You are on page 1of 23

1

“Heaven’s light is our guide”










DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
REPORT ON
CASE STUDY
COURSE NO: IPE 3500
TITLE : POLLUTANTS FROM TEXTILE WASTEWATER,THEIR EFFECT
ON ENVIRONMENT AND REMEDY OF THAT POLLUTANTS; A CASE
STUDY.

Submitted to: Submitted by:
Md. Ariful Islam Iraj Ahmed 075016
Lecturer dept.of IPE Idris Ali 075017
RUET Mohammad Azizur Rahman 075018



2

PREFACE

We will be Industrial & production engineers. We have many engineering course. On of the
important course is CASE STUDY. In this course we have gain knowledge about various
kind of cases. Our case study is about Pollutants From Textile Wastewater, Their Effect
On Environment And Remedy Of That Pollutants. This course help us to gain knowledge
about various kinds of textile wastewater and their effect on environment.


3



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We the student of Rajshahi University Of Engineering &Technology, RUET. Dept. of
Industrial & Production Engineering are very thankful to our dept. to Include a very
important course that is CASE STUDY for us.
We are very thankful & deeply indebted to our respected teacher Md.Ariful Islam ,Lecturer
dept. of IPE,RUET for his continuous support, encouragement, suggestion, guidance during
this course.
We also grateful to our respected teacher Dr. Md. Mosharraf Hossain ,Assistant Professor &
Head of the Dept. Dept.of IPE, RUET.

We also thankful to STANDARD | GROUP for help us to visit their ETP plant.






4

CONTENTS:

page
CHAPTER 01 Introduction & Objectives ……………….01
CHAPTER 02 Various Pollutants of Textile wastewater..02
CHAPTER 03 Acceptable level of pollutants………...03
CHAPTER 04 Observation of different industries…...04
CHAPTER 05 Pollutants that effect on environment...05
CHAPTER 06 Industries situated on the river bank….12
CHAPTER 07 Workers environment in industry…….13
CHAPTER 08 Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)………14
CHAPTER 09 Conclusion & References……………..18









5

CHAPTER 1
Introduction & Objectives

Introduction: In the recent years lot of textile wet processing industries were
established in Bangladesh. Most of the installed factories are spinning, weaving, denims and
knit dyeing plants. Apart from this there are lot of garment washing plants in the country.
Theses textile industries are playing very vital role in our total economy. Some of these
plants generate huge amount of wastewater, which find their way into the canals or small
rivers. These wastewaters are highly polluted and cause various types of short term as well as
long term consequences and complicacies. Wastewater discharged from a textile wet
processing plant contains various types of impurities depending on the types of raw materials,
dyes, chemicals, auxiliaries and process used. Some of these impurities are considered toxic
while some are not. Off course the toxicity or harmfulness also depends on the amount
present in a certain amount of a processed or wastewater. Environment is very important for
everyone. If the environment is polluted it will be threatened for the whole country. So we
should aware of our environment.


Objectives:
 To study about various types of pollutant produced by textile
processing industries.
 To study about the acceptable level of various pollutants.
 To study about the effect of environment that cause various
pollutants.
 To study about the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) to reduce
the pollutant
6

CHAPTER 2
Various Pollutants of Textile wastewater

In textile industry various types of pollutant are produce every day. This types of pollutant
are very harmful for our environment. Some of the pollutant textile wastewater that effect our
environment are given below:

♦ pH
♦ BOD : Biochemical Oxygen Demand
♦ COD : Chemical Oxygen Demand
♦ TSS : Total Suspended Solids
♦ TDS : Total Dissolved Solids
♦ Oil & Grease
♦ Color
♦Temperature






7

CHAPTER 3
Acceptable level of pollutants

Every pollutant has its own acceptable range which is tolerable. Exciding this range is unsafe
for our environment.
Acceptable level of various pollutants of wastewater generated from textile wet processing
industry is given below.

Table 1:
SL
NO.
Water
quality

parameters

Unit
Standard value for discharging
Inland river On land for irrigation
1 PH mg/L 6-9 6-9
2 BOD mg/L <50 <100
3 COD mg/L <200 <400
4 TSS mg/L <150 <200
5 TDS mg/L <2100 <2100
6 Oil &Grease mg/L <10 <10
7 Color Co-pt unit <150 <150
8 Temperature ◦C <30◦C <30◦C

(Source: Industrial Chemistry by B.K.Sharma)



8

CHAPTER 4
Observation of different industries
The characteristics of textile wastewater that produce in various industries are given below:

Table 2:

Name of the
factory
Factory/plant
type
Concentration of pollutants present in the wastewater

BOD

mg/L

COD

mg/L

TDS

mg/L
TSS

mg/L
Oil
&
Grease
mg/L
Color
Co-pt

Tem
◦C

pH
Ahasan
Composite
Knit dyeing 300 437 2210 82 ND ND ND 9.39
Reedisha
Knitex Ltd.
Knit dyeing 300 449 3380 3118 ND ND ND 9.01
Fakhruddinn
Textile Mills
Knit dyeing 450 1000 3500 100 ND Dark ND 9-11
Grameen
Knitwear
Knit dyeing 600 1200 --- 1000 10 Dark ND 10
Southeast Knit dyeing 450 1000 3500 100 --- Dark ND 11
Epyllion Knit Knit dyeing 450 1400 3500 200 60 600 60 9
Aboni Textiles Knit dyeing 350 1050 3500 200 40 140 35 11
Greenland
Garments Ltd.
Knit dyeing 450 1000 4500 100 ND Dark ND 6-9
Ha-Meem
Denim
Denim 850 2150 --- 350 20 <1000 35 9
Jamuna Denim Denim 640 1312 3633 305 --- 1380 --- 11
Partex Denim Denim 1300 2456 5320 900 ND 7620 ND ND

(secondary source from Textile College)

9



CHAPTER 5
Pollutants that effect on environment

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): The strength of the wastewater is
often determined by measuring the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganism like
bacteria in biodegrading the organic matter. Microorganism such as bacteria are responsible
for decomposing organic waste. When organic matter such as dead plants, leaves, grass
clippings, cellulose components, manure, sewage, organic waste like dyes, fats and oils, or
even food waste is present in a body of water, the bacteria will begin the process of breaking
down this waste. If there is a large quantity of organic waste in the water supply, a large
number of bacteria present in the water body will be working to decompose the waste. When
the bacteria consume organic waste they will require oxygen. Under this circumstance there
will be an additional demand for dissolved oxygen (DO).This additional demand for DO is
regarded as BOD.
Table 3: Comparison of (BOD) with Bangladesh standard.
Name of the
factory
Type of the
factory/plant
BOD
mg/L
standard value for discharging into
Inland
river(mg/L)
On land for irrigation
(mg/L)
Ahsan Composite Knit dyeing 300 <50 <100
Reedisha Knite Knit dyeing 300 <50 <100
Ha-Meem Denim Denim 850 <50 <100
Partex Denims Denim 1300 <50 <100

Effect:
 BOD contains high level of Nitrogen and Phosphates in the
water. As a result the plant grow quickly and die quickly.
 BOD also contains high temperature. This cause the plants die
faster.
 Plants are effect by bacteria.
10


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):COD is harmful pollutant of
wastewater. It is based on the fact that nearly all organic compounds be fully oxidized to
carbon dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. When some wastewater
is discharged into a water body, the organic compounds of the textile dyes and auxiliaries
may be oxidized by means of the dissolved oxygen present in the water as a result the level of
DO falls. As a result there will be demand for oxygen, which is termed as COD.
Table 4: Comparison of COD with Bangladesh standard.
Name of the factory Type of the
factory/plan
t
COD
mg/L
standard value for discharging into
Inland river(mg/L) On land for
irrigation (mg/L)
Ahsan Composite Knit dyeing 437 <200 <400
Reedisha Knite Knit dyeing 449 <200 <400
Ha-Meem Denim Denim 2150 <200 <400
Partex Denims Denim 2456 <200 <400

Effect:
 The COD of denim plant is very high and that of knit dyeing is somewhat
moderate for irrigation land while high for inland rivers. Therefore it will be
necessary to treat these wastewater before discharging them in to the
environment.
 COD causes the conversation of all organic matter into carbon
dioxide.

11



Total Suspended Solid (TSS):TSS is mainly organic in nature, is visible and
can be removed from the wastewater by physical/mechanical means e.g. screening and
sedimentation. TSS is measured by filtering a certain quantity of effluent and then drying the
filter at certain temperature. The pore size of the filter paper is very important in estimating
the TSS, the nominal pore size 1· 58 micro meter.

Table 5: Comparison of TSS with Bangladesh standard.

Name of the factory Type of the
factory/plant
TSS
mg/L
standard value for discharging into
Inland river(mg/L) On land for
irrigation
(mg/L)
Ahsan Composite Knit dyeing 82 <150 <200
Reedisha Knite Knit dyeing 3118 <150 <200
Ha-Meem Denim Denim 350 <150 <200
Partex Denims Denim 900 <150 <200


Effect:
 When TSS is high the sunlight is prevented from reaching to some aquatic
plants that they may need them for photosynthesis.

12



Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): TDS is the sum total of all of the dissolved
things in a given body of water. It includes hardness, alkalinity, cyanuric acid, potassium,
chlorides and sodium, bromides, sulfates, silicates, and all manner of organic compounds.
Some of this ions have little or no short term effects, but toxic ions (lead arsenic, cadmium,
nitrate and others) may also be dissolved in the water. Every time we add anything to the
water, we are increasing its TDS. TDS is referred to as the total amount of mobile charged
ions, including minerals, salts or metals dissolved in a given volume of water. Textile effluent
inherits TDS from dyes, chemicals and auxiliaries that are used in processing.

Table 6: Comparison of TDS with Bangladesh standard.
Name of the factory Type of the
factory/plant
TDS
mg/L
standard value for discharging
into
Inland
river(mg/L)
On land for
irrigation
(mg/L)
Ahsan Composite Knit dyeing 2210 <2100 <2100
Reedisha Knite Knit dyeing 3380 <2100 <2100
Ha-Meem Denim Denim ----- <2100 <2100
Partex Denims Denim 5320 <2100 <2100


Effect:
 TDS is directly related to the purity of water and the quality of water
purification systems and affects everything that consumes, lives in, or uses
water, whether organic or inorganic, whether for better or for worse.
 High TDS can cause eye and skin irritation, even though the pH is right and
there are no chloramines in the water.
 If we drink water of high TDS some of this will stay in the body, causing
stiffness in the joints, hardening of the arteries, kidney stones, gallstones
and blockages of arteries, microscopic capillaries.



13



Color & Dyes: The loss of dyes to effluent can be estimated to be 10% for deep
shades, 2% for medium shades and minimum for light shades. Dyes are complex organic
compounds, which are refractory in aerobic treatment systems. Some contain metals such as
Cr, Cu and Zn.
Table 7:Comparison of Color point with Bangladesh standard.

Name of the factory Type of the
factory/plant
Color
Co-pt
standard value for discharging into
Inland river(Co-pt) On land for
irrigation (Co-pt)
Grameen knitwear Knit dyeing Dark <150 <150
Southest Knit dyeing Dark <150 <150
Ha-Meem Denim Denim 1000 <150 <150
Partex Denims Denim 7620 <150 <150



Effect :
 Aquatic plants will not be able to produce food by the process of
photosynthesis. As a result their life will be endangered.
 Effluent of knit dyeing will also pose considerable effect on the environment.





14



Temperature : Temperature of water is a very important factor for aquatic life. It
controls the rate of metabolic and reproductive activities, and determines which aquatic
species can survive. Different aquatic species require different quantity of DO to survive in
the water. Temperature inversely affects the rate of transfer of gaseous oxygen into dissolved
oxygen. On the other hand at higher temperature the metabolic rate of aquatic plants and
animals increase producing an increase in oxygen demand.
International regulations related to water temperature and aquatic life classified water, as
“class 1 cold water aquatic life” should never have temperature exceeding 20ºC, while waters
classified, as “class 2 warm water aquatic life” should never have temperatures exceeding
30ºC.Temperature preferences among aquatic species vary widely, but all species tolerate
slow, seasonal changes better than rapid changes.
Effect:
 Increase temperature of textile wastewater not only reduces oxygen
availability, but also increase oxygen demand, which can add to
physiological stress of organisms.
 Increased temperature influence the activity of bacteria and toxic
chemicals secreted by the bacteria in water.







15



Oil and Greases: The term oil and greases, as commonly used, includes the fat,
oils, waxes, and other related constituents found in wastewater. Oils and fats are mainly due
to the sizing process and also as oils and grease comes in contact with the fabric during
processing. Apart from this small amount oils is found in the cellulose fibers. These oils and
fats are removed during scouring process and finally pass with the wastewater. If the
wastewater contains oils and fat, it form a layer at the top surface of the wastewater. As a
result the oxygen cannot come in contact with the water and becomes difficult to increase DO
level.
Table 8:Comparison of oil and grease with Bangladesh standard

Name of the factory Inland river On land for
irrigation
Grameen knitwear Knit dyeing 10 <10 <10
Epyllion knit Ltd. Knit dyeing 60 <10 <10
Ha-Meem Denim Denim 20 <10 <10
Partex Denims Denim ND <10 <10

Effect:
 Oil and grease discharged into the environment typically has effects. Oily
waste discharge may have objectionable odors, cause undesirable
appearance, burn on the surface of receiving water creating potential safety
hazards and consume dissolved oxygen necessary to form of life in water.
 In greater quantities, it limits oxygen transfer, hindering biological
activities.



16

CHAPTER 06
Industries situated on the river bank

In Bangladesh, industrial units are mostly located along the banks of the rivers. There are
obvious reasons for this such as provision of transportation for incoming raw materials and
outgoing finished products. Unfortunately as a consequence, industrial units drain effluents
directly into the rivers without any consideration of the environmental degradation.



Fig: A view of industries, situated on the river banks.

A complex mixture of hazardous chemicals, both organic and inorganic, is discharged into
the water bodies from all these industries usually without treatment.




17

CHAPTER 7
Workers environment in industry

Every industries in our country are not neat and clean. The working place of the workers are
not properly cleaned. They work in a very dirty place. As a result it create health problem to
the workers. The product that they produce are also not proper because of the dirty
environment.




Fig: Working place in industry.

Every industrial management should take care of this fact. If they can handle this problem
properly, the workers should be healthy and the environment will be helpful to the workers.



18

CHAPTER 8
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)

Effluent Treatment: The few industries in the project area that had Effluent
Treatment Plants (ETPs) were also assessed on the performance and management of their
ETPs. The project provided guidance on ETP management and worked with the industries to
reduce the cost of chemical treatment. Those industries that did not have ETPs were provided
with advice on treatment plant design.


FIG: Effluent Treatment Plant
The project has highlighted the need for more effluent treatment facilities and better
management of those that already exist. It is estimated that factories processing 5 tons of
fabric produce750,000 to 1,800,000 liters per day (i.e. 750-1,800 ton/day) of effluent water.
The average treatment cost is currently Tk. 20-30per 1,000 litres. By flow segregation and
optimization of chemical dosing, this operating cost can be reduced by up to 30%.

We saw the effluent treatment plant of the STANDARD | GROUP in our attachment course.
The flow diagram and the flow chart of this plant is given below:



19

Flow Diagram of ETP

Blow down line




















Capacity 68 GMP/Pump
Wastewater lnlet



Blow down chamber





Suction chamber


Treated water outline






Drain out chamber

Drain out line

City Corporation Sewerage Line
Lime, Alum,
Electrolyte &
Wastewater
mixing tank
Alum Tank
1000Ltrs
Electrolyte
Tank
1000Ltrs
20




















FIG: Effluent Treatment plant of STANDARD GROUP

Wastewater chamber
Effluent Transfer pump
Suction Chamber
City Corporation Sewerage Line
Drain out Chamber
Alum pump
(Chemical)
Poly Electrolyte
(Chemical)
Wastewater pump (Line)
Preserver
Blow down chamber
21

After ETP is applied, the resulted data of the COMPET COMPOSITE are given
below:



Sl. No. Water quality Parameters Unit
After
Treatment
Standard
Discharge
in Inland
water
Discharge
in public
sewer
Discharge
on Irrigated
land
1 Ph … 7.79 6--9 6--9 6--9
2 Turbidity NTU 1.89 .. .. ..
3 Total dissolved solids (TDS) mg/L 3285 2100 2100 2100
4 Dissolved Oxygen ( DO) mg/L 2.76 4.5--8 4.5--8 4.5--8
5 Total suspended solids (TSS) mg/L 11 150 500 200
6 Chemical oxygen Demand (COD) mg/L 121 200 400 400
7
Biochemical oxygen Demand (
BOD)
mg/L 16 50 250 100

This is the tested result of October--2010.










22

CHAPTER 9
Conclusion & References

Conclusion : Our environment is violated not only by the textile processing
plants but also by many other factories establish like slaughtering houses, sweet
manufacturers, bakeries, poultry farms etc. This industries are mainly situated in the main
town. Entrepreneurs can be encouraged to set up industries far away from the crowded area.
Setting up of industries near big rivers or coastal areas could be a much better option because
effluents can be directly released into the very large river or sea. Like many developed
countries, Government can offer free water and wastewater test facilities. Though some
people may take advantage of this facility but for greater interest of the country this types of
initiative will help in understanding, administering and researching the over all environmental
pollution. University should offer degree courses on environmental education; apart from this
we need research based education to study our environment and change in environment.
Research is also necessary to study and upgrade the existing treatment procedures in order to
reduce operating cost and also to combat future violation of the environment.

References :

a) Industrial Chemistry by B.K.Sharma.
b) Metcalf & Eddy,„„Wastewater Engineering”Tata McGraw-Hill publishing
Co.(pvt) Ltd., 2003.
c) Mark J.Hammer and et.al,„„Water & Waste Water Technology”Hall of
india privat Ltd.
d) B.C punmia and et.al,„„Waste Water Engineering”Laxmi Publications
(pvt)Ltd.2001.
e) Numarious related Web site such as:
1)www.banglajol.info/index.php/CERB/article/viewPDFCA
2) www.sos-arsenic.net/english/environment/louganj.html
3)www.cottonbangladesh.com/April2008/Wastewater.htm
4)www.fibre2fashion.com/industry.../textile-effluent-treatment.pdf
5) pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADJ857.pdf


23