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Flaws in the Current Building Code and Code Making Process in
Kenya

)a*ando ). Erast+s
,$(2
!+ -+ch+an
$

$.School o. Civil Engineering / 0rchitect+re( -+han 1niversit2 o. 3echnolog2
-+han( 440070( !. R. China
2.5e"artment o. 6+ilding / Civil Engineering( N2eri National !ol2technic
!.%. 6o7 4'5-$0$00 N2eri( )en2a
, E-mail o. the corres"onding a+thor8 tassta"9gmail.com

Abstract
:or sa.e( decent and a..orda*le ho+sing( a "ro"er code o. "ractice is vital. 0 "ro"er *+ilding code o. "ractice
sho+ld enhance growth( reg+late and revol+tioni;e ho+sing sector and +tili;ation o. the availa*le local materials
witho+t limitations. 0s the sta<eholders are revising and reviewing the code o. "ractice and administration o.
man2 co+nties "re"are to ta<e the initiative o. e7ec+ting the code( vario+s as"ects concerning it sho+ld not *e
overloo<ed. 3he c+rrent ho+sing and in.rastr+ct+re "olicies and ada"tive *2-laws have led to calamities and
e"idemics *eing re"orted all over. !oor "lanning( administrative "roced+res and inade=+ate en.orcement
strategies are a .ew challenges .acing the c+rrent *+ilding code in )en2a. 3his "a"er disc+sses the vario+s .laws
that are o*served in the c+rrent code o. "ractice. 0s the *+ilding sector is "re"aring to ac<nowledge( im"lement
and ado"t )Scode 2009> em"hasis has *een "+t on descri"tion o. vario+s "rinci"les concerning code
develo"ment( ado"ting and im"lementation "rocesses. 3his "a"er ma2 also act as a g+ideline .or c+rrentl2
concerned *odies revising the code o. "ractice. !rovisions o. minim+m standards( sa.et2 o. lives( health and
sec+rit2 o. one?s "ro"ert2 sho+ld *e em"hasi;ed in an2 code o. "ractice +sed.
Keywords: *+ilding code( .laws( im"lementation( materials( "lanning( *+ildings

1. Introduction
0 *+ilding code is a set o. r+les and laws which govern and s"eci.2 the minim+m agreed levels o. sa.et2 .or the
str+ct+res and *+ildings. 3here e7ist vario+s models which s"eci.2 these g+idelines de"ending on di..erent
co+ntries. C+rrentl2 in )en2a the *+ilding code @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# which is in .orce is *eing
reg+lated *2 the Aocal Bovernment 0+thorit2 and the content was .orm+lated .rom the then e7isting 6ritish
Im"erial Codes. :or an e..ective model( *+ilding code legal ca"acit2 and stat+s sho+ld *e en.orced so that it?s
ado"ted *2 all the sta<eholders in the *+ilding ind+str2. 6+ilding codes sho+ld "rovide minim+m standards that
sho+ld *e .ollowed to ens+re *+ilding standards( sa.et2( health and sec+rit2 o. the "ro"ert2 .rom all ha;ards that
ma2 occ+r to the str+ct+re.
5i..erent co+ntries have esta*lished and ado"ted di..erent "roced+ral and reg+lator2 s2stems +sed when
str+ct+res and *+ildings are to *e conceived. Research that has *een carried o+t *2 vario+s *odies all over the
world de"ending with the needs and the nat+re o. their co+ntries is am"le. 6odies li<e :E@0( 6SI( I6C controls
most o. the in.l+ential codes in the world *+t all in all )en2a has to come +" with a control mechanism .or its
constr+ction ind+str2. 0ccording to 0rticle 42 )ENC0( 20$0#( all the citi;ens are entitled to clean and health2
environment. 3his a""lies also on how the *+ildings are to *e "lanned( designed and constr+cted. :rom the
*eginning o. the administrative o"erations o. the co+nt2 o..ices in )en2a( all as"ects in im"lementing and +sage
o. the codes in the "lanning and designing o. str+ct+res sho+ld *e em"hasi;ed and *e s"read +" to the national
level.
)en2a 6+ilding Code @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# is s+*-divided into vario+s sections which +nder
carr2 vario+s .+nctions in the integration o. the constr+ction "rocess. It?s +s+all2 s+*divided as general
in.ormation( Siting and S"ace a*o+t 6+ilding and 6+ilding @aterials and this s+*division doesn?t show "ro"er
characteristics .or a good *+ilding code.

2. hortco!ings as obser"ed in the Building code #1$%&'
3he $04 stat+es which .orms the constr+ction laws contradict each other in man2 cases and are s+*Dective. 3his
*+ilding code came into law in $9'E d+ring the "ost-colonial era and some o. the cla+ses were and still are
s+*Dective since the "ost-colonial government. 3he cla+ses *2 then were *orrowed .rom the .ormer colonial
e7"erts who were in "ractice and the2 made the code according to the needs o. the co+ntr2 *2 then and in their
.avor.
0 .ew o. the o*served .laws that are c+rrentl2 *eing e7"erienced in the )en2a 6+ilding Code @inistr2 o. Aocal
Bovernment( $9'9# are as .ollows8
a. 3he International S2stem o. 1nits SI +nits# meas+rements that are ado"ted in the 0do"tive 62-laws o.
$9'9 are Im"erial +nits .eet and inches# however c+rrentl2 )en2a is +sing the metric s2stem metres#.
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3his ma2 lead to erroneo+sl2 calc+lated res+lts in an2 .ield which is +sing the meas+rements ado"ted
and the ones the code a""lies. )en2a ado"ted the metric s2stem o. SI +nits .rom Im"erial s2stem earl2
$970s. @etric s2stems is easil2 ado"tive since it re"resents a *etter scienti.ic meas+rements i. need *e.
*. -ith the introd+ction o. new *+ilding materials in the mar<et it?s di..ic+lt to come with a well-designed
str+ct+re *ased on @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# since the design "ers"ective o. the code is
*ased on materials and some o. the materials were not .actored in and the code has not *een reviewed
since then. Aoad .actors and material "ro"erties are ver2 cr+cial in designing a str+ct+re and wrong
"arameters res+lts in disastro+s o+t"+t. Fowever( the "rinci"les o. develo"ing *+ilding codes sho+ld not
onl2 *e *ased on materials alone *+t also other .actors sho+ld *e "+t into considerations. In )en2a the
local government has the mandate o. reg+lating and im"lementing the code and as evident it has .ailed
in man2 areas 0<ivaga et al.( $9E5#. 3he mandate o. im"lementing the code o. "ractice sho+ld *e given
to another a+thorit2 which is solel2 res"onsi*le with dealing with *+ildings and ho+singG nat+ral ha;ards
as "ro"osed *2 )SCode 2009#.
5i..erent a+thorities that govern the code +se have come +" with di..erent codes .or di..erent .+nctions.
:or e7am"le( :ederal Emergenc2 @anagement 0+thorit2 :E@0# coordinates the .ederal governmentHs
role in "re"aring .or( "reventing( mitigating the e..ects o.( res"onding to( and recovering .rom all
domestic disasters( whether nat+ral or man-made( incl+ding acts o. terror. 3his management a+thorit2
has come +" with a set o. *+ilding codes which can *e +tili;ed *2 di..erent states in 1S0. 3hese codes
incl+des8
i. International Building Code #IBC' which a""lies to almost all t2"es o. new str+ct+res and
*+ildings
ii. International (esidential Code #I(C' which a""lies to new town ho+ses not more than 4 stories
and one- and two-.amil2 str+ct+res
iii. International )*isting Building Code #I)BC' which a""lies to the addition( change in
occ+"anc2 o. e7isting str+ct+res( re"air and alteration
iv. F)MA 1+,- AC). )I /101/- AC). )I ,101%- F)MA /+%- F)MA +,2- F)MA )02, among
others caters .or new and old str+ct+res which are to *e resistant to earth=+a<es.
c. 0s o*served in @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# all the sa.et2 .actors are *ased on !0R3 III o. the
code in which not all materials are considered since the code have not *een revised since $9'E. In
addition 0rchitect+ral( Str+ct+ral( Electrical and @echanical "rovisions .or *+ildings are all in the same
doc+ment in which the e7"ertise on each .ield is not well dealt with.
d. 3he 6+ilding codes sho+ld not *e an im"ediment towards growth o. *+ilding sector( the2 sho+ld hel" to
reg+late and revol+tioni;e the ind+str2 instead. In general( good code "ractices enhances *etter standards
.or the ho+sing and *+ilding sector. 3he +se o. 6ritish 6+ilding codes as *asis o. material s"eci.ications
ma2 also lead to +nnecessar2 costs in esta*lishing a sta*le str+ct+re. 3he standards o. materials which
are s"eci.ied in the code @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# are either e7"ensive or im"orted
materials .rom E+ro"ean design standards in which these materials con.orm to conditions e7"erienced in
E+ro"e .or e7am"le snow loads on the roo.s-C!$$0G6SE$$0#. C+rrentl2( the man+.act+red materials
which dominates mar<et are either made .rom China Chege( 200'# or .rom the local ind+stries which
im"orts the raw materials .rom China. 3he large constr+ction contracts that have *een tendered has
shown a lot o. 0sian com"anies allocated the tenders and some o. these tenders comes with strings
attached with most o. the materials re=+ired .or constr+ction *eing im"orted .rom the 0ra*ic Ind+str2(
2004# and 0sian co+ntries. 3his has o"ened +" more ga" .or s+*standard materials in the mar<et which
do not con.orm to o+r needs as a co+ntr2. )en2a re=+ires its own s"eci.ications .or the =+alit2 o.
materials to *e im"orted or man+.act+red since the trade "atterns ma2 change with time with o+r own
reg+lations.
e. In !0R3 II o. @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# section $7$# IA domestic building shall be so
sited as to leave an open space immediately in front thereof which extends along the whole width of the
front of the building and is not less than 20 ft. wide measured at right angles there from: Provided that if
the building fronts on a street of a less width than 20 ft. The width of such open space may be not less
than the width of the street plus one half of the difference between that width and 20 ft.
3his cla+se was to ens+re "lanning in the constr+ction o. vario+s str+ct+res in the town streets. 3he
cla+se limits the architects and the concerned "arties to *e creative in coming +" with a good str+ct+re.
3his however has not *een .ollowed( and as o*served .rom man2 sites in towns( there is non-con.ormit2.
In some instances the str+ct+res have *een *+ilt a ste" .+rther .rom the roads and some centimeters awa2
.rom each other.
.. 3he code @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# have stated that Aocal government which is res"onsi*le
.or im"lementing this code sho+ld never acce"t second hand materials to *e +sed in an2 constr+ction
wor<. :or the materials not to con.orm as s"eci.ied *2 the code( a test sho+ld *e done to get the res+lts
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"roving that the material is no longer +sa*le as a *+ilding material. 3he *asis o. re.+ting the +se o. the
materials sho+ld not onl2 rel2 on the code( other *odies concerned with material s"eci.ication sho+ld *e
involved. Red+ce( re+se and rec2cle has *een so m+ch em"hasi;ed in all areas even in constr+ction. 0s
o*served F+ang et al.( 2002# and )i*ert( 20$2#( the re+se o. demolished constr+ction materials can
*ecome a "art o. red+cing the cost o. materials in an2 "roDect as long as the materials *eing re+sed
meets all the standard.
g. 0lso to achieve the minim+m ho+sing re=+irements @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# s"eci.ies that
the *+ilding shall *e *+ilt .rom masonr2 nat+ral stone# and sho+ld consists o. at least two 2# *edrooms
each meas+ring a minim+m o. 7m
2
with a se"arate <itchen and .l+e ventilation. :or the "oor and the
middle income .amilies this condition is too harsh to .ollow and this is *e2ond their means. @an2
)en2ans income *rac<et is *elow the standard "overt2 levels Beda et al.( 200$#( this has led to "oor
ho+sing to which @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# has not addressed. :or a code to *e e..ective( it
sho+ld cater .or new and alternative sol+tions that can *e hel".+l to ever2 citi;en o. its co+ntr2.
h. 0s "er cla+se $24 o. @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9#. Unless the council otherwise agrees! a
person proposing to erect a building of a type described in by"law #2$ of these %y"laws! shall employ
for the purpose of the architectural design thereof! a registered architect! and for the purpose of the
structural design thereof! a structural designer and shall retain the services of such architect or
structural designer for the purpose of supervising the erection of such building. 3his ma2 *e one o. the
vario+s reasons that has led to man2 I=+ac<sJ and +nregistered contractors since the co+ncil has all the
a+thorit2 o. the a""roval o. vario+s "arties and activities concerned on constr+ction and also "ower to
a""rove the "lans or otherwise. 3his has *een attri*+ted *2 the .act that( the "osition o. a ma2or
"olitical "osition# in the local a+thorit2 has the .inal sa2 on the "lans o. the *+ildings.
In $990 e..orts *2 Intermediate 3echnolog2 5evelo"ment Bro+" I35B# showed initiative to start +sing
*+ilding "ractices which were con.orming to the living standards. In $995( Code 95 was develo"ed and the
"arliament a""roved it( *+t the im"lementation and ado"tion o. this code was not "+t to e..ect serio+sl2 in the
constr+ction ind+str2. 0s indicated *2 Kha and 5+2ne( 20$0( @aDale( 2004( Cah2a et al.( 200$#( the +se o. Code
95 which was "er.ormance *ased red+ced the cost o. *+ilding *2 40L.
3he e..orts o. coming +" with a new *+ilding code in )en2a has not *een achieved so .ar. 3he "ro"osed
)SCode 2009# is still not im"lemented and it has its hindrances s"eci.icall2 on the Section o. Str+ct+res and
@aterials since most o. the "artic+lars were *orrowed .rom ado"tive laws o. $9'9. 3he +se o. 6S standards in
1nited )ingdom was withdrawn in @arch 20$0 and the E+ro codes started to "la2 an im"ortant role in the
design and anal2sis o. str+ct+res and *+ildings. 0s o*served in Section ::2 str+ct+ral design# in )SCode(
2009#( all the code reg+lations relating to materials and design ado"ted are o+tdated and sho+ld *e changed to
con.orm to E+ro codes 6SI( 20$4( Nethercot( 2005#.

/. 3he tragedy in the !aking
!h2sical "lanning is an im"ortant as"ect .or an2 *+ilding code in reg+lating and enhancing the "h2sical loo< and
aesthetics o. an2 localit2. 3he c+rrent *+ilding code is .aced with man2 .laws and has not *een a*le to control
the "lanning o. the str+ct+res. 3his ma2 *e attri*+ted to the lac< o. en.orcement o. the reg+lations( lac< o.
=+ali.ied "h2sical "lanners( corr+"tion and negligence *2 the local a+thorit2. :ig $ and :ig 2 is an e7am"le o.
how the negligence *2 the local a+thorit2 have led to m+shrooming o. sl+ms inside the cit2. 3his has *een
d+"licated in almost all the cities in the co+ntr2. -ith alternative constr+ction materials and "h2sical "lanning
this sit+ation can *e controlled and the livelihood o. the "eo"le wo+ld *e im"roved.
%ver $00 death calamities were re"orted *etween @a2 $99' and K+l2 200' d+e to colla"se o. *+ildings thro+gh
.ail+re related cases and in.ernos. In all o. the incidents re"orted( investigations showed that the incidents were
ca+sed d+e to negligence *2 the local a+thorit2 not condemning the aged str+ct+res( inade=+ate "re"aredness and
lac< o. en.orcing *+ilding sa.et2( +nder-designed concrete col+mns and "oor *+ilding "rocess c+ring method#
thro+gh r+shing o. the *+ilding "rocess and lac< o. clear "assages and e7its in case o. .ire N2angweso( 2007#.
3he a+thor also indicates that the a*sence o. a com"etent a+thorit2 in the im"lementation and certi.2ing the
re=+irements o. the str+ct+re ma2*e one o. the reasons *ehind all the ma2hem.
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:ig+re $/ 28 )i*era sl+ms and @athare sl+ms in Nairo*i Cit2( where it?s a""ro7imated that more than one
million "eo"le live

,. 4e"elo5ing the codes o6 5ractice and standards
3he *+ilding codes o. "ractice and standards in an2 co+ntr2 sho+ld meet some goals and o*Dectives as o+tlined8
Sho+ld de.ine the minim+m standards re=+ired
Sho+ld stri<e a *alance *etween e7"licit and im"licit re=+irements
Sho+ld have legal .ramewor< and ca"acit2
Sho+ld enhance the sa.et2 o. the lives and sec+re "ro"ert2
Sho+ld assist the a+thorit2 and agencies concerned in im"lementing it
Sho+ld *ring +ni.ormit2 in the design and anal2sis "rocess o. the str+ct+res
Sho+ld red+ce the ris<s and +ncertainties involved in the *+ilding "rocess
%n man2 occasions( *+ilding codes have *ecome e7"licit and the inner details and re=+irements are o.ten
overshadowed. 0s o*served *2 Sha"iro( $997( Coec<el*ergh( 200'# the im"licit directives are more di..ic+lt to
im"lement and relies more on e7"licit directives which does not ma<e the *+ilding code sa.er to +se.
:+rthermore( it wo+ld *e im"ractical to overshadow the im"ortance o. each o. the two elements since *oth "la2s
an im"ortant role. I. the *+ilding codes *ecome too e7"licit( the innovation is ham"ered and the role o. the
e7"erts is onl2 seen as that o. sim"l2 .ollowing technicians Coec<el*ergh( 200'#. 6+ilding codes sho+ld not *e
too com"licated which ma<es it di..ic+lt .or the e7"erts in the *+ilding .ield to +se m+ch e..orts and
re=+irements in D+sti.2ing a s"eci.ic co+rse in design and neither sho+ld the *+ilding codes *e too sim"le s+ch
that concerned "art2 ma2 .ind it irrelevant in its +sage. 3he *+ilding code sho+ld alwa2s stri<e a *alance
*etween the e7"licit and im"licit re=+irements.
0s "revio+sl2 o*served( trade *etween di..erent co+ntries sho+ld not *e ham"ered and the mar<et needs .or an2
societ2 m+st *e met. )en2a as an2 other growing co+ntr2 is in "artnershi" with man2 co+ntries in and o+t o.
0.rican continent. 0s o*served *2 @ats+shita et al.( 200'# the technical 6arriers to 3rade 0greement ma2 *e
"romoted *2 the +se o. a certain <ind o. code reg+lations. 3h+s as the co+ntr2 "re"ares itsel. in ado"ting the new
code o. "ractice( the trade and coo"eration *etween vario+s co+ntries sho+ld still commence as *e.ore witho+t
*eing hindered *2 the new code o. "ractice. 0 reg+lator2 *od2 which en.orces and reg+lates the s"eci.ication o.
the materials in +se sho+ld *e well .+rnished with the e7"ertise on all the .ields( .or e7am"le )E6s#.
0do"ting internationall2 recogni;ed *+ilding codes as a *asis .or design o. str+ct+res ma2 *e acce"ta*le to some
e7tent as long as the code meets the needs o. the co+ntr2 in achieving the sa.et2 o. the str+ct+res. :amiliarit2
with the *+ilding code "rovisions is ver2 essential in ado"ting the code reg+lations. 3he co+ntr2 has *een +sing
the 6ritish codes o. "ractice .rom $9'E and since we are .amiliar with the cla+ses( we sho+ld then +se the
"rovisions to o+r needs. 3he new c+rric+l+m ado"ted *2 the )IE technical instit+tes all over the co+ntr2 .or the
*+ilding and civil engineering co+rses are c+rrentl2 +sing 6S standards in all the designs( e.g. 6SE$$0 in
str+ct+res in which the @inistr2 o. Aocal Bovernment( $9'9# indicates that C!$$0 sho+ld *e +sed instead. -ith
this in mind( the c+rric+l+m develo"ers have alread2 im"lemented the +se o. 6SE$$0 in the c+rric+l+m even
when the )SCode( 2009# is still *eing revised and not 2et ado"ted .or +se in the co+ntr2. 3here sho+ld *e some
consistenc2 in the +se o. code o. "ractice in o+r teaching c+rric+l+m and also in "ractice to avoid con.lict o.
interest and other +n.oreseen calamities.
4.1 Steps towards effective adoption and implementation of a code of practice
3he ste"s towards im"lementation( ado"tion and "o"+lari;ing codes o. "ractice "la2s a cr+cial role in li.e s"an
o. its e7istence. :ig+re 4 shows a s+mmari;ed im"lementation "rocess o. a *+ilding code. 3o enhance an
e..ective im"lementation s2stem in *+ilding code o. "ractice the .ollowing ste"s are im"ortant>
a# Collection o. In.ormation
0 good code o. "ractice sho+ld gather all the general and s"eci.ic in.ormation in addressing the vario+s s+*Dects
or "ro*lems that the co+ntr2 is .acing. )en2a is divided into 47 co+nties )ENC0( 20$0# and each has vario+s
needs concerning *+ildings and s"eci.icall2 on materials in their localit2. :or e7am"le( mangrove s"ecies
&hi'ophora mucronata# is a s"ecies o. materials which is mostl2 .o+nd in @om*asa co+nt2 and its +se and
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ado"tion has not *een doc+mented in )SCode( 2009#. 3he stem o. this "lant has *een +sed as an additional
rein.orcement to sla*s even with inade=+ate doc+mented res+lts o. its strength "er.ormance and d+ra*ilit2. 3he
+se o. soil *ags and +se o. geo-te7tile sac<s has *een +tili;ed in d2<es( retaining walls as an alternative to ga*ion
*o7es. 3he +se o. sac<s .illed with soil is mostl2 +sed in the constr+ction o. r+ral roads *+t o. c+rrent the
constr+ction o. 3hi<a Fighwa2 also made +se o. them. In light o. this( the =+estions that arise are>
i. -hich e7isting code o. "ractice is addressing the "ro*lems at hand with ease( cost e..ective and
with sa.et2 o. .actorM
ii. -ho will *e involved in the develo"ing "rocess( im"lementation and ado"tion o. the vario+s
sections in the codeM
iii. Fow will the codes *e im"lemented and en.orced with vario+s <ind o. needs *eing involved within
di..erent D+risdictionM
iv. -hen will the codes *ecome .+nctionalM
v. Fow will the alread2 e7isting str+ct+res *e a..ected with the im"lementation o. the new code o.
"racticeM
3he answers to these =+estions ma2 *e a good starting "oint in ma<ing a decision on the wa2 .orward in
selecting and ma<ing a choice o. a good code o. "ractice.
*# 3echnical e7"ertise in develo"ing the codes
3he e7"licit and im"licit nat+re o. the code re=+irements ma2 *e determined *2 the technical e7"ertise availa*le
or +sed in develo"ing the codes o. "ractice. 3he e..ort devoted on develo"ing the code o. "ractice sho+ld ens+re
the "ractica*ilit2 o. the code in all the sta<eholders in the *+ilding ind+str2. :or e7am"le( the engineers and
architects will +se the code o. "ractice in their designing and "lanning o. the str+ct+res while the government
*odies will +se the same code as a tool to en.orce law and order *2 +sing the vario+s sections o. the code in its
administrative and legal iss+es. 3he code o. "ractice sho+ld not *e develo"ed so as to end +" wasting a lot o.
mone2 and in ret+rn the e..ect o. its +sage doesn?t *ring an2 change on the *+ilding econom2. 3he mandate o.
Engineers 6oard o. )en2a E6)# is setting o. engineering standards and develo"ment o. general "ractice .or
engineering E6)( 20$4# and as the instit+tion o. National !lanning and 6+ilding 0+thorit2 )SCode( 2009#
comes to "la2 their roles( the mandate o. the two instit+tions sho+ld not con.lict in "er.ormance o. their d+ties.
c# Recognition o. vario+s "artners
%ne organi;ation cannot *e a*le to come +" with its own code o. "ractice witho+t *orrowing other "ro.essionals?
e7"ertise who also .orms "art o. the code +sage. :or e7am"le( !h2sical "lanning( siting and site "re"aration
re=+ires the e7"ertise o. architects( s+rve2ors and "lanners> 6+ilding services re=+ires the e7"ertise .rom
mechanical and electrical engineers> str+ct+res and materials re=+ires the e7"ertise .rom civil and str+ct+ral
engineers> sa.et2( disaster ris< management and maintenance re=+ires the e7"ertise .rom all sta<eholders in the
*+ilding .ield )SCode( 2009#. 3here e7ists some =+ali.ied *odies 6%R0Ns( IS)( E6)( )E6s in the co+ntr2
which can hel" in giving their e7"ertise in the vario+s sections which concerns the code o. "ractice. 0"art .rom
o+r local e7"ertise( .oreign co+ntries e7"ertise and e7"erts who have s+ccessivel2 .orm+lated and im"lemented
on their co+ntr2?s code sho+ld *e engaged. 3his ma2 give the reasons wh2 most o. the *+ilding codes have
standard organi;ations that are engaged in develo"ment o. the codes o. "ractice. :or e7am"le( the .ollowing
organi;ations have "la2ed a great role in esta*lishing vario+s codes in 1S0> 0merican Societ2 o. @echanical
Engineers 0S@E#( 0merican National Standards Instit+te 0NSI#( Instit+te o. Electrical and Electronic
Engineers IEEE#( International Standards %rgani;ation IS%#.
d# Code o. !ractice 0cclimation "rocess
3he ada"tation "rocess *egins *2 esta*lishing technical committees which sho+ld "lan and sched+le on how the
code is to *e ado"ted in the D+risdiction. Each co+nt2 sho+ld esta*lish a technical committee to eval+ate and
determine the needs( ma<e decisions on im"lementation o. the code( training o. how to +se the code on all
as"ects. 3his technical committee is made +" o. all the sta<eholders in the *+ilding sector i.e. engineers(
academic e7"erts( *+ilders( architects( =+antit2 s+rve2ors( contractors and s+""liers. Since the D+risdiction areas
needs ma2 var2( the technical committees sho+ld come +" with "rovisions to revise the co+ntr2 code o. "ractice
rather than changing the sections o. the code o. "ractice in whole. 3his will red+ce erosion o. the new code with
revisions all the time. 3raining o. how to +se the code sho+ld *e started all the wa2 .rom the c+rric+l+m o. the
vario+s s+*Dects concerning *+ilding and all the sta<eholders who might *e a..ected *2 the code o. "ractice
sho+ld *e trained. 0 motion .rom the "arliament sho+ld hel" in g+arding and en.orcing its +se in all D+risdiction.
e# En.orcing the code o. "ractice ado"ted
Im"lementing the code and g+arding it .or its +se is ver2 cr+cial .or the reali;ation o. the re=+ired goals. 0n
im"lementation "lan sho+ld contain
i. Ca"acit2 6+ilding
3his involves reso+rces( .inance and technical ca"acit2
ii. 3raining on how to +se the code
3raining all the sta<eholders in the +sage o. the code is ver2 im"ortant. 3his sho+ld start *2 incl+ding
Civil and Environmental Research
ISSN 2224-5790 !a"er# ISSN 2225-05$4 %nline#
&ol.'( No.5( 20$4

the +se o. the code in the *+ilding and civil engineering c+rric+l+m all over the co+ntr2. 3his im"lies
that the "ro.essionals in the "+*lic wor<s and the ed+cational instit+tes sho+ld *e trained on its +sage.
0lso c+stomi;ed training *2 di..erent instit+tions to alrea
also act as a wa2 o. disseminating in.ormation. 3he .or+ms o. di..erent material man+.act+ring
com"anies sho+ld also .orm some *asis o. sensiti;ing on its +se.
iii. Certi.ication
3he "ersonnel dealing with the im"l
.+nctions sti"+lated in the code. Standard "ro.icienc2 e7ams .rom a standard *od2 sho+ld *e carried o+t
and iss+e a recogni;ed certi.icate in the +se o. the code. 3he "ersonnel to *e certi.
d+ties and *e .amiliar in handling matters related to the code.
iv. Review o. the code
3he code sho+ld *e reviewed a.ter a s"eci.ic "eriod o. time as agreed +"on. 3his is done to enhance and
ma<e changes o. the c+rrent iss+es which might
code ado"tion. @ost o. the *+ilding codes are reviewed a.ter ever2 three 2ears.
v. @onitoring
0 monitoring s2stem sho+ld *e esta*lished on re"orting on the .+nctionalit2 o. the code to the
concerned de"artments .rom ever2 co+nt2 to the 6+ilding 0+thorit2. 3his will hel" in eval+ating the
vario+s "rovisions on the code and how the code is ado"ted and +tili;ed on vario+s sections o. the
ho+sing econom2 and other related sectors. 3he re"ort sho+ld *e accor
and on its o"erations.
vi. Aegal o*ligations
3he code o. "ractice sho+ld have legal o*ligations on all the "arties concerned. 3his will hel" in its
im"lementation and the "arties who act contrar2 to the "rovisions on the code sha
and .ace some "enalties.


+. Conclusion
6+ilding code o. "ractice serves as an instr+ment o. g+iding and re.orming the *+ilding sector in an2 econom2.
5isasters as .ire which are d+e to "oor "lanning and .ail+re o. str+ct+res sho+ld
an e..icient and e..ective s2stem o. chec<ing on o+r *+ilding "lans and the sector in general. 3he .ail+re o.
str+ct+res d+e to "oor wor<manshi"( "oor constr+ction "ractices( aging o. str+ct+res and .ail+re to adhere to
"rovisions on material s"eci.ications sho+ld not *e as ram"ant as c+rrentl2 *eing o*served. 3he vario+s
sta<eholders and administrative a+thorities need to "er.orm their d+ties in c+r*ing the illegal str+ct+res
m+shrooming in the cities. Ignoring the sa.et2 o.
a+thorities? concerned in the im"lementation o. the code needs to "la2 their "art and stic< to their "rovisions to
ens+re sa.et2 in constr+ction .ield. 3he "ro"osed *+ilding a+thorit2 has
sa.et2 and good "lanning so as to avoid the mis.ort+nes that are alread2 *eing e7"erienced. En.orcing the
"rovisions as sti"+lated *2 the code o. "ractice .orms a sane "lat.orm .or ado"ting and im"lementing it.
Colla*orating with other relevant sectors will also .orm a *asis o. sensiti;ing on the +sage o. the code
co+ntr2wide. 62 la2ing down a well .ormat timeline .or ado"ting( im"lementing and reviewing the code o.
"ractice( its e..ect will *e o*served with ease. 62 in
learning instit+tions o..ering co+rses relating to *+ilding and civil engineering will .orm a .+t+re "lan .or its +se.

(e6erences
0)I&0B0( S. ).( )1A1N51-6I3%NCE( -. / %!I( @. -. $9E5.
Ed+cational 6oo<s.
6SI( 6ritish Standard Instit+te. 20$4. E+rocodes O%nlineP. Aondon( 1). 0vaila*le8
htt"8GGsho".*sigro+".comGenG6rowse
CFEBE( @. 200'. 2 Economic Relations *etween )en2a
:ig+re 48 S+mmar2 o. code o. "ractice Im"lementation "rocess

05$4 %nline#
29
e code in the *+ilding and civil engineering c+rric+l+m all over the co+ntr2. 3his im"lies
that the "ro.essionals in the "+*lic wor<s and the ed+cational instit+tes sho+ld *e trained on its +sage.
0lso c+stomi;ed training *2 di..erent instit+tions to alread2 "racticing engineers and other e7"erts can
also act as a wa2 o. disseminating in.ormation. 3he .or+ms o. di..erent material man+.act+ring
com"anies sho+ld also .orm some *asis o. sensiti;ing on its +se.
3he "ersonnel dealing with the im"lementation o. the code sho+ld *e certi.ied in carr2ing o+t vario+s
.+nctions sti"+lated in the code. Standard "ro.icienc2 e7ams .rom a standard *od2 sho+ld *e carried o+t
and iss+e a recogni;ed certi.icate in the +se o. the code. 3he "ersonnel to *e certi.
d+ties and *e .amiliar in handling matters related to the code.
3he code sho+ld *e reviewed a.ter a s"eci.ic "eriod o. time as agreed +"on. 3his is done to enhance and
ma<e changes o. the c+rrent iss+es which might have not *een stated "revio+sl2 andGor are a..ecting the
code ado"tion. @ost o. the *+ilding codes are reviewed a.ter ever2 three 2ears.
0 monitoring s2stem sho+ld *e esta*lished on re"orting on the .+nctionalit2 o. the code to the
"artments .rom ever2 co+nt2 to the 6+ilding 0+thorit2. 3his will hel" in eval+ating the
vario+s "rovisions on the code and how the code is ado"ted and +tili;ed on vario+s sections o. the
ho+sing econom2 and other related sectors. 3he re"ort sho+ld *e according to categories o. the code
3he code o. "ractice sho+ld have legal o*ligations on all the "arties concerned. 3his will hel" in its
im"lementation and the "arties who act contrar2 to the "rovisions on the code sha
6+ilding code o. "ractice serves as an instr+ment o. g+iding and re.orming the *+ilding sector in an2 econom2.
5isasters as .ire which are d+e to "oor "lanning and .ail+re o. str+ct+res sho+ld not ha""en as long as we have
an e..icient and e..ective s2stem o. chec<ing on o+r *+ilding "lans and the sector in general. 3he .ail+re o.
str+ct+res d+e to "oor wor<manshi"( "oor constr+ction "ractices( aging o. str+ct+res and .ail+re to adhere to
sions on material s"eci.ications sho+ld not *e as ram"ant as c+rrentl2 *eing o*served. 3he vario+s
sta<eholders and administrative a+thorities need to "er.orm their d+ties in c+r*ing the illegal str+ct+res
m+shrooming in the cities. Ignoring the sa.et2 o. these str+ct+res is an invitation to a large scale disaster. 0ll the
a+thorities? concerned in the im"lementation o. the code needs to "la2 their "art and stic< to their "rovisions to
ens+re sa.et2 in constr+ction .ield. 3he "ro"osed *+ilding a+thorit2 has to reg+late the ind+str2 and "romote
sa.et2 and good "lanning so as to avoid the mis.ort+nes that are alread2 *eing e7"erienced. En.orcing the
"rovisions as sti"+lated *2 the code o. "ractice .orms a sane "lat.orm .or ado"ting and im"lementing it.
rating with other relevant sectors will also .orm a *asis o. sensiti;ing on the +sage o. the code
co+ntr2wide. 62 la2ing down a well .ormat timeline .or ado"ting( im"lementing and reviewing the code o.
"ractice( its e..ect will *e o*served with ease. 62 incl+ding the +se o. the code in the c+rric+l+m o. higher
learning instit+tions o..ering co+rses relating to *+ilding and civil engineering will .orm a .+t+re "lan .or its +se.
6I3%NCE( -. / %!I( @. -. $9E5. (ocal authorities in )enya
6SI( 6ritish Standard Instit+te. 20$4. E+rocodes O%nlineP. Aondon( 1). 0vaila*le8
htt"8GGsho".*sigro+".comGenG6rowse-*2-S+*DectGE+rocodesG O0ccessed 0EG04 20$4P.
CFEBE( @. 200'. 2 Economic Relations *etween )en2a and China( $9'4Q2007. 3he B+ardian Aondon#.
8 S+mmar2 o. code o. "ractice Im"lementation "rocess
www.iiste.org
e code in the *+ilding and civil engineering c+rric+l+m all over the co+ntr2. 3his im"lies
that the "ro.essionals in the "+*lic wor<s and the ed+cational instit+tes sho+ld *e trained on its +sage.
d2 "racticing engineers and other e7"erts can
also act as a wa2 o. disseminating in.ormation. 3he .or+ms o. di..erent material man+.act+ring
ementation o. the code sho+ld *e certi.ied in carr2ing o+t vario+s
.+nctions sti"+lated in the code. Standard "ro.icienc2 e7ams .rom a standard *od2 sho+ld *e carried o+t
and iss+e a recogni;ed certi.icate in the +se o. the code. 3he "ersonnel to *e certi.ied sho+ld <now their
3he code sho+ld *e reviewed a.ter a s"eci.ic "eriod o. time as agreed +"on. 3his is done to enhance and
have not *een stated "revio+sl2 andGor are a..ecting the

0 monitoring s2stem sho+ld *e esta*lished on re"orting on the .+nctionalit2 o. the code to the
"artments .rom ever2 co+nt2 to the 6+ilding 0+thorit2. 3his will hel" in eval+ating the
vario+s "rovisions on the code and how the code is ado"ted and +tili;ed on vario+s sections o. the
ding to categories o. the code
3he code o. "ractice sho+ld have legal o*ligations on all the "arties concerned. 3his will hel" in its
im"lementation and the "arties who act contrar2 to the "rovisions on the code shall .ace legal actions

6+ilding code o. "ractice serves as an instr+ment o. g+iding and re.orming the *+ilding sector in an2 econom2.
not ha""en as long as we have
an e..icient and e..ective s2stem o. chec<ing on o+r *+ilding "lans and the sector in general. 3he .ail+re o.
str+ct+res d+e to "oor wor<manshi"( "oor constr+ction "ractices( aging o. str+ct+res and .ail+re to adhere to
sions on material s"eci.ications sho+ld not *e as ram"ant as c+rrentl2 *eing o*served. 3he vario+s
sta<eholders and administrative a+thorities need to "er.orm their d+ties in c+r*ing the illegal str+ct+res
these str+ct+res is an invitation to a large scale disaster. 0ll the
a+thorities? concerned in the im"lementation o. the code needs to "la2 their "art and stic< to their "rovisions to
to reg+late the ind+str2 and "romote
sa.et2 and good "lanning so as to avoid the mis.ort+nes that are alread2 *eing e7"erienced. En.orcing the
"rovisions as sti"+lated *2 the code o. "ractice .orms a sane "lat.orm .or ado"ting and im"lementing it.
rating with other relevant sectors will also .orm a *asis o. sensiti;ing on the +sage o. the code
co+ntr2wide. 62 la2ing down a well .ormat timeline .or ado"ting( im"lementing and reviewing the code o.
cl+ding the +se o. the code in the c+rric+l+m o. higher
learning instit+tions o..ering co+rses relating to *+ilding and civil engineering will .orm a .+t+re "lan .or its +se.
ties in )enya( Feinemann
6SI( 6ritish Standard Instit+te. 20$4. E+rocodes O%nlineP. Aondon( 1). 0vaila*le8
2007. 3he B+ardian Aondon#.
Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-5790 !a"er# ISSN 2225-05$4 %nline#
&ol.'( No.5( 20$4

40
CFENB( :. 1sing 6+ilding Codes and Standards to Im"rove the Constr+ction N+alit2 and Sa.et2.
C%EC)EA6ERBF( @. 200'. Reg+lation or res"onsi*ilit2M 0+tonom2( moral imagination( and engineering.
Science( 3echnolog2 / F+man &al+es( 4$( 247-2'0.
E6)( 3. 20$4. 3he mandate o. the 6oard O%nlineP. 0vaila*le8 htt"8GGwww.e*<.or.<eGa*o+te*<."h" O0ccessed $5th
0"ril 20$4P.
:1N5I IS00C S0NE-1( N. ). @.( !R%: R.N @131)1. 3he shortcoming o. 6+ilding Code and its im"act
in )en2a Constr+ction Ind+str2 at Co+nt2 level. In8 IE)( ed.( @a2 20$$.
BE50( 0.( 5E K%NB( N.( @-061( B. / )I@ENCI( @. S. 200$. 5eterminants o. "overt2 in )en2a8 0
ho+sehold level anal2sis. ISS -or<ing !a"er SeriesGBeneral Series( 447( $-20.
F10NB( -.-A.( AIN( 5.-F.( CF0NB( N.-6. / AIN( ).-S. 2002. Rec2cling o. constr+ction and demolition
waste via a mechanical sorting "rocess. Reso+rces( Conservation and Rec2cling( 47( 24-47.
IN51S3RC( @. %. 3. 0. 2004. Fand*oo< in Im"orting and E7"orting in )en2a.
KF0( 0. ). / 51CNE( K. E. 20$0. Sa.er homes( stronger comm+nities8 a hand*oo< .or reconstr+cting a.ter
nat+ral disasters( -orld 6an< !+*lications.
)E6S. 20$$. )en2a 6+rea+ o. Standards O%nlineP. )en2a. 0vaila*le8 htt"8GGwww.<e*s.orgG O0ccessed $5th @a2
20$4P.
)ENC0( A. %. ). 20$0. 3he Constit+tion o. )en2a( Bovernment !rinter( )en2a.
)I6ER3( C. K. 20$2. S+staina*le constr+ction8 green *+ilding design and deliver2( wile2.
)SC%5E( ). 6. %. S. ). 2009. )S Code8 6+ilding Code o. the Re"+*lic o. )en2a.
@0K0AE( @. 0n integrated a""roach to +r*an ho+sing develo"ment8 has a case *een made. 1r*an Research
S2m"osi+m( 2004. Citeseer( $5-$7.
@03S1SFI30( @.( SCF%EN601@( 3. K. / @0&R%I5IS( !. C. 200'. 3he -orld 3rade %rgani;ation( %7.ord
1niversit2 !ress.
@INIS3RC %: A%C0A B%&ERN@EN3( ). $9'9. 6+ilding Code8 3he Aocal Bovernment 0do"tive 62-laws#
*+ilding# %rder $9'E8 0nd 3he Aocal Bovernment ado"tive 62-laws# grade II 6+ilding# %rder $9'E(
Bovernment !rinter.
NE3FERC%3( 5. 0. 0do"ting the Str+ct+ral E+rocodes. Str+ct+res Congress 20059 s@etro"olis and 6e2ond(
2005. 0SCE( $-$4.
NC0NB-ES%( @. %. 2007. )en2a8 0 6+ilding Reg+lator2 S2stem Bone Fa2wire. 6+ilding Sa.et2 Ko+rnal.
SF0!IR%( S. $997. 5egrees o. .reedom8 the interaction o. standards o. "ractice and engineering D+dgment.
Science( 3echnolog2 / F+man &al+es( 22( 2E'-4$'.
C0FC0( S.( 0BE&I( E.( A%-E( A.( @1B%&0( 0. / @1S0N51-NC0@0C0R%( %. 200$. 5o+*le standards
single "+r"ose8 re.orming ho+sing reg+lations to red+ce "overt2.


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