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Immunology Study Sheet for the Final Exam

In addition to the old exams and the learning objectives for CH’s 17!"# you may $hat to
em%hasi&e the follo$ing as you revie$'
1( )each CH 1 again it’ll hel% tie the course together# and ma*e much more sense no$(
!( +efinitions $ill focus on major %oints' ,ajor cell ty%es -# .h# C./# .h1# .h!# m%hage#
dendritic# etc(
0ntigen %resentation# ,HC restriction# clonal selection# memory# etc(
1( ,ajor %oints from the old material'
,ajor Ig’s and their uni2ue roles and as%ects 3e(g(# Ig, is a %entamer# Ig0 is in fluids# etc(4
Cyto*ines' I/!# IF5 gamma# I/1# I/6# .5F7
Com%lement' C1C8# inhibitors H# I# C6 binding %rotein# classical# alternate# ,-/3lectin4
%ath$ays
Cha%ter 17# Immune res%onse' 9ou should *no$ ho$ the follo$ing microbes avoid destruction
by the immune system# usually in short ans$ers 3$ithstand %hagocytosis# avoid it# etc(4
,( tuberculosis
Stre% %neumoniae 3avoids %hagocytosis $ith its ca%sule4
5eisseria s%(
.ry%anosoa brucei 3not this year4
Influen&a antigenic shift and drift
HI:
,alaria im%ortance of s%oro&oite and mero&oite forms(
1;:accination' 9ou should be able to define and give an exam%le of the follo$ing ty%es of
vaccines# and the advantages and disadvantages of attenuated vs( other# nonre%licative vaccine
ty%es' attenuated# inactivated# toxoids# from %urified macromolecules# made by recombinant
+50(
<hat’s a +50 vaccine# and ho$ it $or*s(
Here’s my favorite list of exam%les' 31 in 1 attenuated viruses4' measles# mum%s# rubella=
attenuated bacteriaone of fe$' -C>= toxoids' tetanus# di%htheria= %urified macromolecule#
ca%sule' %neumonia= recombinant +50 %roduct' He%atitis -# inactivated virus' influen&a(
3.able 1;64
1?' 9ou should *no$ the follo$ing immunodeficiency disorders' SCI+# and some of its causes#
3including 0+04= -rutons 3or @lin*ed4 agammaglobulinemia= +i>eorge syndrome# Chronic
granulomatous disease# @lin*ed hy%erIg,= %lus the diseases that you are ty%ically more
susce%tible to if you have a humoral deficiency# vs a cellmediated deficiency(
0I+S' See learning Abjectives( In %articular'
.he test for 0I+S an E/IS0 assay for 0b’s against HI: %roteins(
Chronic %hase recogni&e that there is ongoing destruction of . cells# but initially the
hemato%oeitic system is able to re%lace those *illed(
.he %resence of HI: )50 is the most useful measure of the extent of the disease# and the best
indication of the %atient’s %rognosis(
Effects of 0I+S' ,ost .h cells are not infected# but there’s destruction of the lym%h nodes# and
a lo$ered C./ and +.H res%onse# $ith cyto*ine %roduction shifted to a .h! 3humoral4
res%onse(
.hera%y the three major targets for 0I+S thera%y' ).# %rotease# and integrase ingredients in
H00). thera%y(
!"' 0utoimmunity' -e able to give exam%les of autoimmune diseases $hich are %rimarily
cellular 3,S# I++,4# and ones that are %rimarily humoral 3rheumatoid arthritis# >raves’ disease#
lu%us4# along $ith treatments and one or more multi%le choice 2uestions dealing $ith the
%ossible mechanism of develo%ment of autoimmune disease(
-iology 11;# Immunology( +iscussion 2uestions( .a*ehome discussion 2uestions( Blease have
these com%leted by the time you come to the exam on Friday( +A 9AC) A<5 <A)D= see me
if you have any 2uestionsE 9ou only need to ans$er 1#!# and t$o of the last three# but you can
ans$er all three for u% to five %oints extra credit(
.hese $ill be the discussion 2uestions on the final exam(
1( <hile vacationing in ,exico# you contract s$ine flu( +escribe the cellmediated immune
res%onse# including the various cells that are involved# and some of the major cyto*ines
involved( 31" %oints4
!( .here are several theories about the cause of autoimmunity( +escribe three of those in 1!
sentences( For one of them# ex%and on this# giving a ty%ical scenario as to ho$ it $ould result in
autoimmunity( 0lso describe some of the evidence that this is a mechanism for autoimmunity(
31" %oints4
1( For HI:# you have virally infected cells# sho$ing viral antigens on their surface# and budding
off viral %articles( .here is a %lethora of $ays that the immune system could destroy virally
infected cells andFor neutrali&e viral %articles( .hese $or* %artially# allo$ing infected
individuals to live for years before they succumb to infections( +escribe three of these $ays#
including ho$ you might ex%erimentally demonstrate one of them(
6( .he ,HC ty%es I and II are im%ortant for antigen %resentation( .he ,HC alleles that you
%osses can affect your ability to mount a res%onse to an antigen= it may also %redis%ose you to an
autoimmune disease( -riefly describe the roles of class I and II in antigen %resentation# and ho$
differing ,HC genes may result in different res%onses to antigen# including selfantigens( In
your discussion# include $hat is meant by . cells being ,HC restricted(
8( Ho$ are $e able to %roduce the millions of different ty%es of antibodies and . cellsG
+escribe ho$ this %rocess $or*s for one %articular situation# such as immunoglobulin heavy
chain# 3but discuss ho$ this then blends into the entire %rocess4(