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4, APRIL 2001

573

**A Computationally Efficient Superresolution Image
**

Reconstruction Algorithm

Nhat Nguyen, Peyman Milanfar, Senior Member, IEEE, and Gene Golub

**Abstract—Superresolution reconstruction produces a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution images. Previous iterative
**

methods for superresolution [9], [11], [18], [27], [30] had not adequately addressed the computational and numerical issues for this

ill-conditioned and typically underdetermined large scale problem.

We propose efficient block circulant preconditioners for solving

the Tikhonov-regularized superresolution problem by the conjugate gradient method. We also extend to underdetermined systems

the derivation of the generalized cross-validation method for automatic calculation of regularization parameters. Effectiveness of

our preconditioners and regularization techniques is demonstrated

with superresolution results for a simulated sequence and a forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera image sequence.

Index Terms—Circulant preconditioners, generalized cross-validation, superresolution, underdetermined systems.

I. INTRODUCTION

P

**HYSICAL constraints limit image resolution quality in
**

many imaging applications. These imaging systems yield

aliased and undersampled images if their detector array is

not sufficiently dense. This is particularly true for infrared

imagers and some charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras.

Several papers have developed direct and iterative techniques

for superresolution: the reconstruction of a high-resolution

(HR) unaliased image from several low-resolution (LR) aliased

images. Proposed direct methods include Fourier domain approaches by Tsai and Huang [34], Tekalp et al. [33], [27], [26],

and Kim et al. [22], [21] where high-frequency information

is extracted from low-frequency data in the given LR frames.

Several methods [29], [1] have used an interpolation-restoration

combination approach in the image domain. Ur and Gross [35]

and Shekarforoush and Chellappa [31] considered superresolution as generalized sampling problem with periodic samples.

In this paper, we are mainly interested in the computational

issue for iterative methods. Projection type methods have been

used by several researchers. Patti et al. [27] and Stark and

Oskoui [32] proposed projection onto convex sets (POCS)

algorithms, which defined sets of closed convex constraints

Manuscript received June 8, 1999; revised November 16, 2000. This work

was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant CCR9984246. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and

approving it for publication was Dr. Michael R. Frater.

N. Nguyen is with KLA-Tencor Corporation, Milpitas, CA 95035 USA

(e-mail: Nhat.Nguyen@kla-tencor.com).

P. Milanfar is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of

California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA (e-mail: milanfar@cse.ucsc.edu).

G. Golub is with Scientific Computing and Computational Mathematics

Program, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305-9025 USA (e-mail:

golub@sccm.stanford.edu).

Publisher Item Identifier S 1057-7149(01)01664-5.

**whose intersection contains the HR estimate and successively
**

projected an arbitrary initial estimate onto these constraint

sets. Others [4], [20], [23] adopted a related method, the

iterative back-projection method, frequently used in computer

aided tomography. Cheeseman et al. [9] used the standard

Jacobi’s method, and Hardie et al. [18] proposed a steepest

descent based algorithm in combination with block matching

to compute simultaneously the HR image and the registration

parameters. Although they are usually robust to noise and allow

some modeling flexibility, projection-based algorithms are also

known for their low rate of convergence. More recently, Hardie

et al. [18], Connolly and Lane [10] and Chan et al. [6] have

considered conjugate gradient (CG) methods for Tikhonov

regularized superresolution. However, to a large degree, computational and numerical difficulties of superresolution have

not been addressed adequately. For instance, Hardie et al. [18]

and Connolly and Lane [10] did not consider preconditioning

for their CG algorithm, and Chan et al. [6] preconditioner is

only applicable for multisensor arrays. Superresolution is a

computationally intensive problem typically involving tens of

thousands unknowns. For example, superresolving a sequence

pixel LR frames by a factor of 4 in each spatial

of

unknown pixel values

dimension involves

in the HR image. Furthermore, the matrix system is typically

underdetermined and ill-conditioned, which can exacerbate

system noise and blurring effects. In this paper, we present

efficient circulant block preconditioners that take advantage

of the inherent structures in the superresolution system matrix

to accelerate CG. We adopt the generalized cross-validation

(GCV) method, which is often used to calculate regularization

parameters for Tikhonov-regularized overdetermined least

squares problems without accurate knowledge of the variance

of noise, to our underdetermined problem. Golub et al. [14]

suggested that GCV can be used for underdetermined problems,

and McIntosh and Veronis [24] successfully implemented GCV

for their underdetermined tracer inverse problems. However,

since the derivation for the GCV formulation by Golub,

Heath, and Wahba [14] applies only for overdetermined least

squares problems, we extend their derivation in this paper

to the underdetermined case. We also propose an efficient

technique to approximate the GCV expression. Finally, we

show reconstruction results from two test image sequences

to demonstrate the effectiveness of our preconditioners and

regularization techniques.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II,

we describe our model for the relationship between high- and

low-resolution images in superresolution. Section III outlines

our approach to regularization and formulation for GCV. The

1057–7149/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE

we include in Appendix A a simple algorithm we used to compute scene motion vectors. The goal is to combine information about the same scene from different sources. If all possible combinations of subpixel horizontal and vertical shifts are available. For each frame . If these scene motions are known or can be estimated within subpixel accuracy. and the system of equations above is underdetermined. e. Since is symmetric... If is the resolution enhancement factor in vector representing the each direction. APRIL 2001 preconditioners and approximate convergence bounds are detailed in Section IV. superresolution is possible.. In this formulation. positive definite. is an HR image in lexicographic order. see survey by Brown [5]. Each LR frame contributes new and different information about the HR image. objects moving within view of a surveillance camera. Each frame contributes new information used to interpolate subpixel values. REGULARIZATION The PSF is derived from the discretization of a compact operator (i. we approximate the relative motions between that frame and a reference frame by a single motion vector. positive definite matrix. edge of the problem. A nonintegral shift is replaced with the nearest integral shift.. even small changes in can result in wild oscillations in approximations to when (2) is solved directly. . Otherwise. we consider only shifts of integral multiples of one HR pixel. This extension is addressed in the first author’s thesis [25]. a reference frame. To obtain a reasonable estimate for we reformulate the problem as a regularized minimization problem (3) where is some symmetric. In gen- Fig.1) pixel in another frame is a weighted “average” over the solid box. (2) In this paper. or uncontrolled motions within the scene itself. We model each LR frame as a noisy.574 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING. the image of every -bounded sequence of functions has at least one converging subsequence [16]).e. THE MODEL Conceptually. The techniques presented here can be extended to the more general framework to allow for any shifts.. uniformly down-sampled version of the HR image which has been shifted and blurred [11]. e. For completeness. We will assume that the point spread function (PSF) which generates the blurring operator is known and spatially invariant. where is an upper triangular matrix. Thus. superresolution. 1 illustrates our model conceptually. images acquired from orbiting satellites. while the (1. serves as a stabilization matrix. eral. We present the experimental results in Section V and draw some conclusions in Section VI. ( pixels) LR frame in representing the th lexicographic order. at most nonredundant LR frames are possible for superresolution with enhancement factor in each dimension. is the uniform down-sampling matrix. These scene motions can be due to controlled motions in the imaging system. Fig. degree of smoothness [16]. and is related to the Lagrange multiplier. Letting tion .. is an shift matrix that represents the relative motions between frames and is a blur matrix of size . so is ill-conditioned [2]. and multisensor data fusion are very similar problems. they may be estimated by some image registration algorithm. in particular. some relative scene motions must be recorded from frame to frame. the motion vectors are known. In the figure. In this case.1) pixel of the LR frame to the right is a weighted “average” over the dashed box. NO. Superresolution model. III.g. To get different looks at the same scene. multichannel. VOL. 4. 10. Blind superresolution or superresolution without knowledge of the PSF is a challenging topic under development which will be reported in a subsequent submission. this is not the case. and is the vector representing additive noise. then reduces (3) to the standard form (4) The solution of the underdetermined least squares problem (4) above is . . e. While a simple and effective regularization matrix can can also incorporate some prior knowlbe the identity . II. . In superresolution.g. the LR frames typically represent different “looks” at the same scene from slightly different directions.g. and the new system is better conditioned. More formally (1) is an vector where is the number of available frames.. Combining the equations in (1). we have the Cholesky decomposi. A pixel value in an LR frame is a weighted “average” value over a box of pixels in the HR image. In the case where the scene motions are controlled. we have . . the (1. 1. . the above linear system is square and reduces to essentially a deblurring problem. The relative motion from the dashed box to the solid box is 1 HR pixel down and to the right.

we divide the data set into two parts. for calculating the regularization parameter. GCV is also known to be less sensitive to large individual equation errors than cross-validation [24]. with original system without the th pixel.: COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT SUPERRESOLUTION IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHM 575 B. Let A. Namely. the validation error by using the th pixel as the validation set is then (10) CV and where the notation is used to indicate variables corresponding to the system without the th pixel/row and (11) (12) (7) is the regularized underdetermined least squares solution of the . . Note that for .. A larger corresponds to a better conditioned system. For example. we describe an efficient way to obtain a suboptimal solution for (9). Multiplying both sides of (11) by Therefore. and the other is used to validate that approximation. from (7) .. we derive this same expression for our underdetermined system and in Appendix B. one part is used to construct an approximate solution. a technique popular in overdetermined least squares. . which leads to (14) . note that Let bury formula [15] . We start by examining the following expression for the regularized underdetermined least squares solution to the equation above (6) In the above formulation. and by (10) . . it has been shown that the asymptotically optimum regularization parameter according to GCV is given by [14] tr Next. .. .NGUYEN et al. Generalized Cross-Validation for Underdetermined Systems which gives us (5) and when Here we derive the closed-form for regularization parameter by GCV for underdetermined systems . [14]). .. Cross-Validation The idea of cross-validation is simple. For overdetermined systems. but the new system is also farther away from the original system we wish to solve. By Sherman–Morrison–Wood- (9) In the next subsection. We will adopt GCV (cf. is the regularization parameter. The cross-validated regularization parameter is the solution to (13) CV (8) GCV is simply cross-validation applied to the original system after it has undergone a unitary transformation. So .

consider the singular value decomposition of Now let that is. . using (14) and (15).. see [15. The desired ordering is . As we described earlier. . Our preconditioners approximate by exploiting its structure. In these situations. and we enumerate the pixels in each region in lexicographic order 1 to . The number of unknowns. . We partition the HR image into regions each of size . Generalized cross-validation is simply a rotation-invariant form of cross-validation. IV. PRECONDITIONING FOR CONJUGATE GRADIENT (17) We have just derived the matrix formulation of cross-validation for underdetermined systems. 525]. By (13) is a circulant matrix. the reordered matrix has the following form: . using the fact that for . . perdiagonal. the optimal cross-validation regularization parameter is CV (18) tr Not surprisingly. the same as the number of pixels in the HR image. . leads to Hence. . is a multiple of the identity.. (19) is an “nearly”1 Toeplitz upper where each block only has nonzero entries on a single suband matrix. Again. Preconditioning is a technique used to transform the original system into one with the same solution. 245]. we can rewrite diag . this formulation has the same form as that of the overdetermined case. The GCV estimation for regularization parameter can be thought of as cross-validation on the transformed system: . that is. . from (17) we can formulate GCV as follows: tr (16) diag to be the diDefine agonal matrix with the same diagonal entries as . correspondingly. p. For CG. For example. we seek preconditioners with preconditioned system having eigenvalues clustering around 1. superresolution is computationally intensive.. APRIL 2001 From (10) and (12) we get (15) Note that Hence.576 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING. Thus. in the simple case of superresolving 1Almost all entries along the diagonals of T are constant. NO.. VOL. 10. . CG converges very rapidly. tr be the matrix representing the Fourier transform. where then is the th pixel in the th region. The convergence rate for CG [36] is dependent on the distribution of eigenvalues of the system matrix. 4. p. but which can be solved by the iterative solver more quickly [28. as follows. The method works well on matrices that are either well-conditioned or have just a few distinct eigenvalues. To see this. Following [14]. is typically in the tens or hundreds of thousands. From our spatial invariance assumption of the PSF. we reorder the columns of and the elements of . From (8). diag tr tr which.

circulant matrices have the useful property that they can be diagonalized by discrete Fourier transforms (cf. as the approximate inverse preconditioner to In practice. . 253]: • cost of computing should be low. we embed into a circulant block matrix the form . .. ... Extensions of these preconditioners and their convergence properties to the block case are then straightforward [7]. developed by Hanke and Nagy [17]. . . We construct from by filling in blocks is just a the zero entries along nonzero diagonals. For the regularized underdetermined least squares matrices of . . For a block matrix with Toeplitz blocks ... [8]). . these operators also have banded block Toeplitz–Toeplitz block structure. With a proper arrangement of the rows.. aside from the identity. . 577 Our second preconditioner. A. B.. . with block Toeplitz matrix . For sysblock tems arising from the regularized underdetermined least squares . is nonsingular. . so that . . with each block being a circulant extension of as . • computational cost of solving a linear system with coefficient matrix should be low. completes a Toeplitz matrix by copying the central diagonals. . . The eigendecomposition of a circulant matrix can be written as follows: where is the unitary discrete Fourier transform matrix and is a diagonal matrix containing the eigenvalues of . we preconproblem. First we embed into an circulant matrix according to the form where We first approximate by a block matrix . • iterative solver should converge much faster with than with . In particular. For an upper triangular banded Toeplitz matrix .. We will demonstrate that our preconditioners satisfy the three criteria described above. pixel. For example.. for a matrix should satisfy the folA preconditioner lowing criteria [3. or some operators derived from discrete approximation to the th derivative are also popular choices. Complexity. .. The matrix is the approximate inverse preconditioner for . and Implementation is simply . . . . . the Poisson operator. It is constructed as follows. . . the preconditioner . .. is an approximate inverse preconditioner for an upper banded Toeplitz matrix with bandwidth less than or equal to . . the submatrix with the same set of rows and columns in as the rows and columns of entries of in . where is the block preconditioner as dition with described above. we first describe the corresponding preconditioners for standard banded Toeplitz matrices in the following subsection. For use . where each block version of the preconditioner is is Strang’s circulant approximation to .: COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT SUPERRESOLUTION IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHM a sequence of four. We can compute the eigenvalues of by taking the FFT of its first column. Convergence.. Circulant Preconditioners The first preconditioner. the approximation to low rank change from would be . whose are Toeplitz. the . .NGUYEN et al. Next. .. and we can extend the proposed techniques to precondition (5). as where is the leading principal submatrix. originally developed by Strang [8]. p. We described above.. . LR frames by a factor of two in has the following structure: each dimension. we partition To describe the preconditioners for the block Toeplitz matrix . . .

and within at most ten iterations or so. . but may be found in [25]. unpreconditioned and preconditioned runs. Wright Laboratory. In our experience. We stop the algorithm when the relative residual2 tolerance of is reached. Fig. The runtime for preconditioned CG for this simulated sequence on a Sun Sparc-20 is 17. To study the convergence behavior of preconditioned CG described here. EXPERIMENTS with the bandwidths of the blocks bounded by some constant . which can only claim eigenvalues of the preconditioned system “clustering” around one [7]. the complexity is of blocks. where . 0 . In Fig. Each pixels. The top left portion displays a sample LR frame. Theorem 1: Let be an upper banded Toeplitz matrix with be the nonsingular exbandwidth less than or equal to . the cost of solving a linear system with our preconditioners as the coefficient matrix is inexpensive. WPAFB. we need to solve a linear system with a block coefficient matrix with diagonal blocks in addition to the two FFTs. If tension of . To reach tolerance threshold.. Fig. . this bound is quite loose. we compare the quality of superresolution against the original image. we again set the relative and use regularization parameter residual tolerance to as calculated with our approximate GCV criterion. and a resolution enhancement factor image is of five is sought. the bottom left the result from superresolution after four iterations. in practice. Theorem 2: The matrix in (19) and its block Toeplitz ap. NO. We blur a single pixels image with a Gaussian PSF with standard deviation LR frames. So for any circulant preconditioned banded Toeplitz matrix with bandwidth . If is either the circulant or approximate inverse precondias described in Section IV-A. The cost of solving a linear system with a circulant coefficient matrix is two FFTs. four iterations of preconditioned CG are required for either preconditioner while 31 iterations are required for unpreconditioned CG and 101 iterations for steepest descent. we do not need to construct our preconditioners explicitly. 3. Furthermore. then tioner to The first test sequence consists of artificially generated LR frames. In this experiment. at most preconditionedCGiterationsareneededforconvergence. we compare convergence rates for preconditioned CG versus unpreconditioned CG and steepest descent. Thus. proximate have blocks with bandwidths bounded by where is the width of an LR frame. Our experiments show that in the first few iterations. unpreconditioned. The residual is defined as r = b Ax . We can also bound the amount of work to solve a banded Toeplitz system with Strang’s circulant preconditioner by CG to withtheapproximateinversepreconand ditioner. . 2 presents the results from our superresolution algorithm. we have the following results. steepest descent and unpreconditioned CG have similar convergence rate. . APRIL 2001 Using this special property. Therefore. OH.7 s versus 42. The objects in the scene are stationary. We only need to store the entries of their first columns. Theorem 3 bounds the number of preconditioned CG iterations needed to solve a block matrix system with banded Toeplitz blocks using the proposed circulant preconditioners.. . as we will demonstrate in Section V. The next theorem bounds the bandwidth of each block in the superresolution system matrix. VOL. and correspondingly. and preconditioned CG after exactly four iterations. We use regularization parameter calculated with our approximate GCV criterion as described in Section III-B. we reconstruct an estimate for the original HR image. 4 reconstruction results from steepest descent.1 s for unpreconditioned CG. k kk k . .578 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING. 4. Results using this data set are also shown in [18]. Six where 2Relative residual is defined as the ratio ( r = r ) . For this sequence. . operations involving circulant matrices can be done efficiently by FFTs. 5 has similar subplot arrangements as in Fig. steepest descent exhibits oscillatory convergence behavior as the number of iterations increases. for the linear solver with a block diagonal coeffi. and is either or the leading principal submatrix of then Combining Theorems 2 and 3. we show in Fig. the two preconditioners achieve comparable results. These experiments demonstrate the advantage of using preconditioned CG over unpreconditioned CG and steepest descent. and 16 frames are acquired by controlled movements of a FLIR imager described in [18]. 10. where is the dimension of the matrix. be a block matrix with upper banded Theorem 3: Let Toeplitz blocks . the cost of constructing the preconditioners is negligible. with being the number of frames and the width of an LR frame. and the vector x is the current estimate of the solution. the proofs of which are omitted. we get as an approximate upper bound on the number of preconditioned CG iterations for superresolution. where is the number cient matrix. Additionally. For a block matrix with circulant blocks such as our preconditioners. where r is the initial residual and r is the current residual after k iterations. be the circulant approximation to . However.. V. The low-resolution FLIR images in our second test sequence are provided courtesy of B. For a qualitative comparison. The theorem above means that at most eigenvalues of the preconditioned system are not equal to 1. The asymptotic computational complexity for the FFT is . we have effective convergence. and the bottom right the original image. Yasuda and the FLIR research group in the Sensors Technology Branch.. Using of one and down-sample to produce 16 nine (randomly chosen) out of the complete set of 16 frames. Finally. 2 except now the bottom right shows the relative residual graphs for steepest descent. the top right the result of bilinearly interpolating one LR frame by a factor of four in each dimension.This result is one of the reasons we chose our preconditioners over other circulant preconditioners.

we see the oscillatory be- In this paper. leading to significant . The contributions in this work are twofold. 2. To automatically calculate the regularization parameter. havior of steepest descent for superresolution. Although generalized cross-validation is a well-known technique for parameter estimation for overdetermined least squares problems. Hanke and Nagy. we the number observed that preconditioned CG takes at most of iterations of unpreconditioned CG. and most importantly. These preconditioners can be easily constructed. we adopt the generalized cross-validation criterion to our underdetermined systems. to accelerate CG convergence. the number of CG iterations is dramatically reduced. First. the derivation for underdetermined problems is new.: COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT SUPERRESOLUTION IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHM Fig. Secondly. Convergence plot for Stanford sequence. we presented an efficient and robust algorithm for image superresolution. VI. 3.3 s for unpreconditioned conjugate gradient. iterations are required for preconditioned CG with Strang’s preconditioner and eight iterations for Hanke and Nagy’s approximate inverse preconditioner versus 20 for unpreconditioned CG. to reach the residual threshold. operations involving these preconditioners can be done efficiently by FFTs. 579 Superresolution on simulated sequence. Preconditioned CG runtime for this FLIR sequence on our Sparc 20 is 93. In practice.6 s versus 111.NGUYEN et al. to our knowledge. Again. we proposed circulant-type preconditioners based on previous work by Strang. our robust approach for superresolution reconstruction employs Tikhonov regularization. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Fig.

image superresolution is computationally much more tractable. Blind superresolution or superresolution without accurate knowledge of the camera parameters is a challenging topic. A blind superresolution algorithm must reconstruct estimates for both the PSF and the HR image. Another important issue in image superresolution is the accuracy of the motion estimation process. 4. Comparison of reconstruction quality. An important and practical extension of the algorithm is the implementation of the positivity constraint within preconditioned CG. We note that each CG iteration computes an estimate for the term in (6). finite support. the condition number of the system decreases.580 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING. In order to make this problem feasible. Thus. some constraints can be placed on the PSF. Image superresolution can be generalized to video superresolution [12]. Under such conditions. a larger regularization parameter also moves the regularized system farther away from the original system we wish to solve. Although a simple algorithm such as the one described in Appendix A would be adequate in most cases.g. However. 4. An interesting topic of future research would be an efficient algorithm to incorporate positivity constraint into our framework. However. leading to a faster convergence rate for both preconditioned and unpreconditioned CG. this is not necessarily the case. Preconditioned CG is less affected by ill-conditioned systems than the unpreconditioned version. 10. In many applications. time savings with preconditioning increase with under-regularization. the number of iterations of CG (unpreconditioned and preconditioned) required to solve the system and time savings with preconditioning. symmetry. There is a strong relationship between the size of the regularization parameter. improvement in runtime. The result is a more blurry HR estimate. and the condition number increases. Typically. e. the constraint should be applied to the HR estimate . By these experiments. the computational advantage of our preconditioners is compounded. as mentioned before. As we decrease . VOL.. the system becomes more ill-conditioned. We have assumed in this work that the parameters for the camera’s PSF are known. we have demonstrated that with the use of appropriate preconditioners. we stop after five preconditioned CG iterations because results obtained thereafter are not significantly different visually. [13] where a sequence of superresolved images is obtained from a sequence of LR video frames. APRIL 2001 Fig. As we increase the regularization parameter . NO. more accurate algorithms are needed for higher resolution enhancement. We . the condition number of the regularized system. The ratio of the number of unpreconditioned iterations over the number of preconditioned iterations increases for smaller regularization parameters.

Superresolution on FLIR sequence. We assume that the motion is smooth.: COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT SUPERRESOLUTION IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHM 581 Fig. and we solve the following least squares problem for APPENDIX A MOTION ESTIMATION In the case of uncontrolled frame to frame motions. we write which leads to a system and . for consecutive frames. and apply Taylor’s series to be the continuous compute its approximation. Let frame sequence. we get where Following Irani and Peleg [20]. 5.NGUYEN et al. are currently working on these problems and will report results in subsequent submissions. and . By Taylor’s expansion. we need to estimate these motions as a precursor to superresolution.

Acoust. where is a block matrix with dicompose is the block discrete Fourier transform agonal blocks. Armstrong. vol. Sept. and let be a values vector whose entries are independent samples from . 1605. vol. pp. and A. 1991. June 1990. 38. the partial derivative with respect to time is crudely approximated by the difference between the given frames. pp. 183–199. Architectures. 427–482. 1999. 817–834. Axelsson. [19] M. 1999. Image Processing. 433–450. 23. Dec.” SIAM Rev.. Simul. Surv. [23] S. Connolly and R. “Toeplitz approximate inverse preconditioner for banded Toeplitz matrices. Tech. Sept.” IEEE Trans. Apr. Algorithms. 1990. we found that this formulation produces reasonable regularization parameters for both the simulated and FLIR image sequence. Saito. Mcintosh and G. Hanke and J. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Statist. Feuer. Dec. Andrews and B. should be close to . Chan and G. Chan. and E. Hutchinson. [24] P. pp. 10. Therefore. [13] . Statist. 1996. [17] M. 21. Hanson. 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APRIL 2001 TABLE I VALUES CALCULATED USING SUBOPTIMAL GCV MISSING FRAMES AND GCV: WITH TABLE II VALUES CALCULATED USING SUBOPTIMAL GCV ALL FRAMES AND GVC: WITH REFERENCES Note that this idea is a simplification of the gradient constraint equation often used in optical flow calculations In Irani and Peleg’s formulation used above. vol. 253–315. [16] M. Matrix Computations. NO. Press. [21] S. APPENDIX B COMPUTING THE REGULARIZATION PARAMETER Evaluating (18) as it stands requires intensive computation. Blake. pp. “Regularization methods for large-scale problems. 1993. vol. Cheeseman. Hunt. Image Processing. Image Processing. pp. 1994. [2] H. pp. “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images. Hardie. Hansen. 387–395. Ind. noisy. Englewood Cliffs. Ng. 1993. SPIE Visual Communications Image Processing ’91. pp. vol. Bascle. Valenzuela. 1621–1633. Elad and A. Pattern Anal. T.. 7. Ng. Signal Process.. Apr. 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