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Exam 1 Checklist (Up to 9/26)

Definition of science; characteristics of science


Hypothesis definition; characteristics of a hypothesis
Steps of the scientific method
What is a controlled experiment? Why is it important?
Control group vs. experimental group
Importance of replication
Dependent vs. independent vs. controlled variables thin! of our li"ard and temp. vs. metabolic rate
example#
Scientific hypothesis vs. scientific theory
$ife hierarchical order be familiar %ith %hat includes %hat& i.e.& a community contains populations& an
ecosystem contains communities& etc.#
' properties of life
Definition of ecology
(iotic components vs. abiotic components of an environment
)cological studies
Ho% short*term interactions can lead to long*term changes
Definition of natural selection; process of natural selection; + re,uirements of natural selection
(e familiar %ith ho% natural selection leads to adaptation and evolution
Dar%in-s + insights
Short*term adaptations. physiological& behavioral& morphological examples are helpful in learning these#
$ong*term adaptations in your boo!#
/biotic factors that organisms deal %ith and the la% of tolerance. 0no% in detail the ma1or factors %e
covered in class.
temperature
ho% it affects biological processes and metabolic rates
homeotherms& poi!ilotherms& endotherms& ectotherms and ho% they do2do not overlap#
%ater
desiccation
stenohaline vs. euryhaline organisms remember the marine vs. fresh%ater fish example#
sunlight photoperiods& competition& photosynthesis& distribution limitations#
Definition of climate; climate components %ind& temperature& %ater& light#
3nderstand ho% solar radiation varies at different latitudes remember the thic!ness of the atmosphere
changes at different angles#
Ho% does the )arth-s tilt cause our seasons?
(I45)S from your boo!. 0no% a little bit about each biome and a,uatic biomes as %ell#
/ir convection cells
3nderstand that there are three cells in each hemisphere and %hich %ay they move
3nderstand %hat occurs at 6& +6& 76& and 86 degrees
3nderstand %hat roles temperature& humidity& and density play at each location
What is the land li!e at each latitude? What type of biomes might %e see?
9rade %inds
9hree sets in each hemisphere. northeast2southeast& %esterlies& polar easterlies
Wind is deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere& left in the southern hemisphere
3nderstand that the Coriolis )ffect plays a role in this deflection
:ain Shado% )ffect
Ho% do the trade %inds play a role in the rain shado% effect?
3nderstand ho% temperature& humidity& and density interact and affect each side of the mountain
$a!e Stratification
Which seasons experience turnover and %hich experience stratification?
:)5)5():. 9he densest temperature of %ater is ; degrees celsius<
(e mindful of ho% nutrients and temperature are distributed in each season
(e able to connect each season remember ho% temperature and %ind play a role here#
=reat 4cean Conveyor (elt
upper and lo%er branches. %hich one carries cold %ater and %hich one carries %arm ho% does
density affect this?#
Classification and 9axonomy
Why so many species? *> )cological and evolutionary factors
(e able to define phylogeny and systematics
?ossil deposition. I don-t thin! %e mentioned this in class but it IS on his slide. be familiar %ith %hat it is
from your boo! 1ust in case.
Definition of taxonomy
$innaeus classification
9%o*part latin name ma!ing up the species name *> (inomial nomenclature
@st name. =enus A italici"ed and capitali"ed
Bnd name. specific epithet A italici"ed and lo%er case
Hierarchical classification. Domain& !ingdom& phylum& class& order& family& genus& species
(e familiar %ith %hich ones are more inclusive than others i.e. Domain encompasses all#
(e familiar %ith human taxonomic classification our domain& !ingdom& phylum& etc.#
Cro!aryotes vs. eu!aryotes
%hich has membrane*bound organelles and %hich does not !no% some membrane*bound
organelles& too<#
0no% the five !ingdoms and be able to define them and possible give an example for each. Which ones#
contain 1ust pro!aryotes? Dust eu!aryotes& if any? (oth?
0no% the three domains
0no% the difference bet%een monophyletic& paraphyletic& and polyphyletic taxa. Which ones# is2are
E49 good?
Homologous human& cat& %hale& bat anatomy# vs. analogous structures %hich may arise from
convergent evolution *> be able to define this& too< remember the spiny plant examples#
3nderstand photosynthesis& the role of chlorophyll& and D)?IEI9)$F !no% the chemical e,uation
3nderstand aerobic respiration and its chemical e,uation ho% does it relate to the e,uation for
photosynthesis?#
Croducers2/utotrophs
Chotoautotrophs vs. chemoautotrophs
)nergy source of each?
Carbon source of each?
Consumers2Heterotrophs. Crimary& Secondary& 9ertiary& 4mnivores& Scavengers& Decomposers&
Detritivores
=ive some examples in a terrestrial environment and ho% they all connect
=ive some exmaples in an a,uatic environment and ho% they all connect
=ross Crimary Croductivity =CC# vs. Eet Crimary Croductivity ECC#
ECCA=CC* Grate at %hich producers use energy for respirationH
Whys is ECC so lo% in the open ocean? Why is it higher in the %ater closer to land? /nd on
land? Hint. 9hin! about nutrients
3nderstand ho% the little productivity of the open ocean still adds up due to large surface area
(e familiar %ith %hat you-ve done in lab so far
9here %ill be a fe% more topics covered in lecture this coming %ee! that %ill be on this exam as %ell.
Dust be mindful of that. If you have any ,uestions& email me at pan"mo6@Igettysburg.edu