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# 3.

Bode Plot
A Bode plot is a graph of the logarithm of the transfer function of a linear, time-invariant
system versus frequency, plotted with a log-frequency axis, to show the system's frequency
response. It is usually a combination of a Bode magnitude plot (usually expressed as dB of gain)
and a Bode phase plot (usually expressed as degrees of phase shift).
The magnitude axis of the Bode plot is usually expressed as decibels of power, that is by
the 20 log rule: 20 times the common logarithm of the amplitude gain. With the magnitude gain
being logarithmic, Bode plots make multiplication of magnitudes a simple matter of adding
distances on the graph (in decibels), since

A Bode phase plot is a graph of phase versus frequency, also plotted on a log-frequency
axis, usually used in conjunction with the magnitude plot, to evaluate how much a signal will be
phase-shifted. For example a signal described by: Asin(ωt) may be attenuated but also phase-
shifted. If the system attenuates it by a factor x and phase shifts it by −Φ the signal out of the
system will be (A/x) sin(ωt − Φ). The phase shift Φ is generally a function of frequency.

4.One pole low-pass model amplifier
A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low-frequency signals but attenuates (reduces the
amplitude of) signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The actual amount of
attenuation for each frequency varies from filter to filter. It is sometimes called a high-cut filter,
or treble cut filter when used in audio applications. A low-pass filter is the opposite of a high-
pass filter, and a band-pass filter is a combination of a low-pass and a high-pass.
The concept of a low-pass filter exists in many different forms, including electronic
circuits (like a hiss filter used in audio), digital algorithms for smoothing sets of data, acoustic
barriers, blurring of images, and so on. Low-pass filters play the same role in signal processing
that moving averages do in some other fields, such as finance; both tools provide a smoother
form of a signal which removes the short-term oscillations, leaving only the long-term trend.
There are many different types of filter circuits, with different responses to changing
frequency. The frequency response of a filter is generally represented using a Bode plot, and the
filter is characterized by its cutoff frequency and rate of frequency rolloff. In all cases, at the
cutoff frequency, the filter attenuates the input power by half or 3 dB. So the order of the filter
determines the amount of additional attenuation for frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.
 A first-order filter, for example, will reduce the signal amplitude by half (so power
reduces by 6 dB) every time the frequency doubles (goes up one octave); more precisely,
the power rolloff approaches 20 dB per decade in the limit of high frequency. The
magnitude Bode plot for a first-order filter looks like a horizontal line below the cutoff
frequency, and a diagonal line above the cutoff frequency. There is also a "knee curve" at
the boundary between the two, which smoothly transitions between the two straight line
regions. If the transfer function of a first-order low-pass filter has a zero as well as a pole,
the Bode plot will flatten out again, at some maximum attenuation of high frequencies;
such an effect is caused for example by a little bit of the input leaking around the one-
pole filter; this one-pole–one-zero filter is still a first-order low-pass. See Pole–zero plot
and RC circuit.
 A second-order filter attenuates higher frequencies more steeply. The Bode plot for this
type of filter resembles that of a first-order filter, except that it falls off more quickly. For
example, a second-order Butterworth filter will reduce the signal amplitude to one fourth
its original level every time the frequency doubles (so power decreases by 12 dB per
octave, or 40 dB per decade). Other all-pole second-order filters may roll off at different
rates initially depending on their Q factor, but approach the same final rate of 12 dB per
octave; as with the first-order filters, zeroes in the transfer function can change the high-
frequency asymptote. See RLC circuit.
 Third- and higher-order filters are defined similarly. In general, the final rate of power
rolloff for an order-n all-pole filter is 6n dB per octave (i.e., 20n dB per decade).
RC Low-pass circuit
A resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit
composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source. A first order RC
circuit is composed of one resistor and one capacitor and is the simplest type of RC circuit.
RC circuits can be used to filter a signal by blocking certain frequencies and passing
others. The four most common RC filters are the high-pass filter, low-pass filter, band-pass filter,
and band-stop filter.
There are three basic, linear passive lumped analog circuit components: the resistor (R), capacitor
(C) and inductor (L). These may be combined in: the RC circuit, the RL circuit, the LC circuit and the
RLC circuit with the abbreviations indicating which components are used. These circuits, between them,
exhibit a large number of important types of behaviour that are fundamental to much of analog
electronics. In particular, they are able to act as passive filters. This article considers the RC circuit, in
both series and parallel as shown in the diagrams.