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Transmission Line Editor Overview

The properties associated with transmission lines of the electrical system can be entered in this editor. You
can perform the following functions within this editor:
Calculate electrical parameters of Lines
Calculate conductor ampacity and temperature
Calculate Sag & Tension
Conductor transposition
The Transmission Line Editor includes twelve pages of properties:
Info Page - Transmission Line Editor
You can use the nfo page to specify the transmission line !" #rom and To bus ! and $%" n&'ut of
Service" #eeder Tag" (ame" !escription" and Length.
1
Line Type
The Transmission Line editor type displays information from the transmission line header of the library
selected. t is arranged as follows:
Source
Source of the transmission line data for the selected line.
Conductor Type
Conductor material. The current types available are listed in the following table
Type
Description
))C
)ll )luminum Conductor
)C)*
)luminum Conductor )lloy *einforced
)))C
)ll )luminum )lloy Conductor
)CS*
)luminum Conductor Steel *einforced
)+C
)naconda +ollow Copper
2
C,
Copper
C-
Copper -eld
C-C
Copper -eld Copper
Base Temp. for !
.ase *ated Temperature / for the *esistance value in degrees Celsius. This temperature plus the rated
temperature 0 are used to calculate the resistance variation for the line at various temperatures.
Base Temp. for !
.ase *ated Temperature 0 for the *esistance value in degrees Celsius. This temperature plus the rated
temperature / are used to calculate the resistance variation for the line at various temperatures.
"re#uency
Line rated fre1uency in +2. This value indicates the fre1uency at which reactance" 34*" and other
parameters are specified by the manufacturer or standard. f the fre1uency of the system is different" ET)5
will automatically ad6ust these parameters to the system fre1uency.
Code
Code name given to a transmission line by the standard or source of data. #or most available lines" their
code 7for e8ample" bird" flower" city" or sport9 has been entered in this field. n the case of T&! boo$" since
they do not use the bird names" si2e:strands has been used for the code.
Si$e
Line si2e in )-3" $cmil" or mm
0
.
Con. % of Strands
4ain conductor number of strands.
Info
ID
Enter a uni1ue ! with up to 0; alphanumeric characters. ET)5 automatically assigns a uni1ue ! to each
transmission line. The assigned !s consist of the default line ! plus an integer" starting with the number
one and increasing as the number of lines increase. The default line ! 7Line9 can be changed from the
!efaults 4enu in the menu bar or from the 5ro6ect %iew.
"rom and To
.us !s for the connecting buses of a transmission line are designated as #rom and To buses. f a terminal
of a branch" #rom or To" is not connected to any bus" a blan$ entry will be shown for bus !. To connect or
reconnect a branch to a bus" select a bus from the list bo8. The one:line diagram will be updated to show
the new connection after you clic$ '<. &ote' you can only connect to buses that reside in the same view
where the branch resides" i.e." you cannot connect to a bus that resides in the !umpster or in another
composite networ$.
#or = 5hase Transmission Lines" only = 5hase buses will be displayed in the drop down lists. #or Single
Transmission Lines only single:phase buses will be displayed.
f a branch is connected to a bus through a number of protective devices" reconnection of the branch to a
3
new bus from the editors will reconnect the last e8isting protective device to the new bus" as shown below
where .ranch > is reconnected from .us/? to .us@.
Single 5hase Transmission lines can also be connected to 5hase )dapters. f the Cable is connected as
such" then the 5hase )dapter ! will show in the 5rimary or Secondary field.
(e8t to the #rom and To bus !s" ET)5 displays the nominal $% of the buses for your convenience.
In(Out of Service
'perating condition of a transmission line can be selected by choosing either the n Service or 'ut of Service
options. The properties of an 'ut of Service branch can be edited li$e an n Service branchA however" an 'ut of
Service branch will not be included in any system studies. -hen Continuity Chec$ is activated" an 'ut of Service
branch automatically becomes dimmed in the one:line diagram. )ll the loads and branches energi2ed solely
through an 'ut of Service branch will also be de:energi2ed and become dimmed.
(ote that the n&'ut of Service option is an engineering property" which is independent of the configuration status.
Therefore" you can set a branch to be n Service for the .ase !ata and 'ut of Service in *evision !ata.
Connection
Transmission Lines can be defined as = 5hase or / 5hase lines by selecting any of the following selections:
) P*ase
!efine the line as a three:phase line. This line can be connected only to three:phase buses.
P*ase
!efine the line as a single:phase line.
E#uipment
Tag %
Enter the feeder tag in this field" using up to 0; alphanumeric characters.
&ame
Enter the e1uipment name" using up to ;? alphanumeric characters.
4
Description
Enter the e1uipment description" using up to /?? alphanumeric characters.
Lengt*
Lengt*
Enter the length of the transmission line" in the units specified in the ,nit field.
+nit
Select the unit from the list bo8. The units of length available are feet" miles" meters" and $ilometers.
To,erance
Enter the percent tolerance in line length. The )d6ustments page in the analysis modules can be used to
consider B&: C tolerance in line length" effectively increasing or decreasing the impedance based on the
type of study being performed.
Parameter Page - Transmission Line Editor
n the parameter page you can select the 5hase and ground conductors from the library or enter the
conductor properties.
P*ase Conductor
5
Conductor Type
Select the main conductor material 7Copper or )luminum9.
! T
This is the phase conductor rated resistance at the rated temperature T/ in ohms per mile or ohms per
$ilometer.
! T-
This is the phase conductor rated resistance at the rated temperature T0 in ohms per mile or ohms per
$ilometer.
.a
Enter the conductor inductive reactance in ohms per mile at /ft spacing.
Outside Diameter
Specify conductor outside diameter in inches or cm. ET)5 calculates the e1uivalent diameter of the
bundled conductors 7dD9 for bundled conductors by using following the formulas:
Two bundled conductors:
Three bundled conductors:
6
#our bundled conductors:
where d is a single conductor diameter in inches and S is the separation between conductors in inches or cm.
/0!
Specify conductor geometric mean radius 734*9 in feet or meters. 34* must be less than or e1ual to the
conductor radius. -hen >a is entered and 34* has not been entered" the program will calculate 34*
using the following formula:
#or English units:
#or 4etric units:
#or bundled conductors" ET)5 calculates the e1uivalent 34* using the following formulas:
Two bundled conductors:
7
Three bundled conductors:
#our bundled conductors:
-here 34* is for a single conductor and S is the separation between bundled conductors in inches or cm.
.a1
Enter the conductor shunt capacitive reactance in megohms per mile or $ilometer.
Conductor Li2
5ress the Conductor Lib button to access the Library Euic$ 5ic$ F Transmission Line 75hase Conductor9
dialog bo8" which allows you to select line data from the library.
/round 3ire
Conductor Type
Select the main conductor material 7)luminum" Copper" or Steel9.
! T
Enter the conductor rated resistance at the rated temperature T/ in ohms per mile or ohms per $ilometer.
! T-
Enter the conductor rated resistance at the rated temperature T0 in ohms per mile or ohms per $ilometer.
.a
Enter the conductor inductive reactance in ohms per mile at /ft spacing.
Outside Diameter
Specify conductor outside diameter in inches or cm. #or bundled conductors" ET)5 calculates the e1uivalent
diameter of the bundled conductors 7dD9 using following the formulas:
Two bundled wires:
Three bundled wires:
#our bundled wires:
-here d is a single conductor diameter in inches and S is the separation between conductors in inches or cm.
/0!
Specify conductor geometric mean radius 734*9 in feet or meters. 34* must be less than or e1ual to the
conductor radius. -hen >a is entered and 34* has not been entered" the program will calculate using the
following formula:
Two bundled conductors:
Three bundled conductors:
#our bundled conductors:
where 34* is for a single conductor and S is the separation between bundled ground wires in inches.
.a1
Conductor shunt capacitive reactance in megohms per mile or $ilometer.
/round 3ire Li2
5ress the 3round -ire Lib button to access the Library Euic$ 5ic$ F Transmission Line 73round -ire9 dialog
bo8" which allows you to select line data from the library.
Configuration Page 4 Transmission Line Editor
Configuration Type
Several types of physical configurations are available for transmission lines to accommodate most setups.
)vailable options for transmission line placement are:
+ori2ontal 5arallel %ertical
%ertical 5arallel +ori2ontal
Triangular 3eneralG
The general configuration allows you to specify the physical location of the conductors with respect to a
reference point. The reference point is located at the same level as the base of the tower or pole. This defines
the height of the lines with respect to the soil level. #or e8ample:
#or this configuration" the following parameters would be used:
T*e spacing is ca,cu,ated automatica,,y 2y ET5P. T*e ground wires are a,so entered wit*
respect of t*e reference point.
/0D
The geometric mean diameter 734!9 is calculated based on the spacing and configuration type. The value is
in feet or meters.
P*ase
6eig*t
Enter the height 7in feet or meters9 of the transmission line from the earth to the lowest conductor in the
system.
Spacing
Specify the distance between the phase conductors as three pairs of conductors 7)." .C" C)9 in feet or
meters. This provides the ability to configure the wires to almost any shape. #or parallel circuits" you need to
specify the distance between the two circuits. ET)5 treats the triangular and parallel configurations
symmetrically 7that is" ). H .C and C)I7).B.C99.
This field is dimmed when 3eneral is selected for the Configuration Type. in this case" the fields are calculated
based on the >"Y coordinates of the conductors.
Layout
Layout is a graphical representation of the location of the conductors and ground wires. The image is not to
scale and it does not update with changes in spacing.
.elow some of the configurations that can be specified:
d
/0
This is the distance between the closest conductors from each parallel circuit. t is used to define the
separation between the two circuits as indicated in the image below.
/round 3ires
//
The distance between the ground wires in feet or meters. This field is active if you have more than one ground
wire.
C/
The distance between the ground wires and a phase conductor closest to the ground wire in feet or meters.
The value of C3 can be negative if ground wires are located under the phase conductors.
/ and /-
These fields are available only when you have selected 3eneral under the Configuration Type. Chec$ 3/ if
you have at least one ground wire in the system. Then specify the >" Y coordinate of this wire with respect to
the reference. Chec$ 30 if you have two ground wires in the system.
Conductors
Transposed
Select his option if the =:phase transmission line is fully transposed. This option affects the calculation of
transmission line impedance values.
Separation
Enter the separation between the ad6acent bundled conductors of the same phase in inches or centimeters.
Conductors(p*ase
You can specify up to four bundled conductors
/rouping Page - Transmission Line Editor
The 3rouping page of the Transmission Line Editor allows you to ta$e the effect of mutual coupling into
account.
/roup
&ame
This is the mutual coupling group name. Clic$ in this field to select a coupling group from the drop:down list. f
you have not created a coupling group" you can create one by clic$ing on the 4utual Coupling 3roup button
located below the Tower area.
Lengt* 708
This is the length of the section in which the lines in the group are coupled. This value is defined in the 4utual
Coupling 3roup editor.
. 7ft8
Enter the hori2ontal distance between the reference point of this line and the reference point of the coupling
group. You can set the > value for one of the lines to ma$e it the reference point. Then set the > value for the
rest of the lines with reference to the first line.
9 7ft8
Enter the vertical distance between the reference point of this line and the reference point of the coupling
group. You can ta$e the line that has its pole or tower at the lowest elevation and set the Y of the line e1ual to
?. Then for each of the rest of the lines" set Y e1ual to the difference in elevation between the line and the first
line.
Clic$ this button to switch the start bus and end bus values. This indicates the starting and ending side of all
lines in the coupling group.
Start Bus
This is the bus on the side where the line coupling starts. The starting and ending buses of a line are used to
determine the terminal buses that are on the same side for all the coupled lines in the group. The start bus
affect the calculation of the voltage drops of coupled lines.
End Bus
This is the bus on the side where the line coupling ends.
Tower
/round !esistance
Specify the value of the grounding resistance through the tower in ohms.
Segmented Eart* 3ires
Select this option to ma$e the earth wires segmented.
5verage Distance
Specify the average distance between each tower in the unit specified in the ,nit field.
+nit
Select the units in which the average distance is specified.
0utua, Coup,ing /roup Button
,se this button to access the 4utual Coupling group editor. You can define the coupling groups here and then
select it on the group name filed above.
&ote' You can also access the 4utual Coupling 3roup Editor from the 5ro6ect 4enu.
Eart* Page - Transmission Line Editor
This page allows you to model the earth layers. This information is used to calculate the grounding resistance
of the line.
Eart* Layers
This group allows you to specify up to = layers of ground and the properties of each layer.
&um2er of Eart* Layers
Select the number of earth layers you want to model. ET)5 will display a row to enter properties for each layer.
P7o*ms-m8
Enter the earth resistivity for each layer in ohm:meters 7ohms:m9.
e
Enter the earth permitivity of each layer.
Enter the earth permeability of each layer.
Dept*
Enter the depth of each layer in feet&meters.
Impedance Page 4 Transmission Line Editor
Impedance 7per p*ase8
Pos.: &eg.: and ;ero Se#uence !esistances 7!-T:!-T-8
ET)5 automatically calculates the 5os. 7positive9 and Jero se1uence resistances in ohms or ohms per unit
length" per phase" and at base temperature T/ and T0" according to the specified configuration and grounding
information of a transmission line. ET)5 corrects these resistances for different studies based on the specified
temperature limits in the 'perating Temperatures group. You can also specify positive and 2ero se1uence
resistances in ohms or ohms per unit length" per phase" and at base temperatures T/ and T0 specified for this
data file.
Pos.: &eg.: and ;ero Se#uence !eactances 7.8
ET)5 automatically calculates the 5os. 7positive9 and Jero se1uence reactances in ohms or ohms per unit length"
per phase" according to the specified configuration" grounding" and grouping information of a transmission line.
-hen data is recalled from English 7K? +29 or 4etric 7;? +29 libraries" ET)5 corrects these
reactances for the system operating fre1uency. The user can also specify positive and 2ero se1uence
reactances in ohms or ohms per unit length" per phase" at the system operating fre1uency specified for this
data file. The 2ero se1uence reactance is used only for unbalanced fault current calculations.
Pos.: &eg.: and ;ero Se#uence Susceptances 798
ET)5 automatically calculates the 5os. 7positive9 and Jero se1uence susceptances in microsiemens or
microsiemens per unit length" per phase" according to the specified configuration and grounding information of
a transmission line. f the value is YL?" the transmission line is treated as a model" with one half 7/&09 of the
charging susceptance connected to neutral at each end of the line. f YH?" the transmission line is treated as
an e8ternal impedance. -hen data is recalled from English 7K? +29 or 4etric 7;? +29 libraries" ET)5 corrects
these susceptances for the system operating fre1uency. The user can also specify positive and 2ero se1uence
susceptances in microsiemens or microsiemens per unit length" per phase" at the system operating fre1uency
specified for this data file. The 2ero se1uence susceptance is used only for unbalanced fault current
calculations.
Ca,cu,ated
Select the Calculated option if you want ET)5 to calculate the impedance of the line according to the
parameters" configuration" grounding" and grouping.
+ser Defined
Select the ,ser:!efined option if you want to enter the impedance values.
+nit
Select impedance units as ohms per unit length or ohms. Select a unit for unit length from the list bo8. ,nits
available are: feet" miles" meters" and $ilometers. f you select ohms" the impedances calculated or entered
represent the total impedance of the line. ET)5 uses ohms per mile as the unit of impedance calculation.
!: .: 9 0atrices
Select 5hase !omain or Se1uence !omain and clic$ the buttons under this group to display the *esistance
7*9" *eactance 7>9" or the Susceptance 7Y9 se1uence matri8es.
Li2rary Temperatures
Base T and Base T-
f you have selected the phase conductors from the library" ET)5 displays the temperatures 7in degrees
Celsius9 at which the resistance values where entered in the library. These temperatures allow ET)5 to
determine the impedance variation versus temperature.
f you have selected to specify the impedance" then select or enter the temperatures 7in degrees Celsius9 at
which you have entered the resistances upstream in the mpedance 7per phase9 group.
Operating Temperatures
0inimum and 0a<imum
Two conductor temperature limits 7in degrees Celsius9 may be entered for ad6usting positive and 2ero
se1uence resistances 7* and *?9 for different studies. The first limit is the minimum operating temperature and
the second limit is the ma8imum operating temperature. ET)5 will use the most conservative temperature limit
for each study type. #or e8ample:
Temperature Limit +sed 2y some modu,es
0in. 0a<.
Load #low >
Short:Circuit >
4otor Starting
>
!ynamic Stability
>
f this correction is not wanted" set both minimum and ma8imum temperature limits e1ual to the base
temperature. ET)5 uses the .ase T/ and .ase T0 temperatures to calculate the impedance variation of the
line.
f *:T/ and *:T0 entered on the 5arameters page are e1ual" it indicates that the line resistance does not vary
as conductor temperature fluctuates. n this case" the calculation will use a constant resistance at the base
temperature.
Protection Page - Transmission Line Editor
This page contains options to plot transmission line thermal capability curve on a Star %iew.
T*erma, Capa2i,ity
Transmission line capability curve is an
0
t characteristic curve" which depends on the following parameters:
Conductor area
(umber of conductors&phase
The thermal capability curve is always drawn between t H / to t H /? seconds.
P,ot P*ase Conductor I
0
t on TCC
Clic$ to plot conductor
0
t on Star %iew. This option will plot or hide phase conductor thermal capability curve from
the Star %iew. This chec$ bo8 is only active when a phase conductor is selected from the library.
P,ot /round 3ire I
0
t on TCC
Clic$ to plot wire
0
t on Star %iew. This option will plot or hide ground wire thermal capability curve from the
Star %iew. This chec$ bo8 is only active when a ground conductor is selected from the library.
Sag = Tension Page - Transmission Line Editor
t is important to perform a sag and tension calculation for a transmission line to ensure an ade1uate operating
condition for the line. f the tension applied on the line is beyond its tension limit" the line conductor will be
damaged" which will in turn reduce line capacity and decrease the life span of the line. f the sag is too great"
this may cause a short:circuit between the line and ob6ects below it or a short:circuit between lines in
e8tremely windy conditions.
ET)5 calculates the sag and tension of the line with a series of suspension spans based on the ruling span method
on this page. t gives line sag and tension for the specified operating conditions" including temperature" wind speed"
and ice on the line and is based on the sag and tension under initial conditions 7called <nown Conditions in the
editor9. The initial conditions may be at no load conditions or some other operating conditions at which line sag or
tension can be measured. The sag and tension to be calculated should be for the worst operating conditions" such
as in strong wind conditions and lines covered with thic$ ice" etc.
The ruling span method represents a series of suspension spans between two dead:end structures by a level
dead:end span. The level dead:end span" called ruling span" gives the same change in tension from loading"
temperature" and other operating conditions as that of the actual line. The method calculates sags for each
suspended section of the line. .ut it assumes that the tension of all the suspended sections is the same as that
of the ruling span.
Line Section
You can specify the operating temperature and line sections of suspended spans in this group. ET)5 calculates the
length of the ruling span" tension of the ruling span" and sags for each suspended section.
Same Tower 6eig*t
Select this option if the towers are at the same level. This option will allow you to calculate the Sag at the
Spans entered in the table below. f this option is not chec$ed" ET)5 will calculate the Sag and Tension as
seen from each tower.
Op Temp.
Enter the operating temperature in degrees Celsius or chec$ to use and display the operating temperature.
The operating temperature is calculated on the )mpacity page corresponding to the operating current. To
obtain more conservative tension and sag results" a lower operating temperature should be used.
6ori$. Tension
The calculated line hori2ontal tension is displayed in this field in lbs&$(.
!u,ing Span
The calculated length of the ruling span in ft.&m is displayed in this field. This filed is displayed when Same
Tower +eight has been selected.
Span
Enter the individual span of suspended sections of the line in ft. or meters .
6eig*t Diff
Enter the height difference between towers in feet or meters.
Span >s Sag Ta2,e
Span 7"t8
Enter the individual span of suspended sections of the line in ft. or meters in this column.
Sag
This field displays the calculated sag in ft. or meters for each suspended section of the line in this column"
Low Tower and 6ig* Tower Tension and Sag
These fields display the Sag and Tension seen from the Lower Tower and from the +igh Tower .when the
Same Tower +eight option is not selected.
Loaded Conditions
This group includes operating parameters under loaded conditions that affect the line tension and sag
calculation. The parameters should be entered so as to yield more conservative results" such as higher wind
pressure and thic$er ice on the line" etc.
3eig*t
Enter the conductor weight in lb&ft or (&m. f you have selected the conductor from the library" the information
from the library automatically updates this field.
? "actor
Enter the constant to be added from (ESC table 0;/:/ under the loaded conditions in lb&ft or (&m.
Ice
Enter the ice thic$ness under the loaded conditions in cm&in.
3ind
Enter the (ESC hori2ontal wind force re1uirement in lb&s1. ft or (&s1. m under the loaded conditions in cm&in.
E,ongation Coefficient
Enter the coefficient of conductor elongation in /?
:K
&degrees C.
5,(Cu Strands
Enter the number and diameter of the conductor 7Copper or )luminum9 strands. !iameter is specified in inches
or centimeters. f you have selected the conductor from the library" the information from the library
automatically updates this field.
Stee, Strands
Enter the number and diameter of the reinforcement 7steel or composite9 strands. !iameter is specified in
inches or centimeters. f you have selected the ground wire from the library" the information from the library
automatically updates this field.
0odu,us of E,asticity
Enter the modulus of elasticity for )luminum & Copper or Steel in /?
K
psi if using English units or 4pa in metric
units.
@nown Conditions
n this group you enter the initial conditions under which line tension or sag value can be provided by
measurement or previous $nowledge.
Ice
Enter the ice thic$ness on the line under the $nown conditions in cm or inches.
3ind
Enter the $nown (ESC hori2ontal wind force re1uirement under the $nown conditions in lb&s1. ft or (&s1. m
? "actor
Enter the $nown constant to be added from (ESC table 0;/:/ under the $nown conditions in lb&ft or (&m
Temperature
Enter the $nown operating temperature in degrees Celsius.
Tension or Sag
Select to enter the $nown tension or sag. ET)5 will calculate and display the other parameter. These two
values are based on the ruling span of the line.
5mpacity Page - Transmission Line Editor
ET)5 determines the current:temperature relationship for transmission lines in this page. The calculation is
based on EEE Standard M=N:/OO=" PEEE Standard for Calculating the Current:Temperature *elationship of
.are 'verhead Conductors.Q Conductor surface temperatures are a function of:
Conductor material
Conductor '!
Conductor surface conditions
)mbient weather conditions
Conductor electrical current
.ased on the steady:state heat balance e1uation of a bear overhead conductor" the conductor current and
temperature relationship can be given as the following e1uation:
-here is conductor current" q
c
is the convected heat loss" q
r
is the radiated heat loss" q
s
is the heat gain
from the sun" and * is the conductor )C resistance at conductor temperature T
c
.
#or a bare stranded conductor" if the conductor temperature 7Tc9 and the steady state weather parameters are
$nown" the heat losses due to convection and radiation" solar heat gain" and conductor resistance can be
calculated. -hile the calculation given in EEE Std M=N:/OO= can be performed for any conductor temperature
and any weather condition" a ma8imum allowable conductor temperature and conservative weather conditions
are often used to calculate steady state thermal rating for the conductor.
ET)5 calculates the operating temperature corresponding to the user entered operation current for the
specified installation and environment conditions" so that you can determine the ma8imum operating
temperature for given transmission line loading conditions. t also calculates the derated ampacity for the
conductor temperature limit you enter" so that you can determine the ma8imum loading current for your
transmission lines.
.
3ind
Speed
Speed is wind velocity in ft&s. Conservative wind velocity is considered around 0 ft&s. 4ost wind speeds
obtained from the weather bureau records are often inaccurate" since most of the data has been recorded by
standard cup:type anemometer that has significant starting inertia. Therefore" readings at low wind speeds are
1uestionable.
Direction
!irection is defined as the direction of the movement of air relative to the line a8is. The wind direction and the
line a8is are assumed to be in a plane parallel to the earth.
5tmosp*ere
Ta
)mbient temperature around the conductor in degrees Celsius.
Condition
Select the condition of atmosphere. The two options are Clear and ndustrial. The atmosphere condition affects
the solar heat gain.
Sun Time
Local sun time used to calculate total solar heat gain. )t different values of local sun time" the altitude and
a2imuth of the sun will be different and yield a different solar heat gain.
nstallation
n this group" you enter parameters for the installation of the transmission line.
E,evation
Elevation of conductor above sea level in ft&meter. This value is used to determine air density for calculating
convection heat loss. #urthermore" height of conductors above ground is significant in terms of wind shielding.
+igh voltage lines normally have greater ground clearance and may be less shielded by trees and terrain than
low voltage lines. Select the highest altitude that is applicable at the location of the line be selected" because
this will give the most conservative results.
5$imut*
This represents )2imuth of line in degrees" measured cloc$wise from the (orthern direction to the line a8is.
&ort* Latitude
This represents (orth latitude of line location in degrees.
So,ar 52sorptivity
Solar absorptivity is typically ?.0= to ?.O/" depending on the age of the line. The e8act rate of increase
depends on the level of atmospheric pollution and the lineoperating voltage. )bsorptivity is usually higher than
emissivity.
Emissivity
Emissivity is typically ?.0= to ?.O/" depending on the age of the line. The e8act rate of increase depends on the
level of atmospheric pollution and the lineoperating voltage. Emissivity is usually lower than absorptivity.
3eig*t Density
Enter the weight density for aluminum&copper and steel in this group. The material weight density is used to
determine the total heat capacity of the conductor" which is employed in the transient conductor temperature
calculation.
5mpacity vs. Temperature
This group displays conductor ampacity and temperature calculation results" as well as ampacity and
temperature values from the transmission line conductor library.
Li2 Ta
This field displays the ambient temperature in degrees Celsius from the conductor library.
Li2 Conductor Temp.
This field displays the conductor temperature limit in degrees Celsius from the conductor library.
Base 5mpacity
This field displays the conductor base ampacity in amperes from the conductor library. This ampacity value is
corresponding to the ambient and conductor temperature values from the conductor library.
Operating Conductor Temp.
#or the user entered operating ampacity" this field displays the calculated operating temperature in degrees
Celsius.
Operating 5mpacity
Enter the conductor operating current in amperes and ET)5 will calculate the corresponding conductor
temperature" which is displayed in the 'perating Conductor Temp. field.
Tc Conductor Temp.
Enter the ma8imum allowable conductor temperature in degrees Celsius. ET)5 calculates the derated
conductor ampacity and displays the result in the !erated )mpacity field.
Derated 5mpacity
#or the user entered Tc value" ET)5 calculates the corresponding conductor ampacity and displays the result
in this field.
Li2 Conductor Temp.
This field displays the conductor temperature limit in degrees Celsius from the conductor library.
Top Conductor Temp.
This field displays the calculated operating temperature in degrees Celsius.
Tc Conductor Temp.
Enter the ma8imum allowable conductor temperature in degrees Celsius. ET)5 calculates the derated
conductor ampacity and displays the result in the !erated )mpacity field.
5,,owa2,e 5mpacity
This is the ma8imum allowable ampacity of the line. t is used in the load flow output reports to indicate the
percent of line overloading. This value is also used as a base for the line flow constraint in the optimal power
flow studies.
ET)5 provides options for selecting the ma8imum allowable current:
!erated
Select
this option to ma$e the derated
ampacity the ma8imum allowable current for
this line.
,ser:!efined
Select
this option to enter the ma8imum
allowable current for this line
&ote' the conductor Temperature Tc is calculated given the allowable ampacity.
!e,ia2i,ity Page
!e,ia2i,ity Parameters
5
This is the active failure rate in number of failures per year per unit length. The active failure rate is associated
with the component failure mode that causes the operation of the primary protection 2one around the failed
component and can therefore cause the removal of the other healthy components and branches from service"
after the actively failed component is isolated" and the protection brea$ers are reclosed. This leads to service
being restored to some or all of the load points. t should be noted" however" that the failed component itself
7and those components that are directly connected to this failed component9 could be restored to service only
after repair or replacement.
5
This is the passive failure rate in number of failures per year per unit length. The passive failure rate is
associated with the component failure mode that does not cause the operation of protection brea$ers and
therefore does not have an impact on the remaining healthy components. *epairing or replacing the failed
component will restores service. E8amples of passive failures include opening circuits and inadvertent opening
of brea$ers.
Per
Select a length unit from the list bo8 for the failure rate. The units of length available are: feet" miles" meters"
and $ilometers.
Calculate and display the mean repair rate in number of repairs per year. t is calculated automatically based
on 4TT* 7 A NMK?&4TT*9 in repair&yr automatically.
0TT"
Calculate and display the 4ean Time To #ailure in years. t is calculated automatically based on
)
and
5
of
4TT# H /.?&7
)
B
5
9 in yr for unit length automatically.
"O!
Calculate and display the forced outage rate 7unavailability9. t is automatically calculated based on 4TT*"
)
"
and
5
7#'* H 4TT*&74TT*BNMK?&7
)
B
5
99 for unit length.
0TT!
The 4TT* 74ean Time To *epair9 in hours is the e8pected time for a crew to repair a component outage
and&or restore the system to its normal operating state.
5,ternative Supp,y
Switc*ing Time
This is the time in hours for switching to an alternative supply after the device failure.
!ep,acement
5vai,a2,e
Chec$ this bo8 to enable r
5
.
r
5
This is the replacement time in hours by for replacing a failed element by a spare one.
Li2rary
Li2rary Button
Clic$ the Library button to bring up the Library Euic$ 5ic$ Editor for reliability data.
Source
This displays the Source (ame of the library data selected
Type
This displays the type name of the library data selected
C,ass
This displays the class of the library data selected.
!emar?s Page
The remar$s page is common to all element editors.
+ser-Defined Info
These fields allow you to $eep trac$ of e8tra data associated with this component. The names of the ,ser:
!efined 7,!9 fields can be changed from the Settings option in the 5ro6ect menu in the 4enu bar.
+D "ie,d 7E#. !ef.8
This is a number field with the default name E1. *ef. You can change the name of this field and enter the
e1uipment reference number or any other number here" using up to five digits.
+D "ie,d - 7Last 0aint.8
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Last 4aint. You can change the name of this field and enter
any additional data for this element here" using up to /0 alphanumeric characters.
+D "ie,d ) 7&e<t 0aint.8
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name (e8t 4aint. You can change the name of this field and
enter any additional data for this element here" using up to /0 alphanumeric characters.
+D "ie,d B 7Tests !e#.8
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Tests *e1. You can change the name of this field and enter
any additional data for this element here" using up to /0 alphanumeric characters.
+D "ie,d 5C
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name ,! #ield );. You can change the name of this field and
enter any additional data for this element here" using up to /0 alphanumeric characters.
+D "ie,d 5D
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name ,! #ield )K. You can change the name of this field and
enter any additional data for this element here" using up to /0 alphanumeric characters.
+D "ie,d 5E
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name ,! #ield )M. You can change the name of this field and
enter any additional data for this element here" using up to /N alphanumeric characters.
Drawing(Diagram
One-Line
Enter the name or ! of a one:line drawing or diagram associated with this element" up to ;? alphanumeric
characters. )n e8ample is the manufacturer diagram or specifications for this element.
!eference
Enter the name or ! of a reference drawing or document for this element" using up to ;? alphanumeric
characters.
0anufacturer
&ame
Enter the manufacturername for this element here" using up to 0; alphanumeric characters.
Purc*ase Date
Enter the date of purchase for this element here" using up to N alphanumeric characters.
Comment Page
Enter any additional data or comments regarding the condition" maintenance" tests" or studies associated with
this element. This field can be up to K@$b and the default si2e is @$b. To increase the si2e of this field" you
need to change the entries in the ET)5S.( file.
-hen entering information in this page" use CtrlBEnter to start a new paragraph. Standard $ey combinations
such as CtrlB>" CtrlBC" and CtrlB% can be used to cut" copy" and paste information.
E,ement Editor Overview