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Offensive fundamentals

Introduction
Why yet another article written on basketball fundamentals? Has there until now not been
enough material published concerning the basic performance data on this topic? Maybe so,
but most descriptive articles do sufficient justice to the different fundamentals in their own
right, whereas the main object of this article focuses next to providing a survey of skills and
techniques also on the interrelations between the various fundamentals.

Summary of offensive fundamentals in 45 topics:
1. Movement
2. Bodybalance & footwork
3. Change of pace & direction
4. Faking
5 Jumping
6. Stopping
7. Pivoting
8. Holding the ball
9. Catching
10. Passing
11. Overheadpass
12. Chestpass
13. Bouncepass
14. Baseballpass
15. Handoff en dribble hand off
16. Hook- or pushpass (misdirection)
17. Pass behind back
18. Stride- or shoulderpass
19. Dribbling
20. Dribbling on the spot
21. Dribble start
22. Low dribble
23. High dribble
24. Dribble change of direction & tempo
25. Crossover dribble
26. Cross between dribble
27. Reverse dribble
29. Behind the back dribble
30. Hesitation dribble
31. Hockey dribble
32. Fake dribbles
33. Inside out dribble
34. Fake reverse dribble
35. Shooting off the dribble
36. Shooting
37. Shooting techniques
38. Lay up
39. Reverse lay up
40. Set shot
41. Jumpshot
42. Turn around jumpshot
43. Hookshot & jumphook
44. Tip in
45. Basic moves in the post
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1. Movement
A. General
In offense and defense two teams of five players are in contest on a court of two hundred
and ninety two square meters to put a ball in a hoop. At the most fundamental level players
oppose each other in movement. The dynamics of the game demand quick actions and
reactions. Many of these actions and reactions can be taught and learned as automatics.
Sounds simple, but there is more to it. Movement is the accompanying basis for all these
automatics. In general a static player can’t react as quickly as a player already in motion.
These kind of dynamics in movement create advantages, albeit used functional. Mastery of
all functional movement skills play the core role in the schooling of fundamentals. The rest of
the following text deals with this. Quick explosive moves can best be initiated with short
choppy steps. Given a certain momentum larger, wider steps are more efficient. The small
step provides more control or increase of mobility, whereas the longer step bridges more
distance. In their application fundamentals are always interrelated. Without permitting too
much deceleration (loss of speed) the transfer of more speedy explosive moves into new
actions demand very strong and powerful stabilization. In movement balance is the function
of interplay between on the one hand gravitational- and centrifugal forces opposed by
muscular reaction force. In general the basic stance is the best foundation for most efficient
explosive action. Every skilled player has an intuitive feel for the variability and how
movement and technique interrelate. In the answers to the questions concerning the what
and the how of skills the sources are found of the fundamental processes that are treated in
this article.

B. Use
How movement is used by a basketballplayer might not be such a silly evident question, or
isn’ t that so? Ten players move criss cross in defense and offense. The ratio of all this
kinetic energy can be further seen as what players do with the ball or away from it. For
players quickness and judgement are the two main conditions of motion on the court in the
game of basketball. In a further analysis the biomachanics in proper use of movement skills
can be broken down to body control, balance and vision.

C. Execution
In the execution of movement two factors cannot be left unspoken: basic stance and head
up. The ”head up” criterion with the eyes both focusing on a wider view of what’ s going on
around the player (scanning) as well as more on narrow objects such as the rim are
necessary to act and react functionally. On the skill level we start here with movement on the
spot. This may sound contradictory, but it means that from the basic stance motion is
initiated with quick patter steps on the balls of both feet on the same spot of the floor. With
these patter steps the upperbody is kept relatively still, almost immobile and slightly bent
forward. This movement is also described as rapid-taps, foot-fire or stutter-steps. Most
important factor in applying the basic stance is that the player feels relaxed and ready to
move from this posture. With the movement off the spot bodybalance and footwork become
more critical factors. Quickness plays a governing role in basketball and is a function of more
aspects. For instance the best suited manoeuvring speed differs per player and is the
function of maximum speed without the insurmountable loss of the ability to stop, accelerate,
change direction or reaccelerate.

D. Error analysis
* leaning forward with the upper body is an indication of weaker upper legs (early fatigue
factor).
* stiffening of leg- , hip- and back muscles indicates weaker core strength and stamina.
* teaching: not to fall. The motto in education is: “Balance before speed!”

E. Teaching:
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* review proper mechanics: judging spaces and distances, starting, stopping, turning in
motion, explosive starting, sliding, backpedalling, advance step, retreat step, lateral steps. Of
course in the motor learning process - and for our matter here more specific basketball
moves and skills – resistances manifest themselves. Not only physiological or biomechanical
restraints, but also the for basketball more typical task constraints. (Physiological constraints
lay in the working of for instance energy systems or muscle types. Biomechanical restrictions
lay in joint- and limbs displacements and postural issues.) In the perspective of task
constraints basketball motor learning first deals with spatial and temporal considerations and
next more to responses with the environmental interference. In the learning of any technical
process methodics, precision and accuracy are important issues. Also a minimum degree of
accountability in perception and vision play their part. Later on it becomes clear that assured
perception and vision may certainly not be constants. Also later on in the application of skills
the angles of executing become more flexible. Going back to basics in terms of body balance
and footwork lay the foundation for changes of tempo an direction.

2. Body balance and footwork
A. General
The Basic Stance – also named ready position - is the starting posture for all skill execution
by a single player in basketball. This basic position can be associated in combination with or
in connection with all basketball techniques and fundamentals. Bodybalance and footwork
are (next to vision) pre-eminently the two most critical aspects that can be associated with all
fundamentals. After making a first systematical division between offense and defense most
fundamentals within either of these categories can be related to many other fundamentals. “A
player never finishes his job,” are famous Bob Knight words, “He goes from one job to the
next.” Here we treat body balance and footwork on their own merits. The ` ready stance`
associated to starting or completing and following up any action is best put to words by
basketball guru John Wooden: “Keeping head centered and steady over wide base of feet!”

B. Use
The purpose of maintaining effective bodybalance and footwork is to be able to move in a
most efficient way. The demands that are put on stance and footwork in their use for all
players are in this sense like a connecting string or thread for the whole game. One job
done, go on to the next. The quality in these fundamentals are the basis for the highest
efficiency. Essentials again: good body control, balance and vision in application of
fundamentals. Or how John Wooden formulated the general idea: “Keeping the head low
above the center of gravity, over a wide base of feet!”

C. Execution
The basic stance is the most stable, yet relaxed, low position from which most footwork
arises. Reaction time in starting is reduced compared to a more straightlegged stance. The
head and hands are kept up. Basic stance is the position from which any player can move
most easily in any direction (even with hands kept up high). Forward, backward, sideways. A
player draws most force to move from the legs. The feet are well spread to a little more than
shoulderwidth apart, where the bodyweight is evenly distributed over both feet. Bodyweight is
carried on both ball of the feet. The pressure is directed from the front feet to facilitate quick
action. Knees and hips are bent and the upperbody is erect, but never too tense. Elbows
bent and hands just within the span of vision with fingers comfortly spread and palms
directed forward. Head and chin are up, vision straight forward.

D. Error analysis:
* core- and legstrength are the physical crux in relation to bodybalance and physical
coordination. Shortcomings manifest themselves in a too large margin of error,
miscalculations and misses in the game.
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* lack of “hands up” is also a clear omission that slips in with growing fatigue. In this way too
much leaning forward of the upperbody is a clear indication of weaker back- and upperleg
muscles.
Improvement:
* not falling. Storing and maintaining balance. “Balance before speed” is the adagium here.
This being said from an educational point of view in which the point of gravity is configurated
well in relation to the fulcrum (feet), this all within the restriction of the 2-count rhythm.

E. Teaching points:
* individual instructions and corrections in stance. Next all technical forms and exercises in
(dry) running training. Quickness and stability are criteria for more efficiency.
* the basic stance differs from player to player. What is comfortable for the one isn’t so for
the other. The purpose is to find just that kind of configuration of the joints from which the
player can most simply start, accelerate, slow down, move on, stop, jump and change
directions.
* important points of attention: the control over the two-count or so called “step-step” is
crucial for balance.
* stability is the function of the base and the low centering of the point of gravity. The wider
the base of support (footing), the more stable a player stands.
* special exercises: jumping rope improves timing and stamina. Climbing stairs, to
strengthen hips and legs muscles. Wallsit with back against the wall, feet flat on the floor and
knees 90°(degrees) bent. Increase time period up t o two minutes.
* keep the feet spread as wide as necessary, not clicking the heels, because unstable.
* bending knees constantly.

3. Change of tempo and direction
A. General
That every player is not as quick as any other player, is clear. That the differences in
quickness lead to a positional advantage (or positional disadvantage) may also sound
logical. But that the results of these differences result in yet another more structural aspect in
the game of specific players may sound less evident. We point out here the changes of
speed and direction. Each of them paints a special picture in the game geometry. Every
spectator immediately recognises a blowby or a slowdown move by an quick attacker against
a slower defender. The time-spatial characterization in a slower typed offensive player
manifest itself mostly in a change of direction or a socalled “zig-zag.” Fast movement on the
contrary takes place in “straight lines. “Zig-zag” and “straight line” can be used alternately or
in combination, in which on the one hand the change of direction can take place followed up
by or combined with a sudden change of tempo, whereas on the other hand a change of
tempo - for instance an explosive start or slowdown move – can be connected to or
combined with a change of direction.

B. Use
* a change of direction is used offensively to dodge an opponent, attack open space or to
protect or free the ball from pressure. Such as in the last instance for example to be able to
pass the ball to a lesser defended area on the court, or to create a free shooting position.
Mostly the zig-zag is characteristic for the (relatively) slower player.
* a change of tempo by a sudden acceleration (or slow down) can be very useful to free
oneself of a defender to blowby, shoot or pass the ball. Quicker players are type casted by
these actions. Especially in a one-on-one situation suddenly shifting gears can lead up to
simple open positions with direct or indirect result to free shooting opportunities.

C. Execution of change of direction and speed
* If a player moving to his right changes direction to his left, he initiates this move with a push
of his right foot, while he has lowered his center of gravity and has shortened his last steps.
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Right at the moment of the change of direction he first thrusts his head and left shoulder in
the desired direction. In this new angle his first steps are short an explosive.
* In a more abrupt acceleration a strong push is generated off of the back foot, the body
weight is shifted forward and the following steps will be relatively short and choppy. In a
sudden slow down move the front foot will pushback, whereas the body gravity center will be
held somewhat backward.

D. Teaching points and checkpoints
* different kid plays like ‘tig,’ ’tag' and 'hunting games' are very suitable to exercise these
tempo- and directional changes, but also more regulated forms such as suicides, dribble
courses are fruitful.
* quick and proper timing is straightforward the most important aspect of good changing of
direction.
* the angle (between 45°and 90°) is decided by the position of he opponent leaving free
space. The offensive perimeter player who is capable to penetrate the defensive 45°angle in
a closed one-on-one is able to create a breakdown.
* individual instructions and corrections in stance and footwork.

4. Faking
A. General
Moves with the intention to mislead an opponent, in as far as to place the defender on the
wrong foot or to influence his timing or balance are described as fakes or feints. It takes good
salesmanship. But not only that. Real control is also a factor. Real in a fake in the sense that
a fake is only effective in relation to the semblance of a actual move. Is this real move or the
threat of this real move non present (or lacking in the repertoire of this player - simply
because the opponent knows the offensive player does not have to respect this move) than
the fake in itself is senseless. So well executed fakes go hand in hand with a effective
countermove. In mastering the how of any technical process precision and accuracy are
important issues. Later on in the learning process of players above the basic application of
techniques more advanced stages follow. For instance using basic techniques now under
varying angles of execution. For instance players initially learn to chestpass the ball in a
forward direction. However with the turn of the upperbody but with the same footwork the
chestpass can also be delivered on an angle of 45°to left or the right direction. There is of
course a physical limit to the degree in which a player can bent his limbs, dealing with the
immobility of certain joints, for instance the back and shoulders here. Misdirection takes the
adaptation on basic moves even a step further. Misdirection presupposes a higher level of
control. Famous is the Pistol Pete Maravich wristpass technique. This is a basic bouncepass
straight forward technique flexed to a 45°angle to a side, with the elbows locked straight
forward (so without any shoulder rotation) but at the last moment the ball is passed “solely
with the wrists” to dodge the defender in a 45°angle opposite dire ction than the whole
motion would initially suggest. Anyway, on more advanced level enough mastery must be
the basis for the development of a certain degree of faking. The reason is clear. It can be
seen as a countermove dealing with more and more defensive anticipation. Any action can
imply such misdirection. The eyes of a passer or driver may bare much of his intentions.
Telegraphing is obvious product of this. However telegraphing can also be used as a decoy.
If so applied we call it misdirection. Telegraphing is a tool here used to mislead the
defender(s). Watching in one direction and passing, shooting or driving in another is what it
comes down to. Footwork can be imparted in faking. A pivotstep in one direction (jab)
followed by a move in another direction (and go opposite). Misdirection and faking are
certainly methods to keep the defense honest!

B.Use
Selling a move or earning the respect of an action are both defining parts of the fake. Selling
a move can be suggested in a hundred ways. A strong look at the rim during a drive to the
basket and a dish to a cutting player from the far side is a piece of cake for a good salesman.
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Fakes are never isolated issues. We mention here the “fake shot-and-drive action” in relation
to the “up and under moves” (one-on-one offense) or the “half-step drive onside” in
connection to the jab and go opposite (idem). Any player has to be mindful that his vision,
eye contact and eye expressions are weapons opponents can use against himself, as well as
a means to his own advantage.

C. Execution
A distinction can be made between different types of fakes: The attribute or body part in use
defines the fake such as: a. ballfakes, b. footfakes, c. head-and-shoulder fakes, d. eye fakes,
e. combinations and connections from a. to d.

5. Jumping
A. General
In the mounting intensity of the modern game explosive jumping plays a major part.
Technically a distinction can be made between two types of jumps. a. jump with one-legged
pushoff, b. jump from two-legged pushoff (step-step-jump).

B. Use
The caracter of the first type is more dynamic. Effective for perimeter players, less effective
for post players. Adversely the two legged jump doesn’t claim the demand of bridging larger
distances. It is more straight upward, in small crowded spaces safer, draws less personal
fouls in the floating phase of the jump and the landing is more stable and controlled. The two-
legged pushoff is primarily the action in rebounding and in specific shots like the jump- or
jumphookshot.

C. Execution
Many followers of the game have a huge appreciation for the explosive athletic type jumper
who draw the highest marks and scores on the vertical jump tests. Less admiration is handed
to the player who is maybe less of a prominent leaper but is a stable recognizer and reader
of the game. A combination of these two kinds of players leads to the most wanted sort of
player that can block shots and is a top rebounder, because his timing is so outstanding.

D. Teaching points and checkpoints:
* in motion the last step preceding the take off has to be short so the forward momentum of
the body can be elevated perpendicular to the floor like a rocket.
* the proper body lean and explosive last step transfer speed and forward momentum in
vertical lift. The player has to bundle his power in the gathering of center of mass (COM) for
an upward impulse, throwing the arms and hands upward.
* keeping the head centered in relation to the location of the jump.
* feet well spread (more than shoulderwidth) at landing, on which the shock is evenly caught
on both balls of the feet, while the knees give in.
* individual instructions and corrections in stance and footwork as in work with ball slams
against rim or backboard. Also work with rebound top.

6. Stopping
A. General
The player that is incompetent in stopping smooth and adequate will inevitably become the
victim of many a error and call. The degree of difficulty in the element of stopping is often
underestimated. By the mandate of the basketball rules the player in possession of the ball
must come to a stop within two steps in order to avoid a traveling violation. The restrictions
placed on stopping define any other movement other than the 1- or 2-count stop an
infraction. To come to a solid stop from a running motion can cause problems. The actual
stop is preceded by takeoff and floating phases, however in reality this is often neglected and
therefore the use rather inept. Cutting the last steps short is crucial. Within the timing aspects
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of stopping a distinction is made between a. the jumpstop (1-count rhythm), b. the stride stop
(2-count rhythm). In another more spatial sense stopping is perceived in terms of:
* stopping in parallel stance, or “squared up.”
* stopping in stride stance or stride-stoppng.
Insufficient technical mastery of this part of footwork leads to many mistakes. The quicker the
movement, the lower the center of mass has to be brought down in stopping to maintain
good balance. A stop occurs after a dribble or after catching a pass by a player in motion. Of
significance in stopping – which is the capstone of footwork and a connecting line throughout
most fundamentals - is also the action that will succeed it. How does a player stop preceding
an explosive restart of a pivotstep? (Again balance before speed). Or preceding a direct pass
to a teammate? How does a player stop effectively to start a drive or a shot? The demands
of a next move placed on stopping are reflected in as said sufficient balance and/ or stability.
Very beneficial for play with the ball is the triple threat concept. In more dynamic sense
assuming the triple threat the ball is caught before the feet touch the floor. In this floating
phase the body can already be directed with the front side to the basket. When the feet touch
the floor the toes are already turned in toward the rim (square in the air). In the varying
angles besides north-south this becomes an issue. Many coaches have simplified their job
by solely teaching the jumpstop (1-count rhythm) and declaring the jumpstop no less than
sacred. The discerning essence of basketball however is the 2-count rhythm and this is not
without reason. Admitted, the jumpstop most certainly has a very important place in
basketball, especially as a part of the power moves near of the basket. Yet in the growing
significance of the threepointer (from 6 meter 75 centimeters these days) the concern for the
stride stop (step-step rhythm) has all the more mounted. The rhythm of the stride stop is
such that the inside foot touches the floor a split-second before the outside foot is placed.
(pivoting on the inside foot). This first step can be called pivotstep and the second balance
step. Following a reverse order (outside foot first, followed by the inside foot) is not killing, but
enlarges the chance for an irritant balance inconvenience and also a bigger chance to
commit a travel mistake.

B. Essentials: stabilization, balance, rhythm and vision:
* it is most logical that finishing footwork before shooting the ball is coordinated with high
quality stopping. We might place this planting of the feet under advanced stopping. Too
many times the relationship with the follow up phase is neglected in stopping. Here
centering, stabilization and timing come into the picture.
* when the heel-toe alignment (see set shot) is brought into the learning process it will
become clear that the interrelation of stopping an shooting fundamentals place higher
demands on the execution.
* the quality of a perimeter shot further removed from the hoop evidently connects more to
the need placed on mastery of advanced stopping. Snapping-in-triple-threat is one of the well
known used drills to teach this. Here the player tosses the ball with a backspinning arc about
two, two and a half meters in front himself. The ball bounces back up and is caught in front of
the chest by grabbing it in the basic stance with both knees bent and toes aimed at the rim
Thus the balancestop in triple threat is exercised.
* freeze means maintaining this posture for a number of seconds: ….mis-si-si-pi-one, mis-si-
si-pi-two, mis-si-si-pi-three. Snapping in triple threat can be practiced in three angles: forward
(start with back to 8 second line), 90°including s tride stop (start with back to sideline), 180°
including 2-count rhythm (starting with back to baseline).
* because there are more shooting techniques than for instance only the setshot, the
stopbalance has to correlate with each of them.
* in general the guidelines from the step-step process apply to all of them, yet in different
angles.
* angles: specifics in footwork differ from lay up to jumphook to setshot.

B.1 Stopping in combination with finishing the dribble (dribble pick up) in 2-count-rhythm:
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* the bouncing point of the last dribble is next to the same side or opposite foot, subsequently
a little jump is made and while in the air the ball is picked up with both hands.
* in landing of the first foot it is necessary that the body weight is brought over this foot.
* the center of gravity is kept low and the hips are bent.
* the other foot is placed shoulderwidth besides the first foot a split second later and stems
the forward speed.
* in the execution of the footwork the ball is brought in front of the midriff; elbows point
outward, belly and head stay straight up during the whole action.
* watch during the stop not to fall too much forward, shorten the last steps before the stop to
reduce forward momentum.

B.2 Use of stopping in 2-count in combination with the catch by a moving player:
* the player catches the ball while in the air in a small jump and lands subsequently right/left
or left/right.
* in landing of the first foot it is necessary that the body weight is brought over this foot.
* the center of gravity is kept low and the hips are bent.
* the other foot is placed shoulderwidth besides the first foot a split second later and stems
the forward speed.
* in the execution of the footwork the ball is brought in front of the midriff; elbows point
outward, belly and head stay straight up during the whole action.
* watch during the stop not to fall too much forward, shorten the last steps before the stop to
reduce forward momentum.

B.3. Shooting off of the dribble with the use of a 2-count rhythm:
* a rather complex activity. And demands a fluent, rhythmical combination of dribble,
footwork, pick up, last steps, jump and landing.
* the planting of the feet must be controlled, preceding the actual shot (pivoting on the inside
foot).
* the whole action provides a fluent picture, with the maintenance of tempo. That is to say
stabilization without too much deceleration.
* angles: of course the specifics in footwork differ from lay up to jumphook to setshot.
* in landing of the first foot it is necessary that the body weight is brought over this foot,
without leaning too much forward.
* the center of gravity is kept low and the hips are bent.
* the other foot is placed shoulderwidth besides the first foot a split second later and stems
the forward speed.
* in the execution of the footwork the ball is brought to the shooting position; elbows kept
close to body, belly and head stay straight up during the whole action.
* watch during the stop not to fall too much forward, shorten the last steps before the stop to
reduce forward momentum.

B.4 Stopping in 1-count rhythm/ jumpstop:
* both feet touch the floor in parallel- or heel-to-toe fashion catching the shock at same time.
* push off is made by one foot, while touchdown in landing occurs on both feet.
* bodyweight is caught on both feet.
* center of gravity is kept low.
* not jumping too high up in floating phase. At landing keeping head up and centered, knees
bent, feet parallel.
* footing: foot spread at minimum distance of shoulder expanse.
* to reduce the forward momentum the bodyweight is brought somewhat backward.
* because sometimes landings are made flatfooted the forward speed has to be taken into
account after the absorption of the initial shock. Doing this demands strong calf muscles,
upper legs and hips.
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* at lower speeds the gravity forces in this shock absorption can be caught more on the toes,
whereas in higher gear the body weight can be kept backward more to slow down forward
momentum. Butt down.

C.1 Error analysis 2-count rhythm in combination with reception of ball:
* timingerror, the ball is grabbed unjustly (slow control) right at the moment that floorcontact
is made with one or both feet, so that it necessitates an extra step to control the ball. So
preferable timing: absorbing ball before feet connect to the floor.
* lifting of pivotfoot – while ball is insufficiently held under control (travel mistake).
* sliding or slipping of pivotfoot.
* player stays too long erect. Knees not bent. Slower execution, stopping on first foot.
* the first step is too big, inadequate slow down without proper placing of the second foot.
* too high of a jump in floating phase prior to the catch, as a result of which the body loses
too much balance.
* body weight is brought too much on front leg.
* stopping with too stiff strained legs, bad for back.
* second step is too big or small.
* the restrictions concerning 2-count rhythm as stipulated by the basketball rules in general
are reflected in connections to other techniques. Often the technical execution of the latter
are done harm by insufficient stopping balance and footwork. Rather complex. Not meaning
that the more specific elements of each technical form are more important than ultimately
getting the job done! Smart players always find ways to perform.

C.2 Error analysis jumpstop:
Corrections.
* review proper mechanics.
* body weight is brought insufficiently backwards, result is falling forward.
* after push off last step too high a jump off the floor.
* not cutting last steps enough before stop.
* feet too close together on landing, with result a lack of stability.
* landing too much on the heels results in a shock in the spinal column and reduction of body
balance.
* slipping on the heals with feet at contact floor.

D. Teaching points:
* without ball; marks on floor indicates where the feet can be placed, pushoff from marked
position and landing in proper posture on designated spots.
* in free motion or in predescribed routes on the court. Stopping at signal.
* stopping after one dribble, on whistle, eventually using additional lines.
* analysis with the use of video, DVD images.

7. Pivoting
A. General
Pivoting is a critical protective and attacking skill and for most fundamentals the linking pin.
Pivoting may seem simple, however under stress it is a different story. Of importance in
pivoting – as a connection thread in most fundamentals – are the actions preceding and
following it. The efficiency of stopping is of great influence on the effectiveness of pivoting
and with this culminating in the efficiency of the following action. The demands placed on
pivoting by any next action (shot, drive or pass) reflect themselves again in a adequate
rhythm and balance and/ or the stability of it. A player in possession of the ball may from a
standstill position or from motion place one foot in all directions (balancefoot), in which the
other foot (pivotfoot) must remain in contact with the floor and cannot be removed. With this
it is of importance that the player knows which foot has been established as the pivotfoot.
Some players posses extreme short term memory capacity. In a small overview there are
two types of pivots resulting from the preceding stop:
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* first foot is pivotfoot, after stride stop (pivoting in triple threat). (Nb. first foot is sometimes
abusively replaced by backfoot).
* choice of pivotfoot is free, when ball is caught standing still or after stopping in parallel
stance or jumpstop.
In pivoting usually a difference is made between front pivot en reverse pivot. The direction in
rotating in front pivot is determined by the action of toes along toes turn, whereas in reverse
pivots it works heals along heals.
In pivoting without further bodyrotation there can be question of:
1. sideways (spatial step before action, i.e. stridepass).
2. pivot ahead (in context faking, for example jabstep).
3. backwards (space step before next action in terms of protection or freeing oneself).

B. Application:
* the use of pivoting in games has a strong relationship in shaping up in triple threat as we
have already indicated in the remarks on stopping. What does this mean? In triple threat
pivoting has become the automatic response every time a player catches the ball.
* pivot to create a favourable posture regarding dribble, pass or shot. Often this type of
movement goes hand in hand with creating space by means of a reversepivot (when
defended closeby including a swipe with the ball) with the purpose to play with the bodyfront
towards the basket.
* fakes in a one-on-one situation (jabstep, rockerstep).
* at the end of a one-on-one (dribble pick up, stop-action) the pivoting takes place in function
of the following actions: protection of the ball, freeing oneself to accompanying a pass or a
shot.

C. Execution:
* pivoting accompanying stopping for balance and control.
* the knees stay bent with all movements.
* the pivotfoot maintains contact with the floor on the exact same spot.
* to facilitate the turning motion the heel is elevated slightly from the floor surface and the
turn is executed on the ball and toes of the foot.
* along the turn the bodyweight rests more above the pivotfoot.
* with each pivotstep, be it a quarter-, half- or whole turn the bodyweight is partly shifted to
the balancefoot.
* during these actions the ball is held firmly in both hands; elbows pointing more or less out
(protectively) or close to body (attackwise), the uppertorso slightly bent, vision directed at
opponent.
Control of the ball takes place by:
* elbows in or out.
* enlarging the distance by backwards and sideway pivots to bring the ball out of reach from
opponent’s hands.
* by turning the body between ball and opponent.
* sikma move: former NBA player from Dutch heritage Jack Sikma reversepivoted to face-up
from low post in one-on-one, ball held high above head, direct shot or up-and-under move.

D. Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* regarding pivotfoot: wrong foot moving (travel violation), changing pivotfoot, lifting, sliding,
slipping pivotfoot.
* turning of the heel instead of turning on the toes.
* along the turn the bodyweight doesn’t rest sufficiently above the pivotfoot.
* too little balance resulting too short or too long pivotsteps.
* ball is insufficiently protected by choice of movement in wrong direction or kept in wrong
location.
* jabstep is made way too big, loss of tempo results.
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E. Teaching points:
* hit a giant nail through the toes of the pivotfoot (metaphorically). This foot is literally nailed
to the floor, the other foot (balancefoot) can – despite the restriction of the pivotfoot – move.
From a stridestance: in forward-, sideways- and backwards pivoting. Make sure to start from
a low balanced bodyposition with both feet at minimum shoulderwidth spread, the knees and
hips bent and the head kept erect.
* idem from a parallelstance.
* after a short dribble: stopping followed by pivoting without rotation.
* cut- catch/ jumpstop-pivot (with rotation). There are three possible follow-ups on jumpstop:
a. “jumpstop and balance step” (half or full frontstep in same open direction), b. “jumpstop
and a complete step-through (cross wards back),” c. “jumpstop and reverse pivot” (with back
along defender).
* one-on-one keep away; the offensive player tries to protect ball by pivoting, the defender
must try to touch, hit, steal the ball.
* player 1 is dribbling, he stops, pivots and passes to teammate being defended closeby
(one-on-one pass).
* reverse pivot deserves as much attention as frontpivot, also because it demands more
balance and bodycontrol especially with the longer turns (lower point of gravity on half and
whole turns).
* sec pivoting no defender (one-on-zero).
* practice (timed and well spaced pivots) against an opponent (one-on-one).

8. Holding the ball
A. General
In order to handle the ball in a functional way the protection and guidance of it is the single
most important condition. Absolute first precondition for effective working and catching of the
ball is an efficient `basic stance.` That is to say the knees are bent, the head is kept centered
above the shoulders and vision on the approaching ball where the palms are kept open with
the fingers spread in a ready position. Holding the ball is in this sense an extension of the
correct stance. In modern basketball the quick timing aspects in controlling the ball are
crucial. Actually quick control is the groundwork for all accompanying technique(s). During
the game it is troublesome, sometimes even damaging when players constantly fight the ball,
dropping it, or having it taken away from them in a simple manner, because they cannot
control it with even the least amount of pressure applied to them. Almost all fumbles, but
also everything involving touch, results from this fundamental topic. Despite the fact that 1-
handed control of the ball is very common, we start here with the 2-handed techniques,
including the transferring of the ball from one hand to the other. Timing is the key.

B. Use
In every situation, in which a player is in possession of the ball or is busy accomplishing this.
The first question is not whether holding the ball has to be done with two hands, but the
degree of control that is needed. Too much control (inclusive the factor loss of tempo) is just
as harmful as a too little control. With more advanced catching techniques the phrase tactical
reception is used, for example being able to postpone the moment of capture of the ball,
because of which the time span can be elongated with a split second to for instance make a
decision. This necessitates enormous feel for the ball with the finger pads of one hand. This
tactical element is also in effect in the mastery of being able to do two things at the same
time (combining two elements). That is to say being able to prepare for a next action at the
same moment the control phase of the ball is not yet finished to the point the ball in two
hands. For instance being able to turn the toes to the basket during the reception of the ball
in the air with no full control of the ball in two hands yet and still being able to land with toes
to basket, ball and body under control. Example. (square up) before reception of a catch to
be able to shoot, pass or drive immediately. Just holding the ball is not enough.

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C. Application:
* grip: the ball is held in a frontal position somewhat off the middle of the body with slightly
spread and relaxed fingers. In correlation to the next move distinction is made between the
classical over-and-under grip (hands placed on top and under ball) and the W-grip (hands
placed on de sides of the ball).
* outside quarter of the top of the thumb and fingertips are in touch with the surface of the
ball, whereas the palms of the hands are not in contact with the ball.
* the thumbs are placed oblique behind and under the ball, if one draws an imaginary line in
the extension of the thumbs, these lines will cross in the heart of the ball.
* elbows are bent next to the body pointing downward.
* a non guarded player will keep the ball 20 to 25 centimeters in front of the upperbody. This
homeposition is relative to the degree of defensive pressure. More in the direct vicinity of an
aggressive defender the ball is brought free to a side or an overhead position. Does the
defender respect the shooting ability of the offensive player, he will keep at least one hand
up near the shooting position. Ball at hip position becomes very effective here. In this case
one foot is put forward in the direction of the opponent, the elbows are slightly more spread
out. Does the defender respect the driving ability of the offensive player, he will sag off him in
a cushion. Ball in a higher position becomes effective to be able to shoot the ball in shorter
timespan, or fake the shot.

D. Teaching points:
* pick-ups, from the floor 1-handed (increasing speed: “balance before speed:” static/
moving).
* bouncing ball/upward throw, bringing ball home.
* the ball is being held before the chest, defensive player is close, tries to hit ball, player with
ball avoids without pivoting.
* two players facing eachother. Both have hands on ball, now without jerking try to pull ball
home. Who is stronger?
* ball in one hand, other hand hits the ball. Change hands. Use full hand (block-and-tuck,
guide-and-slam), not just the fingertips, immediaty establishing correct grip.
* throwing ball upward and aggressively catch it: that is to say, blocking or guiding with first
hand, transfer it to second hand, for example “swooping catch” or “clawing” from upper to
lower hand, vice versa
* pick ups from dribble, after a slap with second hand and strong control and protection,
possibly in combination with pivotstep(s).

E. Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* the ball is kept too far away from the body, so that the opponent can easily intercept the ball
or tick it away.
* insufficient spread of fingers.
* thumbs touching.
* palms making contact with surface ball.
* incorrect position of elbows.
* in controlling the ball it is held too soft or too tight.
* not alert or ready for the hard unexpected pass.

F. Teaching points:
* coach stands next to player and tags him unexpectedly against elbow when this error
occurs.
* ball is held in front of body. Second player hits the ball hard to test the grip. When control is
lost too easily, stronger grip is needed.
* ball is held with straight arms at shoulderheight on the topside of the ball, release ball, clap
quickly on top of falling ball and recover grip before it hits the floor. Next step: clap more
times in hands.
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* player lines up with arms crossed in front of chest. On pass from coach quick reaction to
open up for catch. Increase speed of ball.
* couple, 1 ball. Player 1 has back to ball. On command from passer player 1 half turns and
catches ball.

G. Holding in relation to catching and passing
In good offensive teamwork the ball is played from one player to the next on exactly the
precise spot at the right time. In a split second the player who is only open for a short
timespan, must be delivered the ball, so that he can shoot, drive, or possibly fire an accurate
and well timed pass to a player in an even better spot. The quality of the actions of the above
player depend to large degree on the quality of how he was being delivered the ball. Was the
pass of poor quality, than he will have to consume more time, a timespan in which the
defense can recover to a more advantageous position. Also this player has the responsibility
himself to move and position himself in such a way that the feeder can reach him with the
ball. Next to the accessibility the player must posses the skill of catching the ball well. The
value of these essential basic conditions is sometimes underestimated. Playing with and
without the ball go hand in hand. Precise and accurate movement without the ball is just as
much as catching and passing the basis for every kind of teamoffense.

9. Catching
A. General
To pick up the ball in such a fashion that the player is immediately ready to start his next
action is a great technical advantage. Quick control. Any technical catch has as a trademark
this socalled quick control. The ball must be caught with either one or two hands, static or in
a dynamic context, during a jump, high in the air or low at or under kneeheight, at chestlevel.
Apart from the few situations where the 1-handed catch is unavoidable, for example in the
low post centerposition, catching with two hands is safer and more advisable. In a general
sense the techniques executed with two hands offer more individual control and therefore
more chances to continue the collective action in a more fundamental way. However where
the risks are less prominent and where 1-handed catching and quick control is guaranteed
the collective action of course has a large advantage in time. The more fundamental order in
catching is the following: What already years and years was said, was 1. eyes before ….2.
feet ……before 3. ….hands! ……What was meant with this? First getting the ball in one’s
field of vision, than positioning oneself in the most desirable spot, with the body shaped or
faced up to the path of the ball, and only in the third place thinking about catching the ball
itself. Don’t reach, but move one’s feet first! Catching and insight are correlated for sure. The
sense and comprehension of certain players is sometimes exceptional high. Those players
are what every coach longs for in his team. What is most unnoticed is that these type of
players have such wonderful fundamentals and footworkskills that every difficult catch seems
to be a piece of cake for them.

B. Essentials:
* establishing and maintaining correct eyecontact with the flight of the ball.
* calculating the right spot for the catch, shaping up.
* movement perpendicular to the path of the ball, creating open passing lines (not reaching,
but moving one’s feet first!).
* protection of the path of the ball with the use of body and proper protection of space (pin-
out, posting up, sealing, flash posting).
* directing to the passer where the desired location of the ball is (by means of eyecontact, the
well known little nod or wink, hand pointing, in all calling for the ball).
* correct taxation of velocity and hardness of the pass.
* moving in the ball versus letting the ball move into you
* in case of too tense grip of fingers and thumb: fumbles.
* the grab is a combination of hardness and tonus.
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* guiding the ball directly to a desired spot in connection to a next move, i.e. quick bounce to
middle following a curl cut, or stretching for a catch to home position following a flair cut.

C. Application:
* processing the pass reception.
* pick up from dribble.
* tipping ball to a free location, and then controlling it.
* after a rebound.
The way the ball is caught is dependant on factors such as: a. the path and velocity of the
ball, the degree of movement of the receiver, the closeness of defender(s) and the type of
action directly following the reception. The principles of eye-hand coördination apply here in
the fashion that the eyes pick up a moving target (the ball) whereas the hands start an
interceptionroute. The fingers absorb the kinetic energy untill sufficient control is established,
in which the eyes maintain focus on the ball untill control is established.

C.1 Execution the catch at chestlevel (straight passes):
* in order to be well accessible first a number of steps have to be made.
* player positions himself in such a way in relation to passer and defender(s), that the ball
can come into him, more in specific by extending “outside hand” or to “call for the ball.” The
proposition of hand(s) in the aimed position is the key for simple and clear communication
with the passer.
* taking care of a good accompanying bodystance and balance.
* eyes directed at advancing ball.
* the arms approach the ball almost extended, wrists slightly bent backwards, fingers spread
out and relaxed pointing upwards, the upperbody somewhat inclined forward.
* at the moment of impact the fingertips first touch the ball, the thumbs and the index fingers
are behind the ball, so that the ball cannot slip through the hands; the first phalanx of the
fingers squeeze the ball on the sides. Adequate spread of the fingers leads to “soft hands.”
* the speed of the ball is slowed down first by bending in the wrists, elbows and shoulders.
* bringing the ball to a halt is variable in location, fundamentally in front of the midriff.
* especially with 'hard' passes it is useful to place one foot more in front of the other.
* there are two schools of thought (that differ in opinion to the position of the elbows): the first
opts for “elbows close to the body,” to react quicker and to attack (drive, shoot or pass on)
after reception, the second states “elbows wide” because it provides more protection against
defender(s).

C.2 Execution of the catch above the head (the high pass):
* the technical execution does not differ too much from the catch chestlevel. The hands
remain in approaching the ball in line with the forearms and are not bent upwards. The
slowing down of the speed occurs by bringing both arms (almost) extended above the head
towards the advancing ball. In case of the extreme high passes the “block-and-tuck” method
is appropriate to extend the range of the reach.
* aggressively catch it: that is to say, blocking or guiding with first hand extended highest,
transfer it to second hand, for example “swooping catch” or “clawing” from upper to lower
hand. The ball cannot come beyond or behind the head.

D. Error analysis in catching:
* review proper mechanics.
* error in eye-hand coordination, watching ball insufficiently into the hands. Problem?
Thinking too much about next action before finishing the previous.
* receiving player is not “ready,” hand(s), arm(s) and/ or body do not adequately open up to
meet the ball.
* taxation error in path of the ball, no shaping up.
* on moment of impact the arm(s), wrist(s) don’t or give in enough, control error because
hand(s) are still moving to much in deviant direction of ball.
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* hand(s) are not bent upward correlating the extension of the arm(s), danger of injury
occurs.
* palms of the hands in contact with the surface of the ball, shock insufficiently absorbed
(cement hands).
* fingers not well spread.
* thumbs not enough crossing behind the ball, result is slipping, insufficient shock absorption.
Misjudging the path of the ball.
* catching error in relation to accompanying footwork (resulting in traveling violation).
* in case of the low catch, basic stance is too erect, straight knees, fingers pointing down too
late.
* on the moment of the high catch, watching too much down, not maintaining eye contact,
problem of visually judging the low ball.
* wrists, fingers not bent and ready, resulting in slipping ball.
* ball is brought beyond the head.

Correction:
* first picking up (stationary) ball from different spots – than soft arcing pass.
* both hands first, later one hand.
* increasing speeds, readiness, shaping up.

E. Teaching points:
* because catching is most inextricably linked to passing the ball, the catching skills are
taught, learned and practiced together with the pass. The value of adequate catching cannot
be overemphasized. Each form of ballpossession and teamplay is based on this skill, be it
rebounding, passing game, beating pressdefenses or bringing the ball in possession of a
teammate. The saving of lesser or even bad passes is also very much underestimated.
Some coaches even state as a precept: “A player never commits a passing error, only a
catching mistake!!”

10. Passing
A. General
The pass can be made in different ways. Pass with one or both hands, from a standstill
position, in motion, jumping, with a bounce, high through the air, from different heights, from
the chest, over the head, sideways, to a static teammate, to a moving teammate. When a
pass is delivered to a sprinting teammate te ball is placed in front of him, not too far or too
close, so he won’t lose a stride. According to the rules a player cannot walk with the ball in
his hands. Therefore he has to play together with his teammates. As already mentioned
catching and passing are inextricably connected. Passing and the theme of playing without
the ball for a second player are also connected directly, just as catching is related to playing
with the ball. The golden rule in this is 1. catching ….and ….2. balance ….and…..3.
protection. This trio can be seen as the porch or the entrance of passing to the next player.
Most conventional passes are executed with two hands (or with one-and-a -half when the
guiding hand lets go of the ball just before releasing it). The distance that has to be covered
between passer and receiver we call passline. To avoid obstacles faking can be a valuable
tool. Also the dribble can be used to create a better passing angle. In principle there are four
ways to outwit a closeby opponent with a pass (one-on-one passing): a. through the air, b.
low, c. on the left or right side of the defender, d. “through” the (sector of the) defender. In
general the excellent passer shows much variability in the execution, however a strong
reduced variability in the result and solutions of his passes.

B. Essentials:
* “being ready” and having eye contact or a connection with the target.
* speed and hardness of the ball.
* secure, timely and accurate: on time on target.
* directly ready for a next action: “having equals passing.”
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* prétactically read-and-react is the basis for proper passrecognition. Court awareness,
periferal vision and the ability to anticipate play a important part in the quality of passing
under pressure.

C. Use of passtechniques
Is passing skill something that stands alone? Of course not. It involves footwork and
decisionmaking. Ex- soccer player soccer coach Johan Cruyff advocates the point of view
that passing is always in service of the team and the game. It all adds up to the discussion
on the value of schooling more specific aspects of passtechnique in contrast to just – getting
the job done.

Consecutively the following passes are addressed here:
1. overheadpass
2. chestpass
3. bouncepass
4. baseballpass
5. handoff and DHO (dribble hand off)
6. hook- or pushpass (misdirection)
7. pass behind back
8. stride- or shoulder pass

11. Overheadpass
1.1 General:
* the overheadpass is the most used skill in modern basketball.
* the overhead is especially used within the perimeter under defensive pressure.
* the distance varies between 4 till about 8 to10 meters.
* with the overhead the passtarget is never below shoulderlevel, which eases the catching of
the ball.
* the high position of the ball in a not so consistently strong defended area and a relative safe
position. Taller players anyway have the advantage of their length, which facilitates the
application of the overhead. The ball can also be held above the forehead, but also slightly
sideways over the shoulders.
* the ball is not placed behind the head as is the case with the smaller soccerball in de throw-
in from out of bounds.

1.2 Use:
* with the use of the overhead pass the transition to applied technique becomes manifest.
We mean one-on-one passing, included the footwork and the “decision.”
* passing to the low post center.
* high-low pass.
* swingpass in ballreversal.
* countermove: fake overhead and make overhead, fake overhead and drive under.

1.3 Execution:
* ball is held in two hands just above the forehead or right next to this position but a little over
a shoulder.
* arms are slightly bent, player watches court under the ball right through his opponent.
* the hands are placed on the sides and back of the ball, thumbs under the ball.
* feet in a light spread, force from the input of the larger muscle groups, footwork is essential.
* elbows are on or over shoulderlevel and bent, hands to sides and under ball, with the
fingers lightly bent and pointing upward. The ball is passed with a quick wristsnap and a
short followthrough.
* the follow through and release of the ball are given a strong impulse by the forceful flipping
of the wrists in the direction of the pass supported by the extension of the elbows.
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* the actions of the upper limbs are of course also supported from by proper footwork and
steps in the desired direction.
* fake-and-make is an important testing tool in judging where the weak spot in the defensive
sector is located (is it the spot over the head of the defender? Or a spot more over his
shoulder?).
* the pass is supported by one foot during the first impulse forward or to pass with the
pushoff more sideways with some upper torso rotation.
* when pass cannot be made, the next phase is possibly a correctionstep too repair balance.

1.4 Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics
* incorrect holding the ball, thumbs touching, poor grip.
* withdrawal of ball too far behind head.
* elbows too far apart.
* incorrect use of wrists and fingers.
* coach stands next to player executing and touches ball when too far brought behind head.

1.5 Teaching points:
* couple passing sitting down on the floor, emphasizing handwork.
* solo passing against marked spot on wall.
* couple passing standing up, facing each other, playing with distance, using pick up from
dribble, fake-and-make.
* first check with defender, than playing keep-away (one-on-one application).
* pass, passback, handoff, including tracing the ball .
* passing to a high post, low post higher target(s).
* correct execution in high-low pass.

12. Chestpass (twohanded chestpass)
2.1 General
The 2-handed chestpass is considered the most basic skill of all. Who masters the chestpass
has less trouble learning the other passing skills. In chestpassing little action concerning the
wrists and hands is waisted. A good reason to start off with this technique (but to abandon
the slower version in it’s purest form at the advanced level). Thumb position is behind the
ball, fingers lightly spread, no palms in contact with the surface of the ball. Receiver: eyes on
the ball, basic stance, hands-up, open and ready. Keep watching till the ball is under control
in the hands (keeping ball chestlevel in both hands placed at the sides, thumbs in a proper
grip).

2.2 Use:
* bridging relative short distances up to six, seven meters.
* the passline is in the actual game an unguarded strech of space between passer and
receiver.
* chest passing on short distances is a short motion, on longer stretches the passing action is
longer (more power input needed, possibly supported by a step forward).
* increasing speed of execution, but balance before speed!

2.3.1 Execution of the chestpass from ready position
The chestpass is the classical first pass in teaching and methodics. One cannot forget that a
pass is as good as the degree it answers to the demanding criteria (hard, secure, having
equals passing). In a game application the chestpass is an open pass (only possible when
unguarded space is available between passer and receiver). Italian topcoach Ettore Messina
distinguishes three levels: high, straight or low passes. The chest pass is indeed of a middle
(straight) level. The learning procers is divided mostly in three steps.

I. startingposition:
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* overall bodyposition is deep and ready, the ball is held with the insides of the fingertips at
chestlevel, thumbs behind the ball and (extended line crossing at the heart of ball).
* knees slightly bent, upper body slightly leaning forward.
* bodyweight distributed equal over both feet, force comes initially from the larger muscle
groups (lower parts body), later increasing input from shoulder girdle.
* feet are lined up in a stable stride- or parallel stance.
* elbows point backwards and are close to body.
* eyes are aimed at passing target (with exception of misdirection pass of course).
II. step into the pass:
* by forward step and the extension of the arms and the back leg the ball is pushed and
guided as long as needed, the ball is disconnected from the body by lastly the fingertips.
III. snap palms, thumbs down in release:
* at the end of the action the palms point outwards/ sideways and the thumbs down, this
caused by the forceful flip of the wrists, the so called wristsnap.
* with the arm- and handmotion the bodyweight is transferred to the front foot.
* the pass is supported in force by this extra step with the front leg in the direction of the
target of the ball.
* the ball rolls off the outside quarter inside tip of the thumb, the index- and middle fingers by
which action backspin takes shape in the follow through and wrist snaps. Thumbs pointing
down (direction of toes). The turn in the wrist joints and the fingers provides a natural
backspin to the ball, which makes it easier to handle for the receiver.
* the chestpass can also be executed in a 45°sideways angle by turning the upperbody.
Footwork remains the same.
* after delivering the chestpass immediatly open the hands and “call for ball”.

2.3.2 Execution of chestpass while in motion:
* situation one: passer is already in possession of ball, possibly from a dribble pick up, which
means feet wider spread apart than shoulders, bodyweight evenly distributed on both balls of
feet, knees and hips slightly bent, elbows bent and close to body, head up and vision
directed forward. All in all a compact short move.
* situation two: the passer receives the ball at the receiving end of any pass at the moment
both feet are lifted off the floor.
* this part of chestpass technique demands quick control, only a very brief timespan is
available, only after establishing this control the passing action can be started. Never bungle
at the expense of precision or accuracy. The ball can be played: after a complete two count
rhythm of after the first foot has touched the floor and the ball is under quick control ready to
be played even before execution of the second step (one count rhythm pass).

2.4 Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* stance is too straight up, straight legs, input force of leg muscles is key.
* elbows point too much too the sides, not enough force behind the ball.
* palms touch the surface of the ball, sticking.
* fingers are spread insufficiently or irregularly.
* insufficient wristsnap, inadequate armforce.
* meagre transferring bodyweight to front leg.
* pass is all the time careless, too soft.
* the passing motion as a whole move is executed too slow, telegraphing.
* too much arc, not hard enough.
* the pass arrives too much in front or behind the moving player, and causes delay, problems
for this player.
* too slow tempo of execution, travel violations.
* the reception is difficult because of lack of rotation on the ball.

2.5 Improve:
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* couples, all variations.
* breakdown of parts technique, smoothing out the whole action.
* good stance, not “winding up” before the pass is actually made.
* not too much arc in the path of the ball, straight harder passes..
* picking the ball up from the floor and smoothing out the action in one motion.
* practice with heavyball or medizinball.
* adapting the distance(s).
* is there enough backspin on the ball? Check grip and release.

2.6 Organisations:
2.6.1 Chestpass from a standstill position:
* against wall, marked area, adapting distance(s).
* couples facing each other, variations. Concentration exercise.
* two balls, ball between knees and two times chestpass.
* name calling, receiver 180 degree turn, saving bad pass.
* increasing speeds, how many passes in 20 seconds?
* the chest pass is an open pass in a free nonguarded path to the receiver. Couples practice,
dry technique, one ball. Holding ball at chest level, thumbs behind the ball. Wrist snap.
Finishing with the palm pointing outward and the thumbs pointing at the toes. Backspin
develop by means of the grip on the top half of the ball.
* applied technique in keep-away. Tree-on-one, or three-on two. Defenders try to touch the
passes. Player who commits error will be next defender.
* diagonal chest pass sideways. Pass along stretched out arm of defender. So avoiding
extended defensive arm(s). Also without pivot step. In these cases the twohanded pass
becomes a pass with one and a half hand.
* pass bombardment, three players on a line standing side to side, one player facing this trio,
two balls.

2.6.2 Chestpass in motion:
* couples moving in length of court, onecount- or twocount rhythm and pass.
* pass and follow (dynamic), two lines facing each other.
* pass, pass-back, handoff.
* dice drill.

13. Bouncepass
3.1 Application:
* teammates being guarded closely can still be reached with this low type pass. The open
space available is close to the floor, two handed bounce pass.
* technique is similar to the chestpass. Only the starting position of the ball is slightly lower,
in front of bellybutton in stead of chest. Bouncing point on floor is two third of the distance
between passer are and receiver.
* bounce pass, however functional, is also a retardant pass, sometimes for taller players hard
to catch. The average bounce pass is not characterized by excessive top- or backspin that
doesn’t hamper the catch for the receiver.
* very practical in feeding the closely defended low post player.
* very practical against a straightlegged defender.
* effective against tall defenders for the simple reason that their hands are relatively more
distant from the floor.

3.2 Execution:
* the technique is similar to the chestpass technique, executed on a lower plane and angle
directed toward the floor, in front of lower abdomen.
* next difference is that the upper torso may lean a little more forward.
* in timing the front foot is placed forward while the arms reach at the end of their extension
toward the floor.
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* the ball touches the floor at two thirds of the passing distance and bounces up to the height
of the hip of the receiver.
* the bounce pass movement has to be executed compactly, not too hard or too soft.
* the bouncepasss can be made with either two or one-and-a-half hands, more related to the
stride bounce pass executed more sideways.
* most bouncepasses have spin. This spin dictates how the ball comes up off the floor.
* in using the fake-high followed by the bounce pass is very effective.

3.3 Error analysis and correction:
* review proper mechanics.
* hands placed too high on the ball, result is pushing, too much a straightlegged posture,
input en synchronisation leg force is key.
* palm stick to ball in holding it, fingers are insufficiently spread, lack of wristsnap.
* insufficient armforce, force from shoulders and arms is not synchronized.
* insufficient transfer from bodyweight to front leg.
* pass is continuously off target, without feeling or spin.
* the passmotion as a whole is executed too slow, telegraphing.
* hard to catch because of lack of or wrong type rotation.
* reception is thwarted because bouncing point is too close to feet receiver.
* check grip en release for errors.

3.4 Teaching points:
* dry technique: against wall, marked area, increase distance.
* couples facing each other, one or two balls. Concentration exercises.
* increasing speeds, how many bouncepasses in 20 seconds?
* combinations: bouncepass and chestpass/ shoulderpass, two players, two balls.

14. Baseballpass
4.1 Application:
* to pass over longer distances up to half the distance of the court or further.
* in triggering the starting phase of fast break.
* this pass is hard, straight lined, included the follow through.
* application of baseballpass only in a. absence of defender(s) in direct vicinity, b. when
receiving teammate is running out of reach of last or closest defender in a free area where he
won’t lose a stride to gain control of the ball.
* the onehanded baseballpass is used to quickly inbound the ball after score.

4.2 Execution:
* starting position: feet are lined up in stable parallelstance, the bodyweight is equally
distributed over both feet, the ball in both hands in front of the body.
* introductory move to the baseball pass-grip (for instance T-grip) with bringing ball from
frontal to back position behind ear including shifting bodyweight to the back leg.
* for the right handed player this introductory rotation is associated with a look over the
opposite (in this case left shoulder|) directed to the exact spot the pass will be delivered.
* at the same time the ball is carried in a position behind the right ear. As mentioned
bodyweight is shifted backwards to the backleg.
* as in the upperhand stretch roll with the left foot forward a step is executed in the direction
of the passing goal, so that the left side of the body is rotated forward in this step, combined
with the right side being kept behind.
* the elbow of the (right) pitching arm is placed under the ball, the angle between the upper-
and underarm is about 90 degrees, the fingers of the throwing hand, just as the fingers of the
guiding hand are well spread on the ball.
* next: right hip and right side of the body are turned forward, the ball is quickly brought
forward where the left underarm will lose contact with the ball and is held up high for
protection purposes.
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* under the support and impulse of the pushoff of the rightfoot the throwing arm sweeps in a
straight line along the head in the direction of the target. The throwing motion ends with the
snap of the wrist, the ball is followed through in line by the pitching arm. Ultimately the wrist
turns sideways, thumb pointing towards the floor.
* During the whole action the bodyweight is shifted in the follow through across the (left) foot
to the right foot, which the right foot steps across the left.

4.3 Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* wrong leg commences whole action, motion is locking as a result.
* pass is executed not from proper starting or introductory position, resulting in lesser
accuracy.
* “winding up” too long in total move.
* ball is brought too soon to one hand, goal is to guide and control ball as long as possible by
two hands.
* insufficient follow through with the throwing arm.

Corrections:
* practice from a standstill position against a wall starting form a smaller distance building it
up.
* coach stands behind player an corrects details in total picture.
* the baseballpass results in throw too high or too long, adaptations in arm trajectory or follow
through.
* ball leaves guiding hand too soon.
* insufficient spreading of the fingers, the ball is not hit in the center, resulting in off target
pitch.
* inadequate wristsnap.
* crank throw, elbow is extended too soon.
* motion too much too the side(s), result in deviation.

4.4 Teaching points:
From stance:
* couples: varying throws with build up on intensity. Adapting distances. Stationary target.
* more dynamic: pass and follow to a moving target.
* pass after a short escape dribble.
* practice more against a first passive defender.

15. Handoff en DHO
5.1 General
The handoff pass is a very short protected exchange of the ball from one crossing player to
another. Often pass-pass back! In the use the handoff is often connected to the dribble (DHO
– dribble hand off). The DHO is often unjustly not valued for it’s merits. Can a straight pass
not be completed between two teammates? Than with bridging half the distance by these
players a controlled exchange of the ball by means of a dribble-hand-off and catch
combination a change of functions between these players can be accomplished.

5.2 Use:
* in situations where two players cross paths.
* in secondary break or in half court play where a post player cannot smoothly reverse the
ball to the other side, but can by means of an DHO deliver the ball in the hands of the
intended player anyway.
* in case of a dribble weave preceding or after the conclusion of a dribble-screen, where the
screener safely and quickly transfers the ball to his crossing teammate.
* countermove: the player in possession of the ball can fake a handoff, hold on to the ball
and decide to drive in the opposite direction as a surprise move.
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5.3 Execution:
* crossing is to say that concerning players cut real close alongside each other and that the
original player in possession of the ball passes the other on the inside (so closer to the rim).
On the moment of crossing the ball is being offered. The accompanying footwork is used to
shield the area of ball exchange (reverse pivot). The new player in possession of the ball
consequently goes behind or outside. The handoff is executed preferably by the passer with
his hand on the side where the receiver will cut alongside him. He delivers him the ball by
putting his hand under the ball like a platter.
* the ball is brought to the desired side of the body during the twocount rhythm, being the
side where the teammate cuts across. The ball is at hip level on one hand, the body shields
the ball (possibly combined with a reverse pivot/ backon-screen).
* right at the instance the receiver wants to grab the ball, the fingertips are quickly and
forcefully brought together, so that a underhand balllift occurs.
* the ball is brought in the direction of the cutter, shielding his defender, body and elbows
protect the ball, at the moment it is sure the cutter is open, the passer pivots slightly with the
cutter in his path to deliver the ball softly for him.
* transfer of the ball takes place when the receiver steps into the line of the ballhandler and
his defender. The ball is delivered at hipheight. In case of trap countermove from player with
ball or backslip from player without ball is effective.

5.4 Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* defenders are not well shielded. Defender is given room to tick the ball away.
* player with ball offers ball too soon, and exposes it to defense.
* player with ball can reject the handoff and still execute it on a re-cut.
* the passer is not ready to deliver the ball, insufficient coordination.
* the passer doesn’t give receiver real chance to pick up the ball, but pushes it too hard into
him.
* in case of trap of the DHO: a. backdoor reception, or b. fake-handoff are very effective

5.5 Teaching points:
* dribbleweave with the spacing aid using the threepointline. Player one dribbles off center,
player two to the side approaches him (after introduction backdoor move). When dribbling
player executes a slowdown or stop, player two cuts outside him and receives a handoff just
on or outside the threepointline. Player two continuation dribbles in same direction to other
side of court, where player three sets up his backdoor move and turns sharply back to
approach player two back to middle.

16. Hook- or pushpass/ misdirection pass

6.1 General
In the learning of the passing process precision and accuracy are important issues. A
minimum degree in accountability of vision plays of course also a big role. Later on it
becomes clear that assured vision is a variable. Also later on in applying techniques angles
of executing become more flexible. For instance players initially learn to chestpass the ball in
a forward direction. With a turn of the upperbody but with the same footwork later on the
chestpass can also be delivered on an angle 45 degrees to left or the right direction with not
all that much adaptation. There is of course limit to the degree in which it is physically
possible, dealing with the immobility of certain joints, for instance the shoulders. Misdirection
takes it a step further. Misdirection presupposes stronger wrists. Famous is the Pistol Pete
Maravich wristpass technique. This is a basic bouncepass to a 45 degree angle, with the
elbows locked but at the last moment the ball is passed “solely with the wrists” to dodge the
defender in a opposite direction than the whole motion would initially suggest. Anyway, on
more advanced level enough mastery is the basis for the development of a certain degree of
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faking. The reason is clear. It can be seen as a countermove dealing with more and more
defensive anticipation. The hookpass is also one such misdirection passes. It is usually
performed above shoulderheight. The eyes of a passer may bare much of his intentions.
Telegraphing is obvious product of this. However telegraphing can also be used as a decoy.
This is used in misdirection. Telegraphing is a tool here used to mislead the defender(s).
Watching in one direction and passing in another is what it comes down to. Of course it is not
just totally passing in the blind, more a known pass. Also footwork can be imparted. A
pivotstep in one direction followed by an opposite action. Misdirection and faking are
certainly methods to keep the defense honest!

6.2 Application:
* hookpass is a pass in the high plane. It makes use of mastery in one-on-one to be able to
find openings and pass unexpected and close by along or through the hands of opponents,
not giving them time to react. Faking plays certainly a role here. Magic Johnson was the
absolute master of the misdirection hook pass.
* misdirection in possession of the ball, it concerns the correlation with the dribble or in triple
threat, also the development of getting a peripheral mind picture (courtsense) of the whole
field situation for the passer.
* A total focus on just scoring negates the use of a possible pass in a wider scope away from
the basket. The degree of focus is situational to many factors. In misdirection – as used in
drive and kick – the appearance on basket focus is key to successful misdirection action.
* in a possible second look in feeding a low post center a same type misdirection is used
when the first option to pass was denied by the defense.
* periferal vision is used in hitting moving players without actually turning the head to improve
vision. For instance hitting a player on the weak side cutting backdoor on a no look alley-oop.

6.3 Execution
The hookpass technique can be compared to the overheadpass en pushpass techniques
with the difference that the face is not turned in the direction of the target, in which the ball is
delivered in a quarter or half turn angle. The hookpass dodges the defender and resembles
all the introductory motions of the hookshot, only suddenly in the final stage the decision to
pass the ball is made. It is a onehanded pass, that is conducted sideways over the head and
over a closeby opponent. It can be made from a more standstill position, in motion, with or
without jumping. Again the hookpass is an example of a misdirection pass, also known as
“no look pass.” Magic Johnson patented this technique. Indeed showtime had a lot to do with
it, not interfering with the effectiveness of this technique!

6.4 Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* telegraphing.
* wrist action is not up to par.
* too slow bringing ball up and locking elbow takes too much time.
* shoulder axis not in line with receiving player.
* no or insufficient connection with receiving player.

6.5 Teaching points:
* couples varying the distances, angles.
* executing different passes to partner, left and right sides, from dribble, after jumping.
* in motion.

17. Pass behind the back

7. 1 General
Passing behind the back: this more advanced technique is generally seen as flashy. Be it as
it is the behind the back pass has certainly established its value in modern basketball. Yet
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the margin of error in default execution of this advanced skill remains as great as it ever was.
So a solid degree of mastery is needed. But practice helps out here to make the move
automatically. There are numerous situations in the game that are fit to the use of the behind
the back pass, where it can be considered very effective. In this sense it is even a very well
protected pass.

7.2 Application:
* in the end phases of the fast break this pass offers great possibilities to hit a somewhat
trailing teammate for instance in a two-on-on situation.
* When guarded heavily on one side (shaded, overplayed) and when the use of other
techniques consume considerable time, the pass behind the back to the other side presents
itself as if it were almost automatically.

7.3 Execution:
* the behind the back is a 1-handed pass, this implies a certain risk. Countermove is the fake
behind the back pass followed up by a lay in.
* the right handed passer steps with the left leg cross in front of the body, and forces the
defender to move in that direction with this move. On the opposite side this move creates an
open angle for the behind the back pass.
* while or just after the step the ball is “flipped” at the height of the right hip behind the back –
fingers and thumb pointing down - to a teammate on the left angle. The move has to be
made quick, in which the wrist flips the ball in the desired direction (45°angle to left). Fingers
let go of the ball last.
* one-on-one, the passer dribbles sideways to his right angle, the defender follows, left
shoulder is turned in the direction of the defender, ball is brought slightly back on the right hip
while continuing the dribble, as in a more protective fashion.
* player is aware of the location of the receiver, yet not necessarily looking at him.
* the moment the left leg is in front the ball is swept as a rake across the topside around the
back to the teammate on the left angle.

7.4 Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* for the right handed behind the backpass in essence the whole left side of the body of the
passer is obstructing the execution. So turning open will create sufficient room. Starting with
the rotation of the left shoulder, than from top down, the hip, including the left cross-step an
open space is created use for delivering the ball to the left angle.
* insufficient balance, too strong inclination of the upper torso forward.
* closed stance with feet, cross-step is lacking and blocks open passline.
* Wrong introduction action of hand and arm, result: too little control of ball in flipping action,
pass is inaccurate.

7.5 Teaching points:
* practice against wall, open footing to target, use of one hand, outside grip with fingers and
thumb downward.
* couples, one ball, facing opposite sides, same hand behind the back passes.
* after one dribble.

18. Stride- or shoulderpass

8.1 General:
* related to the overheadpass is the shoulderpass. Other than the 2-handed overhead pass
the follow through phase of the shoulderpass is made with one or one-and-a-half hand(s).
Yet the use of the shoulderpass goes hand in hand with the overhead being a high type
pass. The shoulderpass originates more from the side of the head or the shoulder. Because
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of supporting lateral footwork this pass can also be named stride pass, with the use of an
open or cross step.
* the shoulderpasses are more categorized as quick passes because of the absence of a
introduction phase of the throwing arm.
* in the stridepass on a sideways angle there is the disadvantage of a lesser control in de
follow through, because of the release with just one hand.
* on the other hand there is the benefit of an enlarged reach, because one arm can extend
further sideways than two arms can.

8.2 Application:
* when closely guarded.
* after a (high ball) fake in any direction (fake-and-make).
* the passer has to move himself in a sideways fashion to elude the closeby defender and to
be able to deliver a pass to for instance a cutting teammate or low post center with a
defender right in front of him.
* in high-low passing.
* all inside-outside passing (from low post back outside to perimeter).
* swingpass in ballreversal.
* countermove: fake-and-make, fake pushpass- and-drive under.

8.3 Execution:
* footing is mostly parallel, bodyweight evenly distributed on both feet.
* ball held at chestlevel or next to head on or slightly higher than shoulder. Vision is aimed
forward or directed at widest angle on court.
* stridepass can be executed a. one-paired - sideways (open push) or b. two-paired- cross-
step (included wristsnap, thumb down).
* execution: from stance, forward or sideways, in motion, or jumping.
* high position of the ball is in the closely guarded situation a relatively safe spot. Taller
players have this height advantage, in this way not strange they are promoted to use this
concept of keeping ball high.
* the hand is turned quickly behind the ball, fingers spread, elbow under/ behind ball.
* ball in executing the righthanded shoulderpass in front of or above right shoulder. For left
execution vice versa.
* in relation to the position of he defensive player and receiver of the ball one foot is either
moved open sideways or crossed in front the defender to free the ball and to create the
space needed for the delivery.
* first locking the elbow and directly following this extending the arm, to release ball with wrist
flip and follow through with fingers.
* last impulse is provided with a strong wristsnap.
* in contrast to the overheadpass the stridepass the ball is brought further out to the side. As
a result of which the stridepass is not a technique with two, but with one or one-and-a-half
hand.
* follow through with fingertips.

10.4 Teaching points:
* against a wall from different distances.
* explanation of two directions with corresponding footwork: pass to the original ballside by
means of an open step (1-paired), or with the use of cross-step, included the wrist rotation to
the other side (2-paired).
* smoothing out open steps and cross-steps in two angles: “right-to-left direction” or “left-to-
right direction.”
* application in all one-on-one, two-on-two, three-on-three “small complex” or pretactical
situations.
* attacker, the ball being mirrored. Offensive player is expected to avoid and pass through
defensive sector.
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* feeding low post, kick-outs, ball reversal, high low passing.
* counter moves: fake-and-make pass, fake-one-way- and-make-opposite pass.

10.5 Error analysis:
Correction:
* review proper mechanics.
* the dominant passing hand is not placed properly behind the ball.
* crippled coordination of hand- and foot actions as a result of which a uncontrolled pass
evolves.
* too slow extension of the passing arm to avoid the defender.

19. Dribbling
A. General
Dribbling is an inextricable part of playing with the ball and also a suitable element to start
any youth practice with. The final goal of all that bouncing with the basketball is of course
heightened ballhandling skill to be able to create openings in the actual game. With proper
use and finding the right timing the dribble can be of great value for any team. On the other
hand inadequate execution and overuse will lead too many a turnover also be it reduce any
type of fluent tempo in the total teamoffense. The tempting aspect of dribbling is treated by
the teacher by stimulating the skills only to attack the open spaces to the basket. Moreover
unnecessary and too much dribbling works as a slowdown and is easily frustrating for the
players without the ball. In modern basketball the pass generally enjoys the preference
above the dribble. Yet there are important tactical skills such as the pick-and-roll or the
dribble-handoff in which it’s necessary to master adequate dribbling skills.

B. Essence
The essence of the dribble is to dynamically steer and quickly control the ball with the
receiving hand on the bounce coming off the floor. Characteristic is the transposition in
possession of the ball by one player, where the dribble is used well to:
1. penetrate the defensive shell
2. free the ball out of congestion
3. create a sound passing angle
4. straight drive to the basket

C. Application:
* in bringing up the ball by a playmaker to the offensive half.
* to re-set the offense.
* as an element in “stall offense,” or “killing clock.”
* in dribble-break.
* if straight path to rim is clear, straight dribble penetration.
* in one-on-one situations, in order to create space, or to keep the action or flow going
(keeping dribble alive).
* in freeing oneself to get to a better shooting spot.
* in moving oneself with the ball to establish a better pass option.
* to escape from a pressure situation in which there is no immediate pass option available.
Also to protect the ball, as can occur in rebound- and 'trap'-situations ('split- or
escape-dribble').

20. Dribble on the spot

1.1. Execution:
* back to basics: fingertips or with the finger pads.
* the degree of difficulty lies in the quicker timing and higher intensity of executing the basic
dribbles on the spot.
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* dribble factors: the height of the bounce is variable. We distinguish shoulder-, midriff-, hip-
or knee height even extremely low drumming the ball with the fingertips. The hardness of the
bounce also differs. Also the bouncing point in relation to the feet, this again in relation to the
available space and the presence of obstacles. In receiving the upward bouncing ball an
attempt is made to shorten the timespan of control.
* while bouncing the ball the toes of the feet preferably point in the desired direction, with the
foot opposite the dribble hand in a more defensive posture somewhat in front. With this little
turn bouncing space is claimed and protected.
* the knees are bent.
* the bodyweight is evenly distributed over both feet.
* the upper torso remains almost erect or is inclined only slightly forward in a small angle in
the hips.
* the head is up and the vision aimed at the court forward or at the widest angle also to keep
track from the corners of the eyes what occurs peripherally (splitvision).
* Is the ball dribbled in a more protective stance with the one hand the chin is more turned to
the other shoulder.
* the dribble arm is bent and elbow close to body, underarm is almost parallel to the floor.
* the other arm – protecting the ball – is also bent with the underarm again almost parallel to
the floor, but the arm is held more in front of the body.
* wrist and ball move in an up and down motion cupping, absorbing and controlling the speed
and direction of the ball and the height of the bounce.
* the fingers and thumb are slightly spread and push and steer the ball in conjunction with
the wrist to the desired bouncing spot. The palm of the hand is not in contact with the surface
of the ball. This all occurs during an autonomic process of judgment for the position of the
ball after the next bounce.
* mastery of the dribble with both the left- and right hand under pressure is a requirement for
a competent player.
* mostly the ball is dribbled with the hand opposite the location of the defender.
* variations of dribbling on the spot: 1. low-fingertips, 2. side-to-side, 3. push-and-pull, 4.
hand-to-hand, 5. links between 1, 2, 3, and 4.

1.2. Error analysis in dribbling on the spot:
* review proper mechanics.
* eyes too much directed at the ball with a loss of overview on the court. So no gazing the
ball.
* sense ad feeling for the ball are lacking, too slow a feel to be able to respond quickly to
defensive interference: ball is batted down too much in stead of pushed and guided, palm
hitting the ball (keeping the palms clean).
* slapping the ball down.
* fingers and thumb not well spread.
* fingers too tight and stiff and only used with the ends.
* elbow sticks out too far from the body.
* no protection with opposite arm.
* chosen height of the bounce is not in correlation to defensive pressure. High pressure
means lower bounce, less pressure is higher bounce.
* why low dribble? a. provides more explosiveness and quicker reactions in legs, b. better
protection, c. it is easier to pass from this posture.
* “palming” or “carrying” the ball.
* a dribble is terminated as soon as the player hits ball with both hands at the same time, or
when the ball comes to a standstill in one hand under it. Starting the dribble again leads to
second dribble.
* violation of the traveling rule at start of dribble.

1.3. Teaching:
* dribble tag.
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* dribble circle(s).
* dribble skill retention and transfer are highly stimulated by a more variable practice
experience of players.
* by mixing up dribble skills in practice more and better results in game(transfer) is gained.

21. Dribblestart
2.1. General
Too often the traveling rule is violated by an incorrect execution of the dribblestart, especially
in situations when the ball is received in motion and the fluent immediate start is made. Also
the fake (one way) and crossover-dribblestart (the other way) causes many players an
insurmountable problem. The refs are o so keen on this call. In their view the motion of the
back foot is by definition an infraction, although this interpretation can very well be
fundamentally questioned. The flow and attractiveness of the game are much reduced by this
arbitrary interpretation, despite recent international rule changes which promote a more
accelerated attractive game. In real game time just the opposite happens here. Too many
calls! Way to many traveling calls! Very unfortunate. But might this not be a challenge for the
teacher? (In our country this stagnating situation obstructs the development of our
competitions and hampers the evolution of our players in international perspective.) No
justice is done to the fact that the ball, most certainly with the hybrid dribblestart, has already
left the hand preceding the first step and most certainly preceding has left the hand before
the back foot has lost contact with the floor.

2.2. Execution
In relation to (the choice of) pivotfoot and the direction (to be chosen) a distinction is made
between crossover and open dribblestarts. However in actual games on the higher levels we
see more and more use of the hybrid variation. This is neither a crossover, nor a open
dribblestart. From a stance with the feet placed parallel – in which a back foot is smartly
eliminated – the crossover is initiated by stepping with the opposite foot to the dribble hand.
Timing is such that the moment the ball hits the floor also the opposite foot is placed. The
open dribblestart commences the same, with the difference that here not the opposite but the
foot on the same side the ball is being held makes the first step. Again timing is similar. This
foot and ball hit the floor at precisely the same moment. After a catch in motion of course the
same courses of action for both crossover- and open dribblestarts are in effect, only now the
degree of difficulty makes everything much harder.

2.3.1 crossover to the left angle:
* ball is held in front or on the right side of the body. Start from parallelstance with the right
side foot making a first step 45°forward. At the s ame time the player has brought ball to the
left side of his body – to use his body as a shield - and executes a lefthanded bounce. Timing
is such that ball hits the floor at same moment that right foot is placed. Ball is guided to a
spot on the floor next to where the right foot will be placed. Again timing: ball and foot hit the
floor exactly at same moment. Catch the ball and step back to parallelstance and repeat the
process. Later on of course these steps can be repeated to opposite side for right crossover
dribblestart, dribble here with right hand and first step with left foot. Catch ball, step back to
parallel stance and repeat process.
* practice right or left crossover dribblestart at later stage also in a more diagonal forward-,
sideways- or even backward direction. Apart from the direction the timing is similar.
* Now hybrid start to left angle. In hybrid starts it is the ball that leads the whole action. First
change parallelstance to stride stance which correlates to the actual triple threat. In triple
threat the right foot is placed somewhat in front of left foot (heel-to-toe-alignment). The left
foot is evidently the socalled backfoot. The travel violation on dribble start to left side can be
avoided by lowering the starting height of the ball. More precisely bring the ball down to
under knee level. Also keep right hand more at side of ball and not on top of it. The ball is
now pushed more sideways to the left angle across the body in a low path. Only after this
bounce the step with the right foot trailing the bounce in the same direction is made! There
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can be no travel violation because the ball has left the right hand before the first step was
initiated!

2.3.2 opendribblestart to right angle:
* ball is held on the right side of the body. Start from parallelstance with the right side foot
making a first step 45°angle forward. At the same time the player brings ball to his right side
and pushes the ball to the floor with his right hand. Timing: ball and right foot hit floor at the
same moment. Catch the ball, step back to original position and repeat the process
* practice open dribblestart in a more forward as well as oblique, as well as in a more
sideways direction. Apart from the direction the timing is similar.
* next drill is work from stride stance instead of parallel stance.
* players can avoid the travel violation again by bringing the ball to a lower starting height
before initiating the dribble. Escape again is the hybrid option. That is to say: low ball height
and push more from side of ball than on topside. This can even be executed even from ball
on left side of body. The ball leads here the whole action, because only if the ball has cleared
the spot the trailing step is made following the ball. Again ball has left hand before first step is
made.

2.3.3 Improvement:
* dry exercise(s). Later apply with passive defense.
* demonstrate good examples.
* review proper mechanics.
* make sure the timing is perfect.
* make use of dribbelglaces and/ or visual signs.
* repeat, repeat, repeat.
* dribblestarts from catch. Improve speed.
* modern coaches no longer exclusively teach the dribblestart to the right with only the right
hand and top the left with only the left hand, as a result of arbitrary interpretation.
* criteria for dribblestart: a. head up, b. use of body as shield, c. low bounce and transfer of
ball.

22. Low dribble
3. 1. Application:
* the basic low dribble is also named control dribble, seen as opposite to the high speed
dribble. The low or protective dribble is primarily used to shield the ball corresponding a
closeby defender. The momentum is slow. The lower the height of the bounce, the closer the
ball can be kept to the body, and all the more quick control with wrist and fingers can be
applied to the ball.
* handsetting is mostly on top of the ball, bouncing point closer too the feet.
* the low dribble can also be used to attack smaller open spaces and gaps in congestion.
The demands put on this more offensive aspect of the low dribble presume a higher degree
of mastery.
* because of the lesser height of the bounce the dribbling player can react quicker to any
action of the defender. So the low bounce is very effective under pressure, because the
essence of it is control.
* control means here possibly two things. At the one hand in a more defensive orientation it
applies to safe control or protection, while on the another hand it means in a more offensive
sense quick control, mastery to exploit available gaps and open spaces in the most direct
sense.

3.2. Use:
* used in bringing up the ball by a playmaker to the offensive half.
* used to re-set the offense.
* as a part of the “stall offense” or “killing clock.”
* in dribble-break.
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* when the path to the basket is free for straight- or dribble penetration.
* in one-on-one situations, in order to create space (space-dribble) or in all situations to keep
the action going (keeping dribble alive).
* ballhandling involving freeing oneself to establish a better shooting position.
* ballhandling in relocation oneself to achieve a better passing position.
* ballhandling to escape from more complex situations, such as appear in rebound-, and trap
situations ('split- or escape-dribbles').

3.3. Execution
In contrast to the high or speed dribble the upper torso stays more erect. Yet the knees are
bent more and by doing this the hips are lowered. During the action the head stays up and
the attention is focused on the closeby opponent, while at the same time split-vision registers
what goes on further away. Evidently the body and nondribbling hand and arm shield the
ball. The low dribble is not only a protective weapon, it balances on the dividing plane to
transfer the mastery of ballhandling skills in creating openings and defensive breakdowns in
the game.

3.4. Teaching points:
* by hitting on top bringing a static ball on the ground in motion.
* eyes closed, executing low dribble(moves).
* drum the ball sitting on the knees, 1 hand, 2 hands.
* figure eight drumming
* fingertip control
* low hand placements on the ball: top, side-to-side, push-and-pull, hand-to-hand, all
combinations of these four.
* throw and catch tennis ball up and dribble basketball at same time.
* each player one bal, dribble tag.
* countermove(s): fake dribbles (pullback, inside out), playing with the tempo of the bounce,
singularly higher bounce or cut height in half.

23. High dribble
4.1. Application
The basic high or speed dribble is primarily used as a hard “power dribbel” mostly resulting
out of a blowby or attacking open space preceding it. The high dribble is used more in the
open court and in a running mode with a defender trailing the situation. Often a guard
pushing the ball hard in middle phases of fast break. On the other side a higher bounce is
sometimes used to break the rhythm of more protective lower bounces to entice the defender
to come out of his defensive posture and exploit this change of rhythm. How hard does the
dribbler run while at full speed dribble? His full speed is only limited by his competence to
master the ball. The higher the bounce, the more the speeddribbler uses his shoulders and
elbows. The lower the bounce is the more input is derived from wrist and fingers. How high is
good? The bouncing height can vary between hip and shoulders. Also rhythm and height
have to be quickly adapted to evade approaching defenders

4.2. Execution
The height is determined by some factors. In general be it between hip- and shoulderheight,
however when a defender approaches the manoeuvring height must be adapted. In the
speeddribble the handsetting is more behind the ball and the bouncing point more in front of
the body, the ball is steered more forward to gain or maintain momentum. That’s why the
upper body is directed slightly more forward in relation to the forward speed. Dribble hand,
underarm and elbow reach more forward because speed has to be made in that direction
and the ball is forcefully pushed to the floor in front of the feet (powerdribble). When a
defender closes in from the side the choice has to be quickly made whether the speed has to
even be increased (with addition input protective arm and hand), or a high speed change of
hands has to be executed, which of course takes its toll to the pure speed, but sometimes
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cannot be avoided. The available time in relation to the degree of control by one hand to
control it next by the other is decisive for the capacity to curb loss of speed and tempo.

4.3. Teaching points:
* review proper mechanics.
* used are organisations in which speed is challenged. Like slaloms, relay races, game like
competitions both individual and in groups.
* examples are: suicide dribbles, assignments with all kinds of variations or certain
restrictions.
* high dribble is a rhythmic dribble, find the right cadence (footwork).
* countermove(s): playing with the manoeuvring speed, decelerate, overdrive.

24. Dribble change of direction & tempo
5. 1. General
Evidently it is of great importance to be able to change direction and speed with the dribble.
Anyway the center of gravity must be lowered somewhat as an introduction by any player
changing directions or speed. The knees can be bent somewhat deeper, a body shake can
be executed for the same purpose, also the bodyweight can be brought slightly forward or
backward. The time-spatial characteristic with a change of direction is the “zig-zag dribble,”
accelerative or retardant movement finds it preference in the “straight line.” “Zig-zag” and
“straight line” are alternately of combined executed, whereas one time the change of
direction takes place directly followed by an immediate change of tempo, where in the other
case the start or discontinuation of a tempo change is followed by an change of direction.

5.2. Application:
* during a change of tempo the speed is adapted. For example an acceleration from quarter-,
to half-, to three quarter- or full speed. In reverse order of course a slow down takes place.
* a dribble change of direction is used to blow by an opponent or attack him on his weaker
side. Evidently the ball has to be sufficiently protected to complete the action. Mostly the zig-
zag is distinctive for the (relatively) slow(er) player. Generally four dribble changes of
direction can be seen: crossover, crossbetween, behind-the-back and reverse dribbles.
* a change of speed by a sudden explosion or slowdown or hesitation can also work very
effective to create a defensive breakdown. Playing with this type of wavering (hesitation
dribble) is a striking example. Especially quicker type players use it in one-on-one play that
leads to many a blowby and forces the defense to rotate.

5.3. Execution:
* with a sudden burst the back foot pushes off, the center of gravity is pushed explosively
forward and the following steps are first relatively short but soon elongate. The bounce can
be both quick and low (safe) as well as higher and also a little more susceptible to
interceptions, but always in front of the dribbling player to be able to accelerate.
* with a sudden slow down the brakes are strongly pushed. This is done with the front foot.
The center of gravity is held back, where the bounce can be lower or even still pretty high –
in relation to the room that is available. Another deciding factor is the following action. Will it
be a shot? Or a pass? Or yet another burst out dribble?
* when a right dribbling player changes direction to his left he pits his move with the head
and left shoulder, while he steers the ball on the top-backside in the new left course. At the
same time he pushes off explosively with his right foot. Upon this a change from hand to
hand will follow to the receiving left hand in front of the body. The quickest possible control
with the cup of this left hand is decisive for the success of the whole action.

5.4. Teaching points:
* child’s play – but now executed dribbling is used. Dribble tag. Other dribble games.
* more regulated dribble courses like suicides, zig-zag, use of obstacles.
* organisations: dribble north-south, east-west of the floor, zig-zag route, circle the court.
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25. Crossover dribble
6. 1. General
The hand to hand dribble – in front of the body - is the most used form of the ball changing
hands, protecting the ball against approaching defenders or even blowing by opponents. The
crossover dribble demands a certain two-pairedness, but enables the player also to change
quickly from one direction to another. With the mastery of quick control with the receiving
hand the player doesn’t lose neither sight on his opponent, nor on the court, including the
developing play. In a successful change of dribblehand the player is immediately able to
attack in the new direction to an open gap.

6.2. Execution:
* in a 45-degree right angle forward executed dribble with the right hand the player doesn’t
wait till the ball bounces up to the average rhythm height of the previous bounces off the
floor, but approach the ball lower to absorb and steer it in front of the body to the new angle
to the left.
* with the left hand the upward bouncing ball is again lowly approached, absorbed and
accepted under control in the desired new angle to the left. As described here the crossover
is a low dribble in a plane angle (a very flat V) in front of the body.
* at occasions there is no direct room to cross the ball in front. Than an extra backwards
bounce (spacedribble) creates a small gap and precedes the crossover dribble (in-out/
crossover). Guards normally put under extreme pressure, on their choice can first dribble
slightly sideways or backwards with the same goal - to create space – to follow this up with a
change of direction. In the new angle the dribbler steps hard forward with the leg opposite
the dribble hand, in which case this leg blocks the defender from the ball.
* directly following the crossover the situation is thus: ball dribbled in left hand, right shoulder
and bent free right arm and elbow between ball and defender. Dribbler keeps head up and
taxates chances to blowby or control the one-on-one further on.
* If a player moving to his right dribble changes direction to his left, he initiates this move with
a push of his right foot, while he has lowered his center of gravity and has shortened his last
steps. Right at the moment of the change of direction he first thrusts his head and left
shoulder in the desired direction. In this new angle his first steps are short an explosive.
* In a more abrupt acceleration a strong push is generated off of the back foot, the body
weight is shifted forward and the following steps will be relatively short and choppy.
* in a sudden slow down move the front foot will push back, whereas the gravity center will
be held somewhat backward.

6.3. Teaching points:
* use markers, pylons to form a certain dribble route, including chairs, preferably a zig-zag
course. A more passive defender can be added first for more orientation and later with using
hands on defense protecting the ball. The allowed pressure can even be built up. Go from
quarter- , to half –, to three quarter speed.
* emphasixe strong pushoffs with back foot.
* teach immediate control with receiving hand.
* when the ball is crossed in front of the body the receiving hand absorbs the ball lower – so
closer to the floor - than the right dribble hand let go of it.
* player has to learn to execute crossovers in different speeds.
* bounces should be hard. At kneeheight in low tempo, at hip level higher tempo.
* the closer the defender is to the dribbling player, the lower the crossover has to be
executed.
* different kid plays like ‘tig, ’tag' and 'hunting games' are very suitable to exercise these
tempo- and directional changes dribbling wise, but also more regulated forms such as
suicides, dribble courses are fruitful.
* quick and proper timing is straightforward the most important aspect of good changing of
direction.
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* the angle (between 45°and 90°) is decided by the position of he opponent leaving free
space. The offensive perimeter player who is capable to penetrate the defensive 45°angle in
a closed one-on-one is able to create a breakdown.
* individual instructions and corrections in stance and footwork.
* killer x-over (ex-NBA star Tim Hardaway).
* countermove(s): (defender reaches in) pullback into crossover dribble; also two changes of
direction: i.e. crossover and crossover.

6.4. Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* too late or too slow executed, ball not well protected.
* too early, too predictable: because no element of surprise the defender has ample time to
react adequately.
* too high executed, ball is exposed to defense. Defender can tag ball away.
* too low and too flat: dribbler loses control, in other words execution at this level puts too
high demands on technical level of player.
* guided crossover has to be part of repertoire. By low execution competent dribbler learns to
mask carrying ball well.
* own body is in the way as obstacle for the ball: ball bounces of own feet, or comes of
knees.

26. Dribble between the legs
7.1. General
Compared to the crossover the function of the x-between is to have a slightly more secure
change of hands under pressure. Also this is a dodgy move. However the x-between asks for
more technical control than the crossover, yet is a very safe change of direction. The ball is
to a lesser degree exposed to the defense. On the other hand this technique puts the bar a
little higher, for instance in absorption and the pull from bringing the ball back forward from
behind the leg with the receiving hand.

7.2. Application
Player outwits opponent by bringing ball between the legs more in a backwards direction and
next suddenly bringing the ball forward in the new angle. The advantage of this sharp move
is that the dribbling player maintains his vision on the court and besides this also protects the
ball very well. Characteristic is in the timing de synchronization of footwork and (push-and-
pull) dribbles.

7.2. Execution:
* the dribbler changes direction and pushes the ball hand to hand with a bounce between the
legs to the opposite hand.
* he introduces this move right at the moment the opposite leg is placed forward. Now a
diagonal opening occurs for the ball to be bounced and caught with the opposite hand just
under the butt at the other side of the body.
* push-dribble diagonal backwards in x-between during the step with the opposite leg from
the dribblehand.
* the receiving hand creates as it ware a little cup with the fingers and thumb well spread to
absorb the ball. Directly after controlling the ball direct guidance in the intended direction of
dribble is commenced forward (pull). Normally this change of direction is combined with an
acceleration. Timing is such that the next bounce on the floor occurs with the next step with
the right leg.
* striking how many players go firsts between the legs and move the ball more sideways
before they actually attack with the dribble in a one-on-one.
* countermoves: X-between/ behind back; x-between/ crossover back.

7.3 Teaching points:
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* static: “two bounces (with) right (hand), than two bounces (with) left (hand).” Player stands
with two feet placed on a line of the court, feet well spread. Each bounce is on that line. Two
righthanded bounces and two lefthanded bounces, of which each second bounce is a x-
between the legs. The first bounces are just next and outside to the feet.
* in motion: now on every step as described above.

27. Reverse dribble
8.1. Application
The reverse dribble is as the crossover and x-between dribbles a change of direction, with
the difference that the turning move is not made along the front side but with the backside to
the opponent. In case the defender overplays the dribble more to the ballside, the reverse
dribble gains strong advantage in terms of effectiveness. This change of direction is safer
than the crossover or x-between because during the whole turn the body shields the ball
from the opponent. The disadvantage of this is that it is also a slower move. In terms of
technical competence there are coordinative higher demands.

8.2 Execution:
* if a player dribbles in one direction and his path is totally blocked by a defender (whereas
no crossover or x-between is possible) the player can execute a reverse turn (typical is that
the reverse turn is not made toes-along-toes but heel-along-heel). The reverse dribble
change of direction is a 4-step breakdown, being: plant-step-pull-and go!
* Plant – by suddenly slowing down the forward motion by placing the opposite leg in
between the defender and the ball, the introductory step takes place.
* Step – by pivoting on the ball of that foot immediately in a rear direction, whereas the heel
of the other foot turns along the heel of the original planting foot so that the back is turned to
the defender the continuation of this move effected.
* Pull – by placing at the same time the dribblehand like a rake across and over the top of the
ball more to the inside of it and steering it in a circular course in the new direction the open
space to that side is being attacked. Control of the centrifugal force plays a major role here.
The palm of the dribblehand aims at the hip joint, like a cowboy drawing a pistol. Elbow
points backward and wrist around the ball in the continuation of the raking move. At the same
time a hard spin is effected of the original planting foot.
* Go - by controlling the ball from the bounce in the new direction with the other hand a 90º
turn is completed and momentum generated in the new direction.

8.3 Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* turn is initiated too soon, not functional. Result: defender can easily recover to new
direction and maintain position.
* turn is made too late or too predictable: opponent is too close to execute turn without
contact. Result: opponent can take charge or strip the ball.
* ball is not raked, but hand change is made before the turn. Ball is exposed and high risk for
an interception.
* too much trouble with the rear turn.
* lifting or carrying the ball.
* technical ability of the player is too limited by which reason the reverse takes too much time
to complete and the vision of the court is strongly delayed.
* too little momentum after the 90º pushoff.
* disadvantage of the reverse is that it takes away more time than the other dribble changes
of direction.

8.4. Teaching points:
* the execution is mostly practiced in the socalled zig-zag-course after teaching reverse with
both right and left hands. Chairs, poles, or other obstacles and later passive defenders may
serve as markers in this zig-zag trajectory.
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* countermove: fake-reverse dribble.

28. Spindribbel
9. 1. Application
The spindribble is a integral part of modern offensive play. The spinmove is probably the
quickest and most effective change of direction move in basketball. It pertains a 180º turn
(step-pull-and-go) executed in one hard turning motion. In truth it is more than a change of
direction – as the 180º turn already indicates. Spinmoves are seen also many a time in
connection to a follow up change of direction. The character of it is most dynamic. Toplevel
players – from pointguards to centers – these days have spin moves in their repertoire.
Different than let’s say 25 years ago a spinmove cannot only be seen as a more dynamic or
quicker reverse move in the open court. The enlarged sense of rhythm of the reverse has
evolved in many uses. Spinmoves are used a lot these days in the post under the basket by
very athletic big players.

9.2. Execution
The spindribble has the same footwork as the reverse. However the spinmove not only has
the object to change direction, but next to that accelerate in that move. Often the spinmove
results from an preceding incorrect decision to change direction. In this fashion the
crossover-reverse move is a first step in the direction of a more aggressive spinmove. On
these occasions the player rotates his body around that of his opponent. The spindribble
shows a lot of resemblance to the reverse move, but is in terms of timing a much quicker
move. The ball is brought in one gesture behind the body and without any intermittent
second bounce brought immediately in a rearpivot turn back to the front of the body and
dribbled further without losing a stride. The spindribble gives the impression of a pirouette.
Spindribble takes a strong tight grip on the ball, sometimes called cradle grip to maintain
control over the ball in motion. Awareness of the defender’s position is crucial to execute an
aggressive spin where attacker is not shying away from contact. From planting the foot in the
most favourable spot so that the opposite shoulder can rotate around the defender –
sometimes even pinning him – assures the free space under attack. All this at the risk of
committing a violation. The twisting motion demands excellent coordination and footwork.

9. 3. Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* no stabilisation at all, lack of balance.
* see reversedribble, move not in balance or demanding too much time or space.
* not sealing the defender enough, ball poked away.
* loss of control in the course of the turn over the ball by inadequate grip in front and over the
top of the ball with the fingers properly spread.
* lifting back foot or even extra foot movement during the spin resulting in travel violations.
* other mostly balanceproblems.

9.4. Teaching points:
* see reverse dribble.
* the angle is decided by the position of he opponent leaving free space. The offensive
perimeter player who is capable to penetrate the defensive 45°angle in a closed one-on-one
is able to create a breakdown.
* drill: one dribble and spin alternate.
* connecting the spin following up another preceding move: crossover – spinmove,
crossbetween – spindribble.
* countermove: half-reverse dribble.

29. Dribble behind the back
10.1. General
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This fourth method to change direction with the dribble is alloted to the excellent ballhandler.
The attacker must be able to dribble behind the back without altering his steps rhythm. This
technique of changing directions is sometimes also called a around-the-back dribble. A
prerequisite is that the player is able to keep his vision off the ball completely while dribbling.
Gazing the ball is a no-no! Like so he keeps his eyes on the opponent and court. A behind-
the-back is a basketball move in which you bring the ball behind your back on one side while
the basketball bounces back up. Then cross the ball in the back to your other hand. It takes
continuous practice and going by feel. The well executed behind-the-back dribble is a safe
move and provides a lot of protection for the ball by the body. It is also one of the most
effective tools to go by a defender in the open court because it does not require for the
dribbler to slow the body in order to complete the move.

10.2. Execution
Begin with the ball in your right hand. Step forward with your left foot, simultaneously
dribbling the ball once with your right hand. As you begin to step with your right foot, lift the
ball in your right hand and, rather than dribbling it on your right side as you did on your first
dribble, slightly cup the ball, and move it behind your back in a circular, descending angle.
Hook the ball in such a way that the ball will touch the floor directly outside your left thigh. As
the ball is about to hit the floor, you should be stepping forward with your left foot, and
preparing to move the ball behind your back again. In essence, one dribble to your right,
behind the back, one dribble to your left, behind the back. Dribbling behind-the-back is safer
than the crossover, and quicker than the reverse. The initial push in the behind-the-back can
– when the defense tries to steal the ball and reaches in – evolve in a wraparound, as a
quick evasive move. Also after a split dribble occurring in pick-and-roll a quick behind the
back often is used to attack the helper under the pick.

10.3 Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* looking at the ball, or gazing too long at the receiving hand.
* not bringing ball back sufficiently behind back (push) or bending knees first in this move to
bring the ball back forward (pull).
* not pulling the shoulder back to create room to other side.
* make sure not to carry the ball by placing the cupping hand behind and not too low under
the ball.
* when the arm is not fully extended backwards there is not enough room for the pull.
* with the fully extended arm back the only way to push the ball sideways is by snapping the
wrist. Hence a strong sensitive wrist is very important in executing the behind the back.

10.4. Teaching points:
* repeat, repeat, repeat till a degree of comfort is reached in this move.
* start with the push and pull dribble on one side of the body. Continue with the push back
and pull from behind to the other side of the body.
* than go hand-to-hand behind the body stationary. Left-to-right. Right-to-left. Back and forth.
Move on in a zig-zag pattern. Lastly work on the one-bounce-wrap-around in a straight line
forward.
* countermove: behind-the-back-behind-the-back dribble including bodyshake(s).

30. Hesitation dribble
11. 1. Application
The hesitation is used to influence the timing and balance of the opponent. In a constant
dribble rhythm a halting bounce or a fake slowdown can be used. This kind of hiccup is built
in to seduce the defender to start hesitating in order to be able to burst by him. Actually it’s
playing with the hesitation. Also by means of body fakes the opponent can be brought out of
his defensive comfort zone or routine, which makes it easier to place him on the wrong foot.
Shake-and-bake moves use body feints of head and shoulder.
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11.2. Execution
The hesitation dribble is executed when a defender is moving next to or in front of the
dribbler. The dribbler can skip on the ball side foot or on the foot opposite the dribblehand.
As the dribbler lands back down he places his feet somewhat wider. The move can be
supported by a head-and-shoulder fake. By this suddenly and unexpectedly slowing down
the forward momentum the distance to the defender is briefly enlarged. At the same time the
dribble height can be altered. The hesitation can provide a somewhat listless impression, on
the other hand lowering the center of gravity can awaken the suggestion of an attacking
mode. The dribbler has the option to let the ball bouncing up and spin a little higher through
his fingertips. This discontinued dribble rhythm provides the look of a change or better an
interruption in timing. Just at that instance the defender has to make a choice, will he recover
his balance back to the previous position before the hesitation, or not? When he does the
first, only a fraction later, when he moves somewhat forward to shorten the gap to the
dribbler, an explosive short acceleration is very effective (blow-by out of stop-and-go
hesitation). In the choice of the defender not to recover back after the hesitation, he provides
the dribbler with a gap he can easily utilise.

11.3. Teaching points:
* review proper mechanics.
* dry execise of the hesitation faker move.
* in this dribblemove it is crucial to get defender to bite, by raising and dipping yourself.
* the execution is practiced in straight lines.
* markers or chairs can be used
* countermove: hesitation dribble and crossover.

31. Hockey dribble
12. 1. Application
Another faker-move resembling to the hesitation dribble. Emphasized here is the footwork
aspect. In other words the player pounds the floor with a bunch of short choppy steps.
Hockeydribble is executed from on the spot or from forward momentum. Dribbler pulls up,
gives a certain number of stutter steps.
a. both from dribble on the spot as moving as well as from triple threat.
b. faking aspects by means of quick deceptive footwork (rapid-taps/ foot-fire)
c. blowby.

12.2. Execution
The hockeydribble is executed reducing forward momentum to dribbling on the spot. The ball
is being dribbled knee- to waist height correlating the defense. In dribbling at a defender at
the same time the feet execute real quick choppy stuttersteps on the spot in a significantly
higher tempo than the bounce rhythm of the ball. During this footfire wave the defender is
closely read. The defender who plays too close is easily blown by. A defender spacing
himself more gives the opportunity for any type movement, including the pullup shot.

32. Fake dribbles
13. 1. General
To the four change of direction dribbles two fake change of direction bounces are linked. By
name: the fake crossover- and the fake reversedribble. Faking the crossover is also named
“inside-out-dribble” Faking the reverse is also called “pullbackdribble.” With sufficient
mastery these two are direct countermoves to the complete crossover and the regular
reverse dribbles. These two faker moves can moreover be accompanied with a change of
tempo. The intro of both the inside-out and the fake reverse resembles the crossover and
reverse dribbles. However halfway the move a backturn is given to the path of the ball by a
quick wristaction. When mastered these moves are most effective, certainly when the
defense is biting the suggestion of the full change of direction moves.
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33. Inside-out dribble
13.2. General
Dribble and reception of the bounce are made with the same hand, In the fake-crossover or
inside-out the purpose is to throw the defender off balance, or get him to hesitate. This is a
tough move to guard because the ball stays in the (dribble)hand of dribbler so long.

13.3. Execution:
* when dribbling with the right hand, player fakes to his left with left foot and guides the ball
downward in the same direction, let’s say he guides the ball from the top-outside to the inside
of his left knee. When the ball threatens to hit that knee the player brings his hand in a real
quick turn to the inside half of the ball just in front of his left knee, pushes it back outwards.
* just at this moment the player pushes off of his left foot to follow the direction of the ball in
it’s downwards motion.
* so ball is pushed to other side of body but halfway pushed back to original side, after a
shake the body follows.
* in the inside-out move the suggestion is given that a full crossover is started by the move of
foot and upperbody. Yet halfway this motion the path of the ball is corrected by the quick
wristaction and redirected back to the original side. It gives the impression of a shake. The
intended wavering in this dribble wins in credibility by the support of head-and- shoulders-
fake. Despite the fake the dribble stays on one side of the body and is uninterrupted, only the
forward momentum might be somewhat reduced.
* Just the moment the defender tries to regain his balance but especially when he moves in,
an acceleration is pitted, that is to say with or without change of direction to blow by the
defender.

13.4. Application:
* the nice thing about the in-and-out that it is the perfect setup or fake the crossover. It keeps
the defender guessing. When appropriately executed the player has a head of steam and
blows by the defense as if there is no opposition.
* to sell the move a solid head-and-shoulder fake is needed. Articulate these moves.
* countermoves: fake-crossover – crossover; inside-out – onside drive.

13.5 Teaching:
* first developing hand and wristaction, later adding footwork.
* a. guiding ball to opposite knee, b. turning the ball inside out, c. pushing off sideways with
opposite foot.
* on the spot, later in motion.
* combination. First strong hand, later weak hand, finally alternating the two.
* articulating the initial fake phase of the ball.
* use of markers, chairs, poles and later passive defenders.

13.6. Error analysis
* review correct mechanics.
* again be carefull not to carry the ball.

34. Fake-reverse dribble
14. 1. General
The fake reverse is also named half reverse dribble or pullback dribble. In essence the start
of a fake reverse dribble is similar to the full reverse dribble, with the difference that it is only
a half spin. Player must stay low, not to commit the carry of the ball. In fake reverse dribbling
player retains good vision on the court, in contrast to the full reverse. In fake-reverse player
executes a 90°turn from his original position, the move with the ball must be executed very
low and quick. It is basically a push-and-pull in reverse order. The player keeps his balance
in this first half to turn the ball back to the original side. On the pullback the grip is with
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fingerpads well spread across the top of the ball. Player as it goes rakes the ball like a
cowboy draws his pistol from his holster. At the point of return the dribblehand is flicked
across the ball to a cup and immediately push the ball back forward. Ball is kept close to hip
and under pressure.

14.2. Execution:
* the reverse-intro has a function for i.e. a pointguard fooling an anticipating defender in
dribbling the ball upcourt. He can set him up with one or to preceding full reverse dribbles.
* the intro of the fake-reverse dribble is similar to that of the full reverse, very low executed.
Now the move is interrupted after a half backwards pivot and not carried through.
* there after the ball is being returned by a quick wrist push to the starting side, all this in a
fluent motion.
* the fake reverse dribble mechanics can be broken down in a 3-step process, being: a.
plant- b. half-step- c. pull-and push back!
* 1. plant – by suddenly slowing down the forward motion by placing the opposite leg in
between the defender and the ball, the introductory step takes place.
* 2. halfstep – by pivoting on the ball of that foot immediately in a rear direction with the other
foot, whereas the heel of that foot turns along the heel of the original planting foot. Unlike the
full reverse the rear move is here only half-a-step. So the suggestion that the back will be
turned to the defender is interrupted and the continuation not effected.
* 3. pull-and-pushback – by placing at the same time the dribblehand like a rake across and
over the top of the ball more to the inside the ball is steered in a backward circular course.
Control of the centrifugal force plays a major role here. The palm of the dribblehand aims at
the hipjoint, like a cowboy draws a pistol. Elbow points backward and wrist around the ball in
the continuation of the raking move. Halfway this move the dribble hand circles the ball real
quick over the top again to stop the back pull and the ball is pushed back to the side the ball
started on.
* this dribble can also be viewed as a “pullback dribble.” The pullback dribble is especially
used in the low post by player with back to basket backing in so often victimized by collapses
and double teamings. By drawing the ball back space is created away from the reach in, the
head is kept up and the dribble is kept alive.
* Countermoves: fake-reverse – reverse; pullback – en onside dribble

14.3 Improve:
* practice on the spot, later in motion.
* practice fake reverse/ full reverse.
* fake reverse/ full reverse: first strong hand, later weak hand, finaly alternating hands.
* fake reverse is likewise practiced in straight lines between baselines.

35. Shooting off the dribble
15.1. Execution:
* one-on-one expertise is of super importance in today’s game. Shooting off the dribble is a
crucial element in this.
* shooting off the dribble is however a rather complex activity. The general picture may seem
simple, but given the many variations in relation to the type of dribble and type of shot also a
lot of details in mechanics and footwork are at work.
* in all this - whether it is a three pointer, or a jumphook, or a double clutch lay up - the
execution must be a fluent rhythmical combination of dribbling, footwork, pick up, last steps,
jump, shot and landing.

15.2 Teaching points:
* preceding the actual shot the stopping (planting of feet) has to be done in a forceful and at
the same time controlled fashion. Footing means here two different angles and directions (to
left or to right side) in a automatic most low sitting yet relaxed stance.
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* dribble pick up is key to quick control in set – or jumpshot. Use shotfoot knee for reference
point.
* the whole action shall have a fluent character, this all maintaining speed. That means
enough stabilization, without all that much deceleration in the completion.
* stabilization means transferring forward or more sideways momentum in upward
momentum, not floating.
* advanced footwork means: a. dribble into stepback move/ shot, b. dribble into step off
jumper.
* the accent towards an efficient pick up of the ball in a stable schotline deserves attention.
The lower the pick up off the ball of the last bounce is executed, the longer the shotline. Pick
up point on a jumpshot preferably in front of shotfoot knee with the indexfinger in the middle
on top of the ball.

15.3. Error analysis:
* review proper mechanics.
* last steps before the stop are too big.
* too much loss of tempo.
* shotmotion is in terms of force deployment incorrect.
* toes are not pointing to basket.
* floating elbow.
* jerky motion with head or shoulders.
* shot is not finished, be it that it’s taken on the way down after reaching highest point of
jump.
* shooter does not keep his feet enough under himself in air, drifting.

15.4. Improve:
* static exercises. Sitting on chair, work on dribble pick up after side-to-side bounce with
shotfake.
* player begins at top of circle. He takes one bounce on 45 °angle right first. He makes sure
he plants inside foot (left foot) first. He picks ball up at right knee with shooting hand on top of
ball.
* use dribble and snapping or pivot in triple threat (no shot), review balance.
* one-on-zero in one-on-one application.
* possible individual workout: player dribblestarts off the shotfake on the perimeter anywhere
from 15 feet to 3 or 4 feet outside the arc, using the whole court. a. shotfake and dribblestart
to the right hand and then shoot, 10 shots, b. same, now two bounces, 10 shots, c. one
dribble to left side, 10 shots, d. shotfake, dribblestart, 2 bounces to left side, 10 shots, e.
three dribbles, including a change of direction, 10 shots, f. double change of direction
sequence, 10 shots, g. dribblestart, stepback jumper 10 shots; total 70 shots off dribble.

36. Shooting
A. General
A technical well executed shot – if there is such a general notion - demands much practice.
Of course there is more than one type of shot. Top scorers master at least more than five or
six types of shots to perfection. So it is reasonable to not only speak of just one schooting
technique. Moreover it is important to practice shooting under different tactical
circumstances. Because shooting under pressure, with the noise of a hostile crowd,
especially practicing free throws, or at the end of an even game with big consequences for
the outcome is something completely different than freely shooting a basketball on a practice
court. There is also the fact that a player, dependant on the governing tactical assignments
of the coach, has to know when indeed or when certainly not to shoot (shotselection or
schootingdiscipline). A bad shot is like giving away the first pass in the fastbreak of the
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opponent. Apart from tactical principles there are first and foremost a whole lot of technical
checkpoints to consider. That’s what we want to focus more on here. To establish an
overview and do justice to the most important shooting details an outline is helpful. In the
theory of shooting there exists wide consensus that this outline can be drawn along six
shooting aspects:
1. grip (de handsetting)
2. stance (balance) & power (force deployment)
3. vision (finding a connection from the ball to the target before and during the shot)
4. setting of the ball (mechanics and positioning from body parts during the shooting actions
till the release of the ball)
5. release (letting go of ball), arc and spin (ball rotation)
6. de follow through (finishing the shot).
To conclude we can state that an excellent shooter can adapt to strong noise and
interference and shows much variability in executing, however also a strong reduced
variability in the effect of his shots…. Buckets!

B. Execution:
* first, if we discuss shooting technique sec (zero-technique).
* we speak of pure technique and form. That is to say “dry” without the presence of an
opponent, in relation to more mechanical execution (in timing and spacing), yet without the
decision moment involved.
* grip: the grasp on the ball is a small but serious aspect in the realisation of shootingtouch.
When the shooting hand is lined up in the middle and not on the sides of the ball least
deviation to the left or right can be expected. The hand not used to shoot the ball has the
task to guide the ball. And protect it to the completion of the action as long as possible to
deploy a good force to the ball.
* stance and footwork: a good shot is prepared and preceded by correct footwork in order to
generate the right body balance. The center of gravity is configurated properly in relation to
the feet.
* power: the longer the distance to the hoop, the higher the arc the ball follows and the more
the input the large muscle groups from the bottom half of the body support the shotaction
upwards.
* vision: the shooter always aims at a steady target and keeps doing this till the ball has left
his fingertips. Where this visual target is precisely located is not clear, because it differs from
player to player. With close in shots or even shots under the rim the backboard is often used
and the aiming point can be located there.
* vision test of the “dominant eye:” 1. create with thumb and index fingers two circles and line
these up to a sort of tunnel, 2. choose a point of reference in the distance, close the eyes 3.
slide the tunnel in front and in line with point of reference, close both eyes, 4. open one eye,
close both eyes, open the other eye. The 1-eyed shooter turns one shoulder more forward.
The 2-eyed shooter keeps the shoulder axis 90º square.
* setting of the ball: the higher the concentration, the better the chance for results. This
pertains extra in game situations. Moreover aiming “towards” the basket (flat arced shot) is
not as efficient as aiming “upwards” and “in” the basket. The higher the apex of the arc the
more advantageous the angle of inclination for the ball to enter the rim.
* release: a good shot is loosely guided by a slight shoulder rotation, the extension and
locking of the elbow, a slight pronation of the underarm and the forward snapping of the
wrist. This wristflip is a last control over the ball in its path to the basket in which the ball rolls
off the pad of the index finger and is given 'back spin'.
* follow through: there is wider consensus concerning the “finishing” of the shot. What has to
be avoided is the socalled “pulling the string.” There are coaches who emphasize players to
hold the position after the follow through (gooseneck) for a half to one full second. Others
consider this show. Yet following through completes the connection ball-basket. Also the off
hand deserves attention, because with an insufficient extension a possible sideways rotation
42
is brought into the ball. Before completion of the shot the off hand lets go of the ball and is
stretched with the thumb and fingers upward to the ceiling.
* balancecontrol: the mastery over other influences on the shot, that is to say the force which
a shooter generates from his toes upward to slowly flow in what can be considered relaxed
releasecontrol. The progress of the whole shooting action is from hard motion(s) at the start
to more soft and relaxed motion at the completion. The nature of this muscle feel and
coordination differ from player to player.
* don’t keep the body, but especially the arms and hands, in too long a fixated stance.
Relaxation at the release of the ball is crucial.
* the better the opposition, the shorter the timespan available to execute the whole shooting
action with a chance for success. However no haste or compromise in the shotform!

37. Shooting techniques

38. Lay up
1. 1. Application:
* in general this skill pertains for any two point shot attempt in motion leaping to the rim, as
well coming from a dribble as from cutting and catching a ball.
* the rotation of the shoulder and the streched out 1-handed reach just before the release
distinguishes the lay-up from other techniques.
* following a move in possession of the ball in which the closest man is beat and no help
intervention from other defenders occurs (reduction to one-on-zero).

1.2. Execution
In principle the lay-up is a shot closeby the rim executed in motion. The degree of the angle
depends on the defense employed by the other team. Because of the needed flexibility lay-
up includes a number variations: a. overhand lay-up (palm to the floor), b. underhand lay in
(palm to the sky), c. stretched out lay-up or fingerroll, power lay-up (take off from both feet,
ball well protected). As said each of the variations can be executed from different angles.
From in front of the rim under a 45 °angle, with o r without the backboard. Beyond the rim
with the shoulders parallel to the backboard like a kind of hookshot (crossover lay up) or
under the rim (reverse lay-up). It is in modern basketball no longer evident that a lay-up from
the right side is completed with the right hand, nor that a lay-up from the left side is finished
with the left hand. Yet the necessary 2-pairedness deserves in the learning process a high
priority. Yet it is emphasized that “right from right” and “left from left” is in the teaching of
youngest age groups a most desirable shotform. Another advantage is that the jump can be
made with the foot opposite the shotarm. This for the following reasons:
a. the jump from the opposite foot (to the shooting hand) is the most natural movement most
suited for balance.
b. it enables the player to reach the top height in jumping.
c. the body protects the ball in this action.

1.3. Teaching points:
* the two-count rhythm for the righthanded lay-up is (exterior foot) right- (interior foot) left.
* dependant on the (necessary) forward speed the two-count is made with larger or smaller
steps
* moreover the zig-zag pattern is of importance, the socalled “Eurosteps.”
* with the interior (left) foot as take off foot the forward speed is slowed down and
transformed in upward momentum supported by the (air step of the) right knee.
* in modern basketball at the top finishing closeby the rim is hard and above rimlevel. Is this
not possible their is good chance for a shotblock.
* the jump is supported by the swing upward of the right knee in a 90°angle ( climbing the
ladder).
* the ball is brought upward in which the right shoulder rotates slightly forward and the right
shooting hand is turned from right side of ball more under it. The left hand is almost in a
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diagonal position relating to the right hand to give the right balance and protection. At the
same time the eyes focus under the ball the right aiming point on rim or on the backboard.
* at the highest point of the jump the right hand releases the ball with the capable wrist feel in
the direction of the aiming point.
* release with palm up and arm extended.
* player wants to be strong and explosive making the lay-up, however finishing it soft.
* after releasing the ball the player lands on both feet with knees bent and ready to directly
veer back up for a second jump (rebound).

1.4. Improve:
* as example we present the most used method for instructing a shot from the right side of
the court.
* “one-step-lay-up drill”: practice of the final phase (or closing step) of the lay-up shot.
Standing from the right side block. Ball in front of outside shoulder. One step with the interior
foot (left) is made in a 45º angle to the backboard. The ball is brought up higher and the
shotmotion is completed with only the outside hand (flamingo shot or palm to the floor).
* now a little further removed from the goal up to three steps mark a new starting spot (on
elbow). Step forward with left foot, step with right foot, step with left foot (and come to
perpendicular stance with right knee in a 45º angle. In this three-count-rhythm the ball is
brought up from a position in front of the belly to position above the head. The ball is shot at
highest position through the rim. So: step interior foot (left) - step exterior foot (right) – push
off interior foot (left) - shot.
* as above: but now in combination with one bounce of the ball with the right hand. Timing:
left foot (first step) and ball hit the floor at the same moment. The position where the ball hits
the floor is next to the left foot. So: righthanded dribblestart (plus leftstep) - step (right) – push
off (links) - shot.
* same as above, now starting with two or three bounces at the spot.
* follow up a combination of live dribbling plus above sequence.
* automate this motion until a steady rhythm develops.
* lay-up after receiving handoff: on three to five steps away from the rim the ball is offered by
a teammate, to be to accepted moving forward.
* lay-up after pass reception: coach passes ball from short distance to player moving toward
rim. Use markers as reference point at the floor.

1.5. Error analysis:
* incorrect timing and wrong foot rhythm as result from lack of coordination.
* body not kept between ball and opponent. Too little ball control, on first step (right) the ball
is exposed to defender close to left hip (rocking the cradle) offering this defender the chance
to strip the ball.
* shooting arm elbow insufficiently extended and locked.
* release problems, shooting hand too much to side off ball.
* shothand too far behind, not enough under the ball, resulting in a hard shot.
* low, quickly taken lay-in (no jump), an action popularized by Steve Nash is very effective as
a surprise move against shotblockers. Ball can be shot with either hand.
* eyes not directed at target.
* concentration on a high jump-action, not a long jump action. This takes the momentum of
player too much forward.
* landing on one foot or too much forward momentum, no 'second move' possible.
* charging foul on anticipating defender.

1.6. Variations:
* next to the basic lay-up shots there are many variations: upperarm, underarm, 1-count
rhythm, fingerroll, power lay-up, eurosteps, teardrop, even pirouettestep.
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* lay-up footwork must at the advanced level be completed with either hand. That is to say in
1-paired as well as in 2-paired ways. For example shooting with the interior hand while
dribbling with the exterior hand (Steve Nash).
* other quick natural variation: one-count rhythm lay-up shot.
* teardrop also named floater. Popularised by Spanish international Navarro and Frenchman
Tony Parker junior. It’s an alternative quick lay-up type shot which seems to float over a
defender. How? The teardrop is executed when the attacker takes a step and a half early
and while jumping forward more than upward he shoots the ball quickly over the defender
before he can jump. The degree of difficulty is high. Player needs extreme good perception
at high speed to anticipate the changing distance to the rim and adjust quickly to that. The
teardrop evolves from a higher forward speed, but is under total control. Sometimes the
player who floats the ball up has to be able to deal with contact and still maintain body
balance in the air.
* footwork can also be executed in a more zig-zag like pattern, use markers or tires. This is
named the socalled “Eurosteps.”
* Mikan drill, more hook type lay-ups executed with alternate hands on both sides of the rim.

39. Reverse lay-up
2. 1. Application
The reverse lay-up uses the rim as a means to shield space and as a tool not to be blocked
by a closeby defender. This more tactical exponent of the regular lay-up demans some more
technical competence however, but using the rim as a weapon gives a great advantage. The
reverse lay-up starts on one side of the basket, moves underneath the rim and the move is
completed on the other side. A small piece of daylight is enough to use the space between
the backboard and the endline. Sometimes the reverse lay-up is named lay-back (off the
glass). The back is turned parallel to the baseline. The reverse applies sideways spin to the
ball (supinate) so it bounces back through the rim.

2.2. Execution:
* coming from the right side the move is executed underneath the rim and the ball is shot
(mostly) with the use of the backboard (bankshot) on the left side.
* the first (right) step in the two count is more directed under the backboard, the second
(shorter step by the left foot) more back inbounds.
* the push off step off the floor remains – just like the regular lay-up – with the foot opposite
the shooting arm, but the takeoff spot is closer under the rim.
* player uses his back to separate ball from defender.
* the right shoulder is rotated more forward and the shooting elbow just not completely
locked. While with a short inner turn of pinkie (directed at the face) the wrist angles the ball
off the backboard.
* the head is turned over the left shoulder to have best possible vision on the goal.
* the ball is brought up to the small corner between backboard and rim an released softly.
* in a more advanced variation the reverse lay-up can be very advantageous when the player
gives his defender a head fake in front of the rim as if to go fore a normal lay up, while
proceding and stretching to the other side for a reverse. If the defender buys the fake the
player goes to the other side for sure. If he does not buy it, the player can leap on the
reverse side take the blow from the defender and lay if back anyway.

2.3. Error analysis:
* wrong taxation of distances, starting too far removed from the hoop.
* player has to use too much energy in jumping forward elevating to the reverse side of the
rim instead of jumping upward.
* too much or too little turn under the rim, resulting in too hard a shot.
* the spin on ball cannot offset the forward momentum.
* player is vulnerable to trap or charge violation under basket from helpside.
* player forces the reverse and misses open teammates on ballside
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40. Setshot
3. 1. Application
The setshot is the most basic shot in basketball. In modern basketball however it’s
usefulness has greatly diminished. However the setshot technique is still applied in free
throws but in positions closer to the basket it has completely disappeared under the growing
impact of stronger defenses. However the setshot has great educational value. It’s the first
step in learning to shoot consistently overhand style from larger distances from the hoop.
The setshot is applied from the flat feet and implies an extension from the toes to the major
joints in it’s execution: knees, elbows and wrist. The setshot can be practiced from numerous
positions on the court. Let’s say from three to eight meters. The further outside it’s
mechanics are mastered the higher the usefulness in the game. For the right feel and the
major details of the setshot the positions closer to the basket are better suited. Moreover
here most attention can be placed to the development of the correct shotform. Usually this
one-handed shot is favourite over all other forms. The jumpshot is a derivate from the
setshot. The use on greater distances from the hoop is made possible by the maximation of
the larger muscle groups in the legs that support the whole motion powerfully. Therefore the
technique is very well suited for three point attempts.

3.2. Execution
Basic stance preceding the setshot: facing the basket, “squared up” with both feet minimum
shoulderwidth separated. This position is also labelled set-position. The most important thing
is that the shooter feels relaxed and ready to move from this posture. The righthanded
shooter places his right shotfoot slightly forward his leftfoot (heel-to-toe alignment). The toes
of the right foot point to the middle of the basket and the knees are bent whereas the ball is
held in both hands in front of the chest, somewhat to the right or left off the middle in relation
to the dominant eye of the shooter. This dead point differs from player to player. With the one
it is located between chest- and shoulderheight, with the other the ball is first lowered to
hipheight before the upward movement of the arms is started. A longer stretched schotline
augments the force input in relation to the distance of the shot, but also has the heightened
risk factor of a potential shotblock. The ball is brought up in the schotline slightly to the right
of the body and face (speaking of a righthanded player) by which the vision is not obstructed
and a constant visual input on the target can be realised. The hand position on the ball is in
relation to the grip placed on the lower side of the ball, fingers up and comfortly spread,
contact with the pads and outside quarter of the thumbs, palms directed at the goal. At least
this used to be the classic mode. There is however more and more a trend to more tension in
the wrists in the lock-and-load method, in which the back of the hand is brought more parallel
to the floor. In a hence created longer shotline the right elbow is brought up at the same time
and located more in and under the ball. In this setting of the shotline the aiming is because of
this back-of-the-hand position more ”upwards and in” the basket than “towards” the basket.
The setshot is pitted by forcefully extending the toes and culminates in the one-handed
release from the moment the guiding (left) hand lets go off the ball till the ball rotates of the
indexfinger of the shothand. The ball leaves the righthand by the relaxed release of wrist an
fingers (follow through), in which the phalanges of the index finger maintain longest contact
with the ball. The indexfinger therefore points most downwards in the relaxation from all
fingers (middle- and ringfinger as well as pinkie point higher up: one down, three up). The
phrase backspin is kind of misleading here. Because the shooter most certainly does not
want to give “spin” or “english” to the ball, at the most a slight rotation. Spin means that the
wrist is too forcefully snapped. The result is a hard type shot. In relation to the distance to the
rim the shooter completes the shot on the toes. The degree of hold or finishing differs again.
Some call the half second hold showboating others deem it important as a stipulation point in
the whole move.

3.3. Error analysis:
46
* head and shoulders are still moving (forward or sideways) in the force input or aiming of the
shot.
* feet not placed shoulderwidth spread apart.
* body weight too much uncontrolled to side, back or front.
* wrong foot in front or not in direction to hoop.
* knees not bent enough.
* hand palm on the surface of the ball – fingers not well spread.
* ball is being pushed forward in stead of pushed upward and in the basket.
* elbow of the shotarm is not enough placed in direction under the ball and/ or extended in
direction basket.
* ball is released still in contact with the thumb of the guiding hand.
* not finishing the extension (locking of) elbow, but withdrawing wrist of shootinghand (pulling
the string).
* reclining backward to generate more force. Each movement from head an shoulderaxis
does real harm to the result of any shot. All excellent shooters maintain their head and
shoulders relatively still (and centered) and under control, which enhances their accuracy.
a. visible inconsistenty in shot? Cause? Breakdown in form and/ or concentration.
b. shot is too short? Cause? Mostly legs. Symptoms? Too much declination. Shooting arm
crosses in front of face (pushing ball). Strenght- fatigue factor?
c. shot is too long? Cause? Not enough arc? Too much pushing forward of ball?
c. shot is off line? Causes can be many. No square up, handsetting not on top ball in pick
up, poor footing, movement head and shoulders, incorrect wristguidance ball?

3.4. Teaching points:
* don ’t burden the player with all that much details, distinguish primary and secondary
issues.
* in setshooting: keeping the head steady and centered over a wide base of feet.
* use of video/ DVD for feedback to players.
* practice laying on the floor, shoot ball with one hand in a straight line up by extending elbow
and wristsnap.
* practice sitting on a chair.
* on short distances (two meters) now from position of ball placed on one hand.
* more attention to form on the shorter distances (watching technique i.e. flamingo posture
shot on one leg).
* correction of most occurring errors (wrong foot forward, pushing, not finishing, no legs, no
arc).
* shooting from different angles. Use of backboard (bank- and sinkshots).
* shotanalysis by the shooter on his own efforts: crucial aspect to improve. That is to say
knowing what is cause of problem helps further in development. Knowledge of cause and
effect. What went wrong in shooting attempt, and how to correct it.
* ball is being pushed forward in stead of pushed upward and in the basket.
* Lock-and-load.
* B.E.E.F. method: emphasizing balance, eyes, elbow in en follow through.

41. Jumpshot
4. 1. Application
In all situations in which shooter decides to shoot the ball over the top of a defender by
jumping up. In the game a jump shot is an attempt to score a basket by jumping, usually
straight up, and in mid-jump, propelling the ball in an arc into the basket. Sometimes a
jumper is preceded by a fake. Also a jumper emanates from a catch or a dribble. The force of
it is that when the ball is released at it highest point the defense is at a disadvantage. The
biggest strength of this type shot lies in it’s unpredictability and the initiative it provides the
attacker. The jumpshot is the most used and most executed shooting technique in modern
basketball. We distinguish: “step-off-jumpshots” (in which the two-count is used to move
more sideways off of a defender), “fade-aways” (after a full- or half pivotstep also jumping
47
with a twist outside reach of defender), “pull-up” (in a flowing line, unexpectedly) and “step-
back jumpers” (from dribble or drive, that is to say using two-count to step backwards for
instance behind threepoint line).

4.2. Execution
A jumpshot can be executed from stance, after a pivot, dribble or after receiving a pass. The
execution resembles in the conclusion the 1-handed setshot, with exception of course of the
preceding jump. Sometimes its considered a setshot from a higher platform. From starting
position in stance the take off is with both feet. In motion the jump hinges on the first stopfoot
in a transfer from original momentum in upward momentum. This all being supported by the
second foot in a more stabilizing sense. Important is the planting of the feet in the correct
order. This provides the proper weight distribution in which the bodyweight can be controlled
during more perpendicular elevation of the body. The lowering of the centre of gravity in the
step-step plays a major role. Knees and hips have to be bent in. During the jump the shooter
brings the ball along the front side of the body up to again the dead point a little over eye
level. In this the ball is rotated in the shooting hand with the palm directed upward (to the
sky) and the other hand in a guiding role (see also lock-and-load in setshot). The ball is shot
at the highest point of the jump, sometimes also wrongly slightly after this on the descend,
which gives it the suggestion of hanging in the air (hang time). In most desirable way the
jump is straight upward. Depending on the position of the defender the jump can also deviate
in a another direction. This is not to be recommended, because such an execution enlarges
the chances for more open space, but diminishes the success because of too much
movement of head and shoulders. Logically a straight up jump will reach the highest point
and therefore enjoy preference. Along the planting of the feet, the stopping and push off the
shooter concentrates his vision on the goal and holds this concentration till he lands again on
two feet after the release of the ball.

4.3 Error analysis:
* last steps before the planting and stopping action are too big.
* too much loss of tempo in the transfer from speed in altitude.
* no good shotfeel in distribution of forces from takeoff in jump.
* toes don’t point to basket enough.
* insufficiently squared up.
* in take off feet are too close, or too much separated or one foot too far in front of other.
* jump is too low to be effective.
* pushoff too much with one leg.
* jumping with hollow back.
* ball is too much exposed to defender.
* ball is brought behind head.
* floating elbow.
* jerky motion head and shoulders.
* not enough finishing the shot, or shot being taken on the way down.
* head not centered, shooter does not keep his feet underneath himself after take off.
* landing on one leg.
* landing spot too far removed from take off spot.

4.4. Improve:
* without ball. First practice stop rhythm (“step-step”) and correct take off.
* from parallelstance dry (no ball to left and right direction) 1-step forward followed by two-
count rhythm, take off and landing. Repetition first one leg in front, than other leg. So practice
both to left and right (heel-to-toe-alignment differs in turn depending direction taken).
* from parallelstance with ball, 1-bounce dribblestarts, takeoffs an bringing ball to shooting
position.
* ditto more dribbles.
* analysis with video.
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* snapping or pivoting in triple threat (shotfake), jump and land, review balance.

42. Turnaround-jumpshot
5. 1. Application
The turnaround jumper is a shot practiced more and more these days by the athletic type
players. A player who connects (mentally) to the location of the rim without necessarily
having to watch the goal the whole time, can by efficiently pivoting and supported by strong
leg muscles most of the time shoot the turnaround jumper. The move is not even considered
advanced these days, however it cannot be seen as a simple move. The player is initially in
a position with the back to the basket. The angle in which the turnaround is executed varies
between 90°en 180.°Turn-around jumpers develop in correlation with frontpivots whether it’
s in combination with a fake or not, and when the fake is applied they fall under the category
of “fake-and-go opposite” moves. The pivotmove directly followed by a jump up or somewhat
hanging backwards works very surprising for the defense and creates when timed well a shot
that is hard to defend. If this shot is executed by an exceptional athletic player like a Michael
Jordan or a Kobe Bryant the shot is impossible to stop. Sometimes the move is then
described as a fade-away jumper.

5.2. Execution
On the completion of the shot the player stays out of reach of the defender, starting in back
to the basket posture while keeping the ball close to the body and well protected, out of
which position he can execute an introduction fake (in the direction of the defender doing this
without fouling) or reject this prelude and next pushes off the foot in that direction executing a
balance step facing the basket supported by a jump upward that makes the shot hard to
defend. Control in that quick balancestep is crucial. During the jump the shooter can lean
somewhat backward, but before anything else he searches his balance in midair. Just like in
any other shot he concentrates on the rim and not on the ball. Another version is the halfstep
move. Again from back to the basket the player now executes a halfstep frontpivot and reads
the defense. Is there room to shoot for the turnaround he continues the half to a full frontpivot
facing the basket. If the defender takes this away he can freeze him with a shotfake and
choose to stepback for a fade away jumper.

5.2.1. “Catch-pivot- jumpshot.”
Let’s look at it more completely. So the player is initially is positioned with his back to the
basket or baseline. Of course the player can turn in two directions: towards the baseline or to
the middle. After the catch a righthanded player pivots quickly in a frontal direction on his left
foot, so that he moves himself slightly next to the defender facing the basket and shoots the
ball jumping up.

5.2.2. “Fake-right-and-go-opposite.”
The player is again located with his back to basket or baseline. After the catch the
righthanded player can execute a short ball and headfake to his right, pivoting quickly on his
left foot and again comes slightly next to the defender facing the rim. The fake can be low
(ball hipheight) or higher (mostly effective against antsy defenders with an inclination to jump
up). Directly the player pushes off the left leg supported by the right one in a (face up)
jumpshot. Important is that the push off of the jump is timed adjacent to the pivot not during
it. During the jump the player brings the ball up from a protected path or space to the
shooting position a little over the head. In doing this the ball is rotated in the right position to
the shothand and being supported by the other hand. (see setshot). The ball leaves the
indexfinger at the peak of the jump. In principle the jump will be perpendicular to the floor. In
relation to the defensive player their is room to not fully complete the pivot (half step) and
jump or fall backwards from and out of the reach of the defender. This last option enlarges
the chances for an open look but is technically very hard to execute, because the read listens
very well to the defenders reaction. After the pivotstep and on the moment of the takeoff the
player concentrates his vision fully on the rim and remains doing this till both his feet touch
49
the floor again after landing. However there is the flight of the ball and the importance of a
possible rebound or other second move.

5.3. Error analysis:
* at takeoff feet are too close together, or too wide spread apart, or one foot too much in front
of the other.
* toes are not pointing in the direction of the basket.
* jump is too low to be effective.
* push is too much just on one leg.
* jump with hollow back.
* ball is exposed in front of body (too early).
* ball is brought too far behind head.
* landing on one leg.
* landings spot (too far) removed from takeoff place.

5.4. Teaching points:
* dry execution. Practice pivot, stopping and jumping rhythm.
* visualising the whole move. Execution without ball.
* from parallelstance making a 180°frontpivot foll owed up by stop rhythm, jump and landing
on both feet.
* repeat, and alternate the direction and pivotstep.
* developing jumping power from the intoductionary move.
* static shooting in face basket, but from a footing with the wrong foot in front of the shotfoot.
Jump up, catch balance point in air first and than shoot the ball (soft touch).
* practice connection fakes and 2-count stop.
* passive defender with outstretched arm.
* countermove: up and under.

43. Hookshot/ jumphook
6. 1. Application
The classic or standard hookshot is a somewhat old styled but very effective pivot shot from
the shorter distances (close to or inside the 3 second area). It’s a skill mostly executed by
big man. This shot is very hard to defend because the shooter keeps his body as a shield
between ball and defender and is still able to effectively shoot the ball. Kareem Abdul
Jabbar’s “skyhook” is a model for this shotmethod and is in it’s own right legendary. In this
type of hookshot the takeoff is from one leg. The big advantage of this shot is that it can be
deployed under severe one-on-one pressure against a somewhat smaller defender. The
shot is mainly used inside and as well off a straight catch as well as from the dribble or
directly after an offensive rebound. However as a result of the even more growing physical
nature of the modern game the socalled “jump- or babyhook” has taken the more prominent
place of the classical hookshot. This type shot provides a stronger and more solid base. Most
scores from center Shaquille O’Neal have arisen from these type powerhooks. With the
jumphook the player - just like in the hookshot aligns his schoulderaxis - in extended to to the
basket, with the difference that the now places and uses the power of both feet in the
jumphook.

6.2. Execution
Starting position can change from a full back to the basket placement to a position with the
feet more parallel to the baseline. In executing the classical hookshot the righthanded player
pivots with the left leg somewhat diagonal-forward (in the direction of the sweetspot) next to
the foot of the defender, if there is room for this. If not directly possible he can first bounce
the ball in that direction. In the next quarter turn during the pivot he shifts his bodyweight
strongly over to this leg and with a forceful impulse from the right knee he brings his left
shoulder next to the defender or at least aimed at the basket. In executing the jumphook also
the outside right foot (different from the hookshot technique) is placed in the extension of the
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imaginary line rim – place of pivotfoot (left foot here). The toes of that foot can – but do not
necessarily have to - be directed at the rim. This of course in relation to the presence or
absence of a defender. The pushoff with the babyhook is always generated with two feet.
This contrasting the more orthodox hookshot. At the same time the chest can – but does not
necessarily have to – be turned to the basket. The eyes watch the rim across the inside
shoulder and the shootinghand is brought from the side along the outside earlobe with the
fingers pointing upward to the high release point of the ball. Only first in the follow through
the backside of the hand is brought parallel to the floor (timing: elbow extension just before
the wristsnap). After the takeoff the shothand is brought over the top of the head where the
ball after a full extension of the shotarm elbow is released with a flip from wrist and fingers in
line with shoulderaxis and feet to the rim. The ball is protected with the bent left elbow at
shoulderheight. The action is completed where the sight across the left shoulder is kept and
the player has a great starting position to gain forward momentum and an advantage for the
offensive board.

6.3. Teaching points:
* practice standing just in front or at the line basket-basket. Distance is no more than two
meters from rim with the sight focussed on the target. Player pivots with the inside leg
diagonally forward and relocates his center of gravity towards this foot. Shoulderaxis is
turned on or more parallel to line basket-basket.
* player establishes the right shooting grip on the ball and transfers it with bent elbows from
the position next to his side in the direction of his outside earlobe. Extension from the elbow
brings the ball in an upward route above his head. Player aims the ball with a wristsnap
across the line inside shoulder-rim to the target.
* now same procedure with feet placed parallel to baseline after a pivotstep to a hookshot
position in which shoulderaxis is brought in line with basket-basket line (after quarter turn).
* footwork: insideleg is placed, bodyweight is shifted, outside knee is kicked upwards. Like
so a 90°angle is established.
* timing shooting action: first elbowextension, than wristsnap.
* next: practice same from dribble start. Aim for the sweet spot.

6.4. Error analysis:
* ball is not well protected. Body posture is too much erect and therefore unstable and
immobile leading to a poor takeoff.
* pushoff with the wrong leg.
* ball is brought in shooting motion too far extended from the body. Elbow is extended too
early and tilting, effect is flipping up of the ball.
* timing: releasing ball too soon or too late.
* simultaneous elbow extension and wristsnap.
* incorrect elbow, wrist- and finger actions with a result of too little backspin and too hard a
shot.
* player is standing up too straight, consequently has problems pivoting and has insufficient
energy in the completion of the hookshot, that is to say he strains the ball and has no soft
“touch.”

44. Tip-in
7.1. Application
The tip-in shot is not just a fortunate tap against the ball after a missed previous shot that
coincidently goes through the net, but a conscious goal attempt after a rebound. All executed
in a fraction of a second. An effective tip-in is the result a great positioning and alert reaction
of a player who would not presuppose that every shot turns into a goal. On the contrary
offensive rebounders the like of a Moses Malone move mountains to get to the inside
position of the defense, time this to perfection ands touch the ball with their fingertips and
turn a missed shot into gold. A form of rehabilitation? Yes. In the likewise earned position the
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put-back is the very brief touch of the ball with the fingerpads (and possible squeeze action)
good for turning the offensive rebound in a seemingly simple score.

7.2. Execution
From the strong readystance and all types of motion leading to an inside glimpse of the ball
coming off the rim the jump from both feet is almost irreplaceable to play this bounce off the
rim well. A motion both from one or two legs the jump can be executed. However the one-
legged jumper is many a time physically vulnerable for short contact. The two-legged jump
gives more quick reactions. During the jump the body is stretched out and likewise the arm
with the hand and spread out fingertips that establishes contact with the ball. Is there enough
quick control to turn the contact in to a legit tip-in? The turn of the shoulder in the direction of
the ball in the high position enhances the reach and offers more space for fingertip control.
As soon as the fingertips touch the ball there is the option to tip the ball with either a squeeze
or a wrist motion through the rim. The two-handed control is possible, but only when the
timing isn’t as strict and more time is available to aim the ball more precisely. Of course the
ball can better be controlled with two hands. The disadvantage is less reach. The one-
handed tip can be executed higher and faster.

7.3. Teaching points:
* standing still and finger tipping the ball against a wall.
* ditto, but now tip the ball against the backboard jumpingwise (Kevin McHale drill).
* couples in a 45°angle jumping and tipping agains t a wall.
* same, using backboard over the rim.
* putting the ball against the glass and tipping it in zero-rhythm in the basket.
* slamming the ball against the backboard first and than scoring.

7.4 Improvement:
* taps drills
* McHale drill.

45. Basic moves in the post
1. General
The rapid development of inside basketball with the top specialist in this discipline has been
amazing the last decade or so. Of course there have always been the superstars in the big-
man discipline, the likes of George Mikan, Krešo Ćosić, Wilt Chamberlain or a Kareem Abdul
Jabbar. However the post game has these days gained so much more explosiveness,
athleticism and dynamics that the old styled more static playing specialist seems somewhat
outdated. The present day postplayer is not solely the deep targetman in a more spread out
court on offense or just the lock on the door in defense in modern basketball. The modern
postplayer has become a multifunctional player. If there is no click between more players
within a team in relation to the outside perimeter and the close to the basket game, the inside
game won’t be very functional these days. The role of any player can vary from being end
station to relay man on offense. These days not only the post player, also the perimeter
player can play with extreme power and is directly capable of posting up any mismatch. In
reverse the multifunctional development of the inside player who pairs physical strength to a
high technical competence is no less evident. More and more team offenses aim to be
finishing closer to the basket. This makes sense because quality under the boards means
the core of a teams strength and the creation of high percentage field goal attempts. And
because of the higher chance for personal fouls also many bonus possibilities arise. Next to
all this a strong inside game heightens the chances for offensive rebounds a lot more than
the more outside oriented offense. On the highest level it concerns these strategic factors
that shift balances in games. However the schooling and use of post techniques have not
been as strongly developed as one would desire. In general a higher degree of difficulty than
the average in the perimeter game puts higher demands on the teaching. Why? Spaces are
small and the defensive pressure is generally high. A great deal of post offensive basketball
52
deals with playing with the back to the hoop. This posting up asks for a whole different
ideology than in face up basketball. Being accessible in the low post (including shielding
spaces like in sealing, ducking in) is conditional to receiving the ball. In a physical sense post
basketball puts high demands on its practitioners. Before any other factor it demands
positive aggression, fighting spirit, mental strength in the battle under the boards. But these
mental requirements – as crucial as they are - aren’t telling the whole story. Because the
space is so limited centering offers generally a somewhat slow or inert but at the same time
powerful image. In an overview of post moves next to the more explosive quickmoves a lot of
action seems to be based on brute strength of the bigger taller type players who are mostly
used on the post positions. Indeed inside basketball demands explosive speed, but on the
other hand the following basic moves provide a start for a further advanced approach to
more content in centering.

2. Application
The situations where the postplayer is active are located just in or around the bucket. In
relation to the basket we speak about high, medium or low-post.

3. Essence
In the use of postpositions a number of factors are of importance. We can only shortly
mention them here.
3.1 Finding an accessible place for the postman. That is to say the acknowledging, keeping
and being available in positions close(r) to the goal. The sweet-spot location as being the
most desirable position – to be found at the crossing of diagonals in the middle of the lane -
is where is aimed at. Searching for the optimal location and making contact with the
defensive player is the first measure to be accessible as close to the sweet spot as possible.
Of course the three second rule puts its limitations on the actions. The postplayer shows his
hand furthest removed from the defender and is by doing this is calling for ball with a
concrete target for any passer. With the other arm – with straight elbow - he shields the
defender. There are more theories on posting up. We mention here: reverse turn and sitting
on the knee or placing body in 90°angle on the chest of defender. Right at the moment the
post will actually receive the ball (see 1-handed catch) the postplayer wants’ to be able to a.
directly attack open space(s) with the ball, b. execute fakes and c. be able to stop and pivot.
The catch of the ball itself while posting up is like an art form in itself. (Triple threat is not
directly possible because of the back to the basket position, where the direct pass and drive
are possible, but the shot only after a pivotstep.)
3.2 Pass, inside. – How and where is the post fed the ball most adequately? How to lob the
ball? How to create a better passing angle in relation to the defense?
3.3 Centerplay with ball one-on-one.
Centering asks a different way of thinking than perimeter play. The postplayer asks himself
questions the like of:
* How do I keep the defender behind myself in the position that I desire? In general in again
posting up as well as in possession of the ball.
* How do I – when in possession of the ball - free the ball next, not only to protect it but also
to be a threat with it?
* How do I create and use space (room to move) in the crowded area under the basket?
This way of thinking is surely more zigzag oriented than the availability of room to move in
straight lines offers. Also the notion of wide vision on the court from the post is crucial. The
post vision skills deviate in this from the general perimeter view on the basketball court. In
the wish to learn to play more dynamically and consistently in the low post it must be that the
overall allround technique of a candidate is already developed to a certain degree. On top of
the basic skill development centering asks the teacher and practitioner to be patient and
having eye for mastering skills particularly in a more relative speed. More relative speed?
Yes. In general strong implanted automatics in ballhandling lay the foundation within a more
inert, strong and slower momentum typed situation. For instance a low post one-on-one
situation where the strength factor defines to a larger degree the momentum of the situation.
53
What do we mean with this? a. physical spatial limitations (playing close to the endline under
the hoop, close or inside the three second lane and b. being placed in a more closed
situation with less time available in a smaller area with much more physical push and
counterforce allowed by the interpretations of the rules than in the open court give
postbasketball it’s special character. It is therefore logical to adhere to an “inside ideology”
without forgetting to lose eyesight of of course the quick looks and moves. A vision
advantage is established by playing with the back to the basket in the following way. First
point of emphasis is the positioning of the feet parallel to the baseline. Here is of importance:
* Catching it strong (possibly with slap on the ball);
* Making a threat and outside shouldering it (low center of gravity and ball is brought to
outside shoulder);
* Inside chining it, that is to say chin is turned on inside shoulder (insight);
A low post – let’s say on the block - turning his vision in opposite direction to the near corner
baseline is most vulnerable for a steal or a trap. The blind corner (from the middle) that is
created likewise offers the largest threat. The line through the rim through the post extended
differentiates the wide from the shorter angle. On the short angle (baseline) least space is
available, because of location of the endline there of course. The center can choose to pivot
or dribble in that angle like mole in a blind alley, but statistically there is limited chance for
success and certainly no guarantee for it. Yes, real quick decisions have an edge to the
baseline, however with defensive adaptation it becomes an advantage to turn to the middle.
When the post aims his vision to the – let’s say sweet spot in the- middle, including his
footing parallel to baseline stance it provides him optimal vision on the court; an (ideo)logical
choise in which of course every player is free.

4. Overview
The specialist in the low post will have to be schooled in overall technique before going into
the post specifics. Playing with the back to the hoop is a exclusive discipline. It’s not so easy
when to start teaching post techniques. But that they can’t be omitted is for sure. Part of post
skills can be generally instructed to all players alike of course. Technical demands are
allround ballhandling, spatial sense and feeling and strong footwork skills. We limit ourselves
here to small number of basic post skills. These are superimposed the more general moves
and can be seen as more specific choice in relation to the character of the player best fitted
for the role.
Overview in four phases:
1. “Direct moves no dribble.” (After a pass into the postplayer located on the block.) The
player commences with his back turned towards the baseline. The working principle here is
catch, pivot and shoot. Out of this two directions – outside around and inside through – the
turnaround jumpshots, jumphooks en step-throughs in relation to the defensive position
emanate as automatics. Also the post can execute a direct move from the catch into the
dropstep. The completion of the dropstep is the power up shot (always executed with the
opposite hand from the dropstepfoot. It can come out as a jumphook or a jumpshot (again
catch, pivot (dropstep), shot).
2. A second phase evolves out of an intoductionary fake from which a pivot on or away that
direction follows. The principle here is catch-fake-and -pivot-(to-onside-or-opposite-side)-
move. The defender buys the fake and is placed on the wrong foot. If he doesn’t buy it the
pivot is onside. Fake-and-go opposite is a nice rhythm move in this context. Up-and-under
moves also apply to this phase, with the difference that before the up-fake a pivot facing the
basket has to be made of course. I.e. frontpivot-shotfake-and-step through.
3. Phase three adds the dribblestart. Next to all – already named quick moves, like the quick
baseline spin – the post can in the slower momentum dribble in two directions again. To the
baseline, or to the middle. That’s all the tastes we have. Yet dribbling amidst a crowd is no
piece of cake. Mostly a start is made with the horse dribble. It concerns a very low two-
handed hard bounce directly picked up again with two hands. This low bounce is saving
time and protects the ball against collapsing defenders. Pullback en fake-reverse dribbles
have to be taught later in the learning process. Here we are discussing the technical domain
54
where the postplayer is learning to back-in his own man. Evidently momentum is important.
We discussed the zig-zag orientation in offensive footwork. The post wanting to penetrate to
the sweet spot keeps his vision to the middle while dropping towards the baseline when
being blocked to the middle. The defender must respect this and sag also, with the result that
the middle opens again and room to move is created. The fundamental stop in the middle
can be either a jump- or a stridestop.
4. Phase four. Moves during the dribble. The ability to keep the dribble alive in the way
described above enlarges the dynamics in the post more and more. In the mostly short term
oriented schooling of USA college players many big man are slowed down in their technical
development. This all under the phrase: keep the ball up high in the low post and kick it
directly back outside. This cannot be otherwise than killing for the initiative an technical
development of big men. The more skilled European postplayer is not forced to pick up the
ball after max one bounce. Particularly in the a. crabdribble and b. the pullback dribble
additional footwork in combination with these bounces becomes possible.
a. The crabdribble is often forgotten in the schooling of players. It’s a dribble when the
dribbler keeps his back turned to his defender and dribbles the ball in a step-slide foot rhythm
between the feet. The chin is turned to the middle of the court in the direction of the lead foot.
It provides excellent protection in a back-down mode of movement. The ball is guided in an
inside-out action, which allows the dribbler to progress forward, but still keep the ball
between the feet. (By the way the crabdribble is also used by pointguards bringing the ball
upcourt being heavily pressured.) The counters to the crab are the reverse or spin dribbles.
b. The pullback dribble can be linked to a counter type move. We mention here the fake
dropstep baseline together combined with a pinch step middle (with the opposite leg to the
dribble hand) before the ball is actually picked up. Like so in a righthanded execution a
counter step with the left foot provides fertile move with the center of gravity. Out of this little
step extra mobility is gained and this provides just that little extra in dynamics for centering.
What usually follows is the pick up in the 90°bala ncestep before the shot to the middle
(jumphook, jumpshot) is completed. This fake-reverse move, including it’s completion is
striking by it’s conspicuous rhythm. Hakeem Olajuwan named it his “trunk boogaloo.” Again
this post finishing move can be directed to the middle or to the baseline. If the fake is made
to the middle it is connected to a strong horse kick or dropstep directed at the baseline.
Conclusion: extra mobility emerging from two post dribble fake combinations are: a. fake
dropstep baseline – hook to middle, b. fake hook to middle – dropstep baseline.

Jan Willem Jansen
NBB Topsportcoordinator


© 05.11.2010
JWJ






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