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INSTRUMENTATION AND

CONTROL

TUTORIAL 3 – TRANSFER FUNCTION
MANIPULATION


This tutorial is of interest to any student studying control systems
and in particular the EC
module D227 – Control System Engineering.


On completion of this tutorial, you should be able to do the
folloing.


! E"plain a basic open loop system.

! E"plain a basic closed loop system.

! E"plain the use of negati#e feedbac$

! %anipulate transfer functions.

! E"plain the use of #elocity feedbac$.

! E"plain the affect of disturbances to the output of a system.

! E"plain the use of proportional and deri#ati#e feedbac$.

! &educe comple" systems to a single transfer function.



'f you are not familiar ith instrumentation used in control
engineering, you should
complete the tutorials on 'nstrumentation Systems.

'n order to complete the theoretical part of this tutorial, you must be
familiar ith basic
mechanical and electrical science.

(ou must also be familiar ith the use of transfer functions and the
)aplace Transform
*see maths tutorials+.
D.,.D-.. /
1. INTRODUCTION

The function of any control system is to automatically
regulate the output and $eep it at the desired #alue.
The desired #alue is the input to the system. 'f the input is
changed the output must respond and change to
the ne set #alue. 'f something happens to disturb the
output ithout a change to the input, the output
must return to the correct #alue. 0ere is a short list of some
of the things e might be controlling.

The speed or angle of a motor
*electric or hydraulic+
The speed or position of a linear
actuator *e.g. in robotics, ship1s
stabilisers, aircraft control etcetera+
The temperature of an o#en *e.g. heat treatment+
The pressure of a #essel *e.g. a steam boiler+
The 2uantity inside a container *e.g. metering contents in a
#essel+
The flo of solids, li2uids and gases *e.g. controlling the
steam flo to a turbine+

There are some basic properties and terminology used ith
systems hich e should e"amine ne"t.

2. TRANSFER FUNCTION

3ny item in any system
may be represented as a
simple bloc$ ith an
input and output as

shon. 'n general terms,
the input is designated i
and the output o.
4igure /

The ratio of output o#er input is often shon as 5 6 o7 i.
8hen the model is a differential e2uation the
)aplace transform is used and this introduces the comple"
operator s. 'n this case 5 is called the
T&3.S4E& 4-.CT'O. and strictly e should rite 5
(s) = o(s)/ i(s)

'f 5 is a simple ratio, it is still a Transfer function but if the
model is not a simple ratio and cannot be
transformed, it should not strictly be called a transfer
function. (ou should study the tutorial on )aplace
and 4ourier transforms in the maths section in order to
fully appreciate this tutorial.

3. OPEN LOOP SYSTEMS

3 system ith no regulation is called an open loop system.
4or e"ample a typical instrument system *see
tutorials on instrumentation+ is an open loop system ith
an input and output but no control action at all.

)et1s ta$e a d.c. ser#o motor as an e"ample *see the tutorial
on electric actuators+. The speed of the ser#o
motor depends on the #oltage and current supplied to it. 3
typical system might use a potentiometer
hich you turn to an angle *the input+ to produce a
#oltage 9 and this is amplified ith a poer
i
amplifier producing electric poer : that dri#es the motor
at speed . *the output+.


4igure 2

D.,.D-.. 2
The bloc$ diagram loo$s li$e this.

4igure ;

The bloc$ diagram sho that the signal path from input to
output is a linear chain not forming any loop
so this hy it is called an O:E. )OO: S(STE%.


WORKED EAMPLE No.1

The
speed of
an
electric motor is directly proportional to #oltage such that
. 6 2<9 here 9 is in
9olts and . in re#7min. The motor is controlled by a
poer supply hich has an output #oltage
related to the position of the control $nob by 9 6 2
here 9 is in 9olts and is in degrees.
i
i
Dra the bloc$ diagram and deduce the o#erall transfer
function. Determine the output speed hen
the $nob is set to =<o.

SOLUTION

4igure >
5 6 .7 6 2 " 2< 6 >< re#7min per degree . 6 >< "
=< 6 2><< re#7min
i i




SELF ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.1

3 simple control system consists of a potentiometer ith a
transfer function of <.<297mm in series
ith an amplifier ith a gain of /2, in series ith a 97'
con#erter ith a transfer function ' 6 <.?9
here 9 is in #olts and ' in m3. The output current is
amplified ith a gain of /2<< and the output
current supplied to an electro@magnetic tor2ue arm
hich produces ; .m per 3mp.

Dra the bloc$ diagram and deduce the o#erall transfer
function. *<.>;2 .m7mm+

Determine the input position of the potentiometer in mm
hich produces a tor2ue output of =< .m.
*/;A.B mm+



Consider the e"ample of the ser#o motor again. Suppose
the motor dri#es a load and that the load
suddenly increases. This ould ma$e the motor slo don
as there ould not be enough poer to $eep it
at the original speed. 8e ould no ha#e an error beteen
the speed selected ith the potentiometer and
the actual speed of the motor. To bring the speed bac$ to
the correct #alue, e ha#e to turn up the poer
and do this automatically e need a closed loop system.
Open loop systems are incapable of maintaining
a correct output in all but the simplest cases.
D.,.D-.. ;
> . SUMMIN! DE"ICES

'n order to regulate any control system e must determine
the
error beteen the output and the input.
This is done ith a summing de#ice and the symbol for
this is shon in the left diagram. These de#ices
may be electrical *e.g. a simple differential amplifier+,
pneumatic *e.g. a differential pressure cell+ or
mechanical. 8e can put a :lus *C+ or minus *@+ sign in the
symbol to sho if it is adding or subtracting
and the symbol can be used ith more than one signal as
shon in the right diagram. 'n modern digital
systems it is a simple case of adding or subtracting the
numbers stored in registers.


4igure ?

#. $ASIC CLOSED LOOP CONTROL

Consider the e"ample of the ser#o motor again. This time
suppose e ish to control the angle of the
shaft . The input potentiometer produces a #oltage 9 and
the output potentiometer produces a #oltage
o i
9 to represent the angle of the shaft. 'f the to #oltages
are the same, the shaft is at the correct angle. 'f
o
there is an error, the #oltages are different. The differential
amplifier acts as the summing de#ice and
produces a #oltage 9 representing the error. The error is
supplied to the poer amplifier and poer is
e
sent to the motor to rotate it in the direction that corrects
the angle. 8hen the #oltages are e2ual again, the
error is Dero and no poer is supplied to the motor so it
stops. Error in either direction can be corrected if
the poer amplifier is capable of producing positi#e and
negati#e current.

4igure =

This description is somehat o#er simplified and does not
e"plain an actual or$ing system. The motor
ould ha#e difficulty staying at the correct angle if there is
a load trying to turn it. .ote ho the #oltage
from the output potentiometer is fed bac$ to the summing
de#ice so that the error is 9 6 9 @ 9 . This is
e i o
.E53T'9E 4EEDE3CF and this is essential to ma$e the
system respond to the error.
D.,.D-.. >
= . CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM TRANSFER
FUNCTIONS

The most basic bloc$ diagram for a closed loop system is
shon belo. The main bloc$ is an open loop
system ith
a
transfer
function 5 . This relates the error and the output so that 5
6 7
ol ol o e.

The transfer function for the closed loop system is 5 . This
relates the input i and output o.
c.l

The error is obtained by comparing the output #alue ith
the input #alue in the signal summing de#ice.
This produces the result e 6 i @ o and because o is
subtracted, this idea is called .E53T'9E 4EED
E3CF. The bloc$ diagram shos that the signal passes
around a closed loop hence the name C)OSED
)OO: S(STE%.

4igure 7
The
system
shon is

said to ha#e -.'T( 4EED E3CF as there is no
processing in the feed bac$ path.
The folloing result ill be used many times in later
tutorials on system analysis.

6 o 5
ol
e
6 @
e o i

5 6 o
@ ol
*+ o i
@ 6 5
o o ol i

5 @ 5 6
o o ol i ol
5 6 C 5
o o *+ ol i
ol
5 6 / C 5
o ol i o/
5
/
o ol 5 6 6 6
/
/
C

5
c
.l
.
C /
i ol
5
o
l
This is the transfer function for closed loop unity feed bac$
system. 'n practice ,at the #ery least, e ha#e
a transducer to measure the output so e should sho a
bloc$ in the path representing the transducer. 'n
addition e may put other signal conditioners and
processors in the path such as an amplifier or
attenuator.

4igure A

5 is the O:E. )OO: transfer function and is in the
forard path. 5 is in the feed bac$ path.
/ 2
D.,.D-.. ?

The open loop transfer function is related to 5 and 5 as
follos.
/ 2

o 5 6
/
e
6 @ 5
e o i 2

6 o 5
@ 5 /
*+ o i 2
@ 6 5
5
o o
/ i 2
@ 6 5 5 5
o
o /
i
/ 2
6 C 5
5 5
o
o
*
+
/
i
/
2
6 C 5 /
5 5
o / i
/ 2

5

o 5 6 6
/
C / 5
5
i / 2
5
The transfer function for the closed system is hence 5 C 6
6 o /

/

5

5
i
/
2


WORKED EAMPLE No.2

The transfer function for a hydraulic system comprising
of a hydraulic #al#e and actuator is
5*s+ 6/7*Ts+. 8rite don the closed loop transfer
function.

SOLUTION
/ /
6 6 5*s+ C *closed loop+
GH C Ts /
/
/
5*s+

WORKED EAMPLE No.3

The transfer function for a hydraulic system comprising
of a hydraulic #al#e and actuator ith inertia
attached is 5*s+ 6/7*T2s2C 2dTs+. 8rite don the
closed loop transfer function.

SOLUTION
/ / GH 6
6 5*s+ *closed loop+
2 2 C
C C /
T s 2d Ts /
/
5*s+

D.,.D-.. =


SE LF
ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.2

/. 4ind the closed loop transfer function for the system
shon belo.

4igure B

2. 4ind the closed loop transfer function for the system
shon belo.

4igure /<

;. 4ind the closed loop transfer function for the system
shon belo.


4igure //

D.,.D-.. 7
%. FEED$ACK PROCESSIN!

%.1 "ELOCITY FEED$ACK

9elocity feedbac$ is idely used to stabilise a system
hich tends to oscillate. This is not the same as
deri#ati#e control co#ered later. 'f the output of a system is
motion " then the rate of change d" 7dt is a
o
o
true #elocity but the idea can be used for any output.
Consider the bloc$ diagram belo.

4igure /2


3 typical electrical ser#o system uses position sensing and
#elocity feedbac$. The #elocity signal is
deri#ed from a tacho@generator or some other suitable
speed measuring de#ice. The resulting signal is
compared ith the input and the output as shon.

The error signal is "e 6 "i @ $2"o @ $/d"o7dt

8hen a sudden *step+ change is made, the error is a
ma"imum and so the output changes #ery rapidly.
The #elocity feedbac$ is hence greatest at the start. The
effect of the feedbac$ is to reduce the error in a
manner directly proportional to the #elocity. 8hen the
output is static the feedbac$ is Dero and so no error
results from it. The feedbac$ has the same affect as
damping and if the complete analysis is made, e
ould see that control o#er $/ gi#es control o#er damping.
This is useful in stabilising an oscillatory
system.
D.,.D-.. A


WORK ED
EAMPLE No.&

The diagram shos a closed loop system ith #elocity
and negati#e feed@bac$. The transfer
$ GH 6
Deri#e the
closed loop
transfer
function.
functions
for the
system is
5*s+
C 2 2 T s 2d
Ts

4igure /;
SOLUTION

$
*+
Th
e
ope
n
loo
p
tra
nsf
er
fun
cti
on
is
5*s
+ 6
2 2 T s
C 2 dT
s
6 @ @ as 6 @ *a s C /+
IJ e o o o i i
6 5 6 5 @ *a s C /+
o e o i
6 5 @ 5 *a s C /+
o o i
C 5 *a s C /+ 6 5
o o i
GH / C 5*a s C /+ 6 5
o i
5
6 o
/ C 5*a s C /+
i
/
6 o
/
C C *a s /+
i
5
$ GH .o substitute
5 6
2 2 C d T s 2 Ts
/ GH o 6
2 2 T s C 2 d Ts
C C *a s /+ i
$
$
6 o
2 2 C d C C T s 2 Ts $*a s /+
i
$
o 6
*+ 2 2 T s C s 2 d T C $a C $+
i

This is the closed loop transfer function

The term ith s is the effecti#e damping term and as can
be seen this is affected by the #alue of $a.



D.,.D-.. B

SELF ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.3

The diagram shos ho the arm of a robot is controlled
using a controller and motor ith position
and #elocity feed@bac$. Determine the closed loop
transfer function for the system.

4igure />


%.2 DISTUR$ANCES


The affect of a disturbance on the output may be idealised
on a bloc$ diagram as follos.

4igure /?

The disturbance d is added to the output to produce a ne
output o. 5 is the forard path transfer
function. * +
6 @ C 5
d
o o 6
@
i
e o i 6 @ C 5 5 d
o o 6
C d
i
o *+
C 6 C / 5 5 d
*+ o
6 5
i
e

C
5

d
6 C 5 d 6 i
*+ o
e
o C
/ 5

WORKED EAMPLE No.#

3 simple closed loop system consists of an amplifier ith
a gain of /<. 4or an input of > m3, sho
that the effect of a disturbance added to the output of
magnitude i+ < and ii+ 2

SOLUTION
i+ d 6 <, 5 6 /< i 6 >
o 6 *5 iC d+7*/ C 5+ 6 */< " >C <+7*/ C /<+ 6 ><7//
i+ d 6 2, 5 6 /< i 6 >
o 6 *5 iC d+7*/ C 5+ 6 */<" >C 2+7*/ C /<+ 6 >27//

This shos that a disturbance of 2 produces an output
error of 27//.

D.,.D-.. /<
%.3
ELIMINATIN! T'E AFFECT OF A DISTUR$ANCE

3 special feed@bac$ path is used to reduce or eliminate the
affect of a disturbance added to the output.
The idealised system is shon belo.

4igure /=

The disturbance *D+ is processed through a transfer
function 52 and added to the input.
5/ is the forard path transfer function. 52 is the feed@
bac$ path transfer function.

6 5/ e6 5/* i @ 52D+ o 6 C D
o 6 5/* i @ 52D+ C D o 6 5/ i @
5/52D C D

4rom the last line it can be seen that if 5/52D 6 D then o
6 5/ i
The affect of the disturbance is completely remo#ed hen
5/ 6 /752


WORKED EAMPLE No.(


4or the system described abo#e, the forard path transfer
function is
5/*s+6 >7*s C /+

Determine the transfer function for the feedbac$ path
hich eliminates the affect of a disturbance.

SOLUTION

52*s+ 6 /75/*s+ 6 *s C /+7>



SELF ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.&

/. 3 simple closed loop system consists of to amplifiers
in series one ith a gain of ; and one ith a
gain of 2. 4or an input of = m3, determine the output
hen a disturbance added to the output of
magnitude i+ < and ii+ ;

2. The forard path transfer function for a controlled
system is 5/*s+6 27*;s2C /+

Determine the transfer function for the feedbac$ path
hich eliminates the affect of a disturbance.


D.,.D-.. //
%.& USIN!
PROPORTIONAL AND
DIFFERENTIAL CONTROL
IN T'E FEED$ACK PAT'

)et us consider that the feed@bac$ transfer function is a : C
D transfer function
*:roportional plus
differential+.

4igure /7 –
:&O:O&T'O.3)

4or a proportional system,
output is directly
proportional to input. 'n
effect it is an amplifier or attenuator
and $/ is a simple ratio.

4igure /A
@D'44E&E.T'3)

4or a differential bloc$, the output is directly proportional
to
the
rate of change of the input ith time. 3
tachometer is an e"ample of this. 'n )aplace form the

output is $2 sD. The units of $2 must be seconds.
8e may rite $2 6 T $/ here T is called the
DE&'93T'9E T'%E.


4igure /B :&O:O&T'O.3)
:)-S D'44E&E.T'3)

4or : C D it follos that the transfer function is $/*Ts C
/+



WORKED EAMPLE No.%

5i#en that 5/ 6 ?7*s C 2+ find the #alue of deri#ati#e time
T and the constant hich ill eliminate
the disturbance D.

4igure 2<
SOLUTION

52 6 /75/ 6 *s C 2+7? 6 $/*Ts C / +
&earrange to ma$e the forms match.
<.2*s C 2+ 6 $/*Ts C / +
<.>*<.?s C /+ 6 $/*Ts C / +

0ence by comparison $/ 6 <.> and T 6 <.?


D.,.D-.. /2


SELF ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.#

/. The forard path transfer function of a controlled
system is 5*s+ 6 =7*s C ;+. 'n order to eliminate
disturbances added to the output, a : C D feedbac$
path is used. 4ind the #alue of the deri#ati#e time
and the constant re2uired.
*<.;;; sec and <.?+

2. The forard path transfer function of a controlled
system is 5*s+ 6 /<7*2s C ?+. 'n order to eliminate
disturbances added to the output, a : C D feedbac$
path is used. 4ind the #alue of the deri#ati#e time
and the constant re2uired.
*<.> s and <.?+

;. The forard path transfer function of a controlled
system is 5*s+ 6 A7*?s C /<+. 'n order to eliminate
disturbances added to the output, a : C D feedbac$
path is used. 4ind the #alue of the deri#ati#e time
and the constant re2uired.
*<.? s and /.2?+



D.,.D-.. /;
). SIMPLIFYIN! COMPLE SYSTEMS

The symbol 0 is often used for feed bac$ transfer functions
but e can use any appropriate symbol to
help us simplify comple" circuits. The diagrams belo
sho the stages in reducing a bloc$ diagram to
one bloc$ ith one transfer function.

4igure 2/
0ere is a more comple" one.

4igure 22

0ere is an e#en more comple" one.


4igure 2;

The techni2ue no is to find the transfer function for the
inner loop and or$ outards as follos.

4igure 2>

D.,.D-.. />

W
ORK ED
EAMPLE No.)

Deri#e the transfer function for the system belo.

4igure 2?
5 6 ;7s 5 6 /7*>sC?+ 5 6 > 5 6 /7s 0 6 ? 0 6
<.?
/ 2 ; > / 2

SOLUTION



4igure 2=
>
>
> >s C
? :ut
in the
data
and
6 6
6 D
/ > " <.? *+ 2 >s C 7
C / >s C ? / C
C >s ? C >s ?

/2 ; >
*+
2 *;7s+*/7s+
*D + >s
C 7 s >s C
7 /2
2 s
5 6 6 6 6 /
=< C
/? >
=< /
*;7s+*?+
*D +
*+*+ C
2 2 C
/
C C C
/
s >s 7 s
>s 7
/
2 s >s C
7 C
>s C 7
>s 7s
/2 /2
5 6 6
; 2 2 ; 2 C C C >s 7s =<s >s =7s


D.,.D-.. /?

SE
LF
ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.(

Deri#e the o#erall transfer functions for the systems
belo.

/.

4igure 27
?7*<.2s C s C ><+ 2


2.

4igure 2A
A7*<.2s C /.As C ?2+ 2


;.

4igure 2B
A7*>s C //;s C ?2+ 2


D.,.D-.. /=