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A Model Based on

Solar wind Hybrid
system

By:-Partha Sarothi Sikder
2/16/2014

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1.1 INTRODUCTION
Development of a country is dependent on availability of good quality and reliable electrical
energy. Growth in electric power consumption is an indicator of the industrial, agricultural and
commercial development of a country. Rapid development in power sector and adequate power
is needed to improve socio-economic condition of a country [1]. Availability of sufficient power
at reasonable rates will have multiplier effect on the economy of a country through increase in
investments and improved productivity of agriculture, industry and business. So, for the
countries growth, development and improvement of power sector and increase in generation of
electrical energy is of prime importance [2].
India is a developing country and the requirement of energy is increasing day by day but
generation of power is limited and cannot be increased to meet the total demand. So till now a
huge difference between power demand and power supply exists. Under the Government’s
―Power for all by 2012‖, plan the target to increase our per capita consumption of energy which
is 734 kWh (in 2008-09) by the end of the 11th Five Year Plan (2007-2012).
So far in India generation of electricity using non renewable energy sources like Coal,
nuclear energy, natural gas, petroleum, and diesel and hydroelectric are some of the traditional
sources of energy used worldwide for the generation of electricity [3].
India is one of the largest power-generating countries with an installed capacity of 156.8
GW (as of Jan 2010). Over the last 6 years, the installed capacity of the country grew at a CAGR
(compound annual growth rate) of 5.60% while the total power generated grew at a CAGR of
5.33% in eleventh five year plan. The government has set an ambitious plan to increase an
additional capacity of 78.55 GW to be achieved by the end of 2012.
India’s present generation scenario includes thermal hydro nuclear and in some places
renewable energy sources like wind and solar (mostly domestic use).By many years thermal
energy contributed 58.75% of the country’s total power generating capacity, energy contributed
by gas 8.91%, while hydro energy contributed 17.39 %, renewable energy sources around
12.32%, and nuclear energy contributed 2.08% of total generation capacity 156.8 GW (2010) [4].
Problem associated with the major generating sources (Thermal) is the emission of
greenhouse gases effecting environment and human being. Engineers and scientist are attempting
to focus for the generation of electrical energy which can reduce the emission of the green house
gases. So the present scenario is to generate power through renewable energy sources (wind,
solar) in a big way to meet the countries partial requirement. Attempt is going on to use the
hybrid systems with wind and solar to supply the electrical energy to the grid to meet the partial
demand of electrical energy of the country.
1.2 SOLAR-WIND HYBRID SYSTEM MODEL

Any hybrid system two or more energy system are connected together in a common bus to
supply the electrical power either through the grid or local power supply system. In this present
system a solar and wind energy system is considered for hybrid system. Normally any system to
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be analyzed, a mathematical model is developed for the analysis purposes. Since, both the
renewable sources are climate dependent so it is normally considered using a single solar and
wind energy system [5]. So far a number of papers are available in different journals with
different configuration. In this subsystem a model is considered for the analysis as shown in the
Fig (1).


Fig (1) Proposed module of Solar Wind battery based hybrid system [6]

In this system [6] the author is considered the storage of energy obtain from the solar and wind
and connected the system to a common DC bus which is converted through a PWM inverter
along with LC filter and 3 phase transformer to the distribution grid. Since wind turbine
generates variable AC power [7] which the author considered to store through a rectifier cum
multi input input DC-DC converter to the battery grid. The energy which is available from WTG
and the PV cell to a bank of energy storage battery to a common DC bus which is subsequently
inverted for AC power supply to the utility grid.

1.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE HYBRID SYSTEM
Various component of the hybrid system using solar wind energy based system discussed here.

1.3.1 Solar Photovoltaic System
Solar cell or photovoltaic cell (PV) directly converts solar energy into electrical energy. A single
PV cell produces a small amount of energy. To obtain la large amount of current and voltage a
large no of series parallel connection of PV cell is required.
When a PV cell is illuminated [8], electron –holes pair are generated and an electric
current I is the difference between the solar light generated current I
L
and the diode current I
j

Mathematically

*(

) + ---------------------(1.1)
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Where I
0
=Saturation current,
I
j
= Junction current
e= Electron charge
V= Voltage across the junction
k= Boltzmann’s constant, and
T= Absolute temperature.
The current and voltage relationship is given by

*(

) + ---------------------(1.2)
Open circuit voltage V
OC
for the ideal cell is given by

(

) (

) -----------------------(1.3)
As I
L
>>I
0 ,
equation (1.3) become

(

) (

) ----------------------(1.4)

To draw the PV characteristic an external resistance is connected to the PV cell.
Open-circuit voltage V
oc

When the external resistance is high or open circuited we found the maximum voltage across the
terminal called Open-circuit voltage (V
oc
) where the current flowing through the PV cell is zero.
Short-circuit current I
sc

When the PV cell external resistance R is short circuited the terminal voltage is zero and the PV
cell delivered Short circuit current (I
sc
)
From the open circuited condition if we gradually increase the external resistance of the PV cell
V-I characteristic is found which is shown in the fig (1) below











Fig. (1). Characteristic I–V curve of a practical PV device and the three remarkable points: short
circuit (0, I
sc
), MPP (V
mp
, I
mp
), and open circuit (V
oc
, 0). [9]

At a certain point MPP we found the maximum power generated by the PV cell. Where the
terminal voltage is V
mp
and the current flows in the circuit is I
mp
.
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So the maximum power derived from the PV cell is

………………………………………

1.3.2 Wind Energy Conversion System
Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) set use to convert the wind energy to the electrical energy. At a
certain speed between Cut-In speed and Cut-out Speed the wind power generate adequate
amount of electric power [6]. The relationship of the power output Vs Wind speed is shown in
Fig (2)

Fig. (2) Typical wind turbine Power output with steady wind speed [10]

In WTG system the kinetic energy of wind converted into electrical energy. The power generated
by the wind turbine is given by the equation no (1.6) [11]

( ) (

)

---------------------(1.6)

(

)

………………. ..(1.7)
Where ρ is the air density (kilograms per cubic meter),
v
ω
is the wind speed in meters per second,
A is the blades’ swept area,
C
p
is the turbine-rotor-power coefficient,
is the tip-speed ratio
β is the .pitch angle
ω
m
is the rotational speed of turbine rotor in mechanical radians per second,
R is the radius of the turbine.
The coefficient of performance of a wind turbine is influenced by the tip-speed to wind-speed
ratio, which is given by in the equation (8)

………………….(1.8)
The wind turbine can produce maximum power when the turbine operates at maximum Cp (i.e.,
at
()
.
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Therefore, it is necessary to keep the rotor speed at an optimum value of the tip-speed ratio

()
. If the wind speed varies, the rotor speed should be adjusted to follow the change.
The target optimum power from a wind turbine can be written as

()

()
(

()

()
)

(
()
)

-------------------(1.9)
Where

()
(

()
)

()

()

Therefore, the target optimum torque can be given by

()

(
()
)

--------------------(1.10)
The mechanical power generated by the rotor is a function of the rotor speed. For different wind
speed different power is generated by the wind turbine shown in Fig. 3


Fig.(3). Mechanical power generated by the turbine as a function of the rotor speed for different
wind speeds.

. The optimum power line
()
is drawn which shows how maximum energy can be captured
from the fluctuating wind speed. The function of the controller is to keep the turbine operating
speed on this curve, as the wind velocity varies. It is observed from this figure that for variable
speed of wind if we follow the
()
line we can extract the maximum power from the
variable wind speed.

1.3.3 Rectified DC Power Converter
As the WTG set does not generate reactive power a simple diode rectifier is connected to the
turbine generator side of WTG set to convert the AC power to the DC in order to maintain the
minimum operating cost of the system [12]. Besides the rectifier unite for variable operation and
a stable bus voltage a boost DC-DC converter is introduced in the system [12]. From the DC bus
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power may directly send to the consumer by converting the power in a suitable voltage locally to
the consumers DC load.

1.3.4 DC to AC Conversion unit
To convert the DC power to a suitable AC power an inverter is introduced in this module. A
Voltage Source Inerter (VSI) using Pulse width modulation (PWM) technique convert the DC
power into a suitable voltage and frequency to synchronize the load frequency of AC bus [13].
The PWM technique maintained the AC voltage in a specified value by choosing the sinusoidal
reference voltage. To eliminate the unwanted frequency a passive LC filter is connected with the
inverter [14].

1.3.5 Battery Bank
Numbers of batteries in a bank are used to store the energy available from the PV–WTG module.
If the voltage at the DC bus is greater than the PV-WTG is greater the battery is charged but if
the DC us voltage is less the battery is discharged [8] to maintain the dc bus voltage so as to
operate the inverter for its maximum output [15]. To maintain autonomy the banks of battery
automatically supply the power to the load via the grid as and when the renewable is interrupted.
To set the charging or discharging mode a suitable algorithm should be introduced in the system
[14] .The required ampere hour capacity of the battery is given by in the equation no (1.13)

()

()

-----------------------(1.13)

Where
E
c (Ah)
is the load in ampere hour.
D
s
is the battery autonomy or storage days.
(DOD)
max
is the maximum battery depth of discharge,

t
is the temperature correction factor.
The difference between the generated and load is the factor which decide whether the battery is
charging or discharging. The charge quantity of battery bank at time t is

()

( )( ) (

()

()

)

---------------------------(1.14)
Where

() and

( ) are the charge quantities of battery bank at the time t and t-1,
is the hourly self-discharge rate,

() is the total energy generated by renewable energy source after energy loss in controller,

() is load demand at the time t,

are the efficiency of inverter and charge efficiency of battery bank.
Charge quantity of battery bank is subject to the following constraints:

()

Where
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is the minimum charge quantity of the battery bank.

is the minimum charge quantity of the battery bank.
On the basis of reliability and economy of power supply we choose the hybrid model to generate
power from the Renewable energy sources [15].


1.4 Conclusion

In this present scenario of power generation system through conventional energy sources the
problems are associated in many folds prompted the engineers and scientist to consider
renewable energy sources for uninterrupted power supply system.
Present analysis a hybrid system with PV-WTG is considered for supplying the electrical
power through the grid circuit. Since both solar and wind energy is environment dependent an
storage system is considered to store the energy as and when available from solar and WTG to a
bank of storage batteries which subsequently supplies the energy through a DC bus and inverter
to the utility grid. This concept of hybrid system presently is being considered for an
uninterrupted power supply system.




















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1.5 References
[1] www.beeindia.in
[2]http://stockshastra.moneyworks4me.com/indian-power-sector-analysis-industry-overview-
and-research-2011/
[3] www.our-energy.com
[4] www.wikipidea.org
[5] Karim Mousa1, Hamzah AlZu’bi2, Ali Diabat3 ―Design of a Hybrid Solar-Wind Power Plant
Using Optimization‖1Graduate Student, Masdar Institute of Science And Technology, Abu
Dhabi, UAE 2Graduate Student, Masdar Institute of Science And Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE
3Assistant Professor, Masdar Institute of Science And Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE
[6] Sungwoo Bae, , and Alexis Kwasinski, ―Dynamic Modeling and Operation Strategy for a
Microgrid With Wind and Photovoltaic Resources‖IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID,
VOL. 3, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2012 1867
[7] Mahmoud M. Hussein 1, *, Tomonobu Senjyu , Mohamed Orabi , Mohamed A. Wahab
and Mohamed M. Hamada ―Control of a Stand-Alone Variable Speed Wind Energy
Supply System‖
[8] R.K. Rajput ―Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Utilisation‖ S. Chand & Company LTD
[9] Marcelo Gradella Villalva, Jonas Rafael Gazoli, and Ernesto Ruppert Filho ―Comprehensive
Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays‖ IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 5, MAY 2009
[10] http://www.wind-power-program.com/turbine_characteristics.htm
[11] Md. Enamul Haque, , Michael Negnevitsky, , and Kashem M. Muttaqi, ―A Novel Control
Strategy for a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine With a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator‖
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 46, NO. 1,
JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2010 331
[12] Frede Blaabjerg, Marco Liserre, ,and KeMa, ―Power Electronics Converters for Wind
Turbine Systems‖ IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 48, NO.
2, MARCH/APRIL 2012
[13] Nitin Adhav, Pg Student Shilpa Agarwal ―Comparison and Implementation of Different
PWM Schemes of Inverter in Wind Turbine‖ International Journal of Innovative Technology and
Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-2, January 2013 85
[14] C. N. Bhende, S. Mishra, , and Siva Ganesh Malla ―Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Generator-Based Standalone Wind Energy Supply System‖ IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2011 361
[15] M.K. Deshmukh, S.S. Deshmukh , ―Modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems‖
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani—Goa Campus, Zuari Nagar, Goa 403 726,
India Centre for Renewable Energy and Environment Development (CREED), Mechanical
Engineering Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani Campus, Pilani 333
031, India Received 15 June 2006; accepted 31 July 2006