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CONTROL

TUTORIAL 3 – TRANSFER FUNCTION

MANIPULATION

This tutorial is of interest to any student studying control systems

and in particular the EC

module D227 – Control System Engineering.

On completion of this tutorial, you should be able to do the

folloing.

! E"plain a basic open loop system.

! E"plain a basic closed loop system.

! E"plain the use of negati#e feedbac$

! %anipulate transfer functions.

! E"plain the use of #elocity feedbac$.

! E"plain the affect of disturbances to the output of a system.

! E"plain the use of proportional and deri#ati#e feedbac$.

! &educe comple" systems to a single transfer function.

'f you are not familiar ith instrumentation used in control

engineering, you should

complete the tutorials on 'nstrumentation Systems.

'n order to complete the theoretical part of this tutorial, you must be

familiar ith basic

mechanical and electrical science.

(ou must also be familiar ith the use of transfer functions and the

)aplace Transform

*see maths tutorials+.

D.,.D-.. /

1. INTRODUCTION

The function of any control system is to automatically

regulate the output and $eep it at the desired #alue.

The desired #alue is the input to the system. 'f the input is

changed the output must respond and change to

the ne set #alue. 'f something happens to disturb the

output ithout a change to the input, the output

must return to the correct #alue. 0ere is a short list of some

of the things e might be controlling.

The speed or angle of a motor

*electric or hydraulic+

The speed or position of a linear

actuator *e.g. in robotics, ship1s

stabilisers, aircraft control etcetera+

The temperature of an o#en *e.g. heat treatment+

The pressure of a #essel *e.g. a steam boiler+

The 2uantity inside a container *e.g. metering contents in a

#essel+

The flo of solids, li2uids and gases *e.g. controlling the

steam flo to a turbine+

There are some basic properties and terminology used ith

systems hich e should e"amine ne"t.

2. TRANSFER FUNCTION

3ny item in any system

may be represented as a

simple bloc$ ith an

input and output as

shon. 'n general terms,

the input is designated i

and the output o.

4igure /

The ratio of output o#er input is often shon as 5 6 o7 i.

8hen the model is a differential e2uation the

)aplace transform is used and this introduces the comple"

operator s. 'n this case 5 is called the

T&3.S4E& 4-.CT'O. and strictly e should rite 5

(s) = o(s)/ i(s)

'f 5 is a simple ratio, it is still a Transfer function but if the

model is not a simple ratio and cannot be

transformed, it should not strictly be called a transfer

function. (ou should study the tutorial on )aplace

and 4ourier transforms in the maths section in order to

fully appreciate this tutorial.

3. OPEN LOOP SYSTEMS

3 system ith no regulation is called an open loop system.

4or e"ample a typical instrument system *see

tutorials on instrumentation+ is an open loop system ith

an input and output but no control action at all.

)et1s ta$e a d.c. ser#o motor as an e"ample *see the tutorial

on electric actuators+. The speed of the ser#o

motor depends on the #oltage and current supplied to it. 3

typical system might use a potentiometer

hich you turn to an angle *the input+ to produce a

#oltage 9 and this is amplified ith a poer

i

amplifier producing electric poer : that dri#es the motor

at speed . *the output+.

4igure 2

D.,.D-.. 2

The bloc$ diagram loo$s li$e this.

4igure ;

The bloc$ diagram sho that the signal path from input to

output is a linear chain not forming any loop

so this hy it is called an O:E. )OO: S(STE%.

WORKED EAMPLE No.1

The

speed of

an

electric motor is directly proportional to #oltage such that

. 6 2<9 here 9 is in

9olts and . in re#7min. The motor is controlled by a

poer supply hich has an output #oltage

related to the position of the control $nob by 9 6 2

here 9 is in 9olts and is in degrees.

i

i

Dra the bloc$ diagram and deduce the o#erall transfer

function. Determine the output speed hen

the $nob is set to =<o.

SOLUTION

4igure >

5 6 .7 6 2 " 2< 6 >< re#7min per degree . 6 >< "

=< 6 2><< re#7min

i i

SELF ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.1

3 simple control system consists of a potentiometer ith a

transfer function of <.<297mm in series

ith an amplifier ith a gain of /2, in series ith a 97'

con#erter ith a transfer function ' 6 <.?9

here 9 is in #olts and ' in m3. The output current is

amplified ith a gain of /2<< and the output

current supplied to an electro@magnetic tor2ue arm

hich produces ; .m per 3mp.

Dra the bloc$ diagram and deduce the o#erall transfer

function. *<.>;2 .m7mm+

Determine the input position of the potentiometer in mm

hich produces a tor2ue output of =< .m.

*/;A.B mm+

Consider the e"ample of the ser#o motor again. Suppose

the motor dri#es a load and that the load

suddenly increases. This ould ma$e the motor slo don

as there ould not be enough poer to $eep it

at the original speed. 8e ould no ha#e an error beteen

the speed selected ith the potentiometer and

the actual speed of the motor. To bring the speed bac$ to

the correct #alue, e ha#e to turn up the poer

and do this automatically e need a closed loop system.

Open loop systems are incapable of maintaining

a correct output in all but the simplest cases.

D.,.D-.. ;

> . SUMMIN! DE"ICES

'n order to regulate any control system e must determine

the

error beteen the output and the input.

This is done ith a summing de#ice and the symbol for

this is shon in the left diagram. These de#ices

may be electrical *e.g. a simple differential amplifier+,

pneumatic *e.g. a differential pressure cell+ or

mechanical. 8e can put a :lus *C+ or minus *@+ sign in the

symbol to sho if it is adding or subtracting

and the symbol can be used ith more than one signal as

shon in the right diagram. 'n modern digital

systems it is a simple case of adding or subtracting the

numbers stored in registers.

4igure ?

#. $ASIC CLOSED LOOP CONTROL

Consider the e"ample of the ser#o motor again. This time

suppose e ish to control the angle of the

shaft . The input potentiometer produces a #oltage 9 and

the output potentiometer produces a #oltage

o i

9 to represent the angle of the shaft. 'f the to #oltages

are the same, the shaft is at the correct angle. 'f

o

there is an error, the #oltages are different. The differential

amplifier acts as the summing de#ice and

produces a #oltage 9 representing the error. The error is

supplied to the poer amplifier and poer is

e

sent to the motor to rotate it in the direction that corrects

the angle. 8hen the #oltages are e2ual again, the

error is Dero and no poer is supplied to the motor so it

stops. Error in either direction can be corrected if

the poer amplifier is capable of producing positi#e and

negati#e current.

4igure =

This description is somehat o#er simplified and does not

e"plain an actual or$ing system. The motor

ould ha#e difficulty staying at the correct angle if there is

a load trying to turn it. .ote ho the #oltage

from the output potentiometer is fed bac$ to the summing

de#ice so that the error is 9 6 9 @ 9 . This is

e i o

.E53T'9E 4EEDE3CF and this is essential to ma$e the

system respond to the error.

D.,.D-.. >

= . CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM TRANSFER

FUNCTIONS

The most basic bloc$ diagram for a closed loop system is

shon belo. The main bloc$ is an open loop

system ith

a

transfer

function 5 . This relates the error and the output so that 5

6 7

ol ol o e.

The transfer function for the closed loop system is 5 . This

relates the input i and output o.

c.l

The error is obtained by comparing the output #alue ith

the input #alue in the signal summing de#ice.

This produces the result e 6 i @ o and because o is

subtracted, this idea is called .E53T'9E 4EED

E3CF. The bloc$ diagram shos that the signal passes

around a closed loop hence the name C)OSED

)OO: S(STE%.

4igure 7

The

system

shon is

said to ha#e -.'T( 4EED E3CF as there is no

processing in the feed bac$ path.

The folloing result ill be used many times in later

tutorials on system analysis.

6 o 5

ol

e

6 @

e o i

5 6 o

@ ol

*+ o i

@ 6 5

o o ol i

5 @ 5 6

o o ol i ol

5 6 C 5

o o *+ ol i

ol

5 6 / C 5

o ol i o/

5

/

o ol 5 6 6 6

/

/

C

5

c

.l

.

C /

i ol

5

o

l

This is the transfer function for closed loop unity feed bac$

system. 'n practice ,at the #ery least, e ha#e

a transducer to measure the output so e should sho a

bloc$ in the path representing the transducer. 'n

addition e may put other signal conditioners and

processors in the path such as an amplifier or

attenuator.

4igure A

5 is the O:E. )OO: transfer function and is in the

forard path. 5 is in the feed bac$ path.

/ 2

D.,.D-.. ?

The open loop transfer function is related to 5 and 5 as

follos.

/ 2

o 5 6

/

e

6 @ 5

e o i 2

6 o 5

@ 5 /

*+ o i 2

@ 6 5

5

o o

/ i 2

@ 6 5 5 5

o

o /

i

/ 2

6 C 5

5 5

o

o

*

+

/

i

/

2

6 C 5 /

5 5

o / i

/ 2

5

o 5 6 6

/

C / 5

5

i / 2

5

The transfer function for the closed system is hence 5 C 6

6 o /

/

5

5

i

/

2

WORKED EAMPLE No.2

The transfer function for a hydraulic system comprising

of a hydraulic #al#e and actuator is

5*s+ 6/7*Ts+. 8rite don the closed loop transfer

function.

SOLUTION

/ /

6 6 5*s+ C *closed loop+

GH C Ts /

/

/

5*s+

WORKED EAMPLE No.3

The transfer function for a hydraulic system comprising

of a hydraulic #al#e and actuator ith inertia

attached is 5*s+ 6/7*T2s2C 2dTs+. 8rite don the

closed loop transfer function.

SOLUTION

/ / GH 6

6 5*s+ *closed loop+

2 2 C

C C /

T s 2d Ts /

/

5*s+

D.,.D-.. =

SE LF

ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.2

/. 4ind the closed loop transfer function for the system

shon belo.

4igure B

2. 4ind the closed loop transfer function for the system

shon belo.

4igure /<

;. 4ind the closed loop transfer function for the system

shon belo.

4igure //

D.,.D-.. 7

%. FEED$ACK PROCESSIN!

%.1 "ELOCITY FEED$ACK

9elocity feedbac$ is idely used to stabilise a system

hich tends to oscillate. This is not the same as

deri#ati#e control co#ered later. 'f the output of a system is

motion " then the rate of change d" 7dt is a

o

o

true #elocity but the idea can be used for any output.

Consider the bloc$ diagram belo.

4igure /2

3 typical electrical ser#o system uses position sensing and

#elocity feedbac$. The #elocity signal is

deri#ed from a tacho@generator or some other suitable

speed measuring de#ice. The resulting signal is

compared ith the input and the output as shon.

The error signal is "e 6 "i @ $2"o @ $/d"o7dt

8hen a sudden *step+ change is made, the error is a

ma"imum and so the output changes #ery rapidly.

The #elocity feedbac$ is hence greatest at the start. The

effect of the feedbac$ is to reduce the error in a

manner directly proportional to the #elocity. 8hen the

output is static the feedbac$ is Dero and so no error

results from it. The feedbac$ has the same affect as

damping and if the complete analysis is made, e

ould see that control o#er $/ gi#es control o#er damping.

This is useful in stabilising an oscillatory

system.

D.,.D-.. A

WORK ED

EAMPLE No.&

The diagram shos a closed loop system ith #elocity

and negati#e feed@bac$. The transfer

$ GH 6

Deri#e the

closed loop

transfer

function.

functions

for the

system is

5*s+

C 2 2 T s 2d

Ts

4igure /;

SOLUTION

$

*+

Th

e

ope

n

loo

p

tra

nsf

er

fun

cti

on

is

5*s

+ 6

2 2 T s

C 2 dT

s

6 @ @ as 6 @ *a s C /+

IJ e o o o i i

6 5 6 5 @ *a s C /+

o e o i

6 5 @ 5 *a s C /+

o o i

C 5 *a s C /+ 6 5

o o i

GH / C 5*a s C /+ 6 5

o i

5

6 o

/ C 5*a s C /+

i

/

6 o

/

C C *a s /+

i

5

$ GH .o substitute

5 6

2 2 C d T s 2 Ts

/ GH o 6

2 2 T s C 2 d Ts

C C *a s /+ i

$

$

6 o

2 2 C d C C T s 2 Ts $*a s /+

i

$

o 6

*+ 2 2 T s C s 2 d T C $a C $+

i

This is the closed loop transfer function

The term ith s is the effecti#e damping term and as can

be seen this is affected by the #alue of $a.

D.,.D-.. B

SELF ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.3

The diagram shos ho the arm of a robot is controlled

using a controller and motor ith position

and #elocity feed@bac$. Determine the closed loop

transfer function for the system.

4igure />

%.2 DISTUR$ANCES

The affect of a disturbance on the output may be idealised

on a bloc$ diagram as follos.

4igure /?

The disturbance d is added to the output to produce a ne

output o. 5 is the forard path transfer

function. * +

6 @ C 5

d

o o 6

@

i

e o i 6 @ C 5 5 d

o o 6

C d

i

o *+

C 6 C / 5 5 d

*+ o

6 5

i

e

C

5

d

6 C 5 d 6 i

*+ o

e

o C

/ 5

WORKED EAMPLE No.#

3 simple closed loop system consists of an amplifier ith

a gain of /<. 4or an input of > m3, sho

that the effect of a disturbance added to the output of

magnitude i+ < and ii+ 2

SOLUTION

i+ d 6 <, 5 6 /< i 6 >

o 6 *5 iC d+7*/ C 5+ 6 */< " >C <+7*/ C /<+ 6 ><7//

i+ d 6 2, 5 6 /< i 6 >

o 6 *5 iC d+7*/ C 5+ 6 */<" >C 2+7*/ C /<+ 6 >27//

This shos that a disturbance of 2 produces an output

error of 27//.

D.,.D-.. /<

%.3

ELIMINATIN! T'E AFFECT OF A DISTUR$ANCE

3 special feed@bac$ path is used to reduce or eliminate the

affect of a disturbance added to the output.

The idealised system is shon belo.

4igure /=

The disturbance *D+ is processed through a transfer

function 52 and added to the input.

5/ is the forard path transfer function. 52 is the feed@

bac$ path transfer function.

6 5/ e6 5/* i @ 52D+ o 6 C D

o 6 5/* i @ 52D+ C D o 6 5/ i @

5/52D C D

4rom the last line it can be seen that if 5/52D 6 D then o

6 5/ i

The affect of the disturbance is completely remo#ed hen

5/ 6 /752

WORKED EAMPLE No.(

4or the system described abo#e, the forard path transfer

function is

5/*s+6 >7*s C /+

Determine the transfer function for the feedbac$ path

hich eliminates the affect of a disturbance.

SOLUTION

52*s+ 6 /75/*s+ 6 *s C /+7>

SELF ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.&

/. 3 simple closed loop system consists of to amplifiers

in series one ith a gain of ; and one ith a

gain of 2. 4or an input of = m3, determine the output

hen a disturbance added to the output of

magnitude i+ < and ii+ ;

2. The forard path transfer function for a controlled

system is 5/*s+6 27*;s2C /+

Determine the transfer function for the feedbac$ path

hich eliminates the affect of a disturbance.

D.,.D-.. //

%.& USIN!

PROPORTIONAL AND

DIFFERENTIAL CONTROL

IN T'E FEED$ACK PAT'

)et us consider that the feed@bac$ transfer function is a : C

D transfer function

*:roportional plus

differential+.

4igure /7 –

:&O:O&T'O.3)

4or a proportional system,

output is directly

proportional to input. 'n

effect it is an amplifier or attenuator

and $/ is a simple ratio.

4igure /A

@D'44E&E.T'3)

4or a differential bloc$, the output is directly proportional

to

the

rate of change of the input ith time. 3

tachometer is an e"ample of this. 'n )aplace form the

output is $2 sD. The units of $2 must be seconds.

8e may rite $2 6 T $/ here T is called the

DE&'93T'9E T'%E.

4igure /B :&O:O&T'O.3)

:)-S D'44E&E.T'3)

4or : C D it follos that the transfer function is $/*Ts C

/+

WORKED EAMPLE No.%

5i#en that 5/ 6 ?7*s C 2+ find the #alue of deri#ati#e time

T and the constant hich ill eliminate

the disturbance D.

4igure 2<

SOLUTION

52 6 /75/ 6 *s C 2+7? 6 $/*Ts C / +

&earrange to ma$e the forms match.

<.2*s C 2+ 6 $/*Ts C / +

<.>*<.?s C /+ 6 $/*Ts C / +

0ence by comparison $/ 6 <.> and T 6 <.?

D.,.D-.. /2

SELF ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.#

/. The forard path transfer function of a controlled

system is 5*s+ 6 =7*s C ;+. 'n order to eliminate

disturbances added to the output, a : C D feedbac$

path is used. 4ind the #alue of the deri#ati#e time

and the constant re2uired.

*<.;;; sec and <.?+

2. The forard path transfer function of a controlled

system is 5*s+ 6 /<7*2s C ?+. 'n order to eliminate

disturbances added to the output, a : C D feedbac$

path is used. 4ind the #alue of the deri#ati#e time

and the constant re2uired.

*<.> s and <.?+

;. The forard path transfer function of a controlled

system is 5*s+ 6 A7*?s C /<+. 'n order to eliminate

disturbances added to the output, a : C D feedbac$

path is used. 4ind the #alue of the deri#ati#e time

and the constant re2uired.

*<.? s and /.2?+

D.,.D-.. /;

). SIMPLIFYIN! COMPLE SYSTEMS

The symbol 0 is often used for feed bac$ transfer functions

but e can use any appropriate symbol to

help us simplify comple" circuits. The diagrams belo

sho the stages in reducing a bloc$ diagram to

one bloc$ ith one transfer function.

4igure 2/

0ere is a more comple" one.

4igure 22

0ere is an e#en more comple" one.

4igure 2;

The techni2ue no is to find the transfer function for the

inner loop and or$ outards as follos.

4igure 2>

D.,.D-.. />

W

ORK ED

EAMPLE No.)

Deri#e the transfer function for the system belo.

4igure 2?

5 6 ;7s 5 6 /7*>sC?+ 5 6 > 5 6 /7s 0 6 ? 0 6

<.?

/ 2 ; > / 2

SOLUTION

4igure 2=

>

>

> >s C

? :ut

in the

data

and

6 6

6 D

/ > " <.? *+ 2 >s C 7

C / >s C ? / C

C >s ? C >s ?

/2 ; >

*+

2 *;7s+*/7s+

*D + >s

C 7 s >s C

7 /2

2 s

5 6 6 6 6 /

=< C

/? >

=< /

*;7s+*?+

*D +

*+*+ C

2 2 C

/

C C C

/

s >s 7 s

>s 7

/

2 s >s C

7 C

>s C 7

>s 7s

/2 /2

5 6 6

; 2 2 ; 2 C C C >s 7s =<s >s =7s

D.,.D-.. /?

SE

LF

ASSESSMENT EERCISE No.(

Deri#e the o#erall transfer functions for the systems

belo.

/.

4igure 27

?7*<.2s C s C ><+ 2

2.

4igure 2A

A7*<.2s C /.As C ?2+ 2

;.

4igure 2B

A7*>s C //;s C ?2+ 2

D.,.D-.. /=

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