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Exam 1 Checklist (Up to 9/26)

Definition of science; characteristics of science

Hypothesis definition; characteristics of a hypothesis
Steps of the scientific method
What is a controlled experiment? Why is it important?
Control group vs. experimental group
Importance of replication
Dependent vs. independent vs. controlled variables thin! of our li"ard and temp. vs. metabolic rate
Scientific hypothesis vs. scientific theory
$ife hierarchical order be familiar %ith %hat includes %hat& i.e.& a community contains populations& an
ecosystem contains communities& etc.#
' properties of life
Definition of ecology
(iotic components vs. abiotic components of an environment
)cological studies
Ho% short*term interactions can lead to long*term changes
Definition of natural selection; process of natural selection; + re,uirements of natural selection
(e familiar %ith ho% natural selection leads to adaptation and evolution
Dar%in-s + insights
Short*term adaptations. physiological& behavioral& morphological examples are helpful in learning these#
$ong*term adaptations in your boo!#
/biotic factors that organisms deal %ith and the la% of tolerance. 0no% in detail the ma1or factors %e
covered in class.
ho% it affects biological processes and metabolic rates
homeotherms& poi!ilotherms& endotherms& ectotherms and ho% they do2do not overlap#
stenohaline vs. euryhaline organisms remember the marine vs. fresh%ater fish example#
sunlight photoperiods& competition& photosynthesis& distribution limitations#
Definition of climate; climate components %ind& temperature& %ater& light#
3nderstand ho% solar radiation varies at different latitudes remember the thic!ness of the atmosphere
changes at different angles#
Ho% does the )arth-s tilt cause our seasons?
(I45)S from your boo!. 0no% a little bit about each biome and a,uatic biomes as %ell#
/ir convection cells
3nderstand that there are three cells in each hemisphere and %hich %ay they move
3nderstand %hat occurs at 6& +6& 76& and 86 degrees
3nderstand %hat roles temperature& humidity& and density play at each location
What is the land li!e at each latitude? What type of biomes might %e see?
9rade %inds
9hree sets in each hemisphere. northeast2southeast& %esterlies& polar easterlies
Wind is deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere& left in the southern hemisphere
3nderstand that the Coriolis )ffect plays a role in this deflection
:ain Shado% )ffect
Ho% do the trade %inds play a role in the rain shado% effect?
3nderstand ho% temperature& humidity& and density interact and affect each side of the mountain
$a!e Stratification
Which seasons experience turnover and %hich experience stratification?
:)5)5():. 9he densest temperature of %ater is ; degrees celsius<
(e mindful of ho% nutrients and temperature are distributed in each season
(e able to connect each season remember ho% temperature and %ind play a role here#
=reat 4cean Conveyor (elt
upper and lo%er branches. %hich one carries cold %ater and %hich one carries %arm ho% does
density affect this?#
Classification and 9axonomy
Why so many species? *> )cological and evolutionary factors
(e able to define phylogeny and systematics
?ossil deposition. I don-t thin! %e mentioned this in class but it IS on his slide. be familiar %ith %hat it is
from your boo! 1ust in case.
Definition of taxonomy
$innaeus classification
9%o*part latin name ma!ing up the species name *> (inomial nomenclature
@st name. =enus A italici"ed and capitali"ed
Bnd name. specific epithet A italici"ed and lo%er case
Hierarchical classification. Domain& !ingdom& phylum& class& order& family& genus& species
(e familiar %ith %hich ones are more inclusive than others i.e. Domain encompasses all#
(e familiar %ith human taxonomic classification our domain& !ingdom& phylum& etc.#
Cro!aryotes vs. eu!aryotes
%hich has membrane*bound organelles and %hich does not !no% some membrane*bound
organelles& too<#
0no% the five !ingdoms and be able to define them and possible give an example for each. Which ones#
contain 1ust pro!aryotes? Dust eu!aryotes& if any? (oth?
0no% the three domains
0no% the difference bet%een monophyletic& paraphyletic& and polyphyletic taxa. Which ones# is2are
E49 good?
Homologous human& cat& %hale& bat anatomy# vs. analogous structures %hich may arise from
convergent evolution *> be able to define this& too< remember the spiny plant examples#
3nderstand photosynthesis& the role of chlorophyll& and D)?IEI9)$F !no% the chemical e,uation
3nderstand aerobic respiration and its chemical e,uation ho% does it relate to the e,uation for
Chotoautotrophs vs. chemoautotrophs
)nergy source of each?
Carbon source of each?
Consumers2Heterotrophs. Crimary& Secondary& 9ertiary& 4mnivores& Scavengers& Decomposers&
=ive some examples in a terrestrial environment and ho% they all connect
=ive some exmaples in an a,uatic environment and ho% they all connect
=ross Crimary Croductivity =CC# vs. Eet Crimary Croductivity ECC#
ECCA=CC* Grate at %hich producers use energy for respirationH
Whys is ECC so lo% in the open ocean? Why is it higher in the %ater closer to land? /nd on
land? Hint. 9hin! about nutrients
3nderstand ho% the little productivity of the open ocean still adds up due to large surface area
(e familiar %ith %hat you-ve done in lab so far
9here %ill be a fe% more topics covered in lecture this coming %ee! that %ill be on this exam as %ell.
Dust be mindful of that. If you have any ,uestions& email me at pan"