You are on page 1of 14

C MANAGEMENT

for
MANAGEMENT CONSULTING
John L. Kmetz, DBA
Faculty Director of International Programs,
College of Business and Economics, and
Associate Professor
Department of Business Administration
2
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
WHAT IS A PROJECT?
An assigned person (or an ad-hoc team of people)
and specified resources working together with goal-
related authority and responsibility relationships to
accomplish an end purpose. (John Kmetz)
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a
unique product or service. (Project Managment
Institute)
OVERVIEW
3
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
Project management is a proven
methodology for defining projects, scheduling
projects, and tracking project progress
against goals.
4
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
2. The fundamental characteristics of project management
are:
clear objectives and task definition
detailed planning
detailed scheduling of tasks
commitments of people, equipment, and resources (time
and money)
management commitment to project support
continuous tracking, updating, and review of schedule
and constraints
continuous communication with team members and
managers
5
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
3. Project management is not:
reorganization into a full project company or matrix
structure
only for technical or engineering activities
an entirely new set of skills and behaviors unlike
anything done in normal management
6
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
WHO CAN USE PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
Anyone
many organizations are streams of projects
many organizations use projects for specific
objectives
most project management activities are not
unique
7
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
STEPS IN APPLYING PROJECT MANAGEMENT
1. State (write) your goal. What will be the outcome of the
project ?
know the project scopemy desk or many desks?
2. Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to identify
tasks
a checklist for simple projects (small, low risk)
a matrix (flexible, not necessarily good for scheduling)
a formal WBS (larger projects, higher risk)
The WBS will change over time, but MS Project maintains it.
8
First aid and medical
Camping equipment
Normal clothing
Sport and leisure clothing (special)
Sport and leisure equipment
Equipment
and
clothing
Cooking and camp kitchen
Food procurement
Menus and quantities
Meals
Vehicle maintenance
Routing and road conditions
Car
transport
Communications
Budgets and finance
Itinerary, schedules, alternate plans
House maintenance during absence
Car loading and camp setup
System
engineering
Camping
trip
project
Car loading plan
Camp setup and breakdown plan
Personnel assignments
Notify police and neighbors
Garden and pet maintenance
Mail, milk, paper, and other routine deliveries
Emergency action plan for neighbor/caretaker
Camp site plan with alternates
Fiscal tradeoffs for alternates
Daily activity schedules
Transportation budget
Daily expenses budget
Record of costs
Planned local addresses
Message plan
Emergency communication plan
Spare parts to be carried
Initial repairs and servicing
Periodic maintenance
Normal route navigation
Alternate route navigation
Verification of road conditions
Auto club information and maps
Post daily menus
Alternate menus
Update replishment shopping list
Perishables Initial stock
Replenishment
Nonperishables Duration stock
Replenishment
Kitchen untensils procurement
Assembly of kitchen gear (checklist)
Cooking assignments
Cleanup assignments
Equipment checklist
Procurement and maintenance
of special equipment
Checklist (each member)
Procurement and/or maintenance
Travel clothing
Cold weather clothing
City and hotel clothing
Laundering plan
Tent and maintenance
Sleeping gear and maintenance
Portable furniture
First aid item checklist
Regular medicines checklist
Prepare first aid kit
Camping
Trip Work
Breakdown
Structure
Source: B.N. Abramson
and R.D. Kennedy,
Managing Small
Projects. TRW
Systems Journal, 1969.
Project Work Package
Level
Work Units Job/Task Numbers
9
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
CAMPING TRIP WBS IN MATRIX FORMAT
Tasks Dad Mom #1 son #1 daughter #1 dog
1.1.1 X
1.1.2 X
1.1.3 X
1.2.1 X
1.2.2 X X
1.2.3 X
etc.
10
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
CAMPING TRIP WBS IN OUTLINE FORMAT
1.0 System engineering
1.1 Car loading and camp setup
1.1.1 Car loading plan
1.1.2 Camp setup and breakdown plan
1.1.3 Personnel assignments
1.2 House maintenance during absence
1.2.1 Notify police and neighbors
1.2.2 Garden and pet maintenance
1.2.3 Mail, milk, paper, other routine deliveries
1.3 Itinerary, schedules, alternate plans
Etc.
2.0 Car transport
3.0 Meals
11
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
STEPS IN APPLYING PROJECT MANAGEMENT
3. Schedule the tasks
estimated time to accomplish
sequencing what order of completion, what
dependencies (predecessors)
These are the big three: tasks, times, and
predecessors.
When you have all these, you can start putting your
project together. Without all of them, you cant.
12
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
STEPS IN APPLYING PROJECT MANAGEMENT
4. Allocate people and equipment to tasks
5. Allocate budget to tasks
6. Use Gantt chart and PERT chart to communicate project
plan
MS Project does both, starts with a Gantt chart
7. Get commitments people and management
13
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
STEPS IN APPLYING PROJECT MANAGEMENT
8. Assess constraints and risks
9. Iterate steps 2 through 8 as often as needed to get solid
project plan
Use software to its best advantage eliminate drudgery
and keep the plan current!
10. Keep people informed throughout the project
14
ASSESSING CONSTRAINTS AND RISKS
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
Constraints
total cost of project
total time to completion
Risks
Technical risk can we really do this?
Cost risk can we do it for this amount of money?
Schedule risk can we do it by the promised date?
Process risk can the organization adapt to the
process effects of project management?
15
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
THE GANTT CHART
Developed by Henry Gantt around 1910
Graph showing time on the horizontal axis, activities on the
vertical axis:
shows flow or progression of tasks from start (left) to
finish (right)
shows duration of each activity in time units
enables calculation of time required for entire project
extremely simple only form needed is a piece of
paper (perhaps turned sideways)
powerful tool for relatively simple projects
automatically maintained (default view) by Microsoft
Project
MS Project relatively user-friendly, easy to learn
software useful for project tracking and reporting
16
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
THE GANTT CHART
Gantt charts have some limitations:
not well suited to detailed plans for large, complex
projects
does not provide insight of PERT or CPM models
can be difficult to visualize starting points of tasks with
more than one predecessor activity
17
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
THE PERT MODEL
PERT Project Evaluation and Review Technique:
developed in 1960s by Booz, Allen & Hamilton for
U.S. Navy Polaris missile project
network model
improvement over Gantt chart alone for complex
projects
requires detailed task list for network construction
identification, order (predecessors, concurrent,
following)
requires time estimates for each task (stochastic
Beta distribution)
18
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
THE PERT MODEL
Advantages of PERT over Gantt charts:
sequence of project activities made explicit
critical path easily determined
19
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
THE PERT MODEL
The critical path:
The critical path is the longest path through a
network of tasks
It is critical because any delay along that
path delays completion of the entire project
MS Project automatically prepares a network
and uses the critical path to allocate resources
and determine project completion time
20
The Critical Path:
an example
Assume you have purchased a vacation
house to be custom-built in prefabricated
sections and erected on a prepared site.
A diagram showing the steps in the
process and the linkages between them
follows:
21
12 1wk
Plumbing,
electrical
13 2wk
Prelim
interior
1 1wk
Approve
plans
2 3wk
Obtain
permits
3 1wk
Excavate
foundn
4 1wk
Rough
utilities
5 2wk
Foundn
floors,
walls
6 1wk
Rough
1st floor
7 1wk
Prep.
hookups
14 3wk
Final
assembly
15 2wk
Side &
finish
8 3wk
Rough
frame
9 2wk
Exterior
sheath
10 1wk
Doors &
windows
11 1wk
Ship to
site
22
Paths through a network
A path is a complete sequence of activities from
the beginning to the end of the network
there are as many paths as there are different
possible ways of going end-to-end through the
network
all paths must be completed
the length of each path is the sum of the times
for all activities on the path
the longest path through the network is the
critical path
23
12 1wk
Plumbing,
electrical
13 2wk
Prelim
interior
1 1wk
Approve
plans
2 3wk
Obtain
permits
3 1wk
Excavate
foundn
4 1wk
Rough
utilities
5 2wk
Foundn
floors,
walls
6 1wk
Rough
1st floor
7 1wk
Prep.
hookups
14 3wk
Final
assembly
15 2wk
Side &
finish
8 3wk
Rough
frame
9 2wk
Exterior
sheath
10 1wk
Doors &
windows
11 1wk
Ship to
site
1-2-3-5-
6-7-14-
15 =
14 wks
24
12 1wk
Plumbing,
electrical
13 2wk
Prelim
interior
1 1wk
Approve
plans
2 3wk
Obtain
permits
3 1wk
Excavate
foundn
4 1wk
Rough
utilities
5 2wk
Foundn
floors,
walls
6 1wk
Rough
1st floor
7 1wk
Prep.
hookups
14 3wk
Final
assembly
15 2wk
Side &
finish
8 3wk
Rough
frame
9 2wk
Exterior
sheath
10 1wk
Doors &
windows
11 1wk
Ship to
site
1-2-3-4-
5-6-7-14-
15 =
15 wks
25
12 1wk
Plumbing,
electrical
13 2wk
Prelim
interior
1 1wk
Approve
plans
2 3wk
Obtain
permits
3 1wk
Excavate
foundn
4 1wk
Rough
utilities
5 2wk
Foundn
floors,
walls
6 1wk
Rough
1st floor
7 1wk
Prep.
hookups
14 3wk
Final
assembly
15 2wk
Side &
finish
8 3wk
Rough
frame
9 2wk
Exterior
sheath
10 1wk
Doors &
windows
11 1wk
Ship to
site
1-2-8-9-10-11-
14-15 = 16 wks
26
12 1wk
Plumbing,
electrical
13 2wk
Prelim
interior
1 1wk
Approve
plans
2 3wk
Obtain
permits
3 1wk
Excavate
foundn
4 1wk
Rough
utilities
5 2wk
Foundn
floors,
walls
6 1wk
Rough
1st floor
7 1wk
Prep.
hookups
14 3wk
Final
assembly
15 2wk
Side &
finish
8 3wk
Rough
frame
9 2wk
Exterior
sheath
10 1wk
Doors &
windows
11 1wk
Ship to
site
1-2-8-9-12-13-10-
11-14-15 = 19 wks
critical path
27
Time / Stage of
Life Cycle
Revenue
from
Product
or Service /
Effort Needed
for Project
The Project Life Cycle
Start-up Maximum effort Wind-down
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
28
MANAGEMENT OF THE CONSULTING
PROJECT
There is (or should be) a natural relationship
between consulting projects and PM:
Definition and control of the scope of work is
critically important
Clear planning and relationships between tasks
and resources is critical
Scope and timing of deliverables is critical
Client interface milestones are vital, and must be
managed carefully
Documentation of project changes is vital
A post-mortem of every project is worth its
weight in gold, literally!