, otained 0i1
Nnii, to lead netvaa, $avin, led 0iii1
Nc$id, to cut c$etvaa, $avin, cut 0iii, iv1
Nkar, to make katvaa, $avin, made 0iv1
N.t$aa, to stand,
remain
.t$itvaa, $avin, stood,
remained 0i1
N$ii, to fear
$itvaa, $avin, feared, fearin,
0v1
Ndaa, to ,ive datvaa, $avin, ,iven 0v1
N$uj, to eat $utvaa, $avin, eaten 0iv1
Naap/pa = paap, to
,et
patvaa, $avin, ,ot 0iv, v1
Nji, to con9uer
jitvaa, jetvaa, $avin,
con9uered 0iii1
%emar&s'
From root N.t$aa, *e $ave also( .t$atvaa.
From Ndaa( daditvaa, daditvaana.
From Nkar( kaatuuna, kattuuna.
From Nkam, to step, to proceed( nikkamitvaa, nikkamituuna.
From Nsu, to $ear( sutvaa, sotuuna.m, su.nitvaa, su.nitvaana.
,a1 T#a
%<+.
i. 'a is used mostl' *it$ roots compounded *it$ pre5?es.
ii. In a fe* cases, it is used *it$ simple roots.
iii. t'a is re,ularl' c$an,ed cca.
iv. 'a is added directl' to roots endin, in lon, aa.
v. 'a ma' e added to t$e special ase.
vi. 'a is assimilated to t$e last consonant of t$e root.
vii. 'a ma' e joined to t$e root or to t$e ase ' means of
i.
")amples
Boot Gerund
Nsic, to
sprinkle
nisi;nci'a, $avin, esprinkled 0i, vii1
Njaa, to
kno*
vijaani'a, $avin, kno*n, discerned 0i, v, vii1
Nikk$, to samekk$i'a, $avin, re2ected 0i, vii1
see
Ncint, to
t$ink
cinti'a, $avin, t$ou,$t 0ii, vii1
N$uj, to
eat
$u;nji'a, $avin, eaten 0v, ii, vii1
Ndaa, to
,ive
aadaa'a, $avin, ,iven 0i, iv1
N$aa, to
aandon
vi$aa'a, $avin, aandoned 0i, iv1
N;naa, to
kno*
a$i;n;naaa'a, $avin, kno*n 0i, iv1
N,a$, to
take
,a'$a, $avin, taken 0ii, iii1
N,am, to
,o
,amma, $avin, ,one 0vi& <", ii1
Nvis, to
enter
pavissa, $avin, entered 0vi, i1
Nsad, to sit
do*n
nisajja, $avin, sat 0vi, <", <%1
Nsad, to sit
do*n
nisiidi'a, $avin, sat 0i, vii, v1 0See %3>. Bemark1
Nkam, to
tread
akkamma, $avin, trodden 0vi, <", --, -31
Ni, to ,o
pa 4 i 4 t'a = pecca, $avin, ,one, departed
0+", i& <%, iv1
Ni, to ,o
a$i 4 sam 4 aa 4 i 4 t'a = aisamecca,
$avin, compre$ended 0+", i1
N$an, to
strike
aa 4 $an 4 t'a = aa$acca, $avin, struck& 5nal n
ein, dropped efore initial t 0n, dropped efore
t1
N$an, to
strike
upa 4 $an 4 t'a = upa$acca, $avin, ve?ed 0See
last remark1
N$an, to
strike
u 4 $an 4 t'a = u$acca, $avin, destro'ed 0See
last remark1
Ni, to ,o pa.ti 4 i 4 t'a = pa.ticca, follo*in, upon, from
N$ar, to
take a*a'
aa 4 $ar 4 t'a = aa$acca, $avin, reac$ed,
attained 0="1
#$is last s$ould not e confounded *it$ ,erund, from N$an,
,iven aove.
%emar&s'
0a1 Sometimes t$e ,erund $avin, een formed ' means of
'a, t$e 'a is dropped, t$e root alone remainin,, as in(
a$i;n;naa = a$i;n;naa'a, $avin, kno*n.
pa.tisa:nk$aa = pa.tisa:nk$aa'a, $avin, pondered.
anupaadaa = anupaadaa'a 0an 4 upa 4 aa 4 Ndaa 4
'a1, not $avin, clun,, not clin,in,.
01 Some roots seem to take a compound ,erundial suM?,
made up of 'a and tvaa, and joined to t$e root ' means of
i, as(
aaru'$itvaa 0Nru$1, $avin, ascended.
o,a'$itvaa 0N,aa$ = N,a$1 = o,a'$a = o,aa$itvaa,
$avin, dived.
0c1 #$ere are some anomalous forms(
disvaa, from Ndis 0to see1, $avin, seen.
da.t.t$u = disvaa.
anuvicca, from Nvid 0to kno*1, $avin, kno*n, 5nal d
ein, dropped efore t'a.
pappu''a = paapa'itvaa, from Naap 4 pa = paap, to
otain.
vine''a, from Nnii, $avin, removed.
nicc$e''a, from Nni, $avin, ascertained.
In t$ese last t$ree e?amples t$e ' $as under,one
reduplication.
atisitvaa, from Nsar = Sanskrit sX0W1, $avin,
approac$ed, $avin, e?celled.
0d1 #$e student *ill $ave remarked t$at several forms are
met *it$ from t$e same root, as(
Ndaa, datvaa, daditvaa, daditvaana, daa'a.
Nkar, kari'a, karitvaa, katvaa, katvaana, kaatuuna,
kattuuna.
N,a$, ,a'$a, ,a.n$i'a, ,a.n$itvaa.
Most roots can t$us $ave several forms.
The In<nitive
%<-. #$e In5nitive is ,enerall' formed ' means of suM?
tu.m.
%<%. #$e suM?es tave, tu'e and taa'e are also met *it$, ut
seldom.
%<3. #u.m, like t$e suM? of t$e Passive Perfect Participle
0%3A1 ma' e(
i. joined to t$e root or to t$e ase ' vo*el i.
ii. to t$e roots in aa, it is added directl'.
iii. roots endin, in i, ii, c$an,e 5nal i, ii to e& and roots in u,
uu, c$an,e u, uu to o.
iv. initial t of tu.m is assimilated to t$e last consonant of
t$e root& t$e last consonant ma' also e assimilated to
t.
v. tu.m is also added to t$e special ase.
")amples
Boot In5nitive
Npac, to cook pacitu.m, to cook 0i1
Nk$aad, to eat k$aaditu.m, to eat 0i1
Nt$ar, to spread t$aritu.m, to spread 0i1
Ndaa, to ,ive daatu.m 0ii1
N.t$aa, to stand .t$aatu.m 0ii1
N'aa, to ,o 'aatu.m 0ii1
Nji, to con9uer jetu.m 0iii1
Nnii, to lead netu.m 0iii1
Nsu, to $ear sotu.m 0iii1
Nla$, to otain
ladd$u.m, to otain 0iv& )-,
remark1
N$uj, to eat $ottu.m, to eat 0iii, iv, 3>a1
Naap, to otain, 4
pa
pattu.m, to otain 0iv& )%, i1
N,am, to ,o ,antu.m, to ,o 0iv, )<1
Ni, to ,o etu.m, to ,o 0iii1
Nsu, to $ear su.nitu.m, to $ear 0v1
Nud$, to kno* od$itu.m, to kno* 0i, iii1
Nud$, to kno* ujj$itu.m, to kno* 0i, v1
Nsii, to lie do*n setu.m, to lie do*n 0iii1
Nsii, to lie do*n sa'itu.m 0v1
Njaa, to kno* jaanitu.m, to kno* 0v1
Nc$id, to cut c$inditu.m, to cut 0v1
Nc$id, to cut c$ettu.m, to cut 0iii, iv& )+, vi1
Tave1 Tu#e1 Taa#e
%<). #$ese suM?es are 8edic and seldom used in Paali& tave,
$o*ever, is more fre9uentl' met *it$ t$an t$e ot$er t*o.
Boot In5nitive
Nnii, to lead nitave, to lead
N$aa, to
aandon
vi 4 pa 4 $aa 4 tave = vippa$aatave, to
aandon
Nnam, to end
ud 4 nam 4 e 4 tave = unnametave, to
ascend, rise
Nd$aa, to $old
ni 4 ase(d$e 0->"1 4 tave = nid$etave, to
$ide, ur'
Nmar, to die maritu'e, to die, joined ' vo*el i
N,a.n, to count ,a.netu'e, to count, added to t$e ase ,a.ne
Ndis, to see dakk$itaa'e, to see 0%A%1
%<<. #$e student *ill $ave remarked t$at several forms for
t$e same root are often met *it$.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e In5nitive is used ot$ passsivel' and activel'.
01 #$e Dative of nouns in aa'a is often used *it$ an
in5nitive sense.
0c1 #$e In5nitive e?presses purpose and ma' e translated
'( Hfor t$e purpose of, in order to.H
!4$ /erivative or Seconar# Conjugation
%<=. #$e Derivative 6onju,ation includes(
". t$e Passive&
+. t$e 6ausative&
-. t$e Denominative&
%. t$e Desiderative and,
3. t$e Intensive.
%<>. It is called t$e derivative conju,ation ecause t$e
aove named 5ve kinds of vers are derived from t$e simple
root *it$ a *ell/de5ned modi5cation of t$e sense of t$e root
itself.
%=A. C?cept for t$e 6ausative, derivative vers are not
conju,ated in all t$e tenses and in all voices.
The Passive
%=". #$e Passive conju,ation is formed ' addin, t$e suM?
'a to t$e root.
%=+. #$e suM? 'a $avin, een added and t$e Passive ase
otained, t$e personal endin,s of eit$er t$e active voice or
of t$e re2ective voice are added to t$e ase.
%=-. Ta is aM?ed to t$e root in t$ree *a's(
i. Directl' after roots endin, in a vo*el.
ii. #o roots in a doule consonant, 'a is joined ' means of
i, t$is i ein, len,t$ened to ii. It is also joined ' means
of i *$en a root ends in a consonant t$at does not
,enerall' reduplicate 0s, $ and r1.
iii. It ma' e added directl' to roots endin, in a consonant&
in t$is case t$e ' of 'a ecomes assimilated to t$e last
consonant of t$e root accordin, to t$e Bules of
Assimilation. 0<A.1
iv. Ta is also added to t$e special ase ' means of i,
len,t$ened.
")amples of !i$
%emar&s'
0a1 F$en 'a is added to roots endin, in a vo*el, t$e vo*el of
t$e root under,oes some c$an,e, especiall' vo*els( a, i and
u.
01 Badical aa is c$an,ed to ii efore 'a and radical i, u, are
len,t$ened to ii, uu.
Boot Passive ase
Ndaa, to
,ive
dii'a, to e ,iven
Npaa, drink pii'a, to e drunk
Nd$a, to
$old
d$ii'a, to e $eld
Nji, to
con9uer
jii'a, to e
con9uered
Nci, to $eap
cii'a, to e $eaped
up
Nku, to sin, kuu'a, to e sun,
Nsu, to $ear suu'a, to e $eard
0c1 Badical lon, ii and uu, remain una@ected(
Boot Passive ase
N$uu, to
ecome
$uu'a, to $ave
ecome
Nluu, to reap luu'a, to e reaped
Nnii, to lead nii'a, to e led
0d1 In some instances, t$e lon, vo*el efore 'a is s$ortened,
in *$ic$ case t$e ' is douled.
Boot Passive ase
Nnii, to
lead
Nnii'a, or
Nni''a
Nsu, to
$ear
Nsuu'a, or
Nsu''a
Ndaa, to
,ive
Ndii'a, or
Ndi''a
%=%. #o t$e aove ases t$e active or re2ective personal
endin,s ein, added, *e otain, for instance from Nji, to
con9uer, ase jii'a 0or ji''a1.

Present
Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
jii'aami, I am
con9uered
jii'aama, *e
are
con9uered
jii'e, I am
con9uered
jii'aam$e, *e
are con9uered
+
.
jii'asi, t$ou
art
con9uered
jii'at$a, 'ou
are
con9uered
jii'ase, t$ou
art
con9uered
jii'av$e, 'ou
are con9uered
-
.
jii'ati, $e is
con9uered
jii'anti, t$e'
are
con9uered
jii'ate, $e is
con9uered
jii'ante, t$e'
are con9uered
Dptative( 0"1 jii'e''a.m, jii'e''aami& 0+1 jii'et$o, jii'e''aasi&
0-1 jii'et$a, jii'e''a, etc., etc.
Imperative( 0"1 jii'e, jii'aami& 0+1 jii'assu, jii'aa$i&
0-1jii'ata.m, jii'atu.
")amples of !ii$
Boot Passive ase
Npucc$, to ask pucc$ii'a, to e asked
N$as, to lau,$
$asii'a, to e lau,$ed
at
Nvas, to live
vasii'a, to e lived
upon
Nkar, to make karii'a, to e made
Nsar, to
rememer
sarii'a, to e
rememered
Nma$, to
$onour
ma$ii'a, to e
$onoured
")amples of !iii$
Boot Passive ase
Nla$, to
otain
la$a, to e otained 0<A,
<"1
Npac, to cook
pacca, to e cooked 0<A,
<"1
N$a.n, to
speak
$a;n;na, to e spoken
0<A, <"1
Nk$aad, to eat
k$ajja, to e eaten 0<A, <",
-%1
N$an, to kill
$a;n;na, to e killed 0<A,
<"1
Nand$, to
ind
ajj$a, to e ound 0<A, <",
<%1
")amples of !iv$
Boot Passive ase
N,am, to ,o
,acc$ii'a, to e ,one
to
Nud$, to kno* ujj$ii'a, to e kno*n
Nis, to *is$,
desire
icc$ii'a, to e *is$ed
for
%=3. !on, ii, efore 'a of t$e Passive, is sometimes found
s$ortened, as( ma$ii'ati or ma$i'ati, to e $onoured.
%=). It is usual to form t$e Passive of roots endin, in a
consonant preceded ' lon, aa, ' means of ii(
N'ac, to e, = 'aacii'ati&
Naj, to drive 4 pre5? pa = paaj, to drive = paajii'ati, to
e driven.
%=<. Ta ma' e added directl' after some roots endin, a
consonant *it$out assimilation takin, place and *it$out t$e
insertion of connectin, vo*el ii& as(
Nlup, to cut, elide = lup'a 4 ti = lup'ati, to e elided,
cut o@.
N,am, to ,o = ,am'a 4 ti = ,am'ati, to e ,one to.
%emar&s'
0a1 Fe $ave alread' said t$at *$en t$e ii efore 'a is
s$ortened, initial ' is reduplicated ' *a' of compensation
0%=-, d1.
01 #$e Perfect, t$e Aorist, t$e Future and t$e 6onditional
0*$ic$ four tenses are called( General #enses& see -)<1, of
t$e Be2ective 8oice, are often used in a passive sense.
%==. #$e Passive ma' assume several forms from t$e same
root(
Nkar, to do, make, ,ives Passive( karii'ati, kari''ati,
ka'irati 0*it$ metat$esis1, ka''ati 0*it$ asssimilation of
r, =A1.
N,am, to ,o, ,ives( ,amii'ati, ,acc$ii'ati, ,am'ati.
N,a$, to take, ,ives( ,a'$ati 0metat$esis1& ,$eppati,
9uite an anomalous form.
N$aa, to aandon( $aa'ati, $i'ati.
%=>. Anomalous form of t$e Passive.
Nva$, to carr'& Passive ase = vu'$( vu'$aami,
vu'$asi, vu'$ati, vu'$e, vu'$ase, vu'$ate, etc.
Nvas, to live& Passive ase = vuss( vussaami, vussasi,
vussati, etc.
N'aj, to sacri5ce& Passive ase = ijj, to e sacri5ced(
ijjaami, ijjasi, ijjati, etc.
Nvac, to speak& Passive ase = ucc( uccaami, uccasi,
uccati, etc.
Nvac, to speak& Passive ase = vucc( vuccaami,
vuccasi, vuccati, etc.
%>A. Final s of a root, *$ic$ is not usuall' susceptile of
reduplication is, $o*ever, sometimes found reduplicated as(
Ndis, to see, ecomes& dissati, to e seen.
Nnas, to destro'& nassati, to e destro'ed.
Causative Verbs
%>". 6ausal or 6ausative vers are formed ' addin, to t$e
root t$e suM?es(
i. a'a, *$ic$ is often contracted to e.
ii. aapa'a, *$ic$ like*ise ma' e contracted to aape.
%>+.
i. #$e radical vo*el of t$e root is ,u.nated or
stren,t$ened efore t$ese suM?es, if follo*ed ' one
consonant onl'.
ii. It remains unc$an,ed *$en it is follo*ed ' t*o
consonants.
iii. In some cases, radical a is not len,t$ened alt$ou,$
follo*ed ' a sin,le consonant.
iv. Boots in i, ii and u, uu form t$eir causal from t$e special
ase.
v. Dt$er vers, too, ma' form t$e causal from t$e special
ase.
vi. Some roots in a take aape, aapa'a.
")amples
Boot 6ausative ase
Npac, to
cook
paace, paaca'a, paacaape, paacaapa'a, to
cause to cook 0i1
Nkar, to do
kaare, kaara'a, kaaraape, kaaraapa'a, to
cause to do 0i1
N,a$, to
take
,aa$e, ,aa$a'a, ,aa$aape, ,aa$aapa'a, to
cause to take 0i1
Nmar, to kill
maare, maara'a, maaraape, maaraapa'a, to
cause to kill 0i1
Nsam, to e
appeased
same, sama'a, samaape, samaapa'a, to cause
to e appeased 0iii1
N,am, to ,o
,ame, ,ama'a, to cause to ,o, 0iii1& *e 5nd
also( ,aame
Nc$id, to cut
c$ede, c$eda'a, c$edaape, c$edaapa'a, to
cause to cut 0i1
N$uj, to eat $oje, $oja'a, $ojaape, $ojaapa'a, to
cause to eat 0i1
Nrud$, to
$inder
rod$e, rod$a'a, rod$aape, rod$aapa'a, to
cause to $inder 0i1
N$id, to
reak
$ede, $eda'a, $edaape, $edaapa'a, to
cause to reak 0i1
Nsu, to $ear
saave, saava'a, saavaape, saavaapa'a, to
cause to $ear 0iv1
N$uu, to e $aave, $aava'a, etc 0iv1
Nsii, to lie
do*n
saa'e, saa'a'a, sa'aape, sa'aapa'a, to cause
to lie do*n 0iv, iii1
Nnii, to lead
naa'a'a, na'aape, na'aapa'a, to cause to
lead 0iv, iii1
Npucc$, to
ask
pucc$aape, pucc$aapa'a, to cause to ask 0ii1
Nd$aa, to
place
pid$aape, pid$aapa'a, to cause to s$ut 0vi1.
*it$ pre5? pi, pida$aape, pida$aapa'a, to
cause to s$ut 0v, ii1
Ndaa, to ,ive daape, daapa'a, to cause to ,ive
N.t$aa, to
stand
.t$ape, .t$apa'a, to place 0vi, *it$ a s$ortened1
/ouble Causal
%>-. #$ere is a doule causal formed ' addin, aapaape to
t$e root.
")amples
Boot Simple 6ausal Doule 6ausal
Npac, to
cook
paace, paacaape,
etc.
paacaapaape,
paacaapaapa'a
Nc$id, to
cut
c$ede, c$edaape,
etc.
c$edaapaape,
c$edaapaapa'a
N$uj, to
eat
$oje, $ojaape,
etc.
$ojaapaape,
$ojaapaapa'a
%emar&s' #$e doule causal ma' e translated ' Hto ,et
to, or, to make to cause to.H For instance( So purisa.m
daasa.m odana.m paacaapaapeti. HIe causes t$e man to
cause t$e slave to cook t$e food.H or HIe ,ot t$e man to
make t$e slave to cook t$e food.H
Note t$at t$e 5rst accusative or oject purisa.m ma' e and
is often, replaced ' an Instrumentive.
%>%. #$e causative vers are declined like t$e vers in i, ii of
t$e "st conju,ation, -rd division 0->-, -=31 and like t$e
vers of t$e <t$ conju,ation. 0-<>1
")amples
Npac, to cook, causative ase( paace, paaca'a, paacaape,
paacaapa'a, to cause to cook.
Present
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
paacemi, paaca'aami,
paacaapemi,
paacaapa'aami, I cause to
cook
paacema, paaca'aama,
paacaapema,
paacaapa'aama, *e cause to
cook
+
.
paacesi, paaca'asi,
paacaapesi, paacaapa'asi,
t$ou causest to cook
paacet$a, paaca'at$a,
paacaapet$a,
paacaapa'at$a, 'ou cause to
cook
-
.
paaceti, paaca'ati,
paacaapeti, paacaapa'ati,
$e causes to cook
paacenti, paaca'anti,
paacaapenti, paacaapa'anti,
t$e' cause to cook
8ptative
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
paace''aami,
paaca'e''aami,
paacaape''aami,
paacaapa'e''aami, I s$ould
cause, etc.
paace''aama,
paaca'e''aama,
paacaape''aama,
paacaapa'e''aama, *e
s$ould cause, etc.
+
.
paace''aasi,
paaca'e''aasi,
paace''aat$a
paaca'e''aat$a,
paacaape''aasi,
paacaapa'e''aasi, t$ou
s$ouldst cause, etc.
paacaape''aat$a,
paacaapa'e''aat$a, 'ou
s$ould cause, etc.
-
.
paace''a, paaca'e''a,
paacaape''a,
paacaapa'e''a, $e s$ould
cause, etc.
paace''u.m, paaca'e''u.m,
paacaape''u.m,
paacaapa'e''u.m, t$e'
s$ould cause, etc.
And so on for t$e ot$er tenses.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e ases in e and pe take t$e Si,matic Aorist endin,s
0%"=, %">1.
01 #$e ases in a'a take t$e ot$er endin,s 0%A<, 1. As(
paacesi.m, paacesi, paacaapesi.m, paaca'i.m, paaca'i,
paacaapa'i.m, paacaapa'i, etc.
Causal Passive
%>3. #$e passive of a causal ver is formed ' joinin, t$e
suM? 'a of t$e Passive to t$e 6ausative ase, ' means of i,
len,t$ened to ii, 5nal vo*el e of t$e 6ausative ase $avin,
een dropped 5rst. #$e 6ausal Passive ma' e translated '
Hcaused to... , made to do...H t$e action e?pressed ' t$e
root.
")amples
Boots
Simple
ver
6ausa
l
6ausal Passive
Npac, to
cook
pacati
paace
ti
paacii'ati, to e caused to
cook
N$uj, to
eat
$u;njati
$ojet
i
$ojii'ati, to e caused to
eat
Nkar, to do karoti
kaaret
i
kaarii'ati, to e caused to
do
%emar&' 6onnective vo*el i ma' also e found s$ort.
%>). Some vers, alt$ou,$ in t$e 6ausative, $ave merel' a
transitive sense as(
Ncar, to ,o, 6ausative( caareti, to cause to ,o = to
administer 0an estate1.
N$uu, to e, 6ausative( $aaveti, to cause to = to
cultivate, practise.
%><. 8ers of t$e <t$ conju,ation form t$eir causal '
addin, aape or aapa'a to t$e ase, t$e 5nal vo*el of t$e
ase $avin, 5rst een dropped.
Boots .ase Simple ver 6ausal
Ncur, to
steal
core coreti, cora'ati
coraapeti,
coraapa'ati
Nkat$, to
tell
kat$
e
kat$eti,
kat$a'ati
kat$aapeti,
kat$aapa'ati
Ntim, to
*et
tem
e
temeti,
tema'ati
temaapeti,
temaapa'ati
/enominative Verbs
%>=. So called ecause t$e' are formed from a noun stem '
means of certain suM?es.
%>>. #$e meanin, of t$e Denominative 8er is susceptile of
several renderin,s in Cn,lis$& it ,enerall' e?presses(
a. Hto act as, to e like, to *is$ to e likeH t$at *$ic$ is
denoted ' t$e noun.
. Hto *is$ for, to desireH t$at *$ic$ is si,ni5ed ' t$e
noun.
c. Hto c$an,e or make intoH t$at *$ic$ is denoted ' t$e
noun.
d. Hto use or make use ofH t$at *$ic$ is e?pressed ' t$e
noun.
3AA. #$e suM?es used to form Denominative veral stems
are(
i. aa'a, a'a, e
ii. ii'a, i'a
iii. a
iv. aara, aala 0t$ese t*o rat$er rare1
v. aape
3A". #$e ase or stem $avin, een otained ' means of
t$e aove suM?es, t$e personal endin,s of t$e tenses are
added e?actl' as t$e' are after ot$er vers.
")amples
Noun stem Denominative ver
paata, a mountain paataa'ati, to act like a mountain
macc$ara, avarice
macc$aara'ati, to e avaricious 0lit.
to act avariciousl'1
samudda, t$e ocean
sammuddaa'ati, to e or act like
t$e ocean
nadii, river nadi'iti, to do, act like a river
ara;n;na, forest
ara;n;nii'ati, to act 0in to*n1 as in
t$e forest
d$ana, ric$es
d$ana'ati, d$anaa'ati, to desire
ric$es
putta, a son
puttii'ati, to desire, or treat as a
son
patta, a o*l pattii'ati, to *is$ for a o*l
ciivara, monkGs roe ciivarii'ati, to desire a roe
dolaa, a palankin
dolaa'ati, to desire a, or *is$ for
oneGs o*n palankin
vii.naa, a lute
vii.naa'ati, to use t$e lute, to pla'
on t$e lute
upakkama, dili,ence,
plan
upakkkamaalati, to make dili,ence,
to devise plans
,a.na, a follo*in,
,a.na'ati, to *is$ for a follo*in, or
disciples
samod$aana, a
connection
samod$aaneti, to connect, join
saarajja, modest'
saarajjati, to e s$', nervous
s$'ness
ta.n$aa, cravin, ta.n$aa'ati, ta.n$ii'ati, to crave
metta.m, love mettaa'ati, to love
karu.na, merc', pit' karu.naa'ati, to pit'
suk$a, $appiness suk$aapeti, to make $app'
dukk$a, miser' dukk$aapeti, to make miserale
u.n$a, $eat u.n$aapeti, to $eat, *arm
ja.taa, matted $air,
tan,led ranc$es
vija.taa'ati, disentan,le, com out
pari'osaana, end paari'osaanati, to end, to cease
3A+. Denominatives can also e formed from t$e stems of
adjectives and advers, as(
Stem Denominative ver
da.l$a, 5rm,
stron,
da.l$aa'ati, to make 5rm,
stron,
santa.m, ein,
,ood
santarati, to act *ell, or
$andsomel'
a.t.ta, aZicted,
$urt
a.t.ta'ati, to $urt, aZict
%emar&s'
0a1 SuM?es aara and aala are simpl' modi5cations of a'a.
01 #$ere is an uncommon *a' of formin, Denominative
vers from nouns( t$e "st, +nd or -rd s'llale of t$e noun is
reduplicated and t$e suM? ii'isa or 'isa added to t$e *ord
t$us reduplicated& t$e vo*el u or i ma' or ma' not e
inserted et*een t$e reduplication. 0Niruttidiipanii1.
Noun stem Denominative ver
putta, son pupputtii'isati, to *is$ to e 0as1 a son
putta, a son puttitti'isati, to *is$ to e 0as1 a son
kamala.m,
2o*er
kakamalaa'isati or kamamalaa'isati or
kamalalaa'isati, to *is$ to e 0as1 a 2o*er
0c1 #$e 6ausal and Passive of all Denominatives are formed
in t$e usual manner.
/esierative Verbs
3A-. As its ver' name indicates, t$e Desiderative
conju,ation e?presses t$e *is$ or desire to do or e t$at
*$ic$ is denoted ' t$e simple root.
3A%. #$e Desiderative is not e?tensivel' used in Paali&
$o*ever, it is fre9uent enou,$ to *arrant a careful perusal
of t$e rules for its formation.
3A3. #$e suM? sa is t$e c$aracteristic si,n of t$is
conju,ation& anot$er c$aracteristic is t$e reduplication of t$e
root accordin, to t$e rules alread' ,iven 0-<+1. #$e student
ou,$t 5rst to look carefull' over t$ose rules.
Boot
Desiderative
ase
Desiderative ver
Nsu, to
$ear
sussusa
sussusati, to desire to $ear =
listens 0--,-<+/<c1
N$uj, to
eat
u$ukk$a
u$ukk$ati, to *is$ to eat 0=),
-<+/31
Ntij, to
ear
titikk$a
titikk$ati, to endure, e patient 0=),
-<+/<1
N,$as, to
eat
ji,$acc$a
ji,$acc$ati, to desire to eat 0=>,
-<+/<a1
Npaa, to
drink
pipaasa,
pivaasa
pivaasati, to desire to drink 0-<+/
<a1. 0pivaasa, from t$e root1
Nkit, to
cure
cikicc$a
cikicc$ati, to desire to cure, to treat
0==& -<+/+1
3A). It *ill e remarked t$at t$e initial s of sa is mostl'
assimilated.
3A<. #$e ases ein, otained, t$e personal endin,s are
added as usual.
%emar&'#$e 6ausal and Passive are formed in t$e usual
*a'.
Intensive Verbs
3A=. #$e Intensive 8ers also called Fre9uentative 8ers,
e?press t$e fre9uent repetition or t$e intensi5cation of t$e
action denoted ' t$e simple root. #$e c$aracteristic of t$e
Intensive conju,ation is t$e reduplication of t$e root
accordin, to t$e usual rules 0-<+1.
3A>. #$ese vers are not ver' fre9uent in Paali.
")amples
Boot Intensive ver
Nlap, to talk laalappati, laalapati, to lament
Nkam, to
,o
ca:nkamati, to *alk to and fro
N,am, to
,o
ja:n,amati, to ,o up and do*n
Ncal, to
move
ca;ncalati, to move to and fro, to
tremle
#$e personal endin,s are added as usual.
/efective an Anomalous Verbs
3"A. Nas, to e
Present S#stem
Present
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
asmi, am$i, I
am
asma, am$a, *e
are
+
.
asi, t$ou art att$a, 'ou are
-
.
att$i, $e is santi, t$e' are
Imperative
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
asmi, am$i, let me
e
asma, am$a, let us
e
+
.
a$i, e t$ou att$a, e 'e
-
.
att$u, let $im, $er, it
e
santu, let t$em e
Present Participle
Active Be2ective
Masculin
e
santo, ein, samaano, ein,
Feminine santii, ein,
samaanaa,
ein,
Neuter
santa.m,
ein,
samaana.m,
ein,
Aorist
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
aasi.m, I *as, I $ave
een
aasim$aa, aasim$a, *e *ere, *e
$ave een
+
.
aasi, t$ou *ast, t$ou
$ast een
aasitt$a, 'ou *ere, 'ou $ave
een
-
.
aasi, $e *as, $e $as
een
aasu.m, aasi.msu, t$e' *ere,
t$e' $ave een
Conitional
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
assa.m, if I *ere or s$ould
e
assaama, if *e *ere or s$ould
e
+
.
assa, if t$ou *ert or s$ould
e
assat$a, if 'ou *ere or s$ould
e
-
.
assa, si'aa, if $e *ere or
s$ould e
assu, si'u.m, if t$e' *ere or
s$ould e
3"". N$uu, to e. 0$uu is a contracted form of root $uu1.
Present S#stem
Present

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
$omi $oma
+
.
$osi
$ot$
a
-
.
$oti $onti
Imperfect
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
a$uva,
a$uva.m
a$uvam$a,
a$uvam$aa
+
.
a$uvo a$uvatt$a
-
.
a$uva,
a$uvaa
a$uvu
Imperative

Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
$omi $oma
+
.
$o$i $oma
-
.
$otu
$ont
u
8ptative
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
$e''aa
mi
$e''aam
a
+
.
$e''aas
i
$e''aat$
a
-
.
$e''a $e''u.m
Present Participle
Masculin
e
$onto
Feminine $ontii
Neuter
$onta.
m
Aorist
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
a$osi.m,
a$u.m
a$osim$aa,
a$um$aa
+
.
a$osi a$ositt$a
-
.
a$osi, a$u a$esu.m, a$u.m
#$e Future $as alread' een ,iven 0%-)1.
In5nitiv
e
Gerun
d
Future.
P.P.
$otu.m $utvaa $otao
3"+. Nkar, to do, make.
Present S#stem
Present
#$e Present Active $as alread' een ,iven 0%A-1.

Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
kue
kuam$e,
kurum$e
+
.
kuase, kuruse
kuav$e,
kuruv$e
-
.
kuate, kurute,
kuati
kuante, kurunte
8ptative

Active
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
kare, kue, kare''a, kue''a,
ka'iraa, ka'iraami
kare''aama,
kue''aama,
ka'iraama
+
.
kare, kue, kare''aasi,
kue''aasi, ka'iraa, ka'iraasi
kare''aat$a, kuet$a,
ka'iraat$a
-
.
kare, kue, kare''a, kue''a,
ka'iraa
kare''a.m, kue''a.m,
ka'ira.m
Imperfect

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
akara,
akara.m
akaram$
aa
akari.m
akaram$as
e
+
.
akaro akaratt$a akarase
akarav$a.
m
-
.
akara akaru
akaratt$
a
akaratt$u.
m
#$e Aorist $as een ,iven 0%"+1.
Imperative

Active Be2ective
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
karomi karoma kue
kuaama
se
+
.
kuru, karo$i karot$a kurussu kuruv$o
-
.
karotu,
kurutu
karontu,
kuantu
kuruta.
m
kuanta.
m
3uture
.esides t$e usual Future in ssaami( karissaami, karissasi,
t$ere is anot$er form ,iven in 0%-)1.
Present Participle
Active Be2ective
Masculin
e
kara.m,
karonto
karamaano, kurumaano, karaano,
kuaano
Feminine karontii
karamaanaa, kurumaanaa,
karaanaa, kuaanaa
Neuter
kara.m,
karonta.m
karamaana.m, kurumaana.m,
karaana.m, kuaana.m
3uture Passive Participle
kattao, kaatao, kaari'o, ka'iro, ka''o, kara.nii'o.
%emar&s' All t$e forms in 'ira are otained t$rou,$
metat$esis, in ka''o t$e r $as een assimilated.
Present Passive Participle
karii'amaano, kari''amaano, ka'iiramaano, kari'amaano.
Passive 4ase
#$e passive ase $as several forms( karii'a, kari''a, kari'a,
ka'ira.
3"-. Nda, to ,ive.
#$e Present Dptative and Imperative $ave alread' een
,iven. 0->31 #$e student *ill remark t$at some of t$e tenses
are formed directl' on t$e root( t$e Badical Aorist, t$e
Si,matic Aorist, t$e Future and t$e 6onditional.

Badical Aorist Si,matic Aorist
Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
ada.m adam$aa
adaasi.
m
adaasim$aa
+
.
ado adatt$a adaasi adaasitt$a
-
.
ada
ada.msu,
adu.m
adaasi
adaasu.m,
adaasi.msu
3uture

From t$e ase From t$e root
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
dadissaa
mi
dadissaa
ma
dassaa
mi
dassaam
a
+
.
dadissasi
dadissat$
a
dassasi
dassat$
a
-
.
dadissati dadissanti dassati dassanti
Conitional
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
adassa.
m
adassam$
aa
+
.
adasse adassat$a
-
.
adassaa
adassa.ms
u
Participles

Masculine Nominative
Sin,ular
Present dada.m, dadanto
Past dinno
Active Perfect dinnavaa
Future dadassa.m, dadassanto
Future Passive daatao, daa'o
Present
Be2ective
dadaamaano
Present Be2ective Participle( dadaamaanaa 0fem.1,
dadaamaana.m 0neut.1
Verbal Pre<)es
3"%. #$e Pre5?es or Prepositions, called in Paali( 7pasa,,a
0+-, Bemark1, are pre5?ed to vers and t$eir derivatives&
t$e' $ave een, on t$at account, called 8eral Pre5?es. #$e'
,enerall' modif' t$e meanin, of t$e root, or intensif' it, and
sometimes totall' alter it& in man' cases, t$e' add ut little
to t$e ori,inal sense of t$e root.
3"3. #$e usual rules of sand$i appl' *$en t$ese pre5?es are
placed efore vers. F$en a pre5? is placed efore a tense
*it$ t$e au,ment a, t$e au,ment must not c$an,e its
position, ut remain et*een t$e pre5? and t$e root, as(
a,aa 4 ati = acca,aa 0<%, i1, and not( aati,aa
3"). #$ese pre5?es are as follo*s(
aa to, at, to*ards, near to, until, as far as, a*a', all round.
")amples
Nka.d.d$, to dra,, dra* = aaka.d.d$ati, to dra*
to*ards, to dra, a*a'.
Nkir, to pour, scatter = aakirati, to scatter all over or
around, to 5ll.
Ncikk$, to s$o*, tell = aacikk$ati, to point out, tell to
0to communicate1.
Nc$ad, to cover = acc$aadeti, to cover over or all
around, to put on clot$es 0--, -31.
%emar&s' #$is pre5? reverses t$e meanin, of some roots(
Ndaa, to ,ive, ut aadaati, to take.
N,am, to ,o, ase( ,acc$a = aa,acc$ati, to come.
ati 0efore vo*el = acc1 e'ond, across, over, past, ver'
muc$, ver'& it e?presses e?cess.
")amples
Nkam, to step, ,o = atikkamati 0--1, to step over to ,o
across, ,o past, to escape, overcome, trans,ress, e?cel,
to elapse.
Nnii, to lead = atineti, to lead over or across, to irri,ate.
Ncar, to act = aticarati, to act e'ond, too muc$, in
e?cess = to trans,ress.
ahi 0efore vo*els = ajj$1 over, aove, on, upon, at, to in,
superior to, ,reat, it e?presses sometimes superiorit'.
")amples
Nvas, to live = ad$ivasati, to live in, to in$ait.
N,am, to ,o = ajj$a,amaa, $e approac$ed = ad$i 4
au,ment a 4 ,amaa 0Aorist1.
N$aas, to speak = ad$i$aasati, to speak to, to
address.
anu after, alon,, accordin, to, near to, e$ind, less t$an, in
conse9uence of, eneat$.
")amples
Nkar, to do = anukaroti, to do like, viE., to imitate, to
ape.
Nkam, to ,o = anukkamati, to ,o alon, *it$, to follo*.
Nd$aav, to run = anud$aavati, to run after to pursue.
N,a$, to take = anu,a.n$ati, to take near, eneat$ = to
protect.
apa o@, a*a', a*a' from, fort$( it also implies detraction,
$urt, reverence.
")amples
Nci, to notice, oserve = apacaa'ati, to $onour,
respect& apaciti, reverence.
Nnii, to lead = opaneti, to lead a*a', viE., to take a*a',
remove.
N,am, to ,o = apa,acc$ati, to ,o a*a'.
Nman, to t$ink = apama;n;nati, to despise.
api on, over, unto, close upon. #$is pre5? is ver' seldom
used& it is pre5?ed mostl' to t$e roots( Nd$aa, to put, set,
la', and Nna$, to ind, join. It is moreover found areviated
to pi in most instances.
")amples
Nd$aa, to put, set, la' = pida$ati, to cover, close, s$ut.
apid$ana.m, pida$ana.m, pid$aana.m, coverin,, lid,
cover.
Nna$, to ind, join = pina'$ati, to ind on, join on.
abhi to, unto, to*ards, a,ainst, in t$e direction of. It also
e?presses e?cess, reverence, particularit'. 0.efore a vo*el =
a$1.
")amples
N,am, to ,o = a$i,acc$ati, to ,o to*ards, approac$.
Nka:nk$, to desire, a$ika:nk$ati = to desire
particularl', to lon, for, 'earn.
Njal, to laEe = a$ijalati, to laEe e?cessivel', viE,
5ercel'.
Nvand, to salute = a$ivandati, to salute reverentiall'.
ava do*n, o@, a*a', ack, aside, little, less. Implies also(
disrespect, disre,ard.
%emar&s' ava, is often contracted to o.
")amples
Njaa, to kno* = avajaanaati, to despise.
N$ar, to take = ava$arati, to take a*a'. ava$aaro,
takin, a*a'.
Nk$ip, to t$ro* = avak$ipati, to t$ro* do*n.
Nlok, luk, to look = oloketi, to look do*n = avaloketi.
u 0= t$e u of native ,rammarians& for t$e assimilation of
5nal d to t$e follo*in, consonants see 3=, )A, )+, )3. .efore
$, sometimes 5nal d is lost and t$e u len,t$ened.1 up*ards,
aove, up, fort$, out.
")amples
Nk$ip, to t$ro* = ukk$ipati, to t$ro* up, ,et rid of&
ukk$epana.m, e?communication.
Nc$id, to cut = ucc$indati, to cut o@.
N.t$aa, to stand = u.t.t$a$ati to stand up, rise,
u.t.t$aana.m, risin,.
N$ar, to take = udd$arati 0>)1 to dra* out.
udd$ara.na.m, pullin, out.
%emar&' ud reverses t$e meanin, of a fe* vers.
Npat, to fall = uppatati, to leap up, sprin, up.
Nnam, to end = unnamati, to rise up, ascend.
upa unto, to, to*ards, near, *it$, ' t$e side of, as, like, up
to, 0opposed to apa1, elo*, less.
")amples
Nka.d.d$, to dra, = upaka.d.d$ati, to dra, or dra*
to*ards, to dra* elo* or do*n.
Nkar, to do = upakaroti, to do somet$in, to*ards unto&
viE, to $elp, upakaaro, $elp, use& upakara.na.m,
instrument 0lit. doin, *it$1.
Nkam, to step, ,o = upakkamati, to attack, 0lit. to ,o
to*ards1.
ni 0sometimes len,t$ened to nii, and efore a vo*el = nir1
out, fort$, do*n, into, do*n*ards, in, under.
")amples
Nkam, to ,o = nikk$amati, to ,o out, to depart.
Nd$aa, to place = nida$ati or nid$eti, to deposit, $ide.
N$ar, to take = nii$arati, to take out.
N$an, to strike = ni$anti, to strike do*n.
pa on*ard, for*ard to, fort$, fore, to*ards, *it$. It
e?presses e,innin,.
")amples
N$aa, to s$ine = pa$aati, to s$ine fort$, to da*n.
pa$aa, radiance.
N$uu, to e = pa$avati, to e,in to e, viE., to sprin,
up, to ori,inate.
Njal, to urn = pajjalati, to urn fort$, to laEe.
pati1 pa'ti a,ainst, ack to, in reverse direction, ack a,ain
in return, to, to*ards, near.
")amples
N$aas, to speak = pa.ti$aasati, to speak ack, to
repl'.
Nk$ip, to t$ro* = pa.tikk$ipati, to refuse. pa.tikk$epo,
refusin,.
Nkam, to step = pa.tikkamati, to step ack, to retreat.
paraa a*a', ack, opposed to, aside, e'ond.
")amples
Nkam, to ,o = parakkamati, to strive, put fort$ e@ort.
Nji, to con9uer = paraajeti, to overcome.
pari around, all around, aout, all aout, all over. C?presses
completeness, etc.
")amples
Ncar, to *alk = paricarati, to *alk around, viE,. to serve,
$onour. paricaaro, attendance& paricca, $avin,
encircled 0=pari4i4t'a1.
Nc$id, to cut = paricc$indati, to cut around, to limit,
mark out.
Nd$aav, to run = parid$aavati, to run aout.
Njaa, to kno* = parijaanaati, to kno* perfectl', e?actl'.
vi asunder, apart, a*a', *it$out. Implies separation,
distinctness, dispersion.
")amples
Nc$id, to cut = vicc$indati, to cut or reak asunder, to
reak o@, interrupt.
Njaa, to kno* = vijaanaati, to kno* distinctl', to
discern& vijaana.m, kno*in,.
Nkir, to scatter = vikirati, to scatter aout, to spread.
sam *it$, alon,, to,et$er, full', perfectl'.
N$uj, to eat = sam$u;njati, to eat *it$.
Nvas, to live = sa.mvasati, to live to,et$er *it$&
sa.mvaaso, livin, *it$.
%emar&s' It s$ould e orne in mind t$at t*o, and
sometimes t$ree, of t$e aove pre5?es ma' comine. #$e
most common cominations are(
v'aa, *ritten 'aa 0= vi 4 aa1& v'aakaroti, to e?plain
0Nkar1& v'aapajjati, to fall a*a' 0pad, to ,o1.
ajj$o 0= ad$i 4 o, o = ava1& ajj$ott$arati, to over*$elm
0Nt$ar, to spread1.
ajj$aa 0= ad$i 4 a1& ajj$aavasati, to d*ell in 0vas1
ajj$aaseti, to lie upon 0Nsii1.
anupa 0= anu 4 pa1& anupak$aadati, to eat into 0k$ad1&
anupaajati, to ,ive up t$e *orld 0Nvaj, to ,o1.
anupari 0= anu 4 pari1& anuparid$aavati, to run up and
do*n 0d$av1& anupari'aati, to ,o round and round
0N'aa1.
anusam 0= anu 4 sam1& anusa:n,ito, c$anted to,et$er
re$earsed& anusa;ncarati, to cross.
samud 0= sam 4 ud1& samukka.msati, to e?alt&
samucc$indati, to e?tirpate 0Nc$id1& samudeti, to
remove 0Ni1.
samudaa 0= sam 4 ud 4 aa1& samudaacarati, to
address, practise 0Ncar1& samudaa$a.to, produced
0N$ar1& samudaa,amo, e,innin, 0N,am1.
samupa 0= sam 4 upa1& samupeti, to approac$ 0Ni1&
samupa,acc$ati, to approac$.
samaa 0= sam 4 aa1& samaa$arati, to ,at$er 0N$ar1&
samaa,amo, asseml' 0N,am1.
sama$i 0= sam 4 a$i1& sama$isi;ncati, to sprinkle
0Nsi;nc1.
upasam 0= upa 4 sam1& upasa.m$arati, to rin,
to,et$er 0N$ar1& upasa.mvasati, to take up oneGs aode
in 0Nvas, to live1.
%emar&' #$e student must e prepared to meet *it$ some
ot$er cominations& t$e ,eneral meanin, of a *ord can
al*a's e traced from t$e sense of t$e several comined
pre5?es.
3"<. It is important to note t$at t$e pre5?es or prepositions
are used, not onl' *it$ vers, ut also *it$ veral
derivatives, nouns and adjectives, as( anutiire, alon, t$e
ank& ad$icitta.m, $i,$ t$ou,$t& a$iniilo, ver' lack.
3"=. pari is often *ritten( pali 0<+1.
3">. pari, vi and sam ver' often add merel' an intensive
force to t$e root.
3+A. After pre5?es, sam, upa, paraa, pari, and t$e *ord pura,
in front, Nkar sometimes assumes t$e form( k$ar.
")amples
purakk$aroti, to put in front, to follo* = pura 4 Nkar
parikk$aro, surroundin, = pari 4 Nkar
3+". A fe* advers are used ver' muc$ in t$e same *a' as
t$e 8eral Pre5?es, ut t$eir use is restricted to a fe* vers
onl'. #$e' are(
aavi = in full vie*, in si,$t, in vie*, manifestl', visil'.
It is pre5?ed to t$e vers( $avati 0N$uu1 and karoti
0Nkar1.
")amples: aavi$avati, to ecome manifest, visile, to
appear, e evident& aavikaroti, to make manifest, clear,
evident& to e?plain, s$o*.
antara = amon, *it$in, et*een, used *it$ Nd$aa, to
put, place.
")amples: antarad$aa'ati, to vanis$, disappear, $ide&
antarad$aapeti, to cause to vanis$ or disappear.
att$a.m 0adv. and noun1 = $ome& disappearance,
disappearin,, settin,& used *it$ vers of ,oin, = to set,
disappear 0of moon, sun and stars1. Mostl' used *it$
t$e vers ,acc$ati and eti 0Ni1, to ,o.
")amples: att$a:n,acc$ati, to disappear, to set&
att$ameti, to set 0of t$e sun1.
paatu 0efore a vo*el( patur1 = fort$ to vie*,
manifestl', evidentl', used *it$ $avati and karoti.
")amples: paatu$avati, to ecome manifest, evident,
clear, to appear, to arise& paatu$aavo, appearance,
manifestation& paatukaroti, to manifest, make clear,
evident& to produce.
pura, in front, for*ard, efore, used almost e?clusivel'
*it$ karoti, 03+A1.
")amples: purakk$aroti, to put or place in front, to
appoint or make a person 0oneGs1 leader, and t$ence( to
follo*, to revere.
ala.m, 5t, 5t for, used *it$ ver karoti in t$e sense of
decoratin,.
")ample: ala:nkaroti, to adorn, emellis$, decorate.
tiro, out of si,$t& across, e'ond, pre5?ed to roots kar
and d$aa, in t$e sense of coverin,, $idin,, etc.
")amples: tirod$aapeti, to veil, to cover, put out of
si,$t& tirod$aana.m, a coverin,, a veil& tirokaroti, to veil,
to screen& tirokara.ni, a screen, a veil.
3++. Pre5?es du and su are never used *it$ vers, 0see
6$apter on Advers1, and pre5? a 0an1, is ver' seldom so
used.
3+-. #o 5nis$ t$is c$apter on vers, *e *ill no* ,ive t$e
paradi,m of a ver full' conju,ated( Npac, to cook 0stem
paca1.
Present S#stem
Present I cook, etc.

Active voice Be2ective voice
Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
pacaa
mi
pacaam
a
pace pacaam$e
+
.
pacasi
pacat$
a
pacase pacav$e
-
.
pacati pacanti pacate
pacare,
pacante
Imperfect I cooked, etc.

Active voice Be2ective voice
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
apaca,
apaca.m
apacam$aa,
apacam$a
apaci.m
apacaam$ase,
apacam$ase
+
.
apaco apacatt$a apacase apacav$a.m
-
.
apaca apacu
apacatt
$a
apacatt$u.m
Imperative !et me cook, etc.

Active voice Be2ective voice
Sin,ular Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
pacaami
pacaam
a
pace
pacaamaa
se
+
.
pacaa$i,
paca
pacat$
a
pacassu pacav$o
-
.
pacatu
pacant
u
pacata.
m
pacanta.m
8ptative I s$ould, *ould, could, can, etc., cook.

Active voice Be2ective voice
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
pace''aami,
pace
pace''aa
ma
pace''a.
m
pace''aam
$e
+
.
pace''aasi,
pace
pace''aat
$a
pacet$o pace''av$o
-
.
pace''a, pace pace''u.m pacet$a pacera.m
Present Participle
Active voice Be2ective voice
Masculin
e
paca.m,
pacanto
pacamaano, pacaano
Feminine pacatii, pacantii
pacamaanaa,
pacaanaa
Neuter
paca.m,
pacanta.m
pacamaana.m,
pacaana.m
Aorist S#stem
0Stem pac1
Aorist I cooked, or, I $ave cooked, etc.

Active voice Be2ective voice
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
apaci.m apacim$aa apaca apacim$e
+
.
apaci apacitt$a apacise apaciv$a.m
-
.
apaci,
apacii
apacu.m,
apaci.msu
apacaa,
apacuu
apacu.m,
apaci.msu
%emar&' #$e au,ment a ma' e left out.
Perfect S#stem
0Stem( papac1
Perfect I cooked, etc.

Active voice Be2ective voice
Sin,ula
r
Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
papaca
papacim$
a
papaci
papacim$
e
+
.
papace
papacitt$
a
papacitt$
o
papaciv$
o
-
.
papaca papacu
papacitt$
a
papacire
Perfect Participle Iavin, cooked.
Active voice Be2ective voice
Masculin
e
pacitavaa, pacitavanto,
pacitaavii
pacitavaa, pacitavanto,
pacitaavii
Feminine
pacitavatii, pacitavantii,
pacitaavinii
pacitavatii, pacitavantii,
pacitaavinii
Neuter
pacitava.m,
pacitavanta.m, pacitaavi
pacitava.m,
pacitavanta.m, pacitaavi
%emar&' #$e Perfect Participle is t$e same for t$e Be2ective
as for t$e Active 8oice. 0For formation, see %)31.
3uture S#stem
0Stem( pacissa1
3uture I s$all cook, etc.

Active voice Be2ective voice
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
pacissaa
mi
pacissaa
ma
pacissa.
m
pacissaam
$e
+
.
pacissasi
pacissat$
a
pacissas
e
pacissav$e
-
.
pacissati pacissanti
pacissat
e
pacissante
Conitional If I could cook, etc.

Active voice Be2ective voice
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
apacissa.
m
apacissam$
aa
apacissa.
m
apacissaam$a
se
+
.
apacisse apacissat$a
apacissas
e
apacissav$e
-
.
apacissa
a
apacissa.ms
u
apacissat
$a
apacissi.msu
3uture Participle
Active voice Be2ective voice
Masculin
e
pacissa.m,
pacissanto
pacissamaano, pacissaano
Feminine pacissatii, pacissantii
pacissamaanaa,
pacissaanaa
Neuter
pacissa.m,
pacissanta.m
pacissamaana.m,
pacissaana.m
In<nitive: pacitu.m.
Gerun: pacitvaa, pacitvaana, pacituuna, paci'a.
3uture P'P': pacitaa, pacanii'a.
P'P'P': pacita.
3+%. A paradi,m of Ncur, to steal. .ase cora'a or core.
Present S#stem
Active voice

First form 0ase(
cora'a1
Second form 0ase(
core1
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
cora'aam
i
cora'aam
a
coremi corema
+
.
cora'asi cora'at$a coresi coret$a
-
.
cora'ati cora'anti coreti corenti
Imperfect 0from ase cora'a onl'1
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
acora'a,
acora'a.m
acora'am$aa,
acora'am$a
+
.
acora'o acora'att$a
-
.
acora'a acora'u
Imperative

First form 0ase(
cora'a1
Second form 0ase(
core1
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
cora'aam
i
cora'aam
a
coremi corema
+
.
cora'aa$i cora'at$a core$i coret$a
-
.
cora'atu cora'antu coretu corentu
8ptative

First form 0ase( cora'a1
Second form 0ase(
core1
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
cora'e''aami
cora'e''aa
ma
core''aa
mi
core''aa
ma
+
.
cora'e''aasi
cora'e''aat
$a
core''aas
i
core''aat
$a
-
.
cora'e''a,
cora'e
cora'e''u.m core''a core''u.m
Present Participle

First form 0ase(
cora'a1
Second form 0ase(
core1
Masculin
e
cora'a.m, cora'anto corento
Feminine cora'atii, cora'antii corentii
Neuter
cora'a.m,
cora'anta.m
corenta.m
Aorist S#stem
Aorist
First form 0ase( cora'a1 Second form 0ase( core1
Sin,ula
r
Plural
Sin,ula
r
Plural
"
.
cora'i.
m
cora'im$aa,
cora'im$a
coresi.
m
coresim$aa,
coresim$a
+
.
cora'i cora'itt$a coresi coresitt$a
-
.
cora'i
cora'u.m,
cora'i.msu
coresi
coresu.m,
coresi.msu
Perfect S#stem
0#$e Perfect #ense of t$ese vers is not ,enerall' met *it$
ut it *ould e( cucora, cucore, cucorim$a, etc1.
Perfect Participle Active
First form 0ase( cora'a1
Second form 0ase(
core1
Masculin
e
cora'itavaa, cora'itavanto,
cora'itaavii
coritavaa, coritavanto,
coritaavii
Feminine
cora'itavatii,
cora'itavantii,
cora'itaavinii
coritavatii, coritavantii,
coritaavinii
Neuter
cora'itava.m,
cora'itavanta.m,
cora'itaavi
coritava.m,
coritavanta.m,
coritaavi
3uture S#stem
3uture

First form 0ase( cora'a1
Second form 0ase(
core1
Sin,ular Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
cora'issaa
mi
cora'issaa
ma
coressaa
mi
coressaam
a
+
.
cora'issasi
cora'issat$
a
coressasi
coressat$
a
- cora'issati cora'issanti coressati coressanti
.
Conitional

First form 0ase(
cora'a1
Second form 0ase(
core1
"
.
acora'issa.m acora'issam$aa
+
.
acora'isse acora'issat$a
-
.
acora'issaa acora'issa.msu
3uture Participle Active
First form 0ase( cora'a1
Second form 0ase(
core1
Masculin
e
cora'issa.m,
cora'issanto
coressa.m,
coressanto
Feminine
cora'issatii,
cora'issantii
coressatii, coressantii
Neuter
cora'issa.m,
cora'issanta.m
coressa.m,
coressanta.m
Present Participle %e=ective
Masculin
e
cora'amaano, cora'aano
Feminine
cora'amaanaa,
cora'aanaa
Neuter
cora'amaana.m,
cora'aana.m
In<nitive: cora'itu.m, coretu.m.
Gerun: cora'itvaa, coretvaa.
P'P'3': cora'itao, coretao.
P'P'P': corito, coritaa, corita.m.
3+3. #$e Be2ective 8oice presents no diMcult'& it is
,enerall' formed on t$e ase in a'a(
%e=ective

Present Imperfect
Sin,ula
r
Plural Sin,ular Plural
"
.
cora'e
cora'aam
$e
acora'a.
m
acora'aam$a
se
+
.
cora'as
e
cora'av$e acora'ase
acora'av$a.
m
-
.
cora'at
e
cora'ante
acora'att
$a
acora'att$u.
m
3+). #$e Passive 8oice is formed in t$e usual *a' ' joinin,
'a to t$e ase ' means of vo*el i len,t$ened to ii, t$e 5nal
vo*el of t$e ase ein, dropped efore ii.
Passive Voice

Present
Sin,ular Plural
"
.
corii'aami, I am
roed.
corii'amaa, *e are
roed.
+
.
corii'asi, t$ou art
roed.
corii'at$a, 'ou are
roed.
-
.
corii'ati, $e is roed.
corii'anti, t$e' are
roed.
And so on for t$e ot$er tenses.
3+<. #$e 6ausal and t$e Denominative 8ers are conju,ated
e?actl' like coreti.
3+=. #$e follo*in, paradi,m *ill familiariEe t$e student *it$
t$e c$an,es *$ic$ take place in t$e principal forms of t$e
ver(
Boot
Speci
al
ase
Active
Be2ecti
ve
Passive 6ausal
6ausal
Passive
Npac, paca pacati pacate paccate, paaceti, paaci'ati,
to
cook
paccati
paacaapeti
,
paaca'ati,
paacaapa'
ati
paacaapi'
ati
Ndaa,
to
,ive
dada
a
dadaa
ti
dadate
di'ate,
di'ati
daapati,
daapaapet
i
daapi'ati
Nnii,
to
lead
ne,
na'a
neti,
na'ati
na'ate
ni'ate,
ni'ati,
ni''ati
naa'a'ati,
na'aapeti,
na'aapa'a
ti
na'aapi'a
ti
N$an,
to kill
$ana
$anati
, $anti
$anate
$a;n;n
ate,
$a;n;n
ati
$aneti,
$anaapeti,
$ana'ati,
$anaapa'a
ti
$anaapi'a
ti,
$ana'i'ati
Nk$aa
d, to
eat
k$aa
da
k$aad
ati
k$aada
te
k$aajjat
e,
k$aajjati
k$aadeti,
k$aada'ati
,
k$aadaape
ti,
k$aadaapa
'ati
k$aadapi'
ati,
k$aadaapi
'ati
Nlu,
to cut
lunaa
lunaat
i
lunate
luu'ate,
luu'ati
laaveti,
laava'ati
laavi'ati
N$u
u, to
e
$av
a
$ava
ti
$avat
e
$uu'at
e,
$uu'at
i
$aaveti,
$aava'ati
,
$aavaape
ti,
$aavaapa
'ati
$aavi'ati
Nla$
, to
la$a la$at
i
la$at
e
la$at
e,
la$eti,
la$a'ati,
la$aapi'
ati
,et la$ati
la$aapeti
,
la$aapa'
ati
Nsu,
to
$ear
su.na
a,
su.no
su.naa
ti,
su.not
i
su.nate
suu'ate,
suu'ati
saaveti,
su.napeti
saavi'ati
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter 9I
Ineclinables
3+>. 7nder t$e term HindeclinalesH are included all t$ose
*ords *$ic$ are incapale of an' ,rammatical declension,
t$at is( advers, pre5?es, propositions, conjunctions and
interjections.
Averbs
3-A. Advers ma' e divided into t$ree ,roups(
i. Derivative advers, formed ' means of suM?es.
ii. 6ase/form advers.
iii. Pure advers.
3-". !i$ /erivative averbs
a. #$ese are formed ' t$e addition to pronominal stems,
and to t$e stems of nouns and adjectives, of certain
suM?es.
. 7nder t$is $ead come t$e HAdverial derivatives from
numeralsH ,iven in 0+<>1, and t$e HPronominal
derivativesH ,iven in 0--)1. #$e student ou,$t no* to
read a,ain t$ese t*o classes of advers.
c. #$e suM? to 0-%)1, is also added to prepositions, nouns
and adjectives, to form a ver' lar,e class of advers&
/to is an alative suM? 0"+A1 and t$erefore t$e advers
formed *it$ it $ave an alative sense.
i. From prepositions( a$ito, near& parato, furt$er.
ii. From nouns(
dakk$i.nato, sout$erl', on t$e sout$&
paaciinato, easterl', on t$e east&
pi.t.t$ito, from t$e surface, from t$e ack, etc.&
paarato, from t$e furt$er s$ore&
orato, from t$e near s$ore.
iii. From adjectives( saato, ever'*$ere.
d. SuM?es tra and t$a 0-%)1, s$o*in, place, are also used
*it$ adjectives( a;n;nat$a or a;n;natra, else*$ere&
saat$a, ever'*$ere& u$a'att$a, in ot$ places.
e. SuM? daa 0-%31, is like*ise used *it$ adjectives and
numerals( ekadaa, once& sadaa = saadaa, at all
times, al*a's.
f. d$i is used like d$aa 0+=, +=-1( saad$i, ever'*$ere.
,. SuM?es so and saa 0"++, c, d1 like*ise form advers(
a$uso, in a ,reat de,ree& att$aso, accordin, to t$e
sense& alasaa, forcil'.
$. iti, 0-%<1 is e?tensivel' used as t$e particle of
9uotation& it is often areviated to ti 0See S'nta?1.
3-+. !ii$ Case(form averbs Some cases of pronouns, and
adjectives, are used adveriall'.
a. Accusative case. #$is case is ver' muc$ used
adveriall'( ki.m, *$'W& ta.m, t$ere& ida.m, $ere& 'a.m,
ecause, since& from pronouns.
From nouns( divasa.m, durin, t$e da'& ratti.m, at
ni,$t& ra$o, in secret& sacca.m, trul'& att$a.m, for t$e
purpose of.
From adjectives( cira.m, a lon, time& k$ippa.m,
9uickl'& manda.m, stupidl'.
Some advers of oscure ori,in ma' e classed as
t$e accusative case of nouns or adjectives lon,
osolete. Suc$ are( mit$o, mit$u, one anot$er,
mutuall'& ara.m, presentl'& sajju, immediatel'&
tu.n$ii, silentl'& ala.m, enou,$& saa'a.m, in t$e
evenin,& isa.m, a little, some*$at& jaatu, surel',
certainl'& a$i, outside.
. #$e Instrumentive. #$is case also is muc$ used
adveriall'.
From pronouns( tena, t$erefore& 'ena, ecause.
From nouns( divasena, in a da'& maasena, in a
mont$& divaa, ' da'& sa$aasaa, suddenl'.
From adjectives( cirena, lon,& dakk$i.nena, to t$e
sout$& uttarena, to t$e nort$& antarena, *it$in.
c. #$e Dative case. #$e adverial use of t$e dative is
restricted to att$aa'a, for t$e sake of, for t$e purpose
of& ciraa'a, for a lon, time& $itaa'a, for t$e ene5t of.
d. #$e Alative case, is used fre9uentl' in an adverial
sense& especiall' so is t$e case *it$ pronouns( kasmaa,
*$'W& 'asmaa, ecause& tasmaa, t$erefore& pacc$aa,
e$ind, after& aaraa, afar o@& $e.t.t$aa, elo*.
e. #$e Genitive case is seldom used adveriall'& from
pronouns *e $ave( kissa *$'W& from adjectives( cirassa,
lon,& from nouns( $etussa, causall'.
f. #$e !ocative is ver' often used adveriall'( aa$ire,
outside& duure, far& aviduure, not far& samiipe, santike,
near& ra$asi, privatel', in secret& $uvi, on eart$, on t$e
eart$.
!iii$ Pure averbs .' t$ese are understood t$e advers
*$ic$ are not otained ' derivation and *$ic$ are not case/
forms& suc$ are(
kira, kila, t$e' sa', *e are told t$at&
$i, certainl', indeed&
k$alu, indeed&
tu, no*, indeed&
at$a, at$o, and, also, t$en& etc.
na, e?pressin, simple ne,ation&
maa, e?pressin, pro$iition& maa is often used *it$ t$e
Aorist.
nanu, used in askin, 9uestions to *$ic$ an aMrmative
ans*er is e?pected.
nu, used in askin, simple 9uestions&
no, not&
nuuna, surel', per$aps&
naanaa, variousl'.
t$e particle kva, *$ereW
#$e aove particles are called nipaataa ' t$e ,rammarians,
t$e' numer aout t*o $undred.
Pre<)es
8eral pre5?es $ave alread' een treated of 03"%1.
Inseparale pre5?es
a. a, and efore a vo*el an, not, *it$out, free from.
e.,. a$a'a, free from fear& aaala, not foolis$&
apassanto, not seein,& anaaloketva, *it$out lookin,.
. du and efore a vo*el dur, ad, ill, $ard diMcult.
e.,. dua.n.no 0--. Bemark1, u,l', ill/favoured&
duiniito, ill conducted& duddamo, diMcult to tame&
du,,o, diMcult to pass& dujjano, a ad man& dukkaro,
diMcult to perform& dujjiiva.m, a $ard life.
c. su $as t$e contrar' meanin, of du( ,ood, *ell, eas'. It
implies e?cess, facilit', e?cellence.
e.,. su$aasito, *ell/spoken& sua$u, ver' muc$&
sudanto, *ell/tamed& sukaro, eas' to perform& sula$o,
eas' to e otained.
%emar&s' After du, t$e initial consonant is ,enerall'
reduplicated& reduplication seldom takes place after su.
d. sa, *$ic$ is used instead of sam, 03")1, e?presses t$e
ideas of Hpossession, similarit'& *it$, and& like&
includin,.H
e.,. sa$aari'a, *it$ 0$is1 *ife& salajja, $avin, s$ame,
as$amed& sa$o,a, *ealt$'& savi$aarii, livin, *it$&
sadevaka, includin, t$e *orlds of ,ods.
%emar&s' #$e particle sa is t$e opposite of particle a, an.
Prepositions
3--. It $as een seen t$at veral pre5?es are proper
prepositions and are used *it$ nouns as *ell as vers.
3-%. Man' advers are used *it$ a prepositional force alon,
*it$ nouns. #$ose of class 0ii1 case/form advers, are seldom
used as prepositions, e?cept per$aps t$ose in /to.
3-3. Prepositions, or *ords used prepositionall' ma' ,overn
an' case, e?cept t$e Nominative and 8ocative.
3-). Most of t$e veral pre5?es re9uire t$e noun to e in
one case or ot$er.
3-<. #$e cases mostl' used *it$ prepositions or
prepositional advers are( t$e Genitive, t$e Instrumentive
and t$e Accusative. .ut onl' a fe* are used separatel' from
t$e noun t$e' ,overn. For e?amples, see HS'nta? of
SustantivesH.
Conjunctions
3-=. Indeclinales distinctl' conjunctive are ver' fe*. #$e
principal are(
a. 6opulative( ca, and, also, ut, even. It is never used as
t$e 5rst *ord in a sentence& at$a, and, t$en, no*& at$o,
and also t$en.
. Disjunctive( vaa, 0never at t$e start of a sentence1 uda,
uda vaa, or vaa ... vaa, eit$er or& 'adi vaa, *$et$er&
'adi vaa ... 'adi vaa, *$et$er or& at$a vaa, or else,
rat$er& na vaa, or not& tat$aa pi, nevert$eless.
c. 6onditional( 'adi, sace, if& ce 0never at t$e e,innin, of
a sentence1 if& 'adi eva.m, 'ajjGeva.m, if so.
d. 6ausal( $i, for, ecause& certainl'.
Interjections
A$a$a, alasJ o$J a$oJ a$J&
a$o vata, o$J a$J&
are, sirra$J I sa'J $ereJ&
d$i, d$ii, s$ameJ
5eJ *oeJ&
$o, friendJ sirJ I sa'J&
$a.ne, I sa'J to e sureJ&
ma;n;ne, *$'J met$inksJ&
$e, o$J&
saad$u, *ellJ ver' *ellJ ver' ,oodJ
General %emar&s' #$e use of some particles *ill e ,iven
in t$e c$apter on S'nta?
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter 9II
Compouns
3->. Declinale stems are fre9uentl' joined to one anot$er
to form compounds. In t$e older lan,ua,e, compounds are
simple and rarel' consist of more t$an + or - stems, ut t$e
later t$e lan,ua,e 0i.e. in t$e commentaries and su/
commentaries1 t$e more involved t$e' ecome.
3%A. 6ompounds ma' also $ave an indeclinale as t$e 5rst
memer& t$ere are even a fe* compounds made up entirel'
of indeclinales.
%emar&s' #$e case endin,s of t$e 5rst memer or memers
of a compound are ,enerall' dropped& onl' in a fe*
instances are t$e' preserved.
3%". #$ere are si? kinds of compound *ords(
i. Dvanda, 6opulative or A,,re,ative 6ompounds
ii. #appurisa, Dependent Determinate 6ompounds
iii. [ammad$aara'a, Descriptive Determinate 6ompounds
iv. Di,u, Numeral Determinate 6ompounds
v. A'a'i$aava, Adverial 6ompounds
vi. .a$uii$i, Belative or Attriutive 6ompounds
%emar&s' Native ,rammarians distriute t$e aove into
four classes ' makin, Nos. iii and iv sudivisions of No. ii,
#appurisa& ut t$is classi5cation, t$rou,$ lack of suMcient
distinctness, confuses t$e student unnecessaril'. Fe s$all
t$erefore follo* t$e aove division 03%"1.
/vana !Copulative or Aggregative Compouns$
3%+. #$e memers of t$ese compounds are co/ordinate
s'ntaticall', in t$eir uncompounded state& eac$ memer
*ould e connected *it$ t$e ot$er ' means of t$e
conjunction ca, and.
3%-. Dvanda compounds are of t*o kinds(
i. #$e compound is a plural and takes t$e ,ender and
declension of its last memer.
ii. #$e compound takes t$e form of a neuter sin,ular and,
*$atever t$e numer of its memers, ecomes a
collective. #$is is t$e case ,enerall' *it$ t$e names of(
irds, parts of t$e od', persons of di@erent se?es,
countries, trees, $ers, t$e cardinal points, domestic
animals, t$in,s t$at form an antit$esis, etc.
%emar&s' #$e follo*in, rules are ,iven as to t$e order of
t$e memers of dvanda compounds(
a. *ords in i and u are placed 5rst&
. s$orter *ords are placed efore lon,er ones&
c. ii and uu 0lon,1, are ,enerall' s$ortened in t$e middle
of t$e compound&
d. sometimes a feminine noun, in t$e middle of t$e
compound, takes t$e masculine form 0candimasuri'aa1
sometimes, or remains unc$an,ed 0jaraamara.na.m1.
")amples of !i$
sama.naa ca raa$ma.naa ca = sama.naraa$manaa,
samanas and ra$mins
devaa ca manussaa ca = devamanussaa, ,ods and
men
devaana;n ca manussaana;n ca =
devamanussaana.m, of ,ods and men
candimaa ca suri'o ca = candimasuri'aa, t$e sun and
t$e moon
a,,i ca d$uumo ca = a,,id$uumaa, 5re and smoke
d$ammo ca att$o ca = d$ammatt$aa, t$e spirit and t$e
*ord
saariputte ca mo,,allaane ca = sariputtamo,,allaane,
in Sariputta and in Mo,,allana
")amples of !ii$
Note t$at t$e compounds *$ic$ come under no.0ii1
sometimes assume t$e form of t$e plural like t$ose of no.0i1.
muk$anaasika.m = muk$a;n ca naasikaa ca, t$e
mout$ and t$e nose
c$avima.msalo$ita.m = c$avi ca ma.msa;n ca lo$ita;n
ca, t$e skin, 2es$ and lood
jaraamara.na.m = jaraa ca marana;n ca, old a,e and
deat$
$att$apaada.m or $att$apaadaa = $att$aa ca paadaa
ca, t$e $ands and feet
$att$iassa.m = $att$ino ca assaa ca, elep$ants and
$orses
kusalaakusala.m or kusalaakusalaa = kusala.m
akusala;n ca, ,ood and evil
vajjimalla.m or vajjimallaa = vajjii ca mallaa ca, t$e
8ajjians and t$e Mallians
3%%. #$e compounds *$ic$ take t$e plural form are called(
itaritara, ecause t$e memers of t$e compound are
considered separatel'& t$ose t$at take t$e neuter sin,ular
form( samaa$aara, ecause t$e several memers are
considered collectivel', t$ose t$at take eit$er t$e plural or
t$e neuter, are called( vikappasamaa$aara.
Tappurisa !/epenent /eterminate Compouns$
3%3. In t$ese compounds t$e 5rst memer is a sustantive
in an' case ut t$e Nominative and t$e 8ocative, 9ualif'in,,
e?plainin, or determinin, t$e last memer.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e case/endin, of t$e 5rst memer is elided.
01 In a fe* cases, t$e case/endin, is not elided& t$ese
compounds are called( alutta tappurisa.
0c1 #$e aa of suc$ *ords as( raajaa, maataa, pitaa, $aata,
etc, is s$ortened in t$e 5rst memer.
0d1 Generall', a #appurisa follo*s t$e ,ender of t$e last
memer.
!i$ Tappurisa with Accusative case !/uti#a Tappurisa$
")amples
ara;n;na,ato = ara;n;na.m ,ato, ,one to t$e forest
suk$appatto = suk$a.m patto, attained $appiness
saccavaadi = sacca.m vaadi, speakin, t$e trut$
kum$akaaro = kum$a.m kaaro, a pot/maker, a potter
patta,aa$o = patta.m ,aa$o, receivin, a o*l
att$akaamo = att$a.m kaamo, *is$in, t$e *elfare of
!ii$ Tappurisa with Instrumentive case !Tati#a
Tappurisa$
")amples
udd$a$aasito = udd$ena $aasito, spoken ' t$e
.udd$a
vi;n;nu,ara$ito = vi;n;nuu$i ,ara$ito, censured '
t$e *ise
sukaa$a.ta.m = suke$i aa$a.ta.m, rou,$t ' parrots
jaccand$o = jaati'aa and$o, lind ' 0from1 irt$
ura,o = urena ,o, ,oin, on t$e reast, a snake
paadapo = paadena po, drinkin, *it$ t$e foot 0root1, a
tree
%emar&s' In some #appurisa compounds, a *ord, necessar'
to e?press properl' t$e full meanin,, is alto,et$er elided.
")amples
,u.lodano = ,u.lena sa.msa.t.t$o odano, rice mi?ed
*it$ molasses
assarat$o = assena 'utto rat$o, a carria,e 'oked *it$
$orses, a $orse carria,e
asikala$o = asinaa kala$o, a comat *it$ s*ords
!iii$ Tappurisa with /ative case !Catutthii Tappurisa$
%emar&s' In t$ese compounds, t$e last memer desi,nates
t$e oject destined for or attriuted to t$at *$ic$ is
e?pressed ' t$e 5rst memer.
")amples
kat$inadussa.m = kat$inassa dussa.m, clot$ for t$e
kat$ina roe, 0t$is is a roe se*n on a 5?ed da', eac$
'ear as a meritorious act1
sa:n,$a$atta.m = sa:n,$assa $atta.m, rice
0prepared1 for t$e cler,'
udd$ade''a.m = udd$assa de''a.m, *ort$' to e
o@ered to t$e .udd$a
raajaara$a.m = ra;n;no ara$a.m, *ort$' of 0lit., to1
t$e kin,
01 6ompounds formed ' addin, kaamo Hdesirous ofH to an
in5nitive are considered to e #appurisas in t$e Dative
relation 0niiruttadiipanii, saddaniiti1.
")amples
kat$etukaamo = kat$etu.m kaamo, desirous to speak
sotukaamo = sotu.m kaamo, desirous to $ear
,antukaamo = ,antu.m kaamo, desirous to ,o
!iv$ Tappurisa with Ablative case !Pa5ncamii
Tappurisa$
%emar&s' #$ese e?press( fear of, separation or ,oin, a*a'
from, fredom from, etc.
")amples
na,arani,,ato = na,aram$aa ni,,ato, ,one out from
to*n
rukk$apatito = rukk$asmaa patito, fallen from t$e tree
saasanacuto = saasanam$aa cuto, fallen a*a' from
reli,ion
cora$iito = coraa$iito, afraid of t$e t$ief
paapa$iiruko = paapato $iiruko, fearin, sin
paapaji,ucc$ii = paapato ji,ucc$ii, loat$in, evil
and$anamokk$o = and$anasmaa mokk$o, freedom
from onds or fetters
loka,,o = lokato a,,o, ,reater t$an t$e *orld
maatujo = maatito jo, orn from a mot$er
!v$ Tappurisa with Genitive case !Cha't'tha Tappurisa$
%emar&s' 0a1 #appurisas in t$e Genitive relation are ' far
t$e most common.
01 Final ii and uu of t$e 5rst memer are as a rule s$ortened
to i and u respectivel'.
0c1 #$e *ord( ratti, ni,$t, takes t$e form ratta.m at t$e end
of a #appurisa.
")amples
raajaputto = ra;n;no putto, t$e kin,Gs son, a prince
d$a;n;naraasi = d$a;n;naana.m raasi, a $eap of
,rains
naditiira.m = nadi'aa tira.m, t$e river/ank 0from nadii1
$ikk$unisa:n,$o = $ikkuniina.m sa:n,$o, t$e
asseml' of t$e nuns 0from $ikkunii1
naruttamo = naraana.m uttamo, t$e ,reatest of men
!vi$ Tappurisa with Locative case !Sattaani Tappurisa$
")amples
ara;n;navaaso = ara;n;ne vaaso, livin, in t$e forest
daanajj$aasa'o = daane ajj$aasa'o, inclined to alms/
,ivin,
d$ammarato = d$amme rato, deli,$tin, in t$e !a*
vanacaro = vane caaro, *alkin, in t$e *oods
t$ala.t.t$o = t$ale .t$o, standin, on 5rm ,round
paata.t.t$o = paatasmi.m .t$o, standin, on a
mountain
Anomalous Tappurisa
0a1 Sometimes t$e 5rst memer of a #appurisa is placed last.
")ample
raaja$a.mso = $a.msaana.m raajaa, t$e s*an/kin,, ut
also( $a.msaraajaa
Alutta Tappurisa
01 In t$ese t$e case/endin,s are not dropped(
")amples
pa$a:nkaro = pa$a.m karo, makin, li,$t, t$e sun
vessantaro = vessa.m taro, crossin, over to t$e
merc$ants 0a kin,Gs name1
parassapada.m = parassa pada.m, *ord for anot$er,
Active 8oice
attanopada.m = attano pada.m, *ord for oneGs self,
Be2ective 8oice
kutojo = kuto jo, sprun, *$enceW
antevaasiko = ante vaasiko, a pupil *it$in, a resident
pupil
urasilomo = urasi 0loc.1 lomo, $avin, $air on t$e reast,
$air'/reasted
#$e student *ill remark t$at t$e case of t$e 5rst memer
ma' e an' case ut t$e Nominative and 8ocative.
Cammahaara#a !/escriptive /eterminate
Compouns$
3%). #$e kammad$aara'a compound 0*$ic$ is also called(
missakatappurisa1 is divided into nine classes(
%emar&s'
0a1 In [ammad$aara'a compounds, t$e adjective( ma$anta
assumes t$e form( ma$aa, and, if t$e consonant *$ic$
follo*s is reduplicated, t$e form( ma$a.
01#$e *ord( santa, ,ood, ein,, takes t$e form& sa 0Sansk.
sat1.
0c1 #$e *ord( puma, a male, rejects its 5nal a.
0d1 F$en t$e t*o memers of a [ammad$aara'a are
feminine, t$e 5rst one assumes t$e form of t$e masculine.
0e1 #$e pre5? na, not, is replaced ' a efore a consonant
and ' an efore a vo*el.
0f1 Pre5? ku, meanin, ad, little, ma' ecome ka efore a
consonant, and kad efore a vo*el.
0,1 In t$eir uncompounded state, t$e t*o memers of a
[ammad$aara'a are in t$e same case.
0"1 Visesanapubbapaa Cammahaara#a, in *$ic$ t$e
determinin, or 9ualif'in, *ord is placed 5rst.
")amples
ma$aapuriso = ma$anto puriso, a ,reat man
ma$aanadii = ma$antii nadii, a lar,e river
ma$a$a'a.m = ma$anta.m $a'a.m, ,reat fear
aparapuriso = aparo puriso, t$e ot$er man
ka.n$asappo = ka.n$o sappo, a lack snake
niiluppala.m = niila.m uppala.m, a lue lotus
0+1 Visesanaparapaa, or Visesanuttarapaa
Cammahaara#a& in t$is, t$e second memer determines
t$e 5rst.
narase.t.t$o = naro se.t.t$o, t$e oldest man
purisuttamo = puriso uttamo, t$e ,reatest man
udd$a,$osaacari'o = udd$a,$oso aacari'o, t$e
teac$er .udd$a,$osa
saariputtat$ero = saariputto t$ero, t$e Clder Saariputta
0-1 Visesanobha#apaa Cammahaara#a, t$e t*o
memers of *$ic$ are determinate.
%emar&s' A *ord, as for instance, so, $e, is ,enerall'
understood et*een t$e t*o memers of t$ese compounds.
")amples
siitu.n$a.m = siita.m 0ta;n ca1 u.n$a.m, $eat and cold
k$a;njak$ujjo = k$a;njo 0ca so1 k$ujjo, 0$e is1 lame
0and1 $ump/acked
and$aad$iro = and$o 0ca so1 ad$iro, 0$e is1 lind
0and1 deaf
kataakata.m = kata.m 0ca ta.m1 akata.m, 0*$at is1
done 0and1 not done.
0%1 Sambhaavanaapubbapaa Cammahaara#a& in
*$ic$ t$e 5rst memer indicates t$e ori,in of t$e second
term, or t$e relation in *$ic$ t$e second term stands to t$e
5rst. In t$ese compounds suc$ *ords as( iti namel', t$us
called& eva.m t$us, called& sa:nk$aato, called, named&
$utvaa, ein, are ,enerall' understood, in order to rin, out
t$e full meanin, of t$e compound.
")amples
$etupacca'o = $etu 0$utvaa1 pacca'o, t$e term
0middle term1 ein,, or considered as, t$e cause, t$e
term *$ic$ is t$e cause or condition
aniccasa;n;naa = anicca iti sa;n;naa, t$e idea,
namel', Impermanence
$inasamato = $ino $utvaa samato, e9ual in ein, lo*,
un*ort$'
d$ammaudd$i = d$ammo iti udd$i, kno*led,e
0arisin, from1 t$e !a*
attadi.t.t$i = attaa iti di.t.t$i, t$e 0false1 doctrine of Self
031 Dpamaa( or Dpamaanuttarapaa(&ammahaara#a,
in t$ese compounds, analo,' is e?pressed et*een t$e t*o
terms. #$e *ord( vi'a, like, is understood et*een t$e t*o
memers.
")amples
udd$aadicco = aadicco vi'a udd$o, t$e sun/like/
.udd$a
munisii$o = sii$o vi'a muni, lion/like/sa,e, lion/sa,e
munipu:n,avo, sa,e/ull
udd$anaa,o, .udd$a/elep$ant
sadd$ammara.msi = ra.msi vi'a sadd$ammo, !i,$t/
like/Good !a*, t$e !i,$t of t$e Good !a*
%emar&s' #$e *ords( aadicca, sun& sii$a, lion& pu:n,ava,
usa$a, ull& na,a, elep$ant& are fre9uentl' used as in t$e
aove e?amples, to denote( superiorit', ,reatness,
e?cellence, eminence, so t$at udd$aadicco ma' e
translated( t$e eminent .udd$a& munisii$o, t$e ,reat sa,e&
munipu:n,avo, t$e eminent sa,e, etc.
0)1 Avahaaranapubbapaa(&ammahaara#a, in *$ic$
t$e 5rst memer speci5es a ,eneral term. Native
,rammarians, in resolvin, t$ese compounds, insert t$e *ord
eva, just, even 0ut *$ic$ in t$ese e?amples cannot e
translated into Cn,lis$1, et*een t$e t*o terms of t$e
compounds. In Cn,lis$, t$ese compounds must e translated
as if t$e' *ere in t$e Genitive relation.
")amples
,u.nad$ana.m = ,uno eva d$ana.m, *ealt$ of virtues
siilad$ana.m = siila.m eva d$ana.m, treasure of
moralit' or of piet'
pa;n;naasatt$a.m = pa;n;na eva satt$a.m, t$e
s*ord of *isdom
pa;n;naapajjoto = pa;n;naa eva pajjoto, t$e lamp of
*isdom
avijjaamalaa = avijjaa eva mala.m, t$e stain of
i,norance
0<1 Cunipaatapubbapaa &ammahaara#a, t$e 5rst
memer of *$ic$ is( ku, 0see f1.
")amples
kuputto = ku4putto, a ad son
kudaasaa = ku4daasaa, ad slaves
kadanna.m = kad4anna.m, ad food
kaapuriso = kaa4puriso, a ad man
kadari'o = kad4ari'o, adl' nole, not nole, i,nole,
miserl', stin,'
kalava.na.m = ka4lava.na.m, a little salt
0=1 +anipaatapubbapaa(&ammahaara#a, 0see e1.
")amples
anari'o = na4ari'o, i,nole
aniiti = na4iti, free from calamit', secure
anuumi = na4uumi, not $avin, *aves, *aveless
anatikkamma = na4atikkamma 0,erd.1, not
trans,ressin, or trespassin,
anatt$akaamo = na4att$akaamo, not *is$in, for t$e
*elfare of
0>1 Paaipubbapaa(&ammahaara#a, in *$ic$ t$e 5rst
memer is paa, pa or an' ot$er pre5?.
")amples
paavacana.m = pa4vacana.m, t$e e?cellent *ord,
.udd$aGs *ord
0Native ,rammarians take paa to e t$e areviation of
t$e *ord( paka.t.t$o = e?cellent.1
pamuk$o = pa4muk$o 0$avin, t$e face to*ards1,
facin,, in front of, c$ief
vikappo = vi4kappo 0t$ou,$t, inclination1, option
atidevo = ati4devaa, Supreme deva or ,od 0note t$at
devaa ecomes( devo1
a$id$ammo = a$i4d$ammo 0!a*, doctrine1,
transcendin, Doctrine
udd$ammo = ud4d$ammo, *ron, or false doctrines
uina'o = ud4vina'o 0Discipline for t$e monks1,
*ron, Discipline
su,and$o = su4,and$o, ,ood smell, fra,rance
dukkata.m = du4kata.m, a ad, sinful act
+ouns in Apposition
3%<. Nouns in Apposition are considered to e
kammad$aara'a compounds(
")amples
vina'api.taka.m, t$e 8ina'a .asket 0a part of t$e
.udd$ist Scriptures1
a:n,ajanapada.m, t$e Province of .en,al
ma,ad$ara.t.t$a.m, t$e [in,dom of Ma,ad$aa
citto,a$apati, 6itta, t$e $ouse$older
sakkodevaraajaa, Sakka, t$e !ord of ,ods
%emar&' Sometimes t$e last memer of a kammad$aara'a,
ein, feminine, assumes t$e masculine form.
")ample
dii,$aja:n,$o = dii,$a4ja:n,$aa 0feminine1, lon,/
le,,ed
/igu !+umeral Compouns$
3%=. #$ere are t*o kinds of di,u(
i. Samaa$aara Di,u, considered as collective takes t$e
form of t$e neuter sin, in .m.
ii. Asamaa$aara Di,u, *$en t$e di,u does not e?press a
*$ole, ut t$e ojects indicated ' t$e last memer are
considered individuall', t$e compound as a rule takin,
t$e form of t$e plural.
%emar&s'
0a1 Some *ords, *$en last memer of a di,u, c$an,e t$eir
5nal vo*el to a, if it e ot$er t$an a.
01 #$e stems onl' of t$e numerals are used as 5rst
memers.
0i1 Samaahaara(/igu
")amples
tiloka.m, t$e t$ree *orlds 0collectivel'1
tiratana.m, t$e t$ree Re*els 0collectivel'1
catusacca.m, t$e four #rut$s 0collectivel'1
sattaa$a.m = satta4a$a.m 0da'1, seven da's, a *eek
pa;ncasikk$aapada.m, t$e 5ve Precepts 0collectivel'1
dviratta.m = dvi4ratti, t*o ni,$ts 0remark a1
pa;nca,ava.m = pa;nca4,avo, 0remark a1
tiva:n,ula.m = ti4v 0inserted, +=1 a:n,uli, t$ree 5n,ers
navasata.m, nine $undred
catusa$assa.m, four t$ousand
0ii1 Asamaahaara(/igu
")amples
ti$avaa, t$e t$ree states of e?istence
catudisaa, t$e four 9uarters
pa;ncindri'aani = pa;nca4indri'aani, t$e 5ve senses
saka.tasataani = saka.ta4sataani, one $undred carts
catusataani, four $undreds
dvisatasa$assaani, t*o $undred t$ousand, 0dvi sata
sa$assaani1
Ab#a#ibhaava !Averbial Compouns$
3%>. 0i1
%emar&s'
0a1 #$ese compounds $ave for 5rst memer an indeclinale
03+>1.
01 #$e A'a'i$aava ,enerall' assumes t$e form of t$e
accusative sin,ular in .m, and is indeclinale.
0c1 If t$e 5nal vo*el of t$e last memer is aa, lon, aa is
replaced ' a.m& ot$er lon, vo*els 0e?cept aa1, are
s$ortened.
")amples
upa,a:n,a.m = upa4,a:n,aa'a.m 0loc.1, near t$e
Gan,es
upana,ara.m = upa4na,ara.m 0loc.1, near t$e to*n
upa,u = upa4,unna.m 0plural1, close to t$e co*s
anurat$a.m = anu4rat$e, e$ind t$e c$ariot
'aavajiiva.m = 'aava4jiivaa 0al.1, as lon, as life lasts
antopaasaada.m = anto4paasaadassa, *it$in t$e
palace
anuvassa.m = anu4vassa.m, 'ear after 'ear, ever'
'ear
anu,$ara.m = $ouse after $ouse, in ever' $ouse
'at$aaala.m = 'at$aa4alena, accordin, to 0oneGs1
po*er
pativaata.m = pati4vaata.m 0acc.1, a,ainst t$e *ind
tiropaata.m = paatassa tiro, across t$e mountain
uparipaata.m = paatassa4upari, upon t$e
mountain
pa.tisota.m = sotassa4pa.tiloma.m, a,ainst t$e stream
ad$o,a:n,a.m = ,a:n,aa'a4ad$o, elo* t$e Gan,es
upavad$u = upa4vad$uu, near 0$is1 *ife
ad$ikumaari = ad$i4kumaari, t$e 'oun, ,irl
0ii1 Sometimes, $o*ever, t$e case/endin, is retained& t$e
cases t$us retained ein, mostl' t$e Alative and t$e
!ocative. .ut in most cases, t$e Neuter form is also met *it$
for t$e same compound. #$e Alative termination ma' e
retained *$en t$e indeclinale is( pari, apa, aa, a$i, 'aava,
etc.
")amples
'aavajivaa or 'aavajiva.m, as lon, as life lasts
apapaataa or apapaata.m, a*a' from t$e
mountain
a$i,aamaa or a$i,aama.m, outside t$e villa,e
aa$ava,,aa or aa$ava,,a.m, to t$e $i,$est state of
e?istence
puraaru.naa or puraaru.na.m 0= aru.nam$aa pure1,
efore da'li,$t
pacc$aa$attaa or pacc$aa$atta.m, after meal
tiropaataa or tiropaate 0loc.1 or tiropaata.m,
e'ond, on t$e ot$er side of, t$e mountain
anto aviicim$i 0loc.1, in $ell
anutiire, alon, t$e ank
antaravit$i'a.m 0loc.1, in t$e street
a$isaa.ni'a.m 0loc.1, outside t$e curtain
4ahubbiihi !%elative or Attributive Compouns$
33A. %emar&s'
a. A .a$ui$i compound, *$en resolved into its
component parts, re9uires t$e addition of suc$ relative
pronouns as( H$e, *$o, t$at, *$ic$,H etc., to e?press its
full meanin,& a a$ui$i is t$erefore used relativel',
t$at is, as an adjective, and conse9uentl', t$e 5nal
memer assumes t$e forms of t$e t$ree ,enders,
accordin, to t$e ,ender of t$e noun *$ic$ it 9uali5es. A
a$ui$i is e9ual to a relative clause.
. All t$e compounds e?plained aove 0dvanda, tappurisa,
kammad$aara'a, dii,u, a'a'i$aava1, ecome, if used
as adjectives, a$ui$i compounds.
c. .aui$i ein, used as adjectives 9ualif'in, nouns,
must a,ree in ,ender, numer and case *it$ t$e nouns
*$ic$ t$e' 9ualif'.
d. It follo*s from 0c1 t$at a a$ui$i ma' e in an' case
relation ut t$e 8ocative.
#$e follo*in, are t$e di@erent kinds of a$ui$i.
". Pathamaa(bahubbihi, relative in t$e Nominative case.
")amples
c$inna$att$o puriso = $and/cut man, a man *$ose
$ands $ave een cut o@
Iere, c$inna$att$o is t$e a$ui$i 9ualif'in, t$e
noun puriso
lo$itamakk$ita.m muk$a.m = lo$itena makk$ita.m
muk$a.m, t$e mout$ esmeared *it$ lood& lo$ita
makk$ita.m is t$e a$ui$i
susajjita.m pura.m, a *ell/decorated cit'& susajjita.m
is t$e a$ui$i
+. /uti#aa(bahubbihi, relative in t$e Accusative case&
t$at is, t$e a$ui$i ,ives to t$e *ord *$ic$ it
determines or 9uali5es t$e sense of t$e Accusative
relation.
")amples
aa,atasama.no sa:n,$aaraamo = ima.m
sa:n,$aaraama.m sama.no aa,ato, t$is monaster'
t$e priest came to, t$e monaster' into *$ic$ t$e
priest came& aa,atasama.no is t$e a$ui$i.
aaruu.l$anaro rukk$o = so naro ima.m rukk$a.m
aaruu.l$o, t$e tree into *$ic$ t$e man climed&
aaruu.l$anaro is t$e a$ui$i.
-. Tati#a(bahubbiihi, relative in t$e Instrumentive case&
in *$ic$ t$e a$ui$i ,ives to t$e *ord it determines
t$e sense of t$e Instrumentive relation.
")amples
jitindri'o samano = 'ena jitaani indri'aani so
sama.no, t$e samana ' *$om t$e senses $ave
een con9uered& jitindri'o is t$e a$ui$i.
vijitamaaro $a,avaa = so $a,avaa 'ena maaro
vijito, t$e .lessed Dne ' *$om Mara *as
van9uis$ed, t$e .lessed Dne *$o van9uis$ed Mara&
vijitamaaro is t$e a$ui$i.
%. Catutthii bahubbihi, relative in t$e Dative case& in
*$ic$ t$e a$ui$i ,ives to t$e *ord it determines t$e
sense of t$e Dative relation.
")amples
dinnasu:nko puriso = 'assa su:nko dinno so, $e to
*$om ta? is ,iven& dinnasu:nko is t$e a$ui$i.
upaniita$ojano sama.no = so sama.no 'assa
$ojana.m upaniita.m, t$e priest to *$om food is
,iven& upaniita$ojano is t$e a$ui$i.
3. Pa5ncamii(bahubbihi, relative in t$e Alative case& in
*$ic$ t$e compound ,ives to t$e *ord determined t$e
sense of t$e Alative relation.
")amples
ni,,atajano ,aamo = asmaa ,aamasmaa janaa
ni,,ataa, t$at villa,e from *$ic$ t$e people $ave
departed, an aandoned villa,e& ni,,atajano is t$e
a$ui$i.
apa,atakaa.laka.m vatt$a.m = ida.m vatt$a.m
'asmaa kaa.lakaa apa,ataa, t$e clot$ from *$ic$
0t$e1 lack spots $ave departed = a clot$ free from
lack spots& apa,atakaa.laka.m is t$e a$ui$i.
). Cha't'thii(bahubbiihi, relative in t$e Genitive case& in
*$ic$ t$e compound ,ives to t$e *ord it determines
t$e sense of t$e Genitive relation.
")amples
c$inna$att$o puriso = so puriso 'assa $att$o c$inno,
t$e man *$ose $ands are cut o@& c$inna$att$o is t$e
a$ui$i.
visudd$asiilo jano = so jano 'assa siila.m
visudd$a.m, t$at person *$ose conduct is pure, a
moral person& visudd$asiilo is t$e a$ui$i.
<. Sattama(bahubbiihi, relative in t$e !ocative 6ase&
t$at is, in *$ic$ t$e a$ui$i ,ives to t$e determined
*ord t$e sense of t$e !ocative case.
")amples
sampannasasso janapado = 'asmi.m janapade
sassaani sampannaani, a district in *$ic$ t$e crops
are aundant, a fertile district& sampannasasso is t$e
a$uii.
a$ujano ,aamo = 'asmi.m ,aame auu janaa
$onti, a villa,e in *$ic$ are man' persons, a
populous villa,e& a$ujano is t$e a$ui$i.
e. #$e *ord determined ' t$e .a$ui$i compound is
often understood or implied and not e?pressed.
")amples
dinnasu:nko 0%1 = $e *$o receives ta?es, a ta?
collector
jitindri'o 0-1 = $e *$o $as sudued $is senses
lo$itamakk$ito 0"1 = esmeared *it$ lood
satta$apariniuto = dead since a *eek
somanasso = jo'ful 0lit., $e to *$om jo' $as arisen1
c$inna$att$o 0)1 = $e *$ose $ands $ave een cut
o@
maasajato = a mont$ old 0lit., $e *$o is orn since
one mont$1
vijitamaaro 0-1 = $e *$o $as con9uered Mara, t$e
.udd$a
f. In some a$ui$i, t$e determinin, *ord ma' e
placed eit$er 5rst or last *it$out c$an,in, t$e
meanin,(
")amples
$att$ac$inno or c$inna$att$o
jaatamaaso or maasajaato
,. Feminine nouns endin, in ii, uu as *ell as stems endin,
in tu 0=taa, see, ")-, *ords declined like satt$aa1,
,enerall' take t$e suM? ka, *$en t$e' are t$e last
memer of a a$ui$i& possession is t$en implied(
")amples
a$ukattuko deso = a place in *$ic$ t$ere are man'
artisans
a$ukumaarika.m kula.m = a famil' in *$ic$ t$ere
are man' ,irls
a$unadiko janapado = a district *it$ man' rivers
Note t$at lon, ii is s$ortened efore ka& t$e same remark
applies to lon, uu.
$. F$en a feminine noun is t$e last memer of a
aui$i, it takes t$e masculine form if determinin, a
masculine noun, and t$e 5rst memer, if also feminine,
drops t$e si,n of t$e feminine(
")ample
dii,$aa ja:n,$aa, a lon, le,&
dii,$aja:n,$aa itt$ii, a lon,/le,,ed *oman, ut(
dii,$aja:n,$o puriso, a lon,/le,,ed man.
i. #$e adjective ma$aa, ma' e used as t$e 5rst memer
of a a$ui$i(
")ample
ma$aapa;n;no, of ,reat *isdom, ver' *ise
j. Sometimes aa is added to t$e *ords( d$anu, a o*&
d$amma, t$e !a*& and a fe* ot$ers, *$en last
memers of a a$ui$i(
")amples
,and$ivad$anu = ,and$ivad$anvaa 0+<, ii1, Arjuna,
$e *$o $as a stron, o*
paccakk$ad$ammaa, ut also paccakk$ad$ammo, to
*$om t$e Doctrine is apparent
33". #$e student *ill $ave remarked t$at all t$e e?amples
,iven aove of a$ui$i, di,u, tappurisa, kammad$aara'a,
dvanda and a'a'i$aava, are used relativel'. #o make t$e
matter clearer, $o*ever, a fe* e?amples are $ere ,iven.
/vana use relativel#
")amples
na$aataanulitto, at$ed and anointed
kusalaakusalaani kammaani, ,ood and ad actions
Tappurisa use relativel#
")amples
udd$a$aasito d$ammo = .udd$ena $aasito
d$ammo, t$e Doctrine spoken ' t$e .udd$a
sotukaamo jano, a person desirous to $ear, one
desirous to $ear
na,arani,,ato, one or $e *$o $as ,one out of to*n
Cammahaara#a use relativel#
")amples
,u.nad$ano, ric$ in virtues
su,and$o, fra,rant
k$a;njak$ujjo puriso, a lame and $ump acked man
/igu use relativel#
")amples
dvimuulo rukk$o, a t*o rooted tree
pa;ncasataani saka.taani, 5ve $undred carts
sa$assara.msi, t$e t$ousand ra'ed = t$e sun
Ab#a#ibhaava use relativel#
")amples
sap$ala = sa$a p$ala, fruitful 0lit., $avin, fruits1
savaa$ano maaro, Maara *it$ $is monture
niraparaad$o od$isatto, t$e faultless .od$isatta
Dpapaa Compouns
33+. F$en t$e second memer of a Duti'aa #appurisa
compound is a [ita noun or Primar' derivative, 0see 6$apter
UIII, Primar' and Secondar' Derivation1, and t$e 5rst
memer a noun in t$e Accusative relation, t$e compound is
called 7papada. Suc$ a compound ma' t$erefore e called
indi@erentl'( upapada or upapadatappurisa& or simpl'(
tappurisa. 0Niruttidiipanii1
")amples
att$akaamo = att$a.m kaamo, *is$in, for t$e *elfare
of, 0kaamo is a kita derivative1
kum$akaaro = kum$a.m4kaaro, a pot/maker, a
potter, 0kaaro is a kito derivative1
patta,aa$o = patta.m ,aa$o, receiver of t$e o*l
rat$akaaro = rat$a.m kaaro, carria,e maker, cart*ri,$t
ra$macaarii = ra$ma.m caarii, one *$o leads t$e
$i,$er life
d$amma;n;nuu = d$amma.m ;nuu, $e *$o kno*s
t$e !a*
Anomalous Compouns
33-. A fe* compounds are found *$ic$ are 9uite anomalous
in t$eir formation, t$at is, t$e' are made up of *ords not
usuall' compounded to,et$er. #$ese compounds must
proal' e considered as of ver' earl' formation, and e
reckoned amon,st t$e oldest in t$e lan,ua,e. Fe ,ive a fe*
e?amples(
")amples
vitat$o = vi4tat$aa, false, unreal
'at$aatat$o = 'at$aa4tat$aa, real, true, as it reall' is
iti$aa 0= iti, t$us 4 $a, len,t$ened to aa1, t$us indeed,
introduction, le,end
iti$aasa 0= iti, t$us 4 $a, indeed 4 aasa, *as1, t$us
indeed it *as = iti$aa
iti$iiti$aa 0= iti$a4iti$aa1 = iti$aa, iti$aasa
itivutta.m 0= iti, t$us 4 vutta.m, P P.P. of vatti, to sa'1,
t$us it *as said& t$e name of a ook of t$e .udd$ist
Scriptures
itivuttaka 0= iti 4 vutta.m 4 ka suM?1 = itivutta
a;n;nama;n;na.m 0= a;n;na.m4a;n;na.m1, one
anot$er
paramparo 0= para.m4para1, successive
a$ama$amikaa 0= a$a.m, I 4 a$a.m 4 ika suM?1,
e,oism, arro,ance, t$e conceit of superiorit', lit.,
connected *it$ I.
Comple) Compouns
33%. 6ompounds, as aove e?plained, ma' t$emselves
ecome eit$er t$e 5rst or t$e last memer of anot$er
compound, or t*o compounds ma' e rou,$t to,et$er to
form a ne* one, and t$is ne* one a,ain ma' ecome a
memer of anot$er compound, and so on to almost an'
len,t$, t$us formin, compounds *it$in compounds. #$ese
compounds are mostl' used relativel' t$at is, t$e' are
a$ui$i. #$e student ou,$t to ear in mind t$at, t$e older
t$e lan,ua,e is, t$e fe*er are t$ese comple? compounds,
and t$e later t$e lan,ua,e, t$e more numerous do t$e'
ecome& it t$erefore follo*s t$at lon, compounds are a si,n
of deca' and, to a certain e?tent, a test as to t$e relative
a,e of a te?t.
")amples
vara.narukk$amuule, at t$e foot of t$e vara.na tree, is
a tappurisa compound in t$e ,enitive relation, and is
resolved as follo*s( vara.narukk$assa muule&
vara.narukk$assa is itself a kammad$ara'a compound
= vara.na eva rukk$a. It is t$erefore a tappurisa
compound, t$e 5rst memer of *$ic$ is a
kammad$ara'a compound.
mara.na$a'atajjito, terri5ed ' t$e fear of deat$, a
a$ui$i 9ualif'in, a noun understood, and is a
tappurisa in t$e Instrumentive relation(
mara.na$a'ena tajjito& mara.na$a'a is itself a
tappurisa in t$e alative( maranaa $a'a.
sii$ala.t.t$akat$aaparivattana.m, t$e translation of t$e
Sin,$alese 6ommentaries, is 5rst( a tappurisa
compound = si$ala.t.t$akat$aa'a parivattana.m,
second, anot$er tappurisa( si$alaa'a a.t.t$akat$aa =
t$e 6ommentaries of 6e'lon, t$e Sin,$alese
6ommentaries.
aparimitakaalasa;ncitapu;n;naalaniattaa'a,
produced ' t$e po*er accumulated durin, an
immense period of time, t$e *$ole is a a$ui$i
feminine in t$e Instrumentive. Fe resolve it as(
aparimitakaalasa;ncitapu;n;naala, a tappurisa
determinin, niattaa'a&
aparimitakaalasa;ncitapu;n;na, a kammad$ara'a
determinin, ala&
aparimitakaalasa;ncita, a kammad$ara'a determinin,
pu;n;na&
aparimitakaala, a kammad$ara'a determinin,
sa;ncita&
lastl', aparimita is a kammad$ara'a = a4parimita.
In its uncompounded state, it *ould run as follo*s(
aparimite kaale sa;ncitassa pu;n;nassa alena
niattaa'a.
%emar&' #$e student s$ould follo* t$e aove met$od in
resolvin, compounds.
Changes of certain wors in compouns
333. Some *ords, *$en compounded, c$an,e t$eir 5nal
vo*el& *$en last memers of a a$ui$i, t$e', of course,
assume t$e endin, of t$e t$ree ,enders, accordin, to t$e
,ender of t$e noun t$e' determine. #$e most common are
$ere ,iven(
,o, a co*, ullock, ecomes ,u, ,avo or ,ava.m(
pa;nca,u, artered *it$ 5ve co*s 0pa;nca$i ,o$i kito1
raaja,avo, t$e kin,Gs ullock 0ra;n;no ,o1
daara,ava.m, *ife and co* 0daaro ca ,o1
dasa,ava.m, ten co*s
$uumi, place, state, sta,e, de,ree, store' ecomes
$uuma(
jaati$uuma.m, irt$ place 0jaati'aa $uumi1
dvi$uuma.m, t*o sta,es 0dvi $uumi'o1
dvi$uumo, t*o store'ed
[a, is sometimes superadded, as( dvi$uumako =
dvi$uumo.
nadii, a river, is c$an,ed to nada(
pa;ncanada.m, 5ve rivers
pa;ncanado, $avin, 5ve rivers
a:n,uli, 5n,er, ecomes a:n,ula 0see, 3%=, a1.
ratti, ni,$t, is c$an,ed to ratta 0see, 3%=, a1& $ere are a fe*
more e?amples(
dii,$aratta.m, for a lon, time 0lit. lon, ni,$ts = dii,$aa
ratti'o1
a$oratta.m, D$J t$e ni,$tJ 0a$o ratti1
a.d.d$aratto, midni,$t 0ratti'aa a.d.d$a.m = t$e middle
of t$e ni,$t1
akk$i, t$e e'e, c$an,es to akk$a(
visaalakk$o, lar,e e'ed 0visaalaani akk$iini 'assa $onti1
viruupakk$o, $avin, $orrile e'es, name of t$e 6$ief of
t$e Na,as 0viruupaani akk$iini 'assa, to *$om 0are1
$orrile e'es1
sa$assakk$o, t$e t$ousand/e'ed, a name of Sakka
0akk$iini sa$assaani 'assa1
parokk$a.m, invisile, lit. He'ond t$e e'eH 0akk$ina.m
tiro$aa,o1
sak$aa, 0masc.1 friend, companion, ecomes sak$o(
vaa'usak$o, t$e reeEeGs friend, 5re 0va'uno sak$aa
so1
saasak$o, t$e friend of all 0saesa.m sak$aa1
attaa, self, oneGs self ecomes atta(
pa$itatto, resolute, *$ose mind is ent upon, lit.
directed to*ards 0pa$ito pesito attaa 'ena, ' *$om
t$e mind is directed upon1
.t$itatto, of 5rm mind 0.t$ito attaa assa, *$ose mind is
5rm1
pumaa = male, a man, ecomes pu.m, and 5nal .m is
assimilated to t$e follo*in, consonant accordin, to t$e usual
rules(
pulli:n,a.m, t$e male se?( man$ood, t$e masculine
,ender 0pu.m4lin,a.m, c$aracteristic, si,n1
pu:nkokilo, a male cuckoo 0pu.m4kokilo1
sa$a, *it$, is areviated to sa, *$ic$ is placed at t$e
e,innin, of compounds, ka is sometimes superadded(
sapicuka, of cotton, *it$ cotton, as /sapicuka.m
ma.n.dalika.m, a all of cotton, cotton all
sadevako, *it$ t$e deva *orlds
sa$a is used in t$e same sense(
sa$odaka, *it$ *ater, containin, *ater 0sa$a udaka1
santa, ,ood, ein,, is also areviated to sa 0see, 3%), 1(
sappurisa, a ,ood man
sajjano, *ell/orn, virtuous 0sa4jana, a person1
samaana, same, similar, e9ual& is like*ise s$ortened to sa(
sajaati or sajaatika, of t$e same species, of t$e same
class 0samaanajaati1
sajanapado, of or elon,in, to t$e same district
0samaanajanapado1
sanaamo, of t$e same name 0samaano naamo1
saanaa$i, of t$e same navel, uterine
ma$anta, ecomes ma$aa 0see 3%), a1
jaa'aa, *ife, takes t$e forms jaani, ja.m, tuda.mO, ja'a.m,
efore t$e *ord pati, lord, $usand(
ja'aapati, ja'ampati, jaanipati, jampati, tudampati,
$usand and *ife
O #$e niruttidiipanii $as t$e follo*in, interestin, note on t$e
*ord tuda.m( H'at$aa ca sakka.ta,ant$esu Gdaaro ca pati ca
dampatiiG tiH. And lo*er do*n( Htatt$a GtuG saddo
padapuura.namatte 'ujjatiH.
Verbal Compouns
33). Man' nouns and adjectives are compounded *it$ Nkar,
to do and N$uu, to e, or *it$ t$eir derivatives ver' muc$
in t$e manner of 8eral Pre5?es.
33<. #$e noun or adjective stems t$us used c$an,e 5nal a or
5nal i to ii.
")amples
da.l$a, $ard, 5rm& da.l$ikaroti, to make 5rm&
da.l$ikara.na.m, makin, 5rm, stren,t$enin,.
a$ula, aundant& a$uliikaroti, to increase, to enlar,e&
a$uliikara.na.m, increasin,& a$uliikato, increased.
$asma, as$es& $asmi$avati, to e reduced to as$es&
$asmi$uuto, reduced to as$es.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter 9III
/erivation
33=. Fe $ave no* come to a most important part of t$e
,rammar& t$e formation of nouns and adjectives ot$er*ise
called Derivation.
33>. In Paali, almost ever' declinale stem can e traced
ack to a primar' element called a Boot.
3)A. A root is a primitive element of t$e lan,ua,e incapale
of an' ,rammatical anal'sis, and e?pressin, an astract
idea. It is common in Curopean lan,ua,es to e?press t$e
idea contained in t$e root ' means of t$e in5nitive, e.,.
N,am, to ,o, ut it must e orne in mind t$at t$e root is not
an in5nitive, nor indeed a ver or noun, ut simpl' a primar'
element e?pressin, a va,ue inde5nite idea. #$is inde5nite
idea is developed out of t$e root and is made to ramif' into a
diversit' of meanin,s, ot$ astract and concrete, ' means
of suM?es.
3)". #$e roots of t$e Paali lan,ua,e, *it$ sli,$t variations in
form, easil' reco,niEale to t$e trained e'e, are common
*it$ t$ose of Sanskrit and conse9uentl' *it$ man' of t$e
roots of t$e lndo/Curopean !an,ua,es.
3)+. Cver' true root is monos'llaic as(
Nnas, to peris$&
N$aa, to s$ine&
Nru$, to ,ro*&
Npac, to cook.
Boots *$ic$ $ave more t$an one s'llale are t$e result of
a. t$e union of a veral pre5? *it$ t$e root itself, ot$
$avin, ecome inseparale in t$e e?pression of a
particular idea& for instance(
Nsa:n,am = sam4N,am, to 5,$t, lit. to come
to,et$er, to close in upon&
and
. of reduplication 0-<+@1 as Njaa,ar, to e *akeful, from
N,ar 0Sanskrit N,r1 to a*ake.
3)-. #$ere are t*o ,reat divisions of Derivation(
i. kita 0kXt1, or primar'
ii. tadd$ita, or secondar'
3)%. Primar' Derivatives are formed from t$e root itself and
Secondar' Derivatives from t$e Primar' Derivatives.
3)3. Native ,rammarians reco,nise a t$ird derivation, *$ic$
t$e' call u.naadi 0u.n4aadi1, from t$e suM? u.n ' *$ic$ a
fe* *ords are derived. .ut t$e u.naadi derivation is ver'
aritrar', and t$e connection et*een t$e noun and t$e root
is not clear, eit$er in meanin, or in form. #$ese u.naadi
derivatives are included in t$e [ita Derivation& u.naadi
suM?es are t$erefore included in t$e kita/suM?es and *ill e
distin,uis$ed ' an asterisk 0O1.
3)). Fe s$all t$erefore in t$e present c$apter, treat of
Primar' and Secondar' derivations. A fe* $ints onl' *ill e
,iven on t$e u.naadi derivation.
3)<. F$en suM?es, ot$ primar' 0kita1 and secondar'
0tadd$ita1 are added to roots, nouns or adjectives ,u.na
0"A-1 fre9uentl' takes place& t$at is, a ma' e len,t$ened to
aa, and i and u e respectivel' c$an,ed to e and o.
3)=. F$enever ,u.na takes place ' t$e addition of a suM?,
native ,rammarians put an indicator' si,n efore or after
t$e suM? to s$o* t$at ,u.na is to take place& t$is indicator'
si,n is ,enerall' t$e letter .n and sometimes t$e letter r. For
instance( Ncur, to steal, 4 suM? .na = cora, a t$ief. Iere, t$e
true suM? is a, t$e letter .n ein, simpl' indicator' t$at
,u.na c$an,e must take place& a,ain, Nkar, to do, 4 .na =
kaara, a doer. .ut Nkar 4 suM? a = kara, a doer& in t$is last
e?ample no ,u.na takes place and t$erefore, t$e suM? $as
not t$e indicator' si,n. #$is si,n is called ' ,rammarians(
anuand$a. It is t$erefore clear t$at t$e anuand$a or
Hindicator' si,n of ,u.naH is not part of t$e suM?.
3)>. Curopean ,rammarians as a rule do not note t$e
anuand$a, ut in t$is ook it *ill e noted and put *it$in
rackets, and in small t'pe, after t$e true suM?, t$us( 0.n1a,
or kaa0.n1. #$e true suM?es *ill come 5rst, printed in old
t'pe.
3<A. A,ain, some suM?es are s$o*n ' native ,rammarians
' means of some conventional si,ns& e.,. .nvu is t$e
conventional si,n for suM? aka& 'u is t$at for ana.m. Suc$
conventional si,ns *ill e s$o*n *it$in rackets, after t$e
true suM?, as& ana.m0'u1& t$is means t$at ana.m is t$e true
suM?, 'u t$e conventional si,n used ' native ,rammarians
to represent t$e suM? ana.m.
3<". It must e rememered t$at sometimes even some of
t$e pre5?es e?plained in 03"%1 under,o ,u.na as(
virajja 4 ka = virajjaka
pa.tipada 4 0.n1a = paa.tipaada
vina'a 4 0.n1ika = vena'ika
3<+. .efore some suM?es, ,enerall' t$ose *it$ t$e
indicator' .n, 5nal c of t$e root is c$an,ed to k, and 5nal j to
,& as(
Npac 4 0.n1a = paaka, a cook
Nruj 4 0.n1a = ro,a, disease
3<-. #$e 5nal vo*el of a stem ma' e elided efore a suM?.
3<%. #$e rules of sand$i and assimilation are re,ularl'
applied.
!i$ Primar# /erivatives !Cita$
3<3. As $as een said alread' Primar' Derivatives are
formed directl' from t$e roots ' means of certain suM?es&
t$ese suM?es are called kita suM?es.
3<). #$e kita suM?es are ,iven elo* in alp$aetical order
to faciliate reference.
a/ 0a1 0.n1 0a1. .' means of t$is suM? are formed an
e?tremel' lar,e numer of derivatives, some of *$ic$ take
,u.na and some of *$ic$ do not. It forms nouns 0sustantive
and adjective1, s$o*in,(
"st / action(
Npac, to cook 4 a = paaka, t$e act of cookin,
Ncaj, to forsake 4 a = caa,a, forsakin,, aandonment
N$aj, to divide 4 a = $aa,a, dividin,
Nkam, to love 4 a = kaama, love
+nd / t$e doer or a,ent(
Ncar, to roam 4 a = caara and cara, a sp'
N$ar, to take, captivate 4 a = $ara, t$e 6aptivator, a
name of S$iva
Nkar, to do, make 4 a = kara, t$at *$ic$ does, t$e
$and& also kaara, a doer, maker
-rd / astract nouns of action(
Nkar 4 a = kara, action, makin,
Nkam, to step, proceed 4 a = kama, step, succession,
order
Nkamp, to s$ake 4 a = kampa, s$akin,, tremlin,
N'uj, to join 4 a = 'o,a, joinin,
%t$ / it forms adjectives(
Nkar 4 a = kaara, doin,, makin,, also kara, causin,,
makin,
Ncar, to *alk, roam& caara, *alkin,, roamin,, and also
cara, do
Nplu, to s*im, 2oat 4 a = plava, s*immin,, 2oatin,
#$e student *ill readil' understand t$at t$e root ma' e
preceded ' an' pre5?(
sam 4 N,am 4 a = sa:n,aama, asseml'
pa 4 Nvis, to enter 4 a = pavesa, entrance
anu 4 Nsar, to ,o, move, *alk 4 a = anusara, follo*in,
#$e same remark applies to all t$e ot$er suM?es.
3<<. From t$e adjectives formed ' t$is suM? 0%t$1, are
formed t$e upapada compounds 033+1(
kammakaaro = kamma.m kaaro 0kamma.m karotiiGti1,
t$e doer of t$e act
kum$akaaro = kum$a.m kaaro 0kum$a.m karotiiGti1,
t$e maker of t$e pot, potter
3<=. 8er' similar in nature *it$ t$e upapada compounds are
t$ose compounds *$ic$ are t$e names of persons. In our
opinion t$e' are purel' and simpl' upapadas, ut
[acc$aa'ana $as t$e follo*in, rule( Hsa;n;naa'a.m a nuH
t$at is, to form a proper name, suM? nu 0=.m =Accusative
case1 is added to t$e "st memer of t$e compound, *$ic$ is
t$e direct oject of t$e root *$ic$ forms t$e +nd memer
and after *$ic$ t$e suM? a is added to denote t$e a,ent(
arindama, t$e suduer of $is enemies = ari, enem'
4 .m0nu1 4 Ndam, to sudue 4 a
vessantara, *$o $as crossed over to t$e merc$ants =
vessa 4 .m0nu1 4 Ntar, to cross 4 a
ta.n$a:nkara, creatin, desire = tan$aa, desire 4 .m0nu1
4 kar 4 a, t$e name of a .udd$a
It *ill e seen from t$e aove e?amples t$at t$e "st memer
is in t$e Accusative case and is ,overned ' t$e +nd
memer *$ic$ is an a,ent/noun formed ' t$e suM? a.
%emar&' #$e nouns formed ' a are masculine( t$e' form
t$e feminine accordin, to rules 0"=-1, and t$e same applies
to t$e adjectives 0"><1.
abha2
7sed to form t$e names of some animals& t$e derivation is
oscure.
kala$a, or ka.la$a, a 'oun, elep$ant, from Nkal, to
drive, to sound
usa$a, a ull, from Nus, 0Sanskrit XY1, to ,o, 2o*, pus$
sara$a, a faulous ei,$t/le,,ed kind of deer, from
Nsar 0Sanskrit SX1, to injure, reak, tear
kara$a, a camel, from Nkar, to do
a&a!'nv$
Forms a numerous class of action/nouns and adjectives *it$
,u.na of t$e radical vo*el(
Nkar, to make, do 4 aka = karaka, makin,, causin, or
maker, doer
N,a$, to take, receive 4 aka = ,a$aka, takin,,
receivin,, a receiver
Sometimes a /' is inserted et*een aka and a root endin, in
a vo*el, especiall' lon, aa(
Ndaa, to ,ive 4 aka = daa'aka, a ,iver
%emar&' #$e feminine of t$ese derivatives is ,enerall' in
kaa or ikaa.
ala2
Formin, a fe* nouns of doutful derivation from, it is said,
t$e roots(
Npa.t, to split, slit
Nkus, to $eap, rin, to,et$er, cut
Nkal, to drive, sound, t$ro*, etc.
pa.tala, coverin,, memrane, roof& kusala, t$at *$ic$ is
capale of cuttin, sin, meritorious act. #$ese nouns are
neuter.
an
Dnl' a fe* *ords are derived from t$is suM?( Nraaj, to rule 4
an = raajan, a kin,, ruler.
%emar&' Nouns in an $ave t$e Nominative Sin,ular in aa
0"3)1.
ana!#u$
#$is suM? forms an immense numer of derivative nouns
and adjectives. #$e nouns are neuter, or feminine in aa& t$e
adjectives are of t$e t$ree ,enders. Gu.na ma' or ma' not
take place& it is $o*ever, more common *it$ t$e adjectives.
Nouns(
Npac, to cook 4 ana = pacana.m, t$e cookin,
N,a$, to take 4 ana = ,a$a:na.m, t$e seiEin,, takin,
N.t$aa, to stand 4 ana = .t$aana.m, a place
Adjectives(
pa 4 Nnud, to pus$, move 4 ana = panudano,
removin,, dispellin,
N,$us, to sound 4 ana = ,$osano, soundin,
Nkud$, to e an,r' 4 ana = kod$ano, an,r'
#$e feminine of t$ese adjectives is sometimes in aa,
sometimes in ii.
Nsev, to serve, sta' ' 4 ana = sevanaa, also,
sevana.m, service, follo*in,
Nkar, to e?ecute 4 ana = kaaranaa, a,on', torture
as
#$is suM? forms a not ver' lar,e, ut important class of
*ords, *$ic$ $ave alread' een e?plained 0")A1& ,u.na
sometimes takes place& t$e' are declined like manas 03>1&
t$eir Nominative Sin,ular is in o.
Nvac, to sa', speak 4 as = vacas 0vaco1, speec$, *ord
Ntij, to e s$arp 4 as = tejas 0tejo1, s$arpness,
splendour
aani2
Barel' found, it properl' does not form nouns, ut a
vituperative ne,ative imperative, *it$ t$e pro$iitive
particle a 0+%+, a1 efore t$e root, and a dative of t$e person
*$o is foridden to act( a,amaani = a 4 N,am 4 aani, 'ou
are not to ,oJ as in Hparadesa.m te a,amaaniH, HTou are not
to ,o else*$ereJH Hte ida.m kamma.m akaraani 0a 4 Nkar 4
aani1.
aavi E vi !taavi$
Is used as $as alread' een seen, to form participles 0+-"1
so also( aana 0%%=1, also at, ant = nta 0%%A1 so t$at t$e
Perfect Active, t$e Present Active and t$e Be2ective
Participles are considered ' native ,rammarians as comin,
under t$e $ead of kita derivatives. #$e same remark applies
to t$e P.P.P.
hu
So ,iven ' native ,rammarians is, properl' ad$u& it forms
ut a fe* derivatives and is onl' anot$er form of t$u = at$u
0see elo*1.
i
Forms a lar,e class of derivatives, masculine, feminine and
neuter, as *ell as a fe* adjectives. #$e nouns ma' e a,ent/
nouns or astract. .ut t$e derivation is not al*a's 9uite
clear 0principall' of neuter nouns1, $ence, some ,rammars
include t$is suM? amon, t$e u.naadi. Stren,t$enin, takes
place in a fe* roots.
Masculine(
Nku, to sound, sin, 4 i = kavi, one *$o sin,s = a poet
Nmun = man, to t$ink 4 i = muni, one *$o t$inks = a
sa,e
Feminine
Nlip, to smear, ru 4 i = lipi, a ruin, over, *ritin,
Nruc, to s$ine, to please 4 i = ruci, li,$t, pleasure
Neuter( akk$i, e'e& a,,i, 5re& a.t.t$i, one& and a fe* ot$ers,
of ver' doutful derivation.
Adjective(
Nsuc, to eam, ,lo*, urn 4 i = suci, eamin,, clear,
pure
.' means of t$is suM? is formed from Nd$aa, to ear, $old, a
derivative( d$i, *$ic$ forms man' compounds, mostl'
masculine(
sam 4 d$i = sand$i, connection, union 0in ,rammar =
eup$on'1
udad$i, t$e ocean = uda, *ater 4 d$i, $oldin, 0uda 4
Nd$aa 4 i1
ot$ers are(
nid$i, a receptacle 0ni 4 Nd$aa 4 i1
parid$i, circle, $alo 0pari 4 Nd$aa 4 i1
Similarl', from Ndaa, to ,ive, *it$ pre5? aa, *e otain( aadi
0= aa 4 Ndaa 4 i1 = and so fort$, and so on, etc, lit.
e,innin,. #$e *ord aadi is muc$ used at t$e end of
compounds.
icca !ricca$ an iri#a !riri#a$
Are ,iven ' [acc$aa'ana as kita pre5?es, ut in realit' t$e'
are not( ot$ are suM?es of t$e F.P.P. 0%))1& t$e' are found
onl' in t$e t*o e?amples( kicca and kiri'a, 0lit., *$at is to e
done1 usiness(
Nkar 4 icca = kicca 0*it$ elision of radical a and of r1
Nkar 4 iri'a = kiri'a 0*it$ elision of radical a and of r1
.ut t$e true derivationO is kar 4 t'a = kit'a 0*it$ elision of
ar and insertion of i1 = kicca, accordin, to t$e usual rules
0<%1.
OSanskrit. NkX 4 t'a = kXt'a& kX 4 'a = kX'a = kri'a.
i&a
Is ,iven for t$e onl' root( N,am, to ,o( ,amika, one *$o
,oes.
in E ii!'nii$
#$is forms a ver' ,reat numer of derivatives *$ose stem
ends in in, and t$e Nominative sin,ular ii 0see "-<, "<-1&
t$e' are properl' possessive adjectives, sometimes used
sustantivel'. Gu.na as a rule takes place.
N,a$, to take, receive 4 in = ,aa$in 0,aa$i1, takin,,
catc$in,
Nkra 4 in = kaarin 0kaarii1, doin,( paapakaarii, a sinner
N'aa, to ,o, 'aa'in 0'aa'ii1, ,oin,( na,ara'aa'ii, ,oin,
to t$e to*n
Ndaa, to ,ive, daa'in, 0daa'ii1, ,ivin,, a ,iver
Note t$at a ' is inserted et*een t$e suM? and t$e roots
endin, in aa lon,. #$e feminine is formed accordin, to rules
0"=>1.
ina
A fe* nouns are formed ' t$is suM?& t$ere is no ,u.na(
Nsup, to sleep 4 ina = supina.m 0neuter1, a dream,
sleep
#$e derivation of some nouns and adjectives from t$is suM?
is not apparent and clear, and it is also classed as an
u.naadi(
Ndakk$, to e ale, skilful 4 ina = dakk$i.na, ale,
sout$ern
ira
#$e derivatives from t$is, nouns and adjectives, are fe*&
t$ere is no ,u.na(
Nruc, to s$ine 4 ira = rucira, rilliant, eautiful
Nvaj, to e stron, 4 ira = vajira, t$underolt
i#a1 i't'tha
Are t$e suM?es used for t$e comparison of adjectives 0+-=1.
isa2
Forms a fe* nouns, mostl' masculine, of rat$er oscure
derivation(
Npuur, to 5ll 4 isa = purisa, a man, person
Nsun, to oppress 4 isa = sunisa, an oppressor
Nil, to s$ake, come 4 isa = ilisa, one *$o s$akes
Nma$, to e ,reat 4 isa = ma$isa, mi,$t', a u@alo
itta2!'nitta$
Is said to e?press multitude 0W1( t$e root is ,u.nated(
Nvad, to speak, to pla' 0music1 4 itta = vaaditta.m, t$e
multitude of t$ose t$at pla' music, an orc$estra
#$is suM? and its derivatives are incompre$ensile& ut see
/tta, /tra *$ere its proale formation *ill e e?plained.
iivara2
Forms a fe* neuter nouns of doutful connection *it$ t$e
roots from *$ic$ t$e' are derived(
Nci, to ,at$er, to depend upon 4 iivara = ciivara.m, a
monkGs ,arment, t$at *$ic$ is $eaped upon or
depended upon
Npaa, to drink 4 iivara = piivara.m, evera,e, t$at
*$ic$ is to e drunk
&a
Is added to ver' fe* roots *$ic$ take ,u.na& it forms a,ent/
nouns and adjectives(
Nvad, to speak 4 ka = vaadaka, one *$o speaks, a
musician& pla'in, 0adj.1
Nda$, to urn 4 ka = daa$aka, urnin, 0adj.1
Note t$at t$ese t*o *ords *ould e etter derived from
suM? aka 0see aove1.
Nsuk$ 0Sanskrit cus1 4 ka = sukk$a, dr', dried up
Nt$u 0Sanskrit stu1, to drile, drop 4 ka = t$oka, a
little
ka often takes a connectin, vo*el i or u efore a root, and
forms t$e suM?es ika, uka 0see also1.
la
Generall' *it$ connectin, vo*els( a, or i efore it. !a is ut
anot$er form of ra 0see also1(
Nt$u, to e t$ick, stron, 4 la = t$uula, t$ick, fat
Ncap, to *aver, tremle 4 0a1la = capala, tremulous,
5ckle, ,idd'
Npaa, to keep, ,uard 4 la = pala, a ,uardian
Nan, to reat$e, lo* softl' 4 0i1la = anila, *ind, reeEe
laa'na
As *ell as 'aa.na ,iven as primar' suM?es, are not at all
suM?es& t$e true suM? is aa.na, *$ic$ is a tadd$ita suM?
0see also1.
ma
Forms some astract nouns, a,ent/nouns, and some
adjectives(
N$ii, to fear, e afraid of 4 ma = $iima, terrile,
fearful
N,$ar 0Sanskrit ,$r1 to e *arm, to ,lo* 4 ma =
,$arma = ,$amma, $eat, *armt$ 0Note t$e
assimilation of r 0=A1
Nt$u, to praise& t$oma, praise
Nd$uu, to s$ake, move $it$er and t$it$er 4 ma =
d$uuma, smoke.
#$is suM?, in Paali, ecomes nearl' confounded *it$ t$e
ne?t( man, and native ,rammarians are often at a loss in
c$oosin, et*een t$ese t*o suM?es( t$e reason is t$at no
*ord in Paali ein, allo*ed to end in a consonant, t$e' $ave
included t$e stems in an in t$e vo*el declension 0"3+, "3)/c,
"3</a1.
man
0Given as ramma as *ell as man ' [acc$aa'ana1 Forms
action nouns, masculine and neuter& in a fe* cases t$e noun
ein, ot$ masculine and neuter& t$e stems are in an, t$e
Nominative, in aa, o, or .m(
Nd$ar, to $old, ear 4 man = d$ammo, d$amma.m,
nature, c$aracteristic, dut', t$e !a*
Nkar 4 man = kamma.m, action, karma 0Note t$e
assimilation of r1
N$ii, to fear 4 man = $emo, fearful, terrile
Nk$i, to destro', make an end of 4 ma = k$emo,
secure, peaceful, k$ema.m, safet', $appiness
Most of t$e derivatives from man, $ave mi,rated to t$e class
of t$ose formed ' t$e last suM? 0ma1.
maana
#$is is t$e suM? of t$e Present Participle Be2ective alread'
seen 0%%<1. 0See, aana, aove1.
mi
#$e numer of derivatives from t$is suM? is ver' restricted,
t$e' are masculine or feminine. #$ere is no ,u.na.
N$uu, to e?ist, ecome 4 mi = $uumi, t$e eart$,
,round, a place
Nu 0Sanskrit v1, to roll, turn from side to side 4 mi =
uumi 0uurmi, note t$e elision of radical r1, a *ave
na
#$e use of t$is suM? in formin, a certain numer of P.P.P. $as
een e?plained 0%3=1& it also forms a fe* nouns& t$e root
takes no ,u.na, ut t$rou,$ assimilation, t$e root is not
al*a's reco,nisale(
Nvar, to cover, enclose 4 na = va.n.na 0=A, =-1, colour,
e?ternal appearance
Nsup 0Sanskrit svap1 to sleep 4 na = soppa 0=Sanskrit
svapna1, sleep
Np$ar 0also p$ur = Sanskrit sp$ur, sp$r1, to s$ake, to
make a jerk' motion 4 na = pa.n.na, a feat$er, *in,
From Ntaas 0Sanskrit trs1, ta.n$aa, t$irst, cravin,& Nji, to
con9uer 4 na = jina, con9ueror.
6onnected *it$ t$is na, are t$e suM?es ina, una 0see also1&
also( tana 0=S. tna1, from t$is last is derived t$e *ord
ratana, ,ift, lessin,, je*el, from Nraa, to esto* 4 tna
0=tana1 0note t$at radical aa is s$ortened t$rou,$ t$e
in2uence of t$e doule consonant to tna see -%1.
ni
From t$is *e otain ut a fe* nouns.
Feminine
N$aa, to 9uit, forsake 4 ni = $aani, aandonment, loss,
deca'
N'u, to fasten, to unite 4 ni = 'oni, *om, ori,in, a
form of e?istence
nu
Forms a fe* *ords mostl' masculine, some astract and
some concrete(
N$aa, to s$ine, to e ri,$t 4 nu = $aanu, eam,
li,$t, t$e sun
Nd$e, to drink 4 nu = d$enu, 'ieldin, milk, a milk/co*
ta 1
#$is suM? $as een e?plained in t$e formation of t$e P.P.P.
0%3A1. It also forms a fe* concrete nouns(
Nduu, to ,o far, to a certain distance 4 ta = duta,
messen,er
Nsuu, to impel, to set in motion 4 ta = suuta, a
c$arioteer
#$e student *ill remark t$at even t$ese nouns look ver'
muc$ like P.P.P. 0see. %3+ remarks1. #$e suM? ita, also
connected *it$ t$e P.P.P. 0%3+, ii1, forms a fe* derivatives of
doutful connection *it$ roots( palita, ,re'& lo$ita, red&
$arita, ,reen, etc.
ta 6 !S' tas$
Forms a fe* nouns(
Nsu, to ,o, pass 4 ta = sota, a stream
Nsu, to $ear 4 tar = sota, t$e ear
taa !ritu1 raatu$ !S' tr or tar$
#$is suM? forms a prett' lar,e numer of a,ent/nouns& see
0")+1. Bemark t$at t$e ase is in u, and t$e nominative in
aa.
Nmaa, to measure, mete out 0food, etc.1 4 taa = mataa,
mot$er
Nvad, to speak, sa' 4 taa = vattaa, one *$o sa's, tells,
a speaker
ti
#$is forms a ver' numerous class of action nouns, feminine,
a,ent/nouns, and a limited numer of adjectives.
Feminine(
N$aj, to divide 4 ti = $atti 0=$akti, %+) remark, 3>,
a1, division
Nkitt, to praise 4 ti = kitti 0*it$ one t dropped1, praise
N,am, ,o 4 ti = ,ati 0%3)1, a ,oin,, journe'
From Nmuc, mutti, deliverance& from Nman, to t$ink, mati
0%331, t$ou,$t, etc.
Adjective(
N.t$aa, stand, last 4 ti = .t$iti, lastin,
Npad, to ,o, step 4 ti = patti 0)%1, ,oin,, a foot soldier
tu 1
#$is is properl' t$e suM? of t$e In5nitive, *$ic$ $as ecome
an accusative 0-)-/i1& ut it also forms nouns c$ie2'
masculine, ut of t$e ot$er ,enders too(
Nd$aa, to la', put 4 tu = d$aatu, masculine and
feminine, t$at *$ic$ la' 0at t$e ottom1, a primar'
element, a root, principle
Ntan, to stretc$ 4 tu = tantu, a t$read, masculine
Nsi, to ind 4 tu = setu, a tie, rid,e
tu 6
#$e same as taa 0ritu raatu1 aove.
tra1 ta !tran1 ta$
Forms a lar,e numer of derivatives c$ie2' denotin, t$e
a,ent, and concrete nouns(
Nc$ad, to cover over 4 tra, ta = c$atra.m, c$atta.m, an
umrella 0in c$atra d $as een dropped to avoid t$e
collocation of t$ree consonants& in c$atta it is
assimilated1
N,aa 0a collateral form of N,a.m1, to move 4 tra, ta =
,atta.m, lim
Nnii, to lead 4 tra, ta = netra.m, netta.m, t$e e'e, t$at
*$ic$ leads
tha
#$e derivatives from t$is are not ver' numerous(
N,aa, to sin, 4 t$a = ,aat$aa, a son,, stanEa, verse
Ntar 0Sanskrit tr1, to cross 4 t$a = titt$a.m, ford,
landin, place 0*it$ connectin, i1
thu an also hu
Give onl' a fe* derivatives, and $ave ,enerall' t$e form
att$u, ad$u.
Nvip, Nvep, to s$ake, tremle 4 t$u, d$u = vepat$u,
vepad$u, tremlin,
Nvam, to t$ro* up, vomit 4 t$u, d$u = vamat$u,
vamad$u, vomittin,
ra
Forms some nouns and adjectives& t$ere is no ,u.na, mostl'
found in t$e forms( ira, ura 0see also1, and ara.
Nouns(
N$and, N$ad, to receive, praise 4 ra = $adra,
$adda 0adj.1, laudale, ,ood, *ort$'
Nd$ii, to t$ink 4 ra = d$iira 0adj.1, *ise, a *ise man
N$am, to 2utter, move in circles 4 0a1ra = $amara, a
ee
ri
Gives ver' fe* derivatives( N$uu 4 ri = $uuri 0adj.1,
aundant, muc$.
ru
Forms some nouns and adjectives(
N$ii, to fear, e afraid 4 ru = $iiru, timid
Ncan, to rejoice in, to ,ladden 4 ru = caaru 0*it$ elision
of n1, dear, ,ladsome
u !ru an u$
Alt$ou,$ makin, a lar,e numer of derivatives, sustantive
and adjectives, as t$e connection of t$e meanin, *it$ t$e
root is, in man' cases, not easil' traced, t$is suM? is classed
*it$ t$e u.naadi& ,u.na ma' or ma' not take place.
Nand$, to ind 4 u = and$u, a kinsman
Nkar 4 u = karu, a doer, maker, artisan
Ntan, to continue, e?tend 4 u = tanu, a son
Nvas, to li,$t up, s$ine 4 u = vasu, a ,em& ,ood
u&a !'nu&a$
Forms a fe* nouns and adjectives denotin, t$e a,ent& t$ere
is ,u.na(
Npad, to tread, step 4 uka = paaduka 0fem.1, a s$oe
Nkar 4 uka = kaaruka 0masc.1, a maker, artisan
una
Forms a fe* derivatives.
Ntar, to cross, pass a*a' 4 una = taru.naa, just e,un,
'oun,, fres$
Nkar, to love, pit' 4 una = karunaa 0fem.1, compassion
Npis, to ,rind, $urt, destro' 4 una = pisuno 0adj.1,
ackitin,, malicious& a tale/earer
uu
Forms some adjectives and nouns, mostl' feminine.
Nvid, to kno* 4 uu = viduu, kno*in,
vi 4 N;naa, to kno* 4 uu = vi;n;nuu, kno*in,
uura
A fe* nouns onl'( Nund, to *et, moisten 4 uura = unduura, a
rat.
usa21 ussa
#$e derivatives from t$is, ver' fe*, are doutful( Nman, to
t$ink 4 usa, ussa = manussa, maanusa, man.
vaa
#$is, as t$e suM? of t$e P.P.A., $as alread' een noticed
0%)31.
#a
#$is forms neuter nouns, most of t$em astract in meanin,.
Assimilation takes place re,ularl'.
Nraaj, rule 4 'a = rajja.m, kin,s$ip, kin,dom
Nvaj, to avoid 4 'a = vajja.m, a fault, *$at is to e
avoided
N'uj, to 'oke, $arness 4 'a = 'o,a.m, a carria,e,
conve'ance
It *ill e remarked t$at 'a is also t$e suM? of t$e F.P.P. 0%))1
*$ic$ often, in t$e neuter sin,ular, makes nouns.
#aa'na
0See remark& under( la.na1
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e student *ill $ave remarked t$at t$e participles
Present Active, Present Be2ective& t$e P.P.P., t$e Perfect
Active and t$e F.P.P. are considered as elon,in, to t$e
Primar' derivation.
01 SuM?es( taa, anii'a, 'a0n'a1, and icca are ' native
,rammarians called kicca suM?es. 0%))1
!ii$ Seconar# /erivatives !Tahita$
3<>.
%emar&s'
0a1 #$ese derivatives are called Hsecondar'H ecause t$e'
are formed ' means of suM?es from t$e Hprimar'H
derivatives, e?plained in t$e kita derivation aove.
01 Secondar' derivatives are also formed from pronominal
ases 0--)1.
0c1 As in kita, ,u.na ma' or ma' not take place.
3=A. #$e follo*in, remarks aout t$e meanin, of t$e
secondar' derivation s$ould e *ell noted(
i. #$e ,reat ulk of tadd$ita suM?es form adjectives from
nouns.
ii. #$ese adjectives are ver' freel' used as sustantives,
t$e masculine and feminine ein, ,enerall' nouns
denotin, t$e a,ent, *$ile in t$e neuter t$e' are
astract.
iii. #$e 5nal vo*el of a *ord is often elided efore a
tadd$ita suM?.
iv. #$e ,u.na a@ects mostl' t$e 5rst s'llale of t$e *ord to
*$ic$ t$e suM? is added.
3=". #$e follo*in, is a list in alp$aetical order of t$e
tadd$ita suM?es.
a !'na1 an a$
An e?tremel' lar,e numer of derivatives are formed '
means of t$is suM?. It is added to nouns and to adjectives
used sustantivel'& t$ese derivatives are essentiall'
adjectives, used in most cases sustantivel'. #$e' primaril'
e?press connection *it$, relations *it$ or dependence on
t$at denoted ' t$e Hprimar' derivativesH& t$is relation is
necessaril' of man' kinds, as(
". patron'mics( t$e masculine denotes t$e son of, t$e
feminine, t$e dau,$ter of and t$e neuter t$e
consan,uinit' or relation of.
vasi.t.t$a 4 a = vaasi.t.t$o, t$e son of, vaasi.t.t$ii,
t$e dau,$ter of, vaasi.t.t$a.m, t$e relation of
8asi.t.t$a
So( from visamitta 4 a = vesamitto, vesamittaa,
vesamitta.m& manu 4 a = maanavo, maanavii, maanava.m
0""A, Bemark1, t$e son, dau,$ter or relation of Manu.
+. t$at *$ic$ is d'ed *it$(
kasaava, a reddis$/'ello* d'e 4 a = kaasaavo,
reddis$/'ello*, 'ello*& kaasaava.m, a monkGs roe
0*$ic$ is d'ed *it$ suc$ d'e1
So( $aliddaa, turmeric 4 a = $aaliddo, 'ello*, d'ed *it$
turmeric.
-. t$e 2es$ of(
suukara, a pi, 4 a = sokara.m, pork
ma$isa, u@alo 4 a = maa$isa.m, u@aloGs 2es$
As adjective( sokaro, relatin, to pi,s& maa$iso, relatin, to
u@aloes.
%. elon,in, to(
vidisaa, a forei,n countr' 4 a = vediso, elon,in, to
a forei,n countr', a forei,ner
ma,ad$aa, Sout$ern .i$ar 4 a = maa,ad$o,
elon,in, to, orn in, Ma,ad$aa
3. a collection of(
kapota, a dove pi,eon 4 a = kaapoto, a ,roup of
doves, or, relatin, to doves
ma'uura, a peacock 4 a = maa'uuro, a ,roup of
peacocks& adjective, elon,in, to, relatin, to
peacocks
). stud', kno*led,e of, kno*in,(
nimitta, an omen 4 a = nemitto, a kno*er of omens,
a fortune teller
ve''aa kara.na.m, e?e,esis, ,rammar 4 a =
ve''aakara.no, a ,rammarian
mu$utta, a *$ile 4 a = mo$utto, one *$o studies for
a *$ile onl'& also( relatin, to a moment, momentar'
<. t$e localit' in *$ic$ somet$in, or someone is or e?ists(
saku.na, a ird 4 a = saaku.na.m, t$e place *$erein
irds roost or resort to
udumara, a 5,/tree 4 a = odumara.m, a place
*$ere 5,/trees ,ro*
=. possession of(
pa;n;naa, *isdom 4 a = pa;n;no, possessin,
*isdom, *ise, a *ise man
sadd$aa, fait$ 4 a = sadd$o, one *$o $as fait$,
elievin,, fait$ful, a eliever
a&a !'na&a$
Is said to denote t$e propert' of( manussa, a man 4 a =
manussaka.m, t$at *$ic$ elon,s to man, t$e propert' of
man, $uman. 0See ka1
a#a
For t$is, see 'a.
aalu
#$is is suM? lu, preceded ' aa 0see lu1& denotes t$e
tendenc', and forms some past participial adjectives.
da'aa, s'mpat$', compassion 4 aalu = da'aalu,
compassionate
a$ijj$aa, covetousness 4 aalu = a$ijj$aalu, covetous,
*$ose tendenc' is to e covetous
siita, cold 4 aalu = siitaalu, c$illed, cold
aana !'naana$
Forms patron'mics(
kacca 0a proper name1 4 aana = kaccaano, kaccaanii,
kacccaana.m, t$e son, dau,$ter, o@sprin, of [acca
cora, a t$ief 4 aana = coraano, coraanii, coraanam, t$e
son, etc.
aa'na
Given as a kita suM? in t$e forms( laa.na, 'aa.na 0see kita
suM?es aove1 forms a ver' fe* derivatives& kal'a, and '
assimilation kalla, $ealt$', rememerin,, t$inkin, of, 4
aa.na = kal'aa.no, kallaa.no, $app', lessed *it$ $ealt$,
,ood.
aa#ana !'naa#ana$
Also forms patron'mics(
kacca 4 aa'ana = kaccaa'ano, kacaa'anii,
kaccaa'ana.m, t$e son, etc., of [acca
vacc$a 4 aa'ana = vacc$aa'ano, vacc$aa'aanii,
vacc$aa'ana.m, t$e son, etc., of 8acc$a
b#a
Is said to denote t$e state of(
daasa, a slave 4 'a = daasa'a.m, t$e state of ein,
a slave, slaver'
haa
Ias alread' een noted 0see kita suM?es aove1.
era !'nera$
Patron'mics& t$e 5nal vo*el of t$e *ord is elided.
vid$ava 4 era = ved$avera, t$e son of 8id$ava
na.lika 4 era = na.likero, t$e son of Na.lika
sama.na, a monk 4 era = saama.nera, t$e son, viE. t$e
disciple of t$e monk, a novice
e##a 1 !'ne##a$
#$e state or nature of(
alasa, idle 4 e''a = aalase''a.m, idleness
saapate''a.m, propert' 0lit. oneGs o*n propert'1 = sa,
o*n 4 pati, master, o*ner 4 e''a 0note t$e elision of i
in pati1
e##a 6 !'ne##a$
Patron'mics& *it$ ,u.na.
vinata 4 e''a = venate''o, t$e son of 8inata
maalii, a ,ardener 4 e''a = maale''a, t$e ,ardenerGs
son
e##a >
Denotes t$e nature of, t$e ori,in, t$e place *$ere a t$in, is
made, or a person or animal reared up.
paate''a, *$ose place or aode is in t$e mountain,
elon,in, to mountains = paata 4 e''a
suci, purit' 4 e''a = soce''a.m, t$e state of $im *$o
is pure, also, puri5cation
kula, famil' 4 e''a = kole''o, elon,in, to, reared up
in a 0nole1 famil', of ,ood famil'
aaraa.nasii, .enares 4 e''a = aaraa.nase''a.m, t$at
*$ic$ is made in .enares, lit. t$at t$e ori,in of *$ic$ is
in .enares
e##a ?
Fitness, *ort$iness. #$is is a form of t$e F.P.P. alread'
e?plained 0%)=1.
i 1 !'ni$
Forms a fe* patron'mics, from nouns in a(
duna 4 i = doni, t$e son of Duna
anurudd$aa 4 i = Anurudd$i, t$e son of Anurudd$aa
jinadatt$a 4 i = jinadatt$i, t$e son of Rinadatt$a
i 6
After t$e *ord pura, to*n, cit', indicates t$at *$ic$ elon,s
or is proper to a cit'( pori, urane, polite, a@ale.
i&a !'ni&a$
Is of ver' *ide application and is added after nouns and
adjectives& ,u.na ,enerall' takes place. It denotes(
". patron'mics(
naadaputta 4 ika = naadaputtiko, t$e son of
Nadiputta
jinadatt$a 4 ika = jinadatt$iko, t$e son of Rinadatt$a
+. livin, ' means of(
naavaa, a oat 4 ika = naaviko, one *$o ,oes or
lives ' means of a oat = a oatman
alisa, a 5s$/$ook 4 ika = aalisiko, a 5s$erman
vetana, *a,es 4 ika = vetaniko, one *$o lives upon
*a,es, a laourer
-. ,oin, ' means of(
pada, t$e foot 4 ika = paadiko, one *$o ,oes *it$
$is feet, a pedestrian
saka.ta, a cart 4 ika = saaka.tiko, one *$o ,oes in a
cart
%. relatin, to(
samudda, t$e sea 4 ika = saamuddiko, relatin, to
t$e sea, marine
saka.ta, cart, saaka.tiko, relatin, to carts
3. pla'in, upon(
vii.naa, a lute, ve:niko, pla'in, upon a lute, lute
pla'er 0+<, ii, Bemark +1
$eri, a drum, $eriko, a drummer, or, relatin, to a
drum
). mi?ed *it$(
tela, oil, telika.m, t$at *$ic$ is mi?ed *it$ oil& oil'
dad$i, curds, dad$ika.m, t$at *$ic$ is mi?ed *it$
curds& and dad$iko, mi?ed *it$ or relatin, to curds
<. makin,, t$e maker(
tela, oil, teliko, an oil manufacturer
=. connected *it$(
dvaara, a door, dvaariko, one *$o is connected *it$
a door, a door/keeper
>. carr'in, upon(
k$anda, t$e s$oulder, k$andiko, *$o carries on t$e
s$oulder
a:n,uli, 5n,er, a:n,uliko, *$o carries on t$e 5n,er
"A. orn in or elon,in, to a place, or livin, in a place(
saavatt$i, saavatt$iko, of, orn in, or, livin, in
Saavatt$i
kapilavatt$u, kapilavatt$iko, of, orn, in, or, livin, in
[apilavatt$u
"". stud'in,, learnin,(
vina'a, t$e Discipline, vena'iko, one *$o studies t$e
vina'a
suttanta, a discourse 0of t$e .udd$a1, suttantiko, one
*$o studies, or kno*s Discourses, viE., t$e
Suttapi.taka
"+. t$at *$ic$ is performed '(
maanasa, t$e mind, maanasiko, mental& and
maanasika.m, t$e act performed ' mind
sarira, t$e od', saariiriko, odil', corporeal&
saariirika.m, t$e act performed ' t$e od'
"-. t$at *$ic$ is artered for(
suva.n.na, ,old, sova.n.nika.m, t$at *$ic$ is artered
for ,old& sova.n.niko, relatin, to ,old
vatt$a, clot$, vatt$ika.m, t$at *$ic$ is e?c$an,ed for
clot$& vatt$iko, relatin, to clot$
"%. possession(
da.n.do, a sta@, da.n.diko, one *$o $as a sta@, a
mendicant
maalaa, *reat$, maaliko, one $avin, a *reat$
puttiko, *$o $as sons
"3. a collection, $erd, ,roup(
kedaara, a 5eld, kedaarika.m, a collection of 5elds
$att$i, elep$ant, $att$ika.m, $erd of elep$ants
"). measure(
kum$a, a pot, kum$iko, containin, a i, measure,
viE., as muc$ as a pot& kum$ika.m, t$at *$ic$ is
contained in a pot
imaa
Denotes position or direction in space or time& it also s$o*s
relation(
pacc$aa, e$ind, *estern, pacc$imo, $indermost,
*estern
anta, limit, end, antimo, last, 5nal
So, majj$imo, middlin,, from majj$a, middle.
imaa
Forms a limited numer of possessive adjectives(
putta, son, puttimaa, *$o $as sons
papaa, evil, sin, paapimaa, sinful, evil
#$is suM? is t$e same as t$at noticed in 0++", +++1 *it$
connectin, vo*els efore it.
in !'ni$
Forms a numerous class of possessive adjectives, ver' often
used sustantivel' 0"-<1& t$e stems are in in, and t$e
nominative sin, in ii.
da.n.da, a sta@, da.n.dii, possessed of a sta@
manta, desi,n, plan, mantii, one replete *it$ plans, a
minister, adviser
paapa, evil 4 in = paapii, $avin, evil, evil
ina
A fe* possessive adjectives( mala, dirt, taint 4 ina = malina,
dirt', tainted.
issi&a
#$is is t$e si,n of t$e Superlative 0+-=1.
i#a
A fe* astract nouns.
issara, lord, c$ief 4 i'a = issari'a.m, dominion
alasa, laE', aalasi'a.m, idleness
ii#a
!ike ima aove. i'a, as ii'a noticed in 0%))1, is essentiall' a
suM? of t$e F.P.P. #$e proper form of t$e suM?, it s$ould e
noted is( ii'a.
ii 1
See in, aove.
ii 6
Is used after t$e cardinals from "" up*ards to form ordinals
e?pressin, t$e da' of t$e mont$, ut also mere ordinals
sometimes(
ekaadasa, "" 4 ii = ekaadasii, t$e ""t$ da' or simpl',
t$e ""t$
catuddasa, "% 4 ii = catuddasii, t$e "%t$ da', or t$e
"%t$
&a !&a'n$
Is muc$ used to form adjectives, *$ic$ in neuter ecome
astract nouns& esides, it also forms a certain numer of
nouns masculine *$ic$, $o*ever, are adjectives used as
sustantives. Gu.na often takes place(
rakk$aa, protection 4 ka = rakk$ako, protectin,, a
,uard
rakk$ana, defence 4 ka = rakk$anako, a ,uard
rama.ne''a, pleasurale 4 ka = raama.ne''ako,
deli,$tful& raama.ne''aka.m, deli,$tfulness
It $as a fe* ot$er meanin,s.
". collection, ,roup(
raajaputta, prince 4 ka = raajaputtaka, a ,roup or
and of princes
manussa, man 4 ka = maanussaka.m, an asseml'
or ,roup of men
+. diminutives, *it$, sometimes, a certain amount of
contempt implied(
paada, foot, paadako, a small foot
raaja, kin,, raajako, a princelin,
putta, son, puttako, a little son
ludd$a, $unter, ludd$ako, a 'oun, $unter
-. not seldom, ka adds not$in, *$atever to t$e primar'
meanin, of t$e *ord(
kumaara, c$ild, 'oun, prince 4 ka = kumaarako
nava, 'oun,, junior 4 ka = navaka
%. it is muc$ used after compounds, aove all, after
a$uii$ii, to form poseessives, ut often also
redundantl'&
3. t$e use of ka after numerals $as een noticed 0+=)1.
&ata
Is considered as a suM? ' some ,rammarians. It is used
*it$ pre5?es ni 4 ka.ta = nika.ta, near& vi 4 ka.ta = vika.ta,
c$an,ed& pa 4 ka.ta = paaka.ta, evident, pulic, clear& sam
4 ka.ta = sa:nka.ta, narro*. It *ill e remarked t$at ka.ta
forms adjectives di@erin, ver' little or even not at all from
t$e meanin, of t$e suM? to *$ic$ it is added. It is proal' a
form of kata 0P.P.P.1, from Nkar, to do, make.
&i#a
Forms adjectives denotin, relation, connection 0it is made
up, no dout, of ka4i'a1(
And$a, t$e And$ra countr' 4 ki'a = and$aki'a, relatin,
or elon,in, to t$e And$ra countr'
jaati, irt$ 4 ki'a = jaatiki'a, relatin, to irt$,
con,enital
la
Forms a fe* adjectives and nouns& it is often preceded '
t$e vo*els( i, and u(
a$u, man' 4 la = a$ulo, aundant
vaacaa, *ord 4 la = vaacaalo, talkative, ,arrulous
p$ena, frot$, p$enila, frot$', t$e soap plant, soap
maataa, mot$er 4 ula = maatulo, maternal uncle
va.t.ta, a circle 4 ula = va.t.tulo, circular
kum$ii, a pot, jar 4 la = kum$iilo, a crocodile, one
*$o $as 0a ell' like1 a jar
la is anot$er form of ra 0see also elo*.1& r and l often
interc$an,e 0%<, vi1.
lu
For t$is see( aalu aove.
ma
Forms ordinals 0see +<%1& ma $as sometimes a superlative
meanin, 0see, ima, aove1. ima is t$e suM? ma *it$
precedin, vo*el i.
maa !mantu$ !mant$
Is muc$ used in formin, adjectives of possession. It $as een
e?plained alread' 0++A, ++", +++, ++-, ++%1.
ma#a
Fit$ t$is suM? are formed adjectives denotin, made of,
consistin, of(
suva.n.na, ,old 4 ma'a = suva.n.nama'a, made of
,old, ,olden
rajata, silver 4 ma'a = rajatama'a, made of silver
min E mi
#$is forms a fe* possessive adjectives& t$e stems are in in
and t$e nominative sin,ular in ii 0see, in and ii1.
,o, co* 4 min = ,omin 0,omii1, possessin, o?en,
cattle, a possessor of cattle
sa, o*n 4 min = samin 0saamii1, o*ner, master, lord
mii
See last.
ra
From t$is are made a fe* adjectives& ,u.na, in some
e?amples, takes place. It is often preceded ' t$e vo*els a
and i.
mad$u, $one' 4 ra = mad$ura, s*eet, s*eetness
sik$aa, a peak 4 ra = sik$aara, $avin, a peak, peaked,
a mountain
susa, empt', $ole 4 0i1ra = susira, full of $oles
kamma, act, *ork 4 ara = kammaaro, $avin, or doin,
*ork, an arti5cer, smit$
so
Same meanin, as ra.
med$aa, *isdom 4 so = med$aaso $avin, *isdom,
*ise
loma, $air 4 so = lomaso, $air'
si1 ssi
See elo* 0vin=vi1.
ta
Forms a fe* nouns and adjective, it is a possessive suM?(
paa, a knot, joint, fulness 4 ta = paata, a
mountain, t$at *$ic$ $as joints or fulness
va:nka, ent 4 ta = va:nkata, ent, crooked
tama
Is t$e suM? used in formin, t$e Superlative. See 0+-=, i1.
tana
#$is suM? forms, from advers, a fe* adjectives(
svaa 0sve, suve1, tomorro* 4 tana = svaatano, of
tomorro*, elon,in, to tomorro*
sana.m 0Sanskrit sanaa1, of old, al*a's 4 tana =
sanantano, ancient, old, perpetual
nuu, no* 4 tana = nuutano, fres$, ne*
tara
As t$e suM? of t$e comparative, tara $as alread' een
e?plained 0+-=, i1.
taa 1
#$is suM? forms a numerous class of feminine astract
nouns from adjectives and nouns, and e?presses t$e state,
nature or 9ualit' of ein, t$at *$ic$ is denoted ' t$e
adjective or noun.
la$u, li,$t 4 taa = la$utaa, li,$tness
saara, pit$, marro* 4 taa = saarataa, essence,
stren,t$
ati 0pre5?1 ver' ,reat 4 suura, a $ero 4 taa =
atisuurataa, ,reat $eroism
taa 6
Denotes multitude, collection(
jana, person, man 4 taa = janataa, a multitude of
persons, folk, people
,aama, villa,e 4 taa = ,aamataa, a collection of
villa,es
So( na,arataa, and$utaa etc.
ti
Is used in formin, t$e *ords e?pressin, decades 0see +3"1.
tta !S' tva$
Forms neuter nouns of t$e same import as taa "(
put$ujjana, a common man 4 tta = put$ujjanatta.m,
t$e state of ein, a common man
udd$a, a udd$a 4 tta = udd$atta.m, .udd$a$ood
att$i, $e is 4 tta = att$itta.m, t$e state of H$e isH,
e?istence
ttana
7sed in t$e same sense as t$e last 0S. tvana1.
put$ujjana 4 ttana = put$ujjanattana.m, state of ein,
a common man
vedanaa, sensation 4 ttana = vedanattana.m,
sensitiveness
t#a E cca !S' t#a$
Forms a fe* adjectives from indeclinales. 0for t'a=cca, see
<%1
ni, in 4 cca = nicca, in*ard, inmate, o*n, eternal,
perpetual
amaa, *it$, at $ome 4 cca = amacco, inmate, minister
tha
7sed in formin, t$e ordinals( %t$, 3t$, )t$, and <t$. 0see
+3"1
tha'm
Makes advers from pronominal stems& it $as een noticed
in 0--<1.
thaa
#$is also $as een noticed in 0--<1.
vaa !vantu$ !vant$
#$is suM? makes a ver' lar,e class of possessive adjectives.
It is similar in c$aracter to maa 0mant1. See 0++A1.
va
Forms a small numer of adjectives.
a.n.na, *ave 4 va = a.n.navo, illo*', also, t$e ocean
kesa, $air 4 va = kesavo, $air' 0a name of 8isnu1
vii E vin
7sed to form adjectives of possession. #$e stems are in in,
and t$e nominative sin,ular in ii. It $as een e?plained in
0+-"1. It is used also after some *ords t$e stem of *$ic$
ends in s 0"3=, ")A1(
tapas 0tapo1, austerit', devotion 4 vii = tapassii
0tapasvi1, austere, a $ermit
'asas 0'aso1, fame 4 vii = 'asassii 0'asasvi1, reno*ned,
famous
Note t$at initial v of vii is assimilated to 5nal s, t$us ,ivin,
ssii& t$e suM? as ,iven ' native ,rammarians is ssii, *$ic$
t$e student s$ould assume as ein, t$e true suM?.
#a !'n#a$
#$is forms a ver' lar,e class of nouns, mostl' neuter
astract. Gu.na takes place in most cases, and assimilation
is re,ular.
alasa, laE' 4 'a = aalas'a.m, aalassa.m, laEiness
kusala, skilful 4 'a = kosalla.m, skill, master'
pa.n.dita, learned, clever 4 'a = pa.n.dicca.m, learnin,,
sc$olars$ip
vipula, road, lar,e 4 'a = vepulla.m, development
samaana, e9ual, same 4 'a = sama;n;no, common,
,eneral
dakk$i.na, a@ale 4 'a = dakk$i;n;no, a@ale, kind&
dakk$i;n;na.m, a@ailit', kindness
%oots Dse as Su0)es !Cvi$
3=+. HkviH is an ima,inar' suM? denotin, t$at t$e root itself
is to e considered as t$e suM?. F$en a root ends in a
consonant, t$is consonant is elided( N,am = ,a, N,$an, to
kill = ,$a. As t$ese form primaril' adjectives, t$e' assume,
in certain cases, ut not al*a's, t$e endin,s of t$e t$ree
,enders.
3=-. #$e student must ear in mind t$at native ,rammarians
include kvi in kita. As, $o*ever, t$e' are used as suM?es
added after Primar' and Secondar' derivatives and
indeclinales, I $ave preferred to treat t$em separatel'.
3=%. A list of t$e principal roots used as suM?es is $ere
,iven.
bhuu
0N$uu, to e1 Ias ,enerall' t$e meanin, denoted ' t$e
ver itself(
a$i 4 $uu = a$i$uu, masterin,, overcomin,, a
con9ueror 0a$i$avi, to overcome1
vi 4 $uu = vi$u, arisin,, e?pandin,, ruler, lord
0vi$avati, to arise, e?pand1
sam 4 $uu = sam$uu, o@sprin,, pro,en'&
sam$avati, to e produced, to sprin, from
a
0Ndaa, to ,ive, esto*1
amata, imortalit' 4 da = amatado, $e *$o esto*s or
confers immortalit', conferrin, immortalit'
loka$ita, t$e *orldGs *elfare 4 da = loka$itado,
esto*in,, or *is$in, for, t$e *orldGs *elfare
ga
0N,am, to ,o1
paara, t$e furt$er s$ore 4 ,a = para,o, ,one to t$e
furt$er s$ore, viE. to Nirvana
kula, famil' 4 upa, near 4 ,a = kulupa,o, one *$o
,oes near a famil', a famil' adviser
guu
0a collateral form of N,am1
add$aa, distance 4 ,uu = add$a,uu, ,oin, to a
distance, a traveller
paara 4 ,uu = paara,uu, as aove, paara,o
gha
0N,$an=$an P3>, noteQ, to strike, kill1 pa.ti, ack, in return 4
,$a = pa.ti,$o, $atred
ja
0Njaa, jan, to e orn, produced1
pa:nka, mud 4 ja = pa:nkaja, produced in t$e mud, a
lotus
a:nda, an e,, 4 ja = a:ndaja, orn from an e,, = a
ird
ji
0Nji, to con9uer1 maara, t$e enem' of .udd$a 4 ji = maaraji,
con9ueror of Mara
pa
0Npaa, to drink1 pada, a foot 4 pa = paadapo, drinkin, '
t$e foot 0root1, a tree
pa
0Npaa, to ,uard, keep1 ,o, co* 4 pa = ,opo, co*keeper
'tha
0N.t$aa, to stand, e?ist1
naavaa, oat 4 .t$a = naava.t.t$o, stored in a oat
aakaasa, t$e sk', air 4 .t$a = aakasa.t.t$o, standin,,
restin,, aidin, in t$e sk'
&ha
0Nk$aa, a collateral form of Nk$an, to di,1 pari, round 4 k$a
= parik$a, t$at *$ic$ is du, all round = a moat
aa
Properl' t$e ase 0-<"/%1 of Ndaa, ut considered as a root
' some ,rammarians, is used in t$e same *a' as da aove(
saakaamadada.m kum$a.m = an all/desire/,rantin,
vessel, a vessel *$ic$ ,rants all desires.
3=3. #$e tadd$ita suM?es ma' e classi5ed as follo*s(
Patron#mics / a, aana, aa'ana, era, e''a, i, ika.
Possessive / aka, ika, imaa, in=ii, ra 0ara, ira1, so, ssii, maa
0mat, mant1, min=mii, va, vaa 0vat, vant1, vii=vin, ta, ina, la.
Group1 collection1 multitue / a, ika, ka, taa.
State of1 Fualit#1 abstract iea / 'a, e''a, i'a, taa, tta,
ttana, ta.
%elation !relating to$ / a, i, ika, ima, ki'a.
#$e ot$ers ma' e classi5ed as miscellaneous.
3=). It *ill $ave een remarked t$at some suM?es are
merel' made up of a principal one *$ic$ $as taken t$e vo*el
a or i or u efore it. Suc$ are( aka, ika from ka& a'a, i'a from
'a& ara, ira, ura from ra& ila from la.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter 9IV
S#nta) !Caara&a$
3=<. S'nta?, in Paali, does not o@er an' diMcult' for nearl'
all t$e relations of t$e sustantives, adjectives and pronouns
*$ic$ *ill e e?plained in t$is c$apter are ver' often
oviated ' compoundin, t$em as $as alread' een
e?plained in t$e c$apter on 6ompounds. #$e student *$o
$as carefull' read and mastered t$e 6ompounds $as
t$erefore done muc$ and *ill understand ordinar' prose
*it$out too muc$ diMcult'. Io*ever, t$ere are peculiar uses
of t$e 6ases, *it$out a kno*led,e of *$ic$ a t$orou,$
master' of t$e lan,ua,e *ould e impossile& *e t$erefore
invite t$e learner to read attentivel' t$e present c$apter.
8rer of Sentences
3==. #$e order of t$e Paali sentence is ver' simple in
c$aracter, compound sentences ein, rat$er t$e e?ception
t$an t$e rule(
". F$et$er t$e sentence e simple, compound or
comple?, t$e predicate must al*a's come last.
+. In a simple sentence containin, an oject, t$e order is(
0i1 Suject, 0ii1 oject and 0iii1 predicate, as( daaso
kamma.m karoti, t$e slave does t$e *ork.
-. Fords 9ualif'in, t$e suject or t$e oject come efore
t$e suject and t$e oject respectivel', and advers
efore t$e ver( eteta'o purisaa ma$anta.m siri.m
sii,$a.m paapu.ni.msu, t$ese t$ree men 9uickl'
attained to ,reat ,lor'.
%emar&' Advers of time al*a's come 5rst in t$e sentence.
%. #$e conjunctions, pana, ut& udaa$u, or& are used to
form compound sentences& ce, 'adi and sace, if,
comple? sentences.
The Article
3=>. #$ere are no *ords in Paali correspondin, to t$e Cn,lis$
articles& t$e *ords eko, ekacce, one, a certain are often used
in t$e sense of t$e inde5nite article 0+3-1& and so, eso, t$at,
t$is, do t$e function of t$e de5nite article( so puriso, t$e
man& saa itt$ii, t$e *oman.
%emar&' Sustantives not preceded ' t$e aove *ords
ma', accordin, to t$e conte?t, e translated as if preceded
' t$e articles( puriso = a man, or, t$e man.
Concor
Concor of subject an preicate
3>A.
". #$e predicate ma' e(
i. a 5nite ver( $ikk$u ,a$apati.m ovaadi, t$e
monk admonis$ed t$e $ouse$older&
ii. a sustantive *it$ t$e ver H$otiH understood after
it( 'adi ete ,u.naa, if t$ese 0are=$onti1 virtues&
iii. an adjective *it$ H$otiH also understood( tva.m
atiaalo, t$ou 0art=asi1 ver' foolis$&
iv. a P.P.P. used as a 5nite ver& so pi ,ato, $e too
*ent, lit. $e too ,one.
+. F$en a 5nite ver is used as predicate, it must a,ree
*it$ t$e suject in numer and person. F$en t$ere are
several sujects of di@erent persons, t$e ver is put in
t$e 5rst person plural( so ca tva.m a$a.m ,acc$at$a, $e
t$ou, and I ,o. S$ould t$ere e no suject of t$e 5rst
person, t$e ver is put in t$e +nd person plural( so ca
tva.m ,acc$at$a, $e and t$ou ,o.
-. In t$e case of an adjective or a P.P.P. takin, t$e place of
t$e predicate, t$e adjective and t$e P.P.P. must a,ree
*it$ t$e suject in ,ender and numer( so ,ato, $e
*ent& saa ,ataa, s$e *ent& ta.m ,ata.m, it *ent& so
taru.no, $e is 'oun,& saa taru.naa, s$e is 'oun,& ta.m
taru.na.m, it is 'oun,.
%. .ut if a sustantive stands in t$e place of a ver, no
suc$ concord of ,ender or numer needs take place(
appamado nianapada.m 0=niaanassa pada.mo1,
vi,ilance is t$e pat$ to Nirvana.
Concor of ajective an substantive
3>". An adjective, or participle 0*$ic$ is of t$e nature of an
adjective1 *$en not compounded *it$ t$e noun it 9uali5es,
must a,ree *it$ it in ,ender, numer and case.
Concor of the relative an its anteceent
3>+. #$e relative must a,ree *it$ its antecedent in ,ender,
numer and person.
". #$e relative ma' e used ' itself, *it$out t$e noun( 'o
janaati so ima.m ,a.n$aatu, $e *$o kno*s let $im take
t$is. Note, t$at in t$e aove t$e demonstrative pronoun
so is used as a correlative.
+. #$e relative is used instead of a precedin, noun( a$a.m
eka.m upaa'a.m janaami, 'ena am$e ,a.n$itu.m no
sakkissati, I kno* an e?pedient ' *$ic$ $e *ill not
ale to seiEe us.
-. Fit$ t$e noun e?pressed( 'assa purisassa udd$i $oti
so ma$add$ano ti vuccati, to *$om t$ere is *isdom, $e
is called ver' *ealt$', $e *$o $as *isdom is said to e
ver' *ealt$'.
%. Note t$at t$e clause containin, t$e relative is put 5rst&
sometimes t$e clause containin, t$e correlative is
placed 5rst for t$e sake of emp$asis( na so pitaa'ena
putto na sikk$aapi'ati, $e is no fat$er ' *$om t$e son
is not made to learn.
S#nta) of Substantives
3>-. #$is is properl' ,overnment, for t$e term HkaarakaH
e?presses t$e relation et*een t$e noun and t$e ver& so
t$at an' relation e?istin, et*een *ords not connected *it$
a ver cannot e called a kaaraka, conse9uentl' t$e Genitive
and t$e 8ocative are not considered as cases, for t$e' $ave
no relation *$atever *it$ t$e ver& t$e' are t$erefore called
akaaraka, non/cases.
1' The +ominative
3>%. #$e Nominative is used ver' muc$ in t$e same *a' as
in Cn,lis$& it is t$e suject of t$e ver and t$e latter must
a,ree *it$ it in numer and person& see 6oncord of suject
and predicate 03>A1.
i. #$e Nominative is used in apposition( malliko
kosalaraajaa, Mallika, kin, of [osala.
ii. It is used asolutel' in titles of ooks, t$at is, it does
not take t$e termination proper to t$e nominative&
maa$ajaanakajaataka, t$e irt$/stor' of Ma$ajanaka.
6' Genitive
3>3. #$e true force of t$e ,enitive is /of and /Gs e?pressin,
possession.
i. #$e ,enitive t$erefore is used primaril' to denote
possession(
suva.n.nassa raasi, a $eap of ,old
rukk$assa saak$aa, t$e ranc$ of t$e tree
ii. In suc$ e?amples as t$e aove, t$e ,enitive is often
compounded *it$ t$e noun it 9uali5es( suva.n.naraasi.
iii. It denotes t$e *$ole of *$ic$ a part onl' is taken& t$is
is called Hpartitive ,enitiveH(
raa$maa.na.m so pa.n.dito, $e is clever amon,
ra$mins
saa'od$aana.m atisuuro, t$e ravest of all
*arriors
tum$aaka.m pana ekenaa, ut even not one of 'ou
iv. #$e ,enitive is used also *it$ *ords e?pressin,
di@erence, e9ualit', ine9ualit'(
tassa antara.m na passi.msu, t$e' did not see t$e
0its1 di@erence
sadiso pitu, t$e same as 0$is1 fat$er
tul'o pitu, e9ual to $is fat$er
%emar&' In t$ese e?amples, t$e alative ma' also e used(
sadiso pitaraa.
v. Fords meanin, dear or t$e reverse, take a ,enitive( saa
raa$ma.nassa manaapaa, s$e 0*as1 dear to t$e
ra$min.
vi. !ike*ise *ords denotin, $onour, veneration, etc.(
,aamassa puujito, $onoured of t$e villa,e
ra;n;no maanito, revered ' 0of1 t$e kin,
%emar&' In t$ese e?amples t$e Instrumental ma' also e
used( ,aamena puujito.
vii. Fords of skill, pro5cienc', etc., and t$eir opposites,
,overn t$e ,enitive( kusalaa nacca,iitassa, clever in
dancin, and sin,in,.
viii. It is used *it$ *ords indicatin, localit', time, distance(
am$aaka.m udd$assa pue, efore our .udd$a
,aamassa avidure, not far from t$e villa,e
upari tesa.m, aove t$em
i?. .elievin, in or *ell disposed to*ards( ud$assa
pasanno, $e $as fait$ in t$e .udd$a.
%emar&' Iere t$e !ocative ma' also e used( udd$e
pasanno.
?. It is used also *it$ *ords of rememerin, or t$inkin, of
0*it$ sorro*1, pit'in,, *is$in, for, ,ivin, or
apportionin,, $onourin,, cleanin,, 5llin,, fearin, and a
fe* ot$ers(
maatussa sarati, $e rememers $is mot$er 0*it$
sorro*1
na tesa koci sarati, nood' rememers t$em
telassa davati, $e ,ives oil
puurati aalo paapassa, t$e fool is full of evil
sae tasanti da.n.dassa, all fear punis$ment
In t$ese e?amples, t$e Accusative ma' e used( tela.m
davati.
%emar&' Fords of fearin, also ,overn t$e Alative( kin nu
k$o a$a.m sunak$aa $aa'amiW F$' s$ould I fear t$e do,W
?i. A Genitive *it$ a participle in a,reement is called a
Genitive Asolute. It ,enerall' denotes some attendant
circumstance( tassa $atta.m $uttassa udaka.m
a$aranti, *$en $e $ad 5nis$ed $is meal t$e' fetc$ed
$im *ater.
?ii. Some ot$er relations of t$e Genitive *ill present no
diMcult', as t$e' $ave t$eir e?act parallel in Cn,lis$.
3>). It *ill e seen from t$e remarks aove t$at t$e Genitive
is often used instead of t$e Accusative, t$e Alative, t$e
Instrumentive and t$e !ocative. It is also used adveriall', as
kissa, *$'W It *ill also e remarked t$at *$enever t$e
Genitive is dependent on a ver, it is so on account of its
ein, used instead of anot$er case, as in( maatussa sarati.
>' The /ative
3><. #$e person or oject to or for *$om, somet$in, is ,iven
or done, is put in t$e Dative case. #$e Dative is conse9uentl'
used also as indirect oject *it$ transitive vers $avin, an
Accusative as direct oject.
i. #$e Dative, t$en, e?presses t$e relations *$ic$, in
Cn,lis$, are usuall' denoted ' t$e *ords to, for(
$ikk$ussa civara.m deti, $e ,ives a roe to t$e
priest
'udd$aa'a paccu,,acc$aami, I *ill set out for attle
ii. #$e Dative is ,overned ' vers e?pressin, praise or
lame, an,er, elievin,, diselievin,, assent, env',
pleasure or displeasure, injur', ene5t, approval,
for,iveness, salutation, lessin,, $atred, ause,
concealin,, *ors$ippin,, carr'in,. C?amples(
.udd$assa silaa,$ate, $e praises t$e .udd$a
'adiG$a.m tassa kuppe''a, if I s$ould e an,r' *it$
$im
du$a'ati disaana.m o,$o, t$e 2ood $as injured t$e
countr'
tu'$a.m sadda$aami, I elieve t$ee
svaa,ata.m te, $ail to t$eeJ
sott$i tu'$a.m $otu, fare t$ee *ellJ
k$ama me, for,ive meJ
ma'$a.m sapate, $e s*ears at or, reviles me
tassa sampa.ticc$i, $e assented to it
ussu'anti dujjanaa ,u.nav antaana.m, *icked people
env' t$e virtuous
tassa atiita.m aa$ari, $e told $im a stor'
devaa pi tesa.m pi$a'anti, even t$e ,ods desire
t$em, env' t$em
sama.nassa rocate sacca.m, trut$ pleases a monk
iii. #$e Dative is commonl' used *it$ t$e ver Hto eH to
e?press possession( puttaa me nGatt$i, no sons are to
me, I $ave no sons.
%emar&' F$en t$e ver H$otiH is used *it$ t$e Dative to
e?press possession, it is ,enerall' put in t$e sin,ular, even
*$en, as in t$e aove e?ample *$at is possessed is plural.
iv. #$e *ord, ala.m, enou,$, 5t, ,overns t$e Dative(
ala.m kukkuccaa'a, enou,$ of doutJ
ala.m mallo mallassa, suMcient is a *arrior for a
*arriorJ A *arrior is matc$ for a *arrior.
v. #$e *ords, att$a, oject, purpose& $ita, ene5t,
lessin,& and suk$a, $appiness& are used in t$e Dative
*it$ t$e meanin, respectivel' of( for t$e purpose of,
for& for t$e ene5t of& for t$e $appiness of& and t$e'
,overn a Genitive(
ropanassa att$aa'a, or, ropanatt$aa'a, for t$e
purpose of so*in,
devamanussaana.m $itaa'a, for t$e ene5t of ,ods
and men
tassa suk$aa'a, for $is $apiness
vi. #$e Dative ma' denote t$e purpose for *$ic$, and t$en
,overns a Genitive( daarassa $ara.naa'a, for t$e
purpose of maintainin, a *ife, for t$e maintenance of a
*ife, to maintain a *ife.
%emar&' It *ill e seen from t$is e?ample t$at t$e Dative in
aa'a $as t$e force of an In5nitive.
vii. #$e Dative is also used *it$ t$e ver ma;n;nati, to
consider, esteem, *$en contempt is implied(
kali:n,arassa tu'$a.m ma;n;ne, I consider t$ee as
c$a@, a 5, for 'ouJ
jiivita.m ti.na'a na ma;n;ne, I do not consider life
0so muc$1 as ,rass, I do not care in t$e least for life.
viii. #$e place to *$ic$ motion is directed is sometimes put
in t$e Dative(
appo sa,,aa'a ,acc$ati, 0onl'1 t$e fe* ,o to $eaven
nira'aa'a upaka.d.d$ati, dra,s do*n to $ell
so ma.m udakaa'a neti, $e takes me to t$e *ater
i?. #$e Dative is often used instead of t$e Accusative, and
also of t$e !ocative.
?' The Accusative
3>=.
i. #$e Accusative case is ,enerall' ,overned ' transitive
vers(
rat$a.m karoti, $e makes a carria,e
aa$aaro ala.m janeti, food produces 0=,ives
stren,t$1
ii. All vers impl'in, motion ,overn t$e Accusative(
na,ara.m ,acc$ati, $e ,oes to to*n
$a,avanta.m upasa:nkamitvaa, $avin, approac$ed
t$e .lessed Dne
iii. 8ers $avin, t$e meanin, of, to c$oose to name, to
call, to appoint, to ask, to make, to kno*, to consider,
etc. take t*o accusatives, one a direct oject and t$e
ot$er a factitive or indirect oject(
puriso $aara.m ,ama.m va$ati, t$e man carries t$e
load to t$e villa,e
purisa.m ,acc$anta.m passati, $e sees t$e man
,oin,
$ere, ,aama.m and ,acc$anta.m are t$e factitive ojects.
iv. 6ausative vers like*ise ,overn t*o Accusatives(
puriso purisa.m ,aama.m ,amaa'ati, t$e man
causes t$e man to ,o to t$e villa,e
aacari'o sisa.m d$amma.m paat$eti, t$e preceptor
causes t$e disciple to read t$e Doctrine
%emar&' In suc$ e?amples t$e Instrumentive ma' e used
instead of t$e factitive oject(
saamiko daasena 0or daasa.m1 k$ajja.m k$aadaapeti,
t$e master causes t$e slave to eat t$e food
purisena 0or purisa.m1 kamma.m kaareti, $e causes
t$e slave to do t$e *ork
v. F$en t$e roots( Nvas, to live& Nt$aa, to stand& Nsi, to lie
do*n& Npad, to ,o step& and Nvis, to enter& are
preceded ' t$e veral pre5?es( anu, upa, a$i, ad$i,
aa and ni, t$e' ,overn t$e Accusative(
,aama.m upavasati, $e lives near t$e villa,e
na,ara.m ad$ivasanti, t$e' d*ell in t$e villa,e
ma;nca.m a$insiide''a, $e ou,$t to sit on t$e cot
sakkassa sa$a'ata.m upapajjati, ,ot into
companions$ip *it$ Sakka, s$e *ent to SakkaGs
$eaven
vi. #$e Accusative is used for t$e !ocative(
nadi.m pivati = nadi'a.m pivati, $e drinks in t$e river
,aama.m carati = ,aame carati, $e roams in t$e
villa,e
vii. #$e indeclinales( a$ito, near, in t$e presence of, on
ot$ sides& d$i, d$ii, FoeJ FieJ S$ameJ as *ell as t$e
e?pression( d$i/r/att$u, Foe, s$ame e toJ antaraa,
et*een, on t$e *a'& parito, around, ever'*$ere, on
ever' side& anu, ' t$e side of, inferior& pati, to,
to*ards, for, near& pari, around& upa, inferior to&
antarena, e?cept, *it$out& a$i, efore, ,overn t$e
Accusative(
a$ito ,aama vasati, $e lives near t$e villa,e
d$ii raa$ma.nassa $antaara.m, *oe to *$om strikes
a ra$minJ
d$ii/ratt$u ma.m puutika'a.m, s$ame on t$at foul
od' of mineJ
upaa'a.m antarena, *it$out e?pedient
ma.m antarena, e?ceptin, me
antaraa ca raaja,a$a.m, and on t$e *a' to Baja,a$a
parito na,ara.m, around t$e villa,e
sad$u devadatto maatara.m anu, Devadatta is kind
to $is mot$er
anu saariputta.m, inferior to Sariputta
paatta.m anu, ' t$e side of t$e mountain
saad$u devadatto maatara.m pati, Devadatta is kind
to $is mot$er
nadi.m nera;njara.m pati, near t$e river Nera;njara
upa saariputta.m, inferior to Sariputta
viii. Duration of time is put in t$e Accusative(
divasa.m, t$e *$ole da'
ta.m k$a.na.m, at t$at moment
eka.m sama'a.m, once upon a time
i?. Drdinals in t$e Accusative, denote Hnumer of timesH(
duti'a.m, for t$e second time
tati'a.m, for t$e -rd time
?. Distance is also e?pressed ' t$e Accusative( 'ojana.m
,acc$ati, $e ,oes one lea,ue.
?i. #$e Accusative is ver' often used adveriall'(
k$ippa.m ,acc$ati, $e ,oes 9uickl'
$att$anille$aka.m $u;njati, $e eats Hlickin, $is
$andsH
%emar&' #$is is called t$e adverial accusative.
@' The Instrumentative
3>>.
i. #$e a,ent ' *$om or t$e instrument *it$ *$ic$ an
action is performed is put in t$e Instrumental(
cakk$unaa rupa.m passati, 0one1 sees forms *it$ t$e
e'e
$att$ena kamma.m karoti, 0one1 does *ork *it$ t$e
$ands
daasena kato, done ' t$e slave
ii. #$e Instrumental s$o*s cause or reason(
rukk$o vaatena o.namati, t$e tree ends do*n on
account of t$e *ind
kammuna vasalo $oti, $e is a paria$ ' reason of $is
*ork
#$e Instrumental can t$erefore e translated ' suc$
e?pressions as( ' means of& on account of& t$rou,$& '
reason of& o*in, to.
iii. #$e conve'ance in or on *$ic$ one ,oes is put in t$e
Instrumental(
'aanena ,acc$ati, $e ,oes in a cart
vimaanena ,acc$i.msu, t$e' *ent in a 2'in,
mansion
$att$ina upasa:nkamati, $e approac$ed on $is
elep$ant
iv. #$e price at *$ic$ a t$in, is ou,$t or sold is put in t$e
Instrumental(
ka$aapa.nena no det$a, ,ive it to us for a
ka$aapa.na 0a small piece of mone'1
satasa$assena ki.nitvaa, $avin, ou,$t it for
"AA,AAA 0pieces of mone'1
v. #$e direction or route, or t$e *a' ' *$ic$ one ,oes is
s$o*n ' t$e Instrumental(
taa saaladvaarena ,acc$anti, t$e' *ent ' t$e ,ate
of t$e $all
kena ma,,ena so ,ato, 0'1 *$ic$ *a' did $e ,oW
vi. It is used to denote in5rmit' or odil' defects, t$e
memer or or,an a@ected ein, in t$e Instrumental(
akk$inaa so kaa.no, $e is lind of one e'e
$att$ena ku.ni, $avin, a crooked $and
vii. Fords e?pressin,, irt$, linea,e, ori,in, nature are put
in t$e Instrumental(
jaati'aa k$atti'o udd$o, .udd$a is a kYatri'a '
irt$
pakati'aa $addako, ,ood ' nature
viii. #$e Instrumental e?preses t$e time in *$ic$(
divasena patto, arrived in one da'
ekena maasena na,ara.m ,acc$i, $e *ent to t$e cit'
in a mont$
i?. Also t$e time at *$ic$( tena sama'ena, at t$at time...
?. It e?presses companions$ip, and is t$en ,enerall' used
*it$ t$e indeclinales, sa$a or sadd$i.m, *it$, to,et$er
*it$( nisiidi $a,avaa sadd$i.m $ikk$usa:n,$ena, t$e
.lessed Dne sat to,et$er *it$ t$e asseml' of t$e
monks.
?i. #$e e?pressions H*$at is t$e use ofH, H*$at use to ...H,
H*$at ene5t '...H, etc., are e?pressed in Paali ' t$e
Instrumental of t$e t$in, and t$e Dative of t$e person(
kin te jataa$i dummed$a, *$at ,ood to t$ee, D fool,
' matted $airW
kin nu me udd$ena, *$at need $ave I of .udd$aW
F$at do I care for a .udd$aW
?ii. #$e *ord att$o, desire, need, *ant, takes an
Instrumental of t$e oject desired or *anted and a
Dative of t$e person( ma.ninaa me att$o, I *ant a je*el
0lit., to me is need of, or desire for, a je*el1.
?iii. ala.m, enou,$, ,overns also t$is case(
ala.m id$a vaasena, enou,$ of livin, $ere
ala.m udd$ena, .udd$a is suMcient for me
?iv. Fords denotin, HseparationH are ,enerall' construed
*it$ t$e Instrumental( pi'e$i vippa'o,o dukk$o,
separation from t$ose *e love is painful.
?v. #$e indeclinales, sa$a, sadd$i.m, sama.m, *it$ at(
vinaa, *it$out, e?cept, ,overn t$e Instrumental(
vinaadosena, *it$out fault.
%emar&' sa$a, sometimes e?presses He9ualit'H( puttena
sa$a d$anavaa pitaa, a fat$er as ric$ as $is son.
?vi. 8ers meanin, Hto conve', to carr', to fetc$H etc., take
t$e Instrumental of t$e place of carr'in,( sisena
daarukalaapa.m ucc$a:n,ena pa.n.nam aadaa'a,
takin, a unc$ of 5re*ood on $er $ead and ,reens at
$er $ips.
?vii. #$e Instrumental is often used adveriall' 0see aove1.
?viii. It is also ,overned ' man' prepositions.
A' The Ablative
)AA.
i. #$e primar' meanin, of t$e Alative is t$at e?pressed
' t$e *ord HfromH& t$at is, it e?presses separation& it
e?presses also man' ot$er relations, in *$ic$ t$e
principal idea of separation is more or less discernile.
ii. Separation(
,aamaa apenti, t$e' left t$e villa,e
so assaa patati, $e fell from t$e $orse
iii. Direction from(
aviicito upari, aove t$e Avici Iell
udd$a.m padatala, 0from1 aove t$e sole of t$e foot
iv. #$e place H*$ereinH an action is performed is put in t$e
Alative& in suc$ cases a ,erund is sometimes
understood accordin, to native ,rammarians, ut t$e
student *ill remark t$at t$ese e?pressions $ave t$eir
e?act parallel in Cn,lis$( paasaadaa oloketi, $e looks
from t$e palace, is said to e e9uivalent to(
paasaada.m a$iru$itvaa paasaadaa oloketi, $avin,
ascended t$e palace $e looks from t$e palace.
v. Measure of len,t$, readt$ or distance is put in t$e
Alative(
dii,$aso navavidatt$i'o, nine spans lon,
'ojana.m aa'aamato, a lea,ue in len,t$
'ojana.m vitt$arato, a lea,ue in readt$
%emar&' In t$ese e?amples t$e Instrumental ma' also e
used( 'ojana.m aa'aamena, 'ojana.m vitt$aarena.
vi. #$at from *$ic$ a person or animal is *arded or kept
o@ is put in t$e Alative(
'ave$i ,aavo rakk$ati, $e keeps o@ t$e co*s from
t$e arle'
ta.n.dulaa kaake vaareti, $e *ards o@ t$e cro*s from
t$e rice
vii. Fit$ vers meanin, to $ide, conceal, Ht$e person from
*$om one *is$es to $ideH is in t$e Alative( upajj$aa'a
antarad$aa'ati sisso, t$e pupil $ides $imself from $is
preceptor.
%emar&' In suc$ e?pressions, t$e Genitive ma' also e
used( antarad$aa'issaami sama.nassa ,otamasssa, I *ill
$ide m'self from t$e samana Gotama.
viii. F$en t$e ver Hantarad$aa'atiH means, to vanis$, to
disappear, t$e place from *$ic$ one vanis$es is put in
t$e !ocative( jetavane antarad$aa'itvaa, $avin,
disappeared from t$e Retavana Monaster'.
i?. .ut *$en Hnatural p$enomenaH are referred to, t$e
Nominative is used( and$akaaro antarad$aa'ati,
darkness disappears.
?. 8ers meanin, Hto astain, to avoid, to release, to fear,
to a$orH, also ,overn t$e Alative(
paapad$ammmato viramati, $e refrains from sin
so parimuccati jaati'aa, $e is released from
e?istence
core$i $aa'aami, I am afraid of t$ieves
?i. #$e Alative also s$o*s Hmotive, cause, reasonH and
can e translated ' for, on account of, ' reason of,
t$rou,$, etc.(
vaacaa'a marati, $e died on account of $is speec$
siilato na.m pasa.msanti, t$e' praise $im for $is
virtue
%emar&' In t$ese e?amples, t$e Instrumental ma' e used
as *ell( siilena pasa.msanti.
?ii. It is used *it$ *ords s$o*in, pro?imit'( ,aamaa
samiipa.m, near t$e villa,e.
%emar&' In t$ese e?amples, t$e Genitive ma' also e used.
?iii. 8ers meanin, Hto e orn, to ori,inate fromH etc.
,overn t$e Alative( coraa jaa'ati $a'a.m, from a t$ief
fear arises.
?iv. #$e follo*in, indeclinales ,overn t$e Alative(
araka, far from, afar( aarakaa te$i $a,avaa, far from
t$em is t$e .lessed Dne
upari, aove, over( upari paataa, over t$e
mountain
pati, a,ainst, instead, in return& rite, e?cept, *it$out&
a;n;natra, vinaa, *it$out, e?cept& naanaa, di@erent,
a*a' from& put$u and, efore a vo*el, put$a,,
separatel', *it$out, e?cept& aa, till, as far as& 'ava,
till, as far as& sa$a, *it$(
udd$asmaa pati saariputto, Sariputta takes t$e
place of t$e .udd$a
rite sadd$amma, *it$out t$e true Doctrine
?v. It s$ould e noted t$at t$e Alative is ver' fre9uentl'
used, instead of t$e Instrumental, Accusative, t$e
Genitive and t$e !ocative, e.,. vinaasadd$ammaa, or
vinaa sadd$amma.m, or vinaa sadd$ammena.
B' The Locative
)A".
i. #$e !ocative s$o*s t$e place in or on *$ic$ a t$in, or
person is, or an action performed& it is t$erefore
e?pressed in Cn,lis$ ' Hin, on, upon, atH.
kate nisiidati puriso, t$e man is sittin, on t$e mat
t$ali'a.m odana.m pacati, $e cooks t$e food in a
cookin,/pot
ii. #$e !ocative s$o*s t$e Hcause, reason, or motiveH of an
action(
diipiicammesu $a;n;nante, t$e pant$er is killed for
its skin
ku;njaro dantesu $a;n;nate, t$e elep$ant is killed
for $is tusks
iii. It denotes time *$en an action takes place(
saa'a.n$asama'e aa,ato, $e came in t$e evenin,.
iv. F$en t$e pre/eminence of an individual 0t$in, or
person1 over t$e *$ole class to *$ic$ $e elon,s is
implied, as *ell as *it$ adjectives in t$e superlative
de,ree, t$e noun *it$ respect to *$ic$ suc$ pre/
eminence or suc$ superlative de,ree of e?cellence is
s$o*n is put in t$e !ocative or in t$e Genitive(
manussesu k$atti'o suuratamo, t$e kYatri'a is t$e
most valiant of men, manussaana.m k$atti'o
suuratamo
ka.n$aa ,aavisu sampannak$iiratamaa, of co*s, t$e
lack one aounds most in milk, or, ka.n$aa
,aavina.m sampannak$iiratamaa
v. #$e follo*in, *ords ,overn t$e !ocative and t$e
Genitive as *ell(
saamii, an o*ner, master
issaro, kin,, lord
ad$ipati, c$ief, lord
daa'aado, an $eir
pati$uu, sustitute, suret'
pasuuto, o@sprin,, c$ild
kusalo, clever, e?pert
,onesu saamii, an o*ner of o?en, or ,onaana.m
saamii, etc.
vi. Fords si,nif'in, Hto e $app', contented, ea,erH,
,overn t$e !ocative, as *ell as t$e Instrumental(
;naa.nasmi.m ussuko, ea,er for *isdom, or
;naa.nena ussako
;naa.nasmi.m pasiidito, contented *it$ *isdom,
;naa.nena pasiidito
vii. Fords si,nif'in, Hreverence, respect, love, deli,$tin,
in, salutin,, takin,, seiEin,, strikin,, kissin,, fond of,
adorin,,H ,overn t$e !ocative(
paapasmi.m ramati mano, t$e mind deli,$ts in evil
$ikk$uusu a$ivaadenti, t$e' salute t$e monks
paade ,a$etvaa papaate k$ipati, took $im ' t$e
feet and t$re* $im in t$e precipice
purisa.m siise pa$arati, struck t$e man on t$e $ead
viii. #$e !ocative is used sometimes to s$o* t$at one does
not take an' account of somet$in, or person(
rudantasmi.m daarake paaji, $e left t$e *orld in spite
of $is son *eepin,. #$e Genitive also ma' e used(
rudantassa aarakassa paaji 0See( !ocative and
Genitive Asolute1.
i?. #$e !ocative is emplo'ed to denote superiorit' or
inferiorit', *it$ t$e *ords HupaH and Had$iH respectivel'.
upa k$aari'a.m do.no, a do.na is inferior to a k$aari
ad$i ra$madatte pa;ncalaa, t$e Pancalas are under
.ra$madattaGs supremac'
ad$i devesu udd$o, t$e .udd$a is aove t$e ,ods
?. It is used to denote Hpro?imit'H(
nadi'a.m sassa.m, corn near t$e river
tassa pa.n.nasaalaa'a $att$ima,,o $oti, near $is leaf
$ut t$ere is an elep$ant/track
?i. #$e !ocative is used asolutel' *it$ a participle in t$e
same case as itself 0see, Asolute 6onstruction1.
?ii. In le?icons, t$e !ocative is used to si,nif' Hin t$e sense
ofH ru sadde, 0t$e root1 ru, is used in t$e sense of
Hmakin, noiseH.
?iii. Fords denotin, H5tness, suitailit'H ,overn t$e
!ocative( ta'i na 'utta.m, not 5t for t$ee& t$e Genitive
is used in t$e same sense( tava na 'utta.m.
?iv. #$e !ocative is e?tensivel' used instead of ot$er cases,
and t$e students must e prepared to meet t$e
!ocative *$ere ver' often $e *ould e?pect to 5nd some
ot$er case. !et $im note t$at in almost all instances,
t$e case for *$ic$ t$e !ocative stands ma' e and is,
used.
?v. #$e !ocative is used for t$e Genitive 0see, aove, v1.
?vi. It is used for t$e Instrumental( pattesu pi.n.daa'a
caraanti, t$e' ,o aout *it$ o*ls for t$eir food.
?vii. It is also used instead of t$e Dative( sa:n,$e dinna.m
ma$app$ala.m, o@erin, to t$e cler,' are ver'
meritorious.
?viii. #$e !ocative is used for t$e Alative( kadaliidesu ,aje
rakk$anti, t$e' keep o@ t$e elep$ants from t$e
plantain/trees.
?i?. #$e !ocative is fre9uentl' used adveriall'( atiite,
formerl'.
G' The Vocative
)A+. #$e 8ocative case does not re9uire an' e?planations( it
is used e?actl' as in Cn,lis$.
The Genitive an Locative Absolute
)A-.
i. F$en a noun or a pronoun in t$e !ocative or Genitive is
used *it$ a participle in t$e same case as itself, t$e
construction is called, !ocative Asolute and Genitive
Asolute respectivel'. #$e !ocative Asolute
construction is met *it$ muc$ more often t$an t$e
Genitive Asolute. #$ere is also found, no* and t$en, a
Nominative Asolute construction, ut far less common
t$an t$e ot$er t*o.
ii. #$e !ocative, Genitive and 0sometimes1 t$e Nominative
Asolute, ma' often e translated ' H*$en, *$ile,
sinceH and sometimes ' Halt$ou,$H(
tesu vivadantesu od$isatto cintesi, *$ile t$e' *ere
disputin,, t$e Future .udd$a t$ou,$t
suri'e att$a:n,ate, *$en t$e sun $ad set, after
sunset
,avisu du'$amaanaasu ,ato, $e *ent *$en t$e co*s
*ere ein, milked
asani'aa pi siise patanti'aa, alt$ou,$ t$e
t$underolt *as fallin, on t$eir $ead
iii. sati, t$e !ocative sin,ular of santo, present participle of
t$e ver att$i, to e, esides $avin, t$e aove
meanin,s ma' also often e translated ' Hif, suc$
ein, t$e caseH(
att$e sati, if t$ere e need
eva.m sati, suc$ ein, t$e case
pa'o,e sati, *$en t$ere is occasion
Fit$ feminine *ords, sati is also used, alt$ou,$ it s$ould e,
sati'aa 0Fem.1(
pucc$aa'a sati, if t$e 9uestion e asked
ruci'aa sati, $ad $e t$e desire, if $e $ad t$e *is$
iv. #$e Genitive Asolute is not 9uite so fre9uentl' used as
t$e !ocative Asolute alt$ou,$ found often enou,$(
saaku.nakassa ,umato jaala.m mocentassGeva,
even *$ile t$e fo*ler *as disen,a,in, t$e net from
t$e us$
tesa.mki.lantaana.m 'eva suri'att$a:ni,atavelaa
jaataa, *$ile even t$e' *ere sportin,, it ecame
dusk
v. #$ere is also mentioned a so/called Nominative
Asolute(
,acc$anto $aaradvaajo so, addasaa ajj$uta.m isi.m,
.$aradvaja $avin, ,one $e... etc.
'aa'maano ma$aaraajaa, addaasii tantarena ,e, as
t$e kin, *as ,oin,, $e... etc
%emar&' #$e Genitive Asolute is fre9uentl' used to s$o*
Hdisre,ard, contemptH, it can t$en e translated ' Hin spite
of, not*it$standin,H. For e?ample see aove 0)A", viii1.
S#nta) of the Ajective
)A%.
i. As $as alread' een said, *$enever an adjective is not
in composition *it$ anot$er *ord, it must a,ree *it$
t$e *ord it 9uali5es in numer, ,ender and case.
ii. Adjectives in t$e comparative de,ree re9uire an
Alative( siila.m eva sutaa se''o, virtue is etter t$an
learnin,.
iii. 6omparison is also e?pressed ' an Alative follo*ed
' an adjective in t$e positive de,ree( maad$uraa
paa.taliputtake$i a$irupaa, t$e people of Mad$ura are
more $andsome t$an t$ose of Paa.taliputta.
iv. It is also e?pressed ' t$e indeclinale vara.m, etter,
*it$ an Alative( tato vara.m, etter t$an t$at.
v. F$en Ht$e etter of t*oH is to e e?pressed, a Genitive
is used *it$ t$e positive de,ree( tum$aka.m dvinna.m
ko $addako, of 'ou t*o *$o is t$e etterW
vi. Superlative adjectives are used *it$ t$e Genitive or t$e
!ocative, for e?amples see aove 0)A", iv1.
S#nta) of Pronouns
1' Personal Pronouns
)A3.
i. #$e personal pronouns are used muc$ in t$e same *a'
as in Cn,lis$, and do not call for particular remarks,
e?cept, per$aps, t$e enclitic forms of a$a.m and tva.m,
0+=>/, c& +>A, c1.
ii. #$e enclitic forms of a$a.m( me and no, and t$ose of
tva.m( te and vo, are never used at t$e e,innin, of a
sentence nor immediatel' efore t$e particles ca, taa
and eva(
detu me, let $im ,ive to me
tava vaa me $otu, e it t$ine or mine
kamma.m no ni.t.t$ita.m, our task is 5nis$ed
ko te doso, *$at is t$' faultW
ka$a.m vo raajaa, *$ere is 'our kin,W
iii. Fit$ vers, t$e personal pronouns are fre9uentl'
understood, as t$e endin,s of t$e tenses clearl'
indicate also t$e person as( ,acc$ati, 0$e1 ,oes = so
,acc$ati& ,acc$e''aami, 0I1 s$ould ,o = a$a.m
,acc$e''aami, etc.
iv. #$e personal pronoun so, saa, ta.m is also used as a
demonstrative and as an article. See 6oncord 03=>1.
#$erefore, so puriso ma' mean accordin, to t$e
conte?t( t$e man, or, t$at man.
v. #asmaa 0Alative1, is used adveriall' in t$e sense of
Ht$erefore, accordin,l', t$ere'H& *it$ t$e same
meanin,s it is also follo*ed ' $i and ti $a 0=iti $a1(
tasmaa $i pa;n;naa ca d$anena se''o, and
t$erefore is *isdom etter t$an ric$es
tasmaa ti $a $ikk$ave, accordin,l', D monksJ
vi. #$e Instrumental tena is used *it$ t$e same meanin,s
as tasmaa( tena ta.m mad$ura.m, t$erefore, on t$at
account, it is s*eet. #ena follo*ed ' $i means H*ellJ
ver' *ellJ all ri,$tJ *ell t$enJH( tena $i
k$aadaapessaami nan ti, ver' *ell, t$en, IGll make 'ou
devour $im.
vii. Na.m and ena.m 0+>3, -AA1, are used *$en somet$in,
or someone alread' mentioned is referred to. See 0+>)1.
6' /emonstrative Pronouns
)A).
i. eso, esaa, eta.m 0+>=1, refer to *$at is near, and mean(
t$is.
esaa itt$ii, t$is *oman
nirupakaaro esaa, t$is 0fello*1 is useless
#$e same remarks appl' to a'a.m and asu, t$is.
%emar&' esa is often used for eso, sa for so.
ii. #$e neuter etad 0=eta.m, -A+1, is used *it$ t$e ver
$oti and t$e Genitive of t$e person, and t$e e?pression
is t$en e9uivalent to Hto t$inkH( tassa etad a$osi, $e
t$ou,$t... 0lit = of $is t$is *as1.
>' The %elative
)A<.
i. Fe $ave alread' e?plained t$e Belative 03>+1& onl' a
fe* of its most important peculiar uses need e
mentioned $ere.
ii. To 0-""1 is used *it$ t$e Inde5nite koci 0-">1( 'o koci,
*$oever, an'one& 'a.m ki;nci, *$atsoever, an't$in,.
See 0-"%/a, 1.
iii. #$e neuter sin,ular 'a.m is fre9uentl' used adveriall'
in t$e sense of Has& t$at, ecause, since, seein, t$at, if,
*$enH( ta.m a$u.m 'a.m pi jiivasi, it is muc$ t$at t$ou
livest.
iv. #$e Instrumental 'ena is used as an adver, meanin,
H*$ere', ' *$ic$, for *$ic$, ecauseH( 'ena na.m
,a.n$issaami, ' *$ic$ I s$all catc$ $im.
v. F$en motion to a de5nite place is e?pressed, 'ena,
*$ere, is used *it$ tena, t$ere( 'ena $a,avaa,
tenGupasa:nkati, $e *ent to .udd$a 0lit. *$ere *as
.udd$a t$ere $e approac$ed1.
vi. Tasmaa 0Alative1, is used in t$e sense of HecauseH
and is t$en ,enerall' follo*ed ' tasmaa, t$erefore(
'asmaa tva.m na jaanaasi tasmaa aaloGsii ti, ecause
t$ou dot$ not understand, t$erefore art t$ou a fool.
?' The Interrogative
)A=.
i. #$e interro,ative pronoun ko 0-")1, ma' e used '
itself or *it$ a noun or pronoun(
ko pana tva.m, *$o art t$ouW
ke ete, *$o are t$eseW
kaa daarikaa, *$ic$ ,irlW
ii. kena 0Instrumental1 used *it$ att$o and t$e Dative of
t$e person, forms suc$ e?pressions as H*$at do 'ou
*antWH etc,( kena te att$o, *$at are 'ou in need ofW
iii. kena 0Instrumental1, kasmaa 0Alative1 and kissa
0Genitive1 are used adveriall' *it$ t$e meanin, of
H*$'W *$ereforeWH
iv. ki.m is muc$ used *it$ t$e Instrumental to e?press
H*$at is t$e use ofWH( ki.m me jiivitena, *$at is t$e use
to me of lifeW
@' The Ine<nite
)A>. #$e inde5nite pronoun 0-">1, does not present an'
peculiarit'(
maa id$a koci paavisi, let nood' enter $ere
ki;nci $a'a.m, an' dan,er
%epetition
)"A. #o e?press Hpluralit', totalit', distriution, variet',
multiplicit',H etc., *ords are sometimes repeated(
tesu tesu .t$aanesu, in various places
ta.m ta.m kat$a'a maanaa, sa'in, t$is and t$is
'o, t$us repeated means H*$oever, *$atever, *$ic$everH(
'a.m 'a.m ,aama.m, *$atever villa,e
itaraa tenGeva ni'aamena 'aa 'aa
ki;nci kat$eti tassa tassa upari kacavara.m c$a.d.desi,
and in t$is *a' t$e ot$er 0*oman1 t$re* t$e refuse on
*$omsoever said an't$in,
so di.t.t$adi.t.t$amanusse jiivitakk$a'a.m paapeti, $e
kills all *$om $e sees
,ata,ata.t.t$aane, in ever' place
'ena kena, ' *$atever...
ua$ii'ati so so, ever' one is put to 2i,$t
S#nta) of Verbs
The Present Tense
)"".
i. #$e concord of t$e ver *it$ its suject $as alread'
een noticed 03>A, "st1.
ii. #$e Present #ense denotes an action takin, place no*,
a fact e?istin, at t$e present time(
so $aa'ati, $e is afraid
saa pacati, s$e cooks
iii. #$e Present #ense often e?presses t$e continuance of
an action and is e9uivalent to t$e present pro,ressive(
saa ,a$e nisiidati, s$e is sittin, in $er private room.
iv. Iait, custom and ,eneral trut$s are e?pressed ' t$e
present tense(
sae maranti, all 0men1 die
$ikk$u siila.m aacarati, a monk practises virtue
v. #$e Present is sometimes used *it$ a future
si,ni5cation( ki.m karomi, *$at s$all I doW
vi. #$e Present is e?tremel' fre9uent in narrations *$en
recountin, past events as if t$e' *ere actuall'
$appenin,, t$is is called t$e Iistorical Present( so
pa;ncamaa.navakasataani sippa.m u,,a.n$aapeti, $e
tau,$t 5ve $undred 'oun, men 0lit. $e teac$es1.
vii. F$en no interro,ative particle is used, interro,ation is
sometimes e?pressed ' placin, t$e present tense at
t$e e,innin, of t$e sentence( socasi tva.m upaasaka,
,rievest t$ou, D la'manW
%emar&' Dt$er tenses ma' also e used in t$e same *a' to
mark interro,ation.
The Past Tense1 Perfect1 Imperfect an Aorist
)"+.
i. #$e Perfect and t$e Imperfect tenses present no
diMcult', t$e' are as a rule used in t$e sense of a
,eneral past, and t$e' do not re9uire an' notice. !et it
e orne in mind, $o*ever, t$at t$e Perfect is ut
seldom used& t$at t$e Imperfect, t$ou,$ more fre9uent
t$an t$e Perfect, does seldom di@er from it in meanin,
and last, t$at t$e Aorist $as ,enerall' displaced t$ese
t*o tenses and superseded t$em.
ii. #$e Aorist is t$e principal past tense in Paali and is
t$erefore e?tensivel' used& it e?presses inde5nite past
time, ut also includes t$e present da'. #$e Aorist ma'
e translated ' t$e Present Perfect or t$e Past
Inde5nite 0See %A31(
catuppaaduu pi eka.m sii$a.m raajaana.m aka.msu,
t$e 9uadrupeds made a lion kin,
muk$e pa$ari, struck $im on t$e mout$
kena kaara.nena rodi, *$' did 'ou cr'W
raa$ma.no e.lakena sadd$i.m vicari, t$e ra$min
*alked aout *it$ t$e ,oat
iii. #$e indeclinale maa is used *it$ t$e Aorist to e?press
pro$iition(
e.laka, maa $aa'i, D ,oatJ, fear notJ
maa puna evaruupa.m akaasi, do not do so a,ain
taata, maa ,ami, dear son, do not ,o
3uture Tense
)"-.
i. #$e Future e?presses simple futurit'(
a$a.m ,acc$issaami, I s$all ,o
te marissanti, t$e' *ill die
ii. #$e Future is also used as a mild form of t$e
Imperative, *$en courteousl' ,ivin, a command( tva.m
tassa and$ana.m dante$i k$aadissasi, cut $is onds
*it$ t$' teet$.
iii. #$e Future is used to e?press simple condition, *it$ t$e
particles ce, sace and 'adi(
'adi tva.m 'aa,u.m pacissasi a$a.m pivissaami, if
t$ou *ilt cook t$e ,ruel, I s$all drink it
so ta;n ce la$issati, tena sadd$i.m ,acc$a, if $e
,ets it, ,o *it$ $im
iv. $avissati, t$e -rd person sin,ular of $avati, to e, is
often used in t$e sense of Hit must e t$at...H(
coraa pat$ama.m ;neva $erisadda.m sutvaa
issara$eri $avissatii ti palaa'itvaa, t$e t$eives on
5rst $earin, t$e eatin, of t$e drum, 0said1 HIt must
e t$e drum of an oMcialH and 2ed
a'a.m me putto $avissati, $e must e m' son
v. $avissati preceded ' t$e ne,ative particle na ma' e
translated ' Hit cannot eH( naa'a.m issara$eri
$avissati, t$is cannot e an oMcialGs drum.
vi. jaanissaami, t$e -rd person sin,ular of jaanaati, to
kno*, is often used idiomaticall' in t$e sense of HIGll
seeH( $otu, pacc$aa jaanissaami, let it e, IGll see 0to it1
after*ards.
The 8ptative
)"%.
i. #$e Dptative e?presses Hproailit', capailit', 5tness,
assent or permission, command, *is$, conditionH and is
also used in la'in, do*n rules and precepts.
ii. Fitness( tva.m tatt$a ,acc$e''aasi, 'ou s$ould ,o
t$ere.
iii. Fis$( a$a.m ima.m tum$aaka.m $aajetvaa
dade''a.m, I *ould divide and ,ive it to 'ou, ut...
iv. 6ommand(
tva.m pana ito pa.t.t$aa'a ovaadaanusaasani'a.m
dade''aasi, ut t$ou $ence for*ard, ,ive us
instructions and admonitions
udarena nipajje''aasi, lie on t$' ell'
v. Proailit'( api ca naama ,acc$e''aami, I ma' ,o.
vi. F$en e?pressin, condition, it is usuall' preceded ' ce,
sace or 'adi, if( saami, sace imaa'a velaa'a tava
sapatta.m passe''aasi kin ti ta.m kare''aasiW !ord, if,
at t$is time t$ou s$ould see t$' enem', *$at *ould
t$ou do to $imW
vii. #o e?press supposition, t$e *ord 'at$aa is sometimes
used *it$ t$e Dptative( 'at$aa ma$aaraaja kocideva
puriso padiipa.m padiipe''a, *ere, ma$araja, a man to
li,$t a lamp...
viii. Assent( tva.m idaani ,acc$e''aasi, t$ou ma' no* ,o.
The Conitional
)"3. #$e 6onditional e?presses an action unale to e
performed on account of some impediment in t$e *a' of its
e?ecution(
so ce ta.m 'aana.m ala$issa a,acc$issaa, $e *ould ,o
if $e could ,et t$at ve$icle
$o satt$avaasino, sace esa rukk$amuule
ca:nkamanataapaso ajja naa$avissaa, sae
ma$aavilopa.m patta a$avissat$a, DJ merc$ants, $ad
not toda' t$is ascetic een *alkin, to and fro at t$e
foot of t$is tree 'ou s$ould all $ave een completel'
pilla,ed
The Imperative
)").
i. #$e Imperative is used in ,ivin, commands( tena $i,
,acc$a, ver' *ell, ,oJ
ii. It e?presses entreat'( $ante $a,avaa apposukko
vi$aratu, !ord, let t$e .lessed Dne no* live free from
cares.
iii. .enedictions, lessin,s( vassasata.m, jiiva, ma' 'ou
live a $undred 'earsJ
iv. Fit$ maa pre5?ed, t$e Imperative +nd person
e?presses simple pro$iition 0see Aorist )"+, iii1( maa
eva.m karot$a, do not do soJ
v. #$e Imperative -rd person sin,ular of $avati, to e, is
often used idiomaticall', *it$ t$e meanin, of Hver'
*ellH( $otu, a$a.m ja.nissaami, ver' *ell IGll see 0to it1.
The In<nitive
)"<.
i. #$e In5nitive s$o*s Hpurpose, motive intentionH. It is
used activel' as *ell as passivel'.
uu''aanapaalo c$a.d.detu.m upaa'a.m na passati,
t$e ,ardener sa* no means of t$ro*in, 0t$em1 a*a'
ta.m ,antu.m, na dassaami, I *ill not let $im ,o
ii. #$e In5nitive is used *it$ vers meanin, Hto *is$, to
tr' or strive, to e,in, to e aleH(
saa roditu.m aara$i, s$e e,an to cr'
na koci ma'aa sadd$i.m sallapitu.m sakkoti, no one
can converse *it$ me
saa pavisitu.m na icc$ati, s$e did not *is$ to enter
so ta.m ukk$ipitu.m ussa$ati, $e endeavoured to lift
it
iii. #$e ver dadaati, to ,ive, after an In5nitive means Hto
let, to allo*H and t$e ver la$ati, to otain, means Hto
e allo*edH(
ta.m pa$aritu.m na dassaami, I *ill not allo* $im to
e struck
,e$aa$i nikk$amitu.m ala$anto, not ein, allo*ed
to ,o out of t$e $ouse
iv. 8ers like va.t.tati, to e$ove, to e 5t, proper, and
adjectives like 'u.t.to, $avin, t$e same meanin,, are
muc$ used *it$ t$e In5nitive& in t$e case of va.t.tati,
t$e Instrumentive is used of t$e person *$o ou,$t to do
t$e act(
ett$a daani ma'aa vasitu.m vattati, it no* e$oves
me to live
it is used also impersonall'(
ta.m $aritu.m va.t.tati, t$e est is to kill $im, it is
proper, 5t, to kill $im
eva.m kat$etu.m na 'u.t.ta.m, it is not proper to
speak t$us
v. #$e indeclinale la$a, possile, allo*ale and
sakkaa, possile, ale, are used *i$ t$e In5nitive(
sakkaa is used muc$ in t$e same *a' as va.t.tati, t$at
is, activel' or passivel', and often *it$ t$e Instrumental
of t$e person& t$e ver $oti fre9uentl' follo*s sakkaa(
sakkaa $oti met$una.m d$amma.m pa.tisevitu.m, it
is possile to practise fornication
etasmi.m .t$aane na sakkaa vasitu.m, it is impossile
to live in t$is place
ida.m na la$$aa eva.m katu.m, it is not possile to
do it in t$is *a'
vi. F$en kaamo, *illin,, desirous, is compounded *it$ an
In5nitive, 5nal .m of t$e In5nitive is dropped( devataa'a
alikamma.m kaaretukaamo, *is$in, to make an
o@erin, to t$e ,od.
The Gerun
)"=.
i. #$e Gerund al*a's denotes an action completed efore
anot$er& it ma' e translated ' t$e *ord H$avin,H
follo*ed ' a past participle as( ,antvaa, $avin, ,one&
or ' t$e past tense follo*ed ' t$e conjunction HandH (
,antvaa, $e *ent and... #$e ,erund, t$erefore, ein,
ver' e?tensivel' used, is t$e most common connective
in Paali , and practicall' does a*a' *it$ t$e Paali
conjunction e9uivalent to t$e Cn,lis$ HandH connectin,
t*o sentences. So ta.m ukk$ipitvaa ,$ara.m netvaa
catud$aa vi$ajitvaa daanaadiini pu;n;naani katvaa
'at$aakamma.m ,ato. Ie lifted it up, took it $ome,
divided into four parts and, practisin, alms/,ivin, and
ot$er ,ood deeds, *ent accordin, to $is deeds.
ii. #$e *ord va 0=eva1 follo*in, a ,erund, ma' e
translated ' Has soon asH(
ta.m vacana.m sutvaa va, as soon as $e $eard t$ese
*ords...
so vaandro attano putta.m disvaa va, t$e monke', as
soon as $e sa* $is o@sprin,...
iii. #$e particle HapiH comin, after a ,erund, ma' e
translated ' Halt$ou,$H( akata;n;nuu pu,,alo
cakkavattirajja.m datvaa pi tosetu.m na sakkaa, an
un,rateful man cannot e satis5ed alt$ou,$ $e e
,iven universal soverei,nt'.
iv. .efore a ,erund, a ma' e translated ' H*it$outH(
papa;nca.m akatvaa, *it$out makin, dela's,
*it$out an' dela'
eka.m pi akilametvaa, *it$out $armin, even one
person
v. Some ,erunds are used prepositionall'& t$e principal of
t$em are( patt$aa'a, since, e,innin, from, from, after&
sand$aa'a, *it$ reference to, concernin,& aara$a,
concernin,, *it$ reference to& sa;ncicca, intentionall'&
asallakk$etvaa, inadvertentl', una*ares& nissaa'a,
upanissaa'a, on account of, t$rou,$, near& aadaa'a,
*it$& paticca, ', t$rou,$, on account of& .t$apetvaa,
e?cept, e?ceptin,.
vi. #$e Gerund ma' sometimes e translated ' t$e
present participle( id$a aa,antvaa a$a.m cora.m
passi.m, comin, $ere I sa* t$e t$ief.
vii. #$e Gerund ma' $ave a passive si,ni5cation(
coraje.t.t$akena ,a$etvaa, $avin, een seiEed ' t$e
roer c$ief.
The Participles
1' The Present Participle
)">.
i. #$e Present Participle ma' ,enerall' e translated '
H*$ile, *$ilst,H *$ic$ sense is in$erent in it& t$is
participle al*a's e?presses contemporaneit' of action(
attano ,aama.m ,acc$anto coraa.tavi.m patvaa,
*$ile ,oin, to $is villa,e $e came upon a forest
in$aited ' t$ieves
tatt$a ,antvaa maatara.m pa.tija,,anto vaasa.m
kappesi, $e *ent and, takin, care of $is mot$er, took
up $is aode t$ere
ii. It must e rememered t$at participles are of t$e
nature of adjectives 0%->1 and must a,ree *it$ t$e
*ord t$e' 9ualif' in t$e same *a' as adjectives(
aviicinira'a.m ,acc$antaa sattaa..., persons ,oin, to
t$e Avici Iell
aa,acc$anta.m ta.m disvaa pi, alt$ou,$ $e sa* $im
comin,
iii. #$e Present Participle is sometimes used sustantivel',
and ma' e translated ' H$e *$oH 0does t$e action
e?pressed ' t$e ver1(
ida.m pana paraloka.m ,acc$antassa pat$e''a.m
$avissati, ut t$is *ill e provisions for $im *$o
,oes to t$e ot$er *orld
paraloka.m ,acc$anto eka.m ka$aapa.na.m pi
,a$etvaa na ,acc$ati, $e *$o ,oes to t$e ot$er
*orld does not take even one cent *it$ $im
iv. #$e Present Participle ma' also sometimes e
translated ' a conditional clause(
ta.m la$anto jiivissami ala$anto id$G eva
marissaami, if I otain $er I s$all live& if not, in t$is
ver' spot s$all I die
add$amaase sa$assa.m la$anto upa.t.t$a$issaami
deva, if I ,et a t$ousand ever' fortni,$t, IGll serve
t$ee, !ord
eva.m karonto lacc$asi akaronto na lacc$asi, if 'ou
do so 'ouGll ,et it, if not, 'ou *ill not ,et it
v. #$e particle pi 0=api1 follo*in, a Present Participle ma'
e rendered ' Halt$ou,$H(
pitaraa vaari'amaano pi, alt$ou,$ prevented ' $is
fat$er
ta.m apassanto pi, alt$ou,$ not seein, $im
6' The Past Participles
)+A.
i. #$ere are t*o Past Participles, t$e Perfect Active 0+-",
%)31 and t$e Passive Perfect 0%3A1.
ii. #$e Perfect Active Participle presents no diMcult'
*$atever(
so sii$a.m aadinnavaa, $e $avin, captured t$e lion
$atta.m $uttaavii, $avin, taken $is meal
iii. #$e Passive Perfect Participle is ver' often used as a
predicate instead of a 5nite ver 0See 6oncord of
Suject and Predicate 3>A1& it can t$en e translated '
a past tense.
iv. #$e P.P.P. of roots impl'in, motion, and of transitive
roots, takes an accusative( sakanivaasa.m eva ,ato, $e
*ent to $is o*n place.
v. F$en t$e P.P.P. is t$us used predicativel', t$e ver
H$otiH, to e, is ,enerall' understood after it.
vi. #$e a,ent of a P.P.P. is as a rule put in t$e
Instrumentative case(
ta'aa pa;n$a.m pu.t.t$a.m, ' $er t$e 9uestion *as
asked, s$e asked t$e 9uestion
saasana.m ma'aa likk$ita.m, a letter $as een
*ritten ' me, I $ave etc.
vii. Not seldom t$e P.P.P. ma' e translated ' a Present
Participle( tato uppatito vijjullata vi'a vijjotamaano
paratiire a.t.t$aasi, sprin,in, from t$ere, $e reac$ed
t$e ot$er s$ore as a li,$tnin, 2as$.
>' The 3uture Participle
)+".
i. #$e Future Participle 0%%>1 denotes t$at t$e a,ent is
aout to perform t$e action or under,o t$e state
e?pressed ' t$e root(
ra.t.t$aa ra.t.t$a.m vicarissa.m, I am ,oin, 0= I am
aout to ,o1 from kin,dom to kin,dom
ta.m ,ant$a.m racissa.m a$a.m, I am aout to
compose t$at ook
ii. It also s$o*s purpose, intention, as ma' e seen ' t$e
+nd e?ample in 0i1 aove.
iii. It s$o*s simple futurit'( naa$a.m puna upessa.m
,a$ase''a.m, I s$all not e reorn a,ain.
?' The 3uture Passive Participle
)++.
i. #$e Future Passive Participle conve's t$e idea of
H5tness, necessit', oli,ationH& it denotes t$at *$at is
e?pressed ' t$e root is to e, or ou,$t to e, or is 5t to
e or must e done or under,one(
ma'aa kattaa.m kamma.m ni.t.t$ita.m, t$e *ork
*$ic$ *as to e done ' me is 5nis$ed
sace so deso uklaapo $oti so deso sammajjitao, if
t$e place e dirt' it ou,$t to e s*ept
na navaa $ikk$uu aasanena pa.tiaa$etaaa,
'oun, monks s$ould not e ousted from t$eir seat
ii. From t$e aove e?amples, it *ill e seen t$at t$e F.P.P.
must a,ree *it$ t$e suject in ,ender, case and
numer.
iii. It is muc$ used impersonall'(
kinnu kattaa.m, *$at is to e doneW
ett$a ca imaani suttaani dassetaaani, and in t$is
connection t$ese passa,es 0from t$e Scriptures1
s$ould e pointed out
iminaa na'ena veditao, it must e understood in
t$is *a'
iv. It *ill e, from t$e aove e?amples, remarked, t$at t$e
a,ent is put in t$e Instrumentative.
v. $avitaa.m, used *it$ t$e Instrumental of t$e t$in,
or person, is fre9uentl' used in t$e sense of Hit must e
t$at, one s$ould or ou,$t toH(
majj$attenGeva $avitaa.m, one s$ould e
indi@erent to...
visa'ojitaa'a etaa'a $avitaa.m, t$is must $ave
een mi?ed *it$ poison
S#nta) of Ineclinables
)+-.
i. #$e follo*in, are used correlativel'(
'at$aa, as... at$aa, so
'avaa, so lon,... tavaa, t$at lon,, as lon, as
'adaa, *$en... tadaa, t$en
'att$a, *$ere... att$a, t$ere
ii. ca...ca..., ot$...and( so ca a$a;n ca, ot$ $e and I
vaa...vaa..., *$et$er...or( $aasati vaa karoti vaa,
*$et$er $e speaks or acts
pi...pi..., ot$...and( si;ncati pi si;ncaapeti pi, ot$
sprinkles and causes to sprinkle
iii. ca....ca.... and vaa...vaa... *$en in a ne,ative sentence,
are e9uivalent to( neit$er...nor.
iv. ca and vaa used sin,l', never come at t$e e,innin, of
a sentence.
v. eva and, efore a vo*el, 'eva is used to emp$asiEe t$e
idea e?pressed ' a *ord, and ma' e translated '
Hver', just, 9uite, e?actl', as soon asH(
idaani eva, just no*
attano 'eva, oneGs ver' o*n
'eva, comin, after a ver, is not al*a's eas' to translate
into Cn,lis$, ut in t$e majorit' of cases, it ma' e rendered
' Hon, to ,o on, continue,H etc.( kat$enti 'eva, t$e' *ent on
talkin,.
vi. 'adi, if, is used in conditional sentences *it$ t$e
Present, t$e Future, t$e Dptative and t$e 6onditional(
'adi eva.m, 'ajjG eva.m, if so, in t$at case
vaa...'adi vaa..., *$et$er...or( ,aame vaa 'adi
vGaara;n;ne, *$et$er in t$e villa,e or in t$e forest
%emar&' #$e s'nta? of t$e most important indeclinales $as
een ,iven in HS'nta? of SustantivesH.
/irect an Inirect +arration
)+%.
i. #$e oli9ue construction in Paali is e?pressed '
placin, t$e particle iti, so, t$us, after t$e *ords in t$e
direct construction as t$e' *ould stand in Cn,lis$, t$at
is, at t$e end of t$e *ords 9uoted( ka$a.m so etara$i ti
pucc$i, $e asked, HF$ere is $e no*WH
ii. iti is ,enerall' areviated to( ti, and t$e last vo*el of
t$e 9uotation, if s$ort, is len,t$ened efore it( saad$uu
ti, $e said Hver' *ellJH
iii. 8ers of Hsa'in,, tellin,, askin,, namin,, kno*in,,
t$inkin,,H are ,enerall' used *it$ iti& t$ose vers ma'
e(
". Placed after t$e particle iti( te Hsaad$uuH ti vatvaa,
t$e' said H8er' *ell.H
+. .efore t$e *ords 9uoted( so pucc$i Hki.m jaanaasi
tvanH ti, $e asked HF$at do 'ou kno*WH
-. #$e ver is fre9uentl' omitted alto,et$er(
Hmaaressaami nanH ti, 0$e t$ou,$t, or said1 HIGll kill
$imJH
%. F$en iti or ti, is follo*ed ' a vo*el, sand$i takes
place re,ularl'(
iti 4 eva.m = icceva.m
kvaci 4 iti = kvaciiti
3. Dften, iti $as t$e sense of HecauseH, *it$ t$e
intention of s$o*in, Hcause, motive, intention,
purposeH(
Hjiivitu.m asakkontaaH ti, ecause 0*e1 are unale
to make a livin,
Hmakasa.m pa$arissaamiH ti pitu matt$aka.m
dvid$aa $indi, intendin, to kill t$e mos9uito $e
roke $is fat$erGs $ead in t*o
Interrogation an +egation
)+3.
i. #$e ne,ative particle is na(
imasmi.m sare sudaka.m nGatt$i, t$ere is no *ater in
t$is lake
na a;n;naasi, did not t$ou kno*W
se.t.t$inaa sadd$i.m kat$etu.m na sakkomi, I am
unale to speak *it$ t$e anker
ii. Fit$ an Dptative, na is used in pro$iition( na
$att$isaala.m ,acc$e''a, let $im not ,o to t$e
elep$ant/s$ed.
iii. na ma' form t$e 5rst part of a compound(
naa,amana.m 0=na4aa,amanam1, non/arrival
na $ikk$u, a non/monk, a la'man
iv. #*o ne,atives make an aMrmative( $eri.m na na
vaade''aa, not t$at $e ma' not eat t$e drum 0$e ma'
t$erefore eat it1.
v. no, is also used in ne,ation in t$e same *a' as na( no
janaati, $e does not kno*.
vi. no, follo*ed ' na, e?presses a stron, aMrmative(
no na d$ame''a, $e s$ould surel' lo* 0t$e conc$1
no nappa$oti, $e is most certainl' ale
vii. Interro,ation is e?pressed ' usin, interro,ative
advers or pronouns as kasmaa, *$'W *$ereforeW kissa,
kena, *$'W ko, *$oW etc.
viii. Also ' means of interro,ative particles.
i?. api, *$en used in interro,ation, is al*a's placed 5rst in
t$e sentence( apGavuso, am$aakam satt$aara.m
jaanaasi, do 'ou, Sir, kno* our #eac$erW
?. Follo*ed ' nu k$o, it e?presses a ver' emp$atic
interro,ation( api nu k$o koci upaddavo $oti, *ell, $ave
'ou an' cause of distressW
?i. nu, I *onderJ Pra'W nu, is often follo*ed ' k$o(
kiidiso nu k$o paraloko, I *onder *$at t$e ne?t *orld
is likeW
coraa nu att$i, are t$ere t$ievesW
?ii. Preceded ' na, it e?presses emp$atic interro,ation( na
nuG$a.m 'od$o, am I not a *arriorW
?iii. Interro,ation is also e?pressed ' placin, t$e ver 5rst
in t$e sentence( socasi upaasaka, ,rievest t$ou
la'manW
?iv. Sometimes t$e mere tone of voice is suMcient to
e?press interro,ation( supa.m la$i, did t$ou ,et rot$W
Interjections
i. #$e principal interjections are( $aa, alasJ a$J $anda,
comeJ a:n,a, indeedJ o$J $o, friendJ SirJ I sa'J $are,
sirra$J amaa, 'esJ trul'J indeedJ a$o, alasJ o$J 03-=1.
ii. $a.ne, 5rst person sin,ular Be2ective of $a.nati, to
sa', is used as an interjection *it$ t$e meanin, of Hto
e sureJ I sa' t$ereJH
iii. ma;n;ne, "st. person sin,ular Be2ective of
ma;n;nati, to t$ink, is also used as an interjection in
t$e sense of Hmet$inksJ I dare sa'J I supposeJH
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Chapter 9V
Proso#
)+). Prosod' is t$at part of Grammar *$ic$ treats of t$e
la*s of versi5cation.
A ,aat$aa in Paali poetr', is a stanEa.
A paada is t$e fourt$ part of a stanEa, called also a
9uarter verse.
A va.n.na is a s'llale in a paada.
A s$ort s'llale is termed la$u.
A lon, s'llale is called ,aru.
A foot is termed ,a.na.
)+<. #$e mark \ represents a s$ort s'llale, and t$e mark ] a
lon, s'llale. A foot containin, t*o lon, s'llales is termed
,aa, t$at is, ,a4,a, t$e initial s'llale ,a of t$e *ord ,aru
ein, used to represent a lon, s'llale. A foot of t*o s$ort
s'llales is termed laa, t$at is la4la, t$e initial s'llale of t$e
*ord la$u ein, emplo'ed to represent a s$ort s'llale.
)+=. #$e follo*in, are t$e four varieties of a dis'llaic foot.
S'llale
s
Paali Cn,lis$
\ \ la la or laa P'rr$ic
] ]
,a ,a or
,aa
Sponde
e
\ ] la ,a !amus
] \ ,a la #roc$ee
)+>. #$e ei,$t/s'llale feet, kno*n in Paali as t$e
a.t.t$a,a.na are as follo*s(
S'llale
s
Paal
i
Cn,lis$
] ] ] ma Molossus
\ \ \ na #riac$
] \ \
$a
a
Dact'l
\ ] ] 'a .acc$ic
\ ] \ ja
Amp$irac
$
\ \ ] sa Anapaest
] \ ] ra 6retic
] ] \ ta
Antiacc$i
c
Short an Long S#llables
)-A. #$e s$ort vo*els in Paali are a, i, u, t$e lon, vo*els are
aa, ii, uu, e, o. F$en a, i or u is follo*ed ' a doule
consonant, it is prosodicall' lon,. For instance, t$e 5rst as
*ell as t$e second a in cakka;nca, is lon, ecause follo*ed
' kk and ;nc respectivel'. .efore ni,,a$ita 0.m1 a s$ort
vo*el is also al*a's prosodicall' lon,. #$us in sacca.m, t$e a
efore .m is lon,. In poetr', a naturall' s$ort vo*el is
occasionall' len,t$ened and a naturall' lon, one s$ortened
to meet t$e e?i,encies of t$e metre. In order to make a s$ort
vo*el lon,, t$e consonant follo*in, it is sometimes douled.
Varieties of .eters
)-". #$ere are t$ree classes of metres, termed sama,
add$asama, and visama. F$en t$e s'llales in all t$e
paadas are e?actl' alike t$e metre is called sama& *$en
t$ose in t$e 5rst and t$ird and t$ose in t$e second and
fourt$ paadas are alike it is add$asama& and *$en all t$e
paadas or verses are di@erent, t$e metre is termed visama.
1' The Sama Class
)-+. In ,aat$as of t$is class, t$e s'llales in eac$ paada ma'
ran,e from si? up to t*ent'/t*o. #$e names of t$e
seventeen kinds of metres are as follo*s(
,aa'atti ) s'llales
u.n$i < s'llales
anu.t.t$u$a.m = s'llales
ra$ati > s'llales
panti "A s'llales
tu.t.t$u$a.m "" s'llales
ja,ati "+ s'llales
atija,ati "- s'llales
sakkarii "% s'llales
atisakkarii "3 s'llales
a.t.t$i ") s'llales
at'a.t.t$i "< s'llales
d$uti "= s'llales
atid$uti "> s'llales
kati +A s'llales
pakati +" s'llales
akati ++ s'llales
)--. #$ese are a,ain sudivided accordin, to t$e kind of
feet emplo'ed in eac$ stanEa& as t$e four paadas are similar,
t$e sc$eme of onl' one paada is ,iven for eac$ kind of
metre(
". ,aa'atti, $avin, paadas of si? s'llales. #$ere is one
variet'.
i. tanumajj$aa, ] ] \ ^ \ ] ]
+. u.n$i, $avin, paadas of seven s'llales. #$ere is one
variet'.
i. kumaaralatitaa, \ ] \ ^ \ \ ] ^ ]
-. anu.t.t$u$a.m, $avin, paadas of ei,$t s'llales. #$ere
are 5ve varieties.
i. citrapadaa, ] \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ ] ]
ii. vijjummala, ] ] ] ^ ] ] ] ^ ] ]
iii. maa.navaka.m, ] \ \ ^ ] ] \ ^ \ ]
iv. saama.nika, ] \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \
v. paama.nikaa, \ ] \ ^ ] \ ] ^ ] ]
%. ra$ati, $avin, paadas of nine s'llales. #$ere are t*o
varieties.
i. $alamuk$ii, ] \ ] ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ ]
ii. $uja,asusu, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] ] ]
3. panti, $avin, paadas of ten s'llales. #$ere are seven
varieties.
i. sudd$aviraajitam, ] ] ] ^ \ \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ ]
ii. panavo, ] ] ] ^ \ \ \ ^ \ ] ] ^ ]
iii. rummavati, ] \ \ ^ ] ] ] ^ \ \ ] ^ ]
iv. matta, ] ] ] ^ ] \ \ ^ \ \ ] ^ ]
v. campakamala, ] \ \ ^ ] ] ] ^ \ \ ] ^ ]
vi. manorama, \ \ \ ^ ] \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ ]
vii. u$asakam, ] ] \ ^ ] ] ] ^ ] \ ] ^ ]
). tu.t.t$u$a.m, $avin, paadas of eleven s'llales. #$ere
are eleven varieties.
i. upa.t.t$itaa, ] ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] ]
ii. indavajiraa, ] ] \ ^ ] ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] ]
iii. upavajiraa, \ ] \ ^ ] ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] ]
%emar&' F$en t$e 9uarter/verses of indavajiraa and
upavajiraa are mi?ed to,et$er in a stanEa in an' order, t$e
stanEa is t$em called upajaati.
iv. sumukk$ii, \ \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ \ ]
v. dod$aka.m, ] \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ ] ]
vi. saalinii, ] ] ] ^ ] ] \ ^ ] ] \ ^ ] ]
vii. vaatummissaa, ] ] ] ^ ] \ \ ^ ] ] \ ^ ] ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e fourt$ and sevent$
s'llales.
viii. surasasirii, ] \ \ ^ ] ] \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] ]
i?. rat$odd$ataa, ] \ ] ^ \ \ \ ^ ] \ ] ^ \ ]
?. svaa,ata, ] \ ] ^ \ \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ ] ]
?i. $addikaa, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] \ ] ^ \ ]
<. ja,ati, $avin, paadas of t*elve s'llales. #$ere are
fourteen varieties.
i. vasama.t.t$a, \ ] \ ^ ] ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ]
ii. indava.msaa, ] ] \ ^ ] ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ]
iii. to.taka, \ \ ] ^ \ \ ] ^ \ \ ] ^ \ \ ]
iv. dutavila.mita, \ \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ ] \ ]
v. pu.ta, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] ] ] ^ \ ] ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e fourt$ and t*elft$
s'llales.
vi. kusumavicittaa, \ \ \ ^ \ ] ] ^ \ \ \ ^ \ ] ]
vii. $uja:n,appa'aata, \ ] ] ^ \ ] ] ^ \ ] ] ^ \ ] ]
viii. pi'amvada, \ \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ]
i?. lalitaa, ] ] \ ^ ] \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ]
?. pamitakkaraa, \ \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ \ \ ] ^ \ \ ]
?i. ujjalaa, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ ] \ ]
?ii. vessadevii, ] ] ] ^ ] ] ] ^ \ ] ] ^ \ ] ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e 5ft$ and t*elft$
s'llales.
?iii. taamarasa.m, \ \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ \ ] ]
?iv. kamalaa, \ \ ] ^ \ ] ] ^ \ \ ] ^ \ ] ]
=. atija,ati, $avin, paadas of t$irteen s'llales. #$ere are
t*o varieties.
i. pa$aasinii, ] ] ] ^ \ \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ] ^ ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e t$ird and t$irteent$
s'llales.
ii. ruciraa, \ ] \ ^ ] \ \ ^ \ \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e fourt$ and t$irteent$
s'llales.
>. sakkarii, $avin, paadas of fourteen s'llales. #$ere are
t$ree varieties.
i. aparaajitaa, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] \ ] ^ \ \ ] ^ \ ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e sevent$ and fourteent$
s'llales.
ii. pa$ara.nakalikaa, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e sevent$ and fourteent$
s'llales.
iii. vasantatilakaa, ] ] \ ^ ] \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] ]
"A. atisakkarii, 5fteen s'llales. #$ere are four
varieties.
i. sasikala, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ ]
ii. ma.ni,unaanikaro, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e ei,$t$ and 5fteent$
s'llales.
iii. malinii, \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] ] ] ^ \ ] ] ^ \ ] ]
%emar&' #$ere is a pause after t$e ei,$t$ s'llale.
iv. pa$addaka.m, \ \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ]
"". a.t.t$i, $avin, paadas of si?teen s'llales. #$ere is
one variet'.
i. vaaninii, \ \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ \ ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ] ^ ]
"+. at'a.t.t$i, $avin, paadas of seventeen s'llales.
#$ere are t$ree varieties.
i. sik$arinii, \ ] ] ^ ] ] ] ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ ] ^ ] \ \ ^ \ ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e si?t$ and seventeent$
s'llales.
ii. $arinii, \ \ \ ^ \ \ ] ^ ] ] ] ^ ] \ ] ^ \ \ ] ^ \ ]
iii. mandakkantaa, ] ] ] ^ ] \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ ] ] \ ^ ] ] \ ^ ] ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e fourt$, tent$ and
seventeent$ s'llales.
"-. d$uti, $avin, paadas of ei,$teen s'llales. #$ere
is one variet'.
i. kusumitalataavellitaa, ] ] ] ^ ] ] \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ ] ] ^ \ ]
] ^ \ ] ]
"%. atid$uti, $avin, paadas of nineteen s'llales.
#$ere are t*o varieties.
i. me,$avipp$ujjitaa, ] ] ] ^ ] ] ] ^ \ \ \ ^ \ \ ] ^ ] ] \ ^
] ] \ ^ ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e si?t$ and t$irteent$,
and nineteent$ s'llales.
ii. sadduulavikkiiitii, ] ] ] ^ \ \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ \ \ ] ^ ] ] \ ^ ]
] \ ^ ]
%emar&' #$ere are pauses after t$e t*elft$ and nineteent$
s'llales.
"3. kati, $avin, paadas of t*ent' s'llales. #$ere is
one variet'.
i. vutta, ] \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ] ^ \ ] \ ^ ] \ ] ^ ] ] \ ^ ] \
"). pakati, $avin, paadas of t*ent'/one s'llales.
#$ere is one variet'.
i. sadd$araa, ] ] ] ^ ] \ ] ^ ] \ \ ^ \ \ \ ^ \ ] ] ^ ] ] ] ^ \
] ]
"<. akati, $avin, paadas of t*ent'/t*o s'llales.
#$ere is one variet'.
i. $addaka, ] \ \ ^ ] \ ] ^ \ \ \ ^ ] \ ] ^ \ \ \ ^ ] \ ] ^ \ \
\ ^ ]
6' The Ahasama Class
)-%. In t$e add$asama class of metres, t$e 5rst and t$e
t$ird, and t$e second and fourt$ paadas are similar. #$e
follo*in, tale s$o*s eleven kinds of metres t$at come
under t$is $ead(
Name of Metre Ddd 9uarter 0verses "st./-rd.1 Cven
9uarter 0verses +nd./%t$.1
upacitta \ \ ] \ \ ] \ \ ] \ ] ] \ \ ] \ \ ] \ \ ] ]
ratamajj$aa ] \ \ ] \ \ ] \ \ ] ] \ \ \ \ ] \ \ ] \ \ ] ]
ve,avati \ \ ] \ \ ] \ \ ] ] ] \ \ ] \ \ ] \ \ ] ]
$addaviraaja.m ] ] \ \ ] \ ] \ ] ] ] ] ] \ \ ] \ ] \ ] ]
ketumati \ \ ] \ ] \ ] \ ] ] ] \ \ ] \ ] \ \ \ ] ]
ak$'aanikaa ] ] \ ] ] \ \ ] \ ] ] \ ] \ ] ] \ \ ] \ ] ]
viparitapua \ ] \ ] ] \ \ ] \ ] ] ] ] \ ] ] \ \ ] \ ] ]
$ari.napaluta \ \ ] \ \ ] \ \ ] \ ] \ \ \ ] \ \ ] \ \ ] \ ]
aparavutta \ \ \ \ \ \ ] \ ] \ ] \ \ \ \ ] \ \ ] \ ] \ ]
puitta,,aa \ \ \ \ \ \ ] \ ] \ ] ] \ \ \ \ ] \ \ ] \ ] \ ]
]
'avaadikaamatii \ ] \ ] \ ] \ ] \ ] \ ] ] \ ] \ ] \ ] \ ] \ ]
\ ]
%emar&' #$e aparavutta corresponds to t$e vetaali'a
e?plained, referred to lo*er do*n.
>' The Visama Class
)-3. #$e paadas in t$is division of verses are all dissimilar.
7nder t$is $ead comes t$e metre kno*n as 8atta, t$e $eroic
measure of Pali literature, ei,$t s'llales ein, emplo'ed in
eac$ paada, t$e 5rst and last s'llales t$erein ein, free,
and t$is, a s$ort or lon, s'llale ma' e optionall' used in
t$ose s'llales. #$e s'llales et*een t$e 5rst and last, form
t*o seats, $avin, t$ree s'llales in eac$ seat of foot. In t$e
5rst seat in all t$e 9uarters, an' foot ma' e emplo'ed
e?cept a #rirac$ and an Anapaest, t$at is to sa', t$ree s$ort
s'llales 0 \ \ \ 1 or t*o s$ort and one lon, 0 \ \ ] 1 must not
e used. In t$e second seat of t$e 5rst and t$ird 9uarters,
an' foot ma' e used, ut in t$e second seat of t$e second
and fourt$ 9uarters onl' 'a 0.acc$ic1 or ja 0Amp$irac$1
0i.e., \ ] ] or \ ] \ 1 must e emplo'ed. It s$ould e noted,
$o*ever, t$at t$e 8atta proper $as ja in t$e second seat of
ot$ t$e second and t$e fourt$ paadas.
%emar&' #$e si,n _` means t$at t$e s'llale ma' e
optionall' s$ort or lon,.
)-). 0i1 Vatta Proper
Free "st seat +nd seat Free
"st paada _` _` _` _` _` _` _` _`
+nd paada _` _` _` _` \ ] ] _`
-rd paada _` _` _` _` _` _` _` _`
%t$ paada _` _` _` _` \ ] ] _`
)-<. Sometimes t$e Gaat$aa contains si? paadas / t$e 5ft$
follo*in, t$e rule for t$e 5rst and t$ird& t$e si?t$ t$at for t$e
second and fourt$.
)-=. .esides t$e 8atta Proper aove s$o*n, t$ere are si?
kinds of 8atta metres(
0ii1 Vipariitapath#aavatta
Paadas " V -( _` ^ _` \ _` ^ \ ] \ ^ _`
Paadas + V %( _` ^ _` \ _` ^ \ ] ] ^ _`
0iii1 Capalaavatta
Paadas " V -( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ \ \ \ ^ _`
Paadas + V %( _` ^ _` \ _` ^ \ ] ] ^ _`
0iv1 +a(Vipulaa
Paadas " V -( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ \ \ \ ^ _`
Paadas + V %( _` ^ _` \ _` ^ \ ] \ ^ _`
or
All paadas( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ \ \ \ ^ _`
0v1 Vipulaa of Setava
0vi1 Vipulaa of PiHngala
0vii1 4ha(Vipulaa
Paadas " V -( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ ] \ \ ^ _`
Paadas + V %( _` ^ _` \ _` ^ \ ] \ ^ _`
or
All paadas( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ ] \ \ ^ _`
0viii1 %a(Vipulaa
Paadas " V -( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ ] \ ] ^ _`
Paadas + V %( _` ^ _` \ _` ^ \ ] \ ^ _`
or
All paadas( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ ] \ ] ^ _`
0i?1 Ta(Vipulaa
Paadas " V -( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ ] ] \ ^ _`
Paadas + V %( _` ^ _` \ _` ^ \ ] \ ^ _`
or
All paadas( _` ^ _` _` _` ^ ] ] \ ^ _`
Iaati StanJas
)%A. .esides t$e metres noted aove, t$ere are some t$at
are re,ulated ' time 0kaala1. Suc$ metres are termed Raati.
#$e' are of t$ree kinds(/
a. Ari'aa
. 8etaali'a, and
c. Mattaasamaka
)%". In t$e 5rst of t$ese, t$e ari'aa, t$e 5rst t*o paadas of
$alf a ,aat$aa contain seven and a $alf feet& in t$e even,
t$at is, in t$e second, fourt$, and si?t$ feet, an' of t$e
follo*in,, namel', $a, ja, sa, ,aa, or four s$ort s'llales
ma' e emplo'ed, ut ja must not e used in t$e odd feet,
t$at is, in t$e 5rst, t$ird, and 5ft$. #$e si?t$ foot ma' e la or
four s$ort s'llales. #$e second/$alf stanEa must ful5l t$e
same conditions. It is necessar' to oserve t$at in t$e jaati
metre a foot consists of four s'llaic instants, t$e time taken
up in pronouncin, a s$ort s'llale ein, taken as an instant
of time& t$us a lon, s'llale ein, taken e9ual to t*o s$ort
ones, eac$ foot used in t$e ari'aa is e9ual to four s'llaic
instants. #$e follo*in, is an illustration of an ari'aa stanEa(
"st +nd -rd %t$ 3t$ )t$ <t$
=t$ foot
First $alf stanEa ] ], \ \ \ \, ] ], \ \ ], ] ], \ ] \, ] \ \,
]
Second $alf stanEa \ \ ], \ \ \, ] ], ] ], ] ], \, ] ],
]
)%+. #$e vetaali'a is so formed t$at it usuall' consists of
fourteen s'llaic instants in t$e odd 9uarters and si?teen in
t$e even, *$ile t$e mattaasamaka consists of si?teen
s'llaic instants in eac$ 9uarter. #$e metres of t$e jaati class
furnis$ man' varieties, ut it is not *it$in t$e scope of t$is
*ork to treat of t$em in detail. As, $o*ever, t$e vetaali'a is
of rat$er fre9uent occurrence, *e ,ive elo* t$e sc$eme of
it. Cac$ paada is divided into t$ree seats& t$e 5rst seat in t$e
5rst and t$ird paadas must $ave si? s'llaic instants& t$e
5rst seat of t$e second and fourt$ paadas must contain ei,$t
s'llaic instants& t$e second seat must e a cretic foot and
t$e t$ird a lamic foot(
"st seat +nd seat -rd seat
Numer of s'llaic instants 6retic
!amus
"st paada ) si? s'llaic instants ] \ ] \ ]
+nd paada = ei,$t s'llaic instants ] \ ] \
]
-rd paada ) si? s'llaic instants ] \ ] \ ]
%t$ paada = ei,$t s'llaic instants ] \ ] \
]
%emar&s'
0a1 #$e aove is a perfect ve.taali'a. In t$e t$ird seat, t$e
follo*in, feet ma' e found instead of t$e lamus(
\ \ p'rr$ic
] ] spondee
\ ] ] acc$ic
\ ] \ amp$irac
01 #$e si,n of t$e lon, s'llale 0 ] 1 must e counted as +
since it is e9ual to t*o s$ort s'llales.
A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language
Appeni)
Iere is a collection of dictionar' de5nitions of some of t$e
terms t$at can e found in t$is ook.
Alative( Df, relatin, to, or ein, a ,rammatical case
indicatin, separation, direction a*a' from, sometimes
manner or a,enc', and t$e oject of certain vers. It is
found in !atin and ot$er Indo/Curopean lan,ua,es.
Alative asolute( In !atin ,rammar, an adverial p$rase
s'ntacticall' independent from t$e rest of t$e sentence and
containin, a noun plus a participle, an adjective, or a noun,
ot$ in t$e alative case.
Accusative( Df, relatin, to, or ein, t$e case of a noun,
pronoun, adjective, or participle t$at is t$e direct oject of a
ver or t$e oject of certain prepositions.
Active( Indicatin, t$at t$e suject of t$e sentence is
performin, or causin, t$e action e?pressed ' t$e ver.
7sed of a ver form or voice.
Adjective( An' of a class of *ords used to modif' a noun or
ot$er sustantive ' limitin,, 9ualif'in,, or specif'in, and
distin,uis$ed in Cn,lis$ morp$olo,icall' ' one of several
suM?es, suc$ as /ale, /ous, /er, and /est, or s'ntacticall' '
position directl' precedin, a noun or nominal p$rase, suc$
as white in a *$ite $ouse.
Aorist( A form of a ver in some lan,ua,es, suc$ as 6lassical
Greek or Sanskrit, t$at in t$e indicative mood e?presses past
action.
6onju,ate( #o in2ect 0a ver1 in its forms for distinctions suc$
as numer, person, voice, mood, and tense.
Dative( Df, relatin, to, or ein, t$e ,rammatical case t$at in
some Indo/Curopean lan,ua,es, suc$ as !atin and Bussian,
as *ell as in some non/Indo/Curopean lan,ua,es, marks t$e
recipient of action and is used *it$ prepositions or ot$er
function *ords correspondin, in meanin, to Cn,lis$ to and
for.
Declension( !in,uistics. a' In certain lan,ua,es, t$e
in2ection of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in cate,ories
suc$ as case, numer, and ,ender.
Genitive( Df, relatin, to, or desi,natin, a case t$at e?presses
possession, measurement, or source.
Gerund( A veral noun analo,ous to t$e !atin ,erund, suc$
as t$e Cn,lis$ form endin, in /in, *$en used as a noun, as in
singing in Fe admired t$e c$oirGs sin,in,.
Grammar( #$e s'stem of in2ections, s'nta?, and *ord
formation of a lan,ua,e.
In2ection( a' An alternation of t$e form of a *ord ' addin,
aM?es, as in Cn,lis$ do,s from do,, or ' c$an,in, t$e form
of a ase, as in Cn,lis$ spoke from speak, t$at indicates
,rammatical features suc$ as numer, person, mood, or
tense. b' #$e paradi,m of a *ord. c' A pattern of formin,
paradi,ms, suc$ as noun in2ection or ver in2ection.
Interro,ative( Df, relatin, to, or ein, an element or
construction used to ask a 9uestion( an interro,ative adver&
an interro,ative particle.
!ocative( Df, relatin, to, or ein, a ,rammatical case in
certain in2ected lan,ua,es t$at indicates place in or on
*$ic$ or time at *$ic$, as in !atin doma, Gat $omeG.
Nominative( Df, relatin, to, or elon,in, to a case of t$e
suject of a 5nite ver 0as I in I *rote t$e letter1 and of
*ords identi5ed *it$ t$e suject of a copula, suc$ as a
predicate nominative 0as children in #$ese are $is c$ildren1.
Dptative( Df, relatin, to, or ein, a mood of vers in some
lan,ua,es, suc$ as Greek, used to e?press a *is$.
Desi,natin, a statement usin, a ver in t$e sujunctive
mood to indicate a *is$ or desire, as in Iad I t$e means, I
*ould do it.
Present Participle( A participle e?pressin, present action,
formed in Cn,lis$ ' t$e in5nitive plus /in, and used to
e?press present action in relation to t$e time indicated '
t$e 5nite ver in its clause, to form pro,ressive tenses *it$
t$e au?iliar' be, and to function as a veral adjective.
Passive( Df, relatin, to, or ein, a ver form or voice used to
indicate t$at t$e ,rammatical suject is t$e oject of t$e
action or t$e e@ect of t$e ver. For e?ample, in t$e sentence
#$e' *ere impressed ' $is manner, were impressed is in
t$e passive voice.
Participle( A form of a ver t$at in some lan,ua,es, suc$ as
Cn,lis$, can function independentl' as an adjective, as t$e
past participle baked in Fe $ad some aked eans, and is
used *it$ an au?iliar' ver to indicate tense, aspect, or
voice, as t$e past participle baked in t$e passive sentence
#$e eans *ere aked too lon,.
Past Participle( A ver form indicatin, past or completed
action or time t$at is used as a veral adjective in p$rases
suc$ as baked beans and fnished work and *it$ au?iliaries
to form t$e passive voice or perfect and pluperfect tenses in
constructions suc$ as S$e $ad aked t$e eans and #$e
*ork *as 5nis$ed. Also called perfect participle.
Pre5?( An aM?, suc$ as dis/ in diselieve, put efore a *ord
to produce a derivative *ord or an in2ected form.
Pronominal( Df, relatin, to, or functionin, as a pronoun.
Besemlin, a pronoun, as ' specif'in, a person, place, or
t$in,, *$ile functionin, primaril' as anot$er part of speec$.
His in $is c$oice is a pronominal adjective.
Badical( Arisin, from or ,oin, to a root or source& asic( a
radical 2a* in a plan& c$ose t$e radical solution of startin,
all over a,ain.
Be2ective( Desi,natin, or e?pressin, a ,rammatical relation
in *$ic$ a verGs suject and an oject in t$e sentence refer
to t$e same person or t$in,, servin, to indicate t$at t$e
action of t$e ver is directed ack to t$e suject. C.,. HGar'
$urt $imselfH, HRane t$re* a part' for $erselfH.
Sanskrit( An ancient Indic lan,ua,e t$at is t$e lan,ua,e of
Iinduism and t$e 8edas and is t$e classical literar' lan,ua,e
of India.
Sustantive( a' C?pressin, or desi,natin, e?istence& for
e?ample, t$e ver to e. b' Desi,natin, a noun or noun
e9uivalent.
SuM?( An aM? added to t$e end of a *ord or stem, servin,
to form a ne* *ord or functionin, as an in2ectional endin,,
suc$ as /ness in ,entleness, /in, in *alkin,, or /s in sits.
8ocative( Belatin, to or ein, a ,rammatical case used in
!atin and certain ot$er lan,ua,es to indicate t$e person or
t$in, ein, addressed.
8eral Adjective( An adjective t$at is derived from a ver
and t$at in some constructions, participial p$rases for
e?ample, preserves t$e verGs s'ntactic features, suc$ as
transitivit' and t$e capailit' of takin, nominal or veral
complements.