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General Robert Monro

17th Century Scottish Military Professional & Soldier of Faith

By William S. Brockington, Jr.
The Usage of Scottish Mercenaries
by the Anti-Imperial Forces
in the Thirty Years’ War
WSB: William S. Brockington, Jr. Master’s Thesis: The Usage of Scottish Mercenaries by the Anti-Imperial Forces in
the Thirty Years’ War {USM}. Submitted in partial ulillment o the re!uirements or the "egree o Master o #rts in
the "epartment o $istor%, &ni'ersit% o South (arolina: )*+,.
Sub scribitur:
John -atrick "olan, -h" .Rheinische Frierich-Wilhelms-Uni!ersit"t Bonn, )*//0, Thesis "irector.
-eter W. Becker M# .-h", Stanord &ni'ersit%, )*1)0, Second 2eader.
$.W. "a'is, -h", "ean o the 3raduate School.
&pdated, 2e'ised and 4dited: )*+*567)).
8 #ll rights reser'ed, William S. Brockington. -osted at #ugust 67)6
#!er!ie$ of %erio &'())*'+)),.............................................................................................................................. :
Chapter I .........Se!enteenth--entury Warfare........................................................................................................);
Chapter II ........#utbrea. of the Thirty Years’ War an /anish Inter!ention.........................................................66
Chapter III ......0usta!us Aolphus of S$een Inter!enes.....................................................................................:/
Chapter IV ......The 1n of the Thirty Years’ War...................................................................................................;1
Chapter V ........1pilogue an -onclusion.............................................................................................................../1
Appendix 1.......Scottish #fficers Abroa an at 2ome..........................................................................................+1
Appendix 2.......Authori3e 4e!ies5 '6'7*'687.......................................................................................................1:
WSB. The Usage of Scottish Mercenaries by the Anti-Imperial Forces in the Thirty Years’ War .67)60
Overview of the Early Modern Era (1500–100!
(onte<t is critical or understanding histor%. Since conte<t in a historical 9ork is oten either presumed
.hopeull% not assumed0, o'erlooked .not kno9n to an author0, omitted .at times, deliberatel%0 or glossed
o'er, an o'er'ie9 can help keep ideas, persons and e'ents in order. The 4arl% Modern 4ra {EME} contained
m%riad simultaneous =2e'olutions’ 5 each o 9hich aected dierent people .all classes0 and dierent states
.hundreds o 9hich e<isted in the 4M40 in dierent 9a%s 5 all o 9hich are almost impossible to
include>incorporate 9hen attempting to pro'ide conte<t. This o'er'ie9 considers some o the most important
actors>themes o the 4M4: political>constitutional conlicts, conrontations and alterations? social lu< and
pressures .class structure @ social mobilit%0? the emergence o a global econom%? religious and intellectual
challenges? and militar% change>re'olution. &SM is an eort to e<plain ho9 and 9h% these themes interace
9ith each other and ho9 a speciic group o people 5 the militar% entrepreneur .more speciicall%, the
Scottish =mercenaries’0 5 9ere aected b% or, in some 9a%, aected the enormous paradigm shits occurring
in 4urope throughout the 4M4. The o'er'ie9 is taken rom 'arious Stud% 3uides {SG} 9hich A de'eloped
o'er the decades or m% students. #t some point these learning aids are To Be -osted {TBP}.
Throughout the earl% modern period the dual themes o the centraliBation o state po9er and the de'elopment
o capitalism 9ere 'ital components in the creation o the modern 9orld. The limitations o eudalism in an
epoch o re'olutionar% change produced a desire b% dierent groups Ccertain corporations, cities, pro'inces,
social classes, and the uni'ersal churchD, each 9ith di'erse moti'ations Cprotection o ancient rights and
liberties or the ac!uisition o ne9 rights and libertiesD or greater stabilit% and less disorder 9ithin the
embr%onic stateEs%stems then in e<istence. The d%nasticEterritorial state {DTS}, the orm o stateEs%stem
then in e<istence, 9as precisel% that: a ruling amil% claimed so'ereignt% o'er geographic areas 9hich rarel%
contained man% centriugal orces. Fre!uentl% nonEcontiguous, di'isions>elements o a kingdom 9ere urther
separated b% dierent languages,
la9s, customs, 9eights and measures, et al. -oor or nonEe<istent
transportation C2oman roads 9ere still the bestD and communication net9orks hampered de'elopment o
ro%al bureaucracies. Gther centripetal orces Cthus impediments to claims o absolute authorit%D included
ancient rights and liberties enHo%ed b% certain corporations, cities, pro'inces, social classes, and the uni'ersal
church 9ithin each state. 2enaissance ideas and ideals pro'ided theoretical oundations or a more po9erul
5 as 9ell as a constitutionall% limited 5 monarch%.

Struggles or po9er regarding the parameters o ro%al authorit% 5 ho9 much po9er to the monarch and 9hat
kind o checks and balances 9ere necessar% 5 occurred throughout 4urope. The most re!uent struggles or
po9er resulted rom attempts to centraliBe the po9er o the state. Gb'iousl%, rulers preerred absolute po9er
9ithin a centraliBed state.
# monarch desirous o such po9er aced numerous diiculties, not the least o
9hich 9ere aristocratic pri'ileges and the uni'ersal church .oten a state 9ithin the state0. Iea'ing either
StandardiBation o national languages 9as onl% in the ormati'e stage throughout 4urope. See WSB, =(eltic Britain’ 9hich is
Theoretical ' real po9er is a throughout the 4M4. At 9as an issue oten settled b% 9ar.
"i'ine right monarch% 9as a orm o ro%al absolutism. The se'enteenthEcentur% doctrine o the di'ine right o kings asserted
that the monarch’s po9er 9as paternal and absolute, 9as not subHect to appro'al b% an% constitutional organism, 9as deri'ed
rom Biblical authorit% and 9as an e<tension o 3od’s po9er on earth.
uncontested or unregulated 9as simpl% unthinkable. (ontrolling such po9erul opponents meant that
4uropean kings and princes had to be cautious, e'en Machia'ellian, in their political acti'ities i the% 9ere to
o'ercome such limitations. Gne tactic included utiliBing members o the middle class in go'ernment, 9hich
ga'e the appearance o oering opportunit% or up9ard mobilit% through ser'ice to the state. B% the late
iteenthEcentur%, despite inade!uate bureaucracies and limited re'enue rom traditional sources, some rulers
9ere establishing increasingl% eecti'e and authoritati'e central go'ernments.
But it 9as a personaliBed
.not institutionaliBed as in a dictatorship0 despotism o'er their subHects. #nd each "TS 9as dierent, that is,
there 9ere hundreds o constitutional paradigms during the 4M4.
(oncomitantl%, the emergence o merchant capitalism 9as a 'ital actor 9ithin each constitutional paradigm.
An mercantile .#tlantic0 states, support or a stronger central authorit% 9as initiall% supported b% an emerging
middle class because o the promise o a diminution o domestic turbulence .greater internal stabilit%0 and
the emergence o an en'ironment more conduci'e to economic gro9th. Gn the other hand, a "TS 9ith little
e<ternal trade 9as ar less aected b% this actor? central and eastern 4urope remained landElocked and landE
oriented 9ell into the t9entiethEcentur%. This does not mean, ho9e'er, that the% 9ere unaected b% the
orces changing 4urope. The dramatic increase o specie o'er the si<teenthEcentur% triggered a price
re'olution, 9hich, in turn, led to a more rele'ant middle class and a relati'el% less po9erul .and cashE
strapped0 upper class.
Anlation hammered all classes, but most hurt 9ere those dependent upon traditional
re'enue sources 9hich remained relati'el% lat>i<ed>stationar%.

# promising source o ne9 re'enue or rulers 9as an increase in economic regulations implemented b% the
state. #s a source o po9er, control o the econom% o the "TS 9as considered essential or e'er%
se'enteenthE and eighteenthEcentur% go'ernment. To enhance economic control, as 9ell as to tap this
potentiall% lucrati'e income source, policies .later collecti'el% termed mercantilism0 designed to control a
state’s economic eorts 9ere introduced. $olding orth the promise o income on a scale hitherto impossible,
these policies included: go'ernment subsidies, grants o monopolies, building go'ernmentErun industries,
establishing protecti'e taris and possessing .and completel% dominating the economic lie o0 colonies, Jot
coincidentall%, such policies 9ere also intended to make a state selEsuicient and to ampli% monarchical
po9er. Amplementation o such a s%stem depended upon a number o actors, not least o 9hich 9as the
e<tent o absolutism then possessed b% the 9ouldEbe mone%EcBar. 2o%al iat 9as preerable to negotiating
9ith interested parties, hence the nature o mercantilism 'aried 9idel% rom state to state. #lthough the
middle class 9as the primar% inancial beneiciar% o the 9orld’s irst trul% global econom%, their costs Cand
proitsD escalated as monarchs C9ho 'ie9ed income produced 'ia mercantilism as their personal cash co9D
hit their pocketbooks 9ith numerous ta<es. $a'ing little or no political po9er themsel'es, it 9as the% to
9hom the radical ideas o constitutionalism most appealed.
The Weltanschauung o 4M4 9as dramaticall% altered b% the #ge o 4<ploration and (oloniBation, or it
9as an e<pansion o societies, not Hust o groups. 2ecords 9ere kept, maps 9ere made, and colonies 9ere
established and controlled. More territor% 9as co'ered and ar more rapidl% than e'er beore, as, or the irst
Which encouraged other rulers in their eorts 5 9ork in progress 5 al9a%s.
For the debate regarding the -rice 2e'olution, see Braudel @ Spooner, =-rices in 4urope’ in (4c$4 ;: :1;5;,+.
Bet9een )/;7 and )+77 general ood prices increase ,77K C2osalind Mitchison, A 2istory of Scotlan .Iondon, )*170, p. ):,D.
Bet9een )/+7 and )+77 general prices increased /775+77K 9hile 9ages increased onl% ;775/77K. CSome9here in Smout,
Scottish %eople, Scotlan an 1urope or Scottish Trae, LLD.
time, people o the West crossed the great oceans o the 9orld. At carried Westerners outside the orbit o the
Mediterranean 9orld, hitherto controlled b% Atalians, B%Bantines and Moslems. At placed them in ne9 and
unamiliar contact 9ith a be9ildering 'ariet% o races, creeds and cultures. Because o superior organiBation,
technological strength and dri'e, Westerners e<tended their po9er and inluence throughout the 9orld. There
9as no single Western center, rather a number o competing centers, each perectl% 9illing to cut the throats
o the others. Met this deadl% ri'alr% neither 9eakened nor dela%ed the processes o con!uest and e<pansion?
indeed, it enhanced and accelerated it. B% )177 the e<pansion o 4urope aected almost e'er% part o the
9orld. At is important to note that these 9ere not =Je9 Worlds’ 9hich 9ere con!uered or there e<isted
thri'ing cultures and ci'iliBations throughout the areas o 4uropean contact. Technolog%, especiall%
9eaponr%, allo9ed Westerners to deeat, control and>or destro% man% o the peoples contacted. Within
4urope itsel, eudalism 9ithered under the multiple impacts o the -rice 2e'olution, the strengthening "TS
monarchs, and the rising middle classes 9ho possessed the mone% made during the (ommercial 2e'olution.
An sum, the inlu< o imported goods and bullion stimulated entrepreneurial ambitions and economic gro9th
throughout Western 4urope, especiall% o the #tlantic nations. Simultaneousl%, it stimulated dreams o
political po9er 9ithin their nati'e "TS.
=2enaissance’ means 2ebirth. 2enaissance scholars proHected a 'ie9 o histor% that 9as c%clical, and the%
considered their o9n era as one o rene9al.
(auses o the 2enaissance include the inluence o the 3reek
and 2oman ci'iliBations, the gro9th o a critical and skeptical attitude, and increased commerce. The
2enaissance began in Atal% because cit% lie 9as 9ell ad'anced in Atal%, people had the 9ealth to culti'ate the
arts, 2oman roads and monuments intensiied the Atalians’ links to their 2oman past, and Atal% contained
man% ancient manuscripts. The cities o northern Atal% 9ere particularl% signiicant due to their banking and
commercial centers? the% had the mone% to pa% or the things the% 9anted. #s the Middle #ges dre9 to a
close, the northern Atalian cit%Estates de'eloped go'ernments dominated b% indi'idual strong men. These
cities competed 9ith each other militaril% and culturall%. The most signiicant political realist in the =School
o 4urope’ 9as JiccolN Machia'elli, 9hose political ideals called or the ruler to combine intelligence 9ith
ruthlessness or the good o the state. Machia'elli ad'ocated and>or recommended in The %rince and The Art
of War that success 9as based on orce, thereore politics should be di'orced rom moralit% altogether, that a
po9erul monarch .o the kind alread% ound in states like France0 should be selected to re'i'e Atal%’s glor%,
and that a state’s e<istence must depend, in the last resort, on strength in 9ar. #lthough the classical re'i'al
began in the northern Atalian to9ns, it soon radiated to other areas. Scholars rom throughout 4urope came to
Atalian uni'ersities to stud% and took the ideas home 9ith them. The eects o the classical re'i'al 9ere
re'olutionar% 9here'er seeds 9ere planted. $umanistic attitudes impacted political thought, social
structures, religious belies, and economic de'elopment. (hange begat change as the Medie'al West 9as
transormed into the 4arl% Modern West.
The monumental religious uphea'al that oiciall% began in )/)1 is still, e'en /77 %ears later, a highl%
contro'ersial matter. 4'en the name is in dispute or, to a -rotestant, it 9as the 2eormation and, to a
(atholic, it 9as the -rotestant 2e'olt. When the uni'ersal church reormed itsel, it 9as their 2eormation? to
-rotestants, it 9as merel% the (ounterE2eormation. Jo matter the terminolog%, it 9as a maHor intellectual,
social, political, and economic uphea'al in 9estern 4urope 9hich, in some areas, still continues. 4arl%
religious reormers did not intend re'olution 5 the% 9ere religious crusaders 9ho 9ished to return to the
WSB. Senior Thesis: =2enaissance Ouestions’ .)*++0.
ideals>ideas o the true (hurch o earliest (hristianit%. $o9e'er, the belies the% s%mboliBed and the orces
the% set in motion did constitute a re'olution o great magnitude. #lthough the 2eormation is stated to ha'e
begun in )/)1, the orces that caused it go back man% centuries. The uni'ersal (hurch 9as corrupt, but
9ealth%? the "TS 9anted to control the church, and its 9ealth? the middle class used the 2eormation to
Husti% 'arious practices? the 2enaissance set in motion a number o humanistic challenges to the doctrinal
bases o the Iatin church? and, perhaps most importantl%, there 9ere religious reormers 9ho trul% sought
sal'ation, 9ithin the church i possible, but outside it i necessar%.
Martin Iuther .);,/5)/;+0 9as a de'out #ugustinian monk 9ho possessed one o the greatest minds o that,
or an% era. $is !uarrel 9ith his ecclesiastical superiors 9as o'er one o the oldest tensions in (hristian
thought, that bet9een aith and good 9orks. When Iuther posted his */ Theses, he had no clear intention o
setting up a separate religious bod%, but the challenged papal orces stiened their resistance 9hich, in turn,
orced the Iutherans into urther resistance. &nder papal pressure, Iuther took an e'er more e<treme .not to
-aul, his mentor? to the papac%0 position: man is sa'ed b% aith alone. From this ollo9ed the denial o other
catholic essentials: priests, papac%, et al. Iuther 9as successul or man% reasons: his theolog% 9as 9ell
presented? his supporters 9ere signiicant, especiall% Frederick the Wise .a -rotestant appellation0 o
Iuther’s nati'e Sa<on%? 3ermans resented the Atalian papac%? 3erman princes sa9 an opportunit% to usurp
urther po9er rom the 4mperor as 9ell as take rom the (hurch? the in'ention o mo'able t%pe spread his
ideas so rapidl% that the (hurch could not resist eecti'el%? there 9as no champion or the papac% at the
critical moment? and the $ol% 2oman {HR: 2PmischE"eutscher } 4mperor {KaiserD, (harles Q CSpanish:
(arlos A? "utch: Rarel Q? 3erman: Rarl Q? Atalian: (arlo QD .)/775)//,0, 9as a %oung bo% 9ho could not,
or 9ould not assert himsel, at least initiall%, 9hen it 9ould ha'e been possible to ha'e dealt 9ith the
At 9as John (al'in .)/7*5)/+;0 9ho shaped -rotestantism into a aith instead o a struggle o'er dogma.
Born in France, the %oung la9%er led to 3ene'a 9hen his theological 'ie9s, 9hich 9ere much along the
lines o Iuther, 9ere considered heretical as 9ell as threatening to the state. An 3ene'a (al'in created a
theocrac% 9hich he ruled 9ith an iron hand until his death. Ministers and elders .presb%ters0 9ere entrusted
9ith the go'ernment o his church. (al'in’s great 9ork, The Institutes of the -hristian Religion .)/:+0,
spelled out his belies. $e agreed that aith 9as e<alted abo'e 9orks, but the core o his doctrine 9as the
principle o predestination. 3od 9as omnipotent and omniscient? so being, 3od kne9 the past, the present,
and the uture. $ence, certain souls are =elect’ and are sa'ed? nothing can be done to change one’s destin%.
(al'in insisted that the elect act 9isel% simpl% because the% are sa'ed, and not because o some ulterior, and
human, moti'e. $e belie'ed that hard 9ork, rugalit%, austerit%, thrit, and other 'irtues 9ere innate in the
elect? he also belie'ed that po'ert% 9as a sign o 3od’s displeasure. (al'inism appealed to the gro9ing
middle class or it 'alidated man% o their practices. Within a generation (al'inism had spread throughout
Western 4urope .and 9ere kno9n b% 'arious names in dierent states: $uguenots, -resb%terians, -uritans,
"utch 2eormed, and (al'inists0, becoming in the process the d%namic -rotestant orce o the centur% ater
)//7. (al'inists 9ent about doing 3od’s 9ork, and their o9n. The% most clearl% s%mboliBe that 9hich has
been called the =-rotestant Work 4thic’ or the =spirit o capitalism.’ B% so doing the% helped make the
(ommercial and Andustrial 2e'olutions possible, and thus too the modern 9orld.
# single state religion 9as considered essential to a ruler’s political authorit%. An 'ogue 9as a ne9 statecrat
principle, that o church and state being one and not separate as in medie'al times. S%mboliBing this tenet
9as the phrase: cu;us regio5 eius religio
.o 9hom the region, o his the religion0, that is, the ruler
determined the religion o his people. This meant ha'ing eecti'e control o'er the state church. An a state
church, clerics became unctionaries o the state and minions o the rule? it oten meant enhancement o
absolute authorit% 9ith their conni'ance. 2eligious reorm mo'ements e<acerbated conlict b% orcing .or
encouraging0 secular rulers to deend a chosen 5 or mandated 5 religious status 9ithin their realms as 9ell as
to deal 9ith religious issues and choices in adHacent areas. The 2eormations o the si<teenthEcentur% 9ere
constitutional, economic, social and intellectual conrontations 9hich polariBed 4uropean states into three
maHor camps
5 4'angelisch>Iutheran, (al'inist, and (atholic. 2eligious 9ars .beginning in midEsi<teenth
centur%0 9ere commonplace. Se'eral 'ariations o state religion emerged: .)0 ruler as supreme head o the
church, e.g., France .3allican 9as (atholic 9ith a t9ist0 , S9eden .Iutheran0
and 4ngland .#nglican 9as
(atholic 9ithout papal authorit%0? .60 ruler as all% o church, e.g. $absburgs .Spanish and #ustrian0 and the
pope plus the JesuitsD, 9hereb% the state church unctioned as a department o the state Creligion used to
controlD? and .:0 ruler 9orking through the church 5 (al'inist. Jotice that no9here, sa'e in 2ome, is there
mention o temporal role or the papac%. 2eligious conlict during the 4M4 conHoined theological and
constitutional debates 5 a state church or separation o church and state, 9ith conrontations throughout
4urope being remarkabl% similar.
The (atholic 2eormation>(ounterE2eormation 9as the reaction o the (atholic (hurch against the
2eormation. The oicial 2oman church response to the initial phase o the 2eormation 9as dela%ed
because o a lack o 'igorous leadership in the papac%, a ailure to realiBe the seriousness o the re'olt, and
attempts at conciliation. The (ouncil o Trent .)/;+5)/+:0 clariied doctrine and made (hurch organiBations
more eicient. The (ouncil o Trent: inaugurated reorms in church administration and discipline?
condemned such practices as simon%, nepotism, lu<urious li'ing, and the sale o religious oices? and
eliminated the unrestricted sale o indulgences. "octrinall%, the (ouncil o Trent airmed: the realit% o
purgator%, the 'alidit% o good 9orks, o the need or thought control b% the (hurch. To accomplish this last,
it reorganiBed the Ine< of %rohibite 4iterature and proposed the %rofessio fiei Trientina. At most
assuredl% did not compromise 9ith the -rotestants on matters o doctrine. Gne o the main accomplishments
o the (atholic 2eormation 9as increased control o the (hurch b% dedicated clerg%men? the shock troops
o the (atholic 2eormation came rom the Societ% o Jesus, or the Jesuits, ounded b% Agnatius o !"#"$a
CAgnacio de Io%olaD .);*)5)//+0 in )/:*. Their attitude to9ard the (atholic (hurch, as stated b% Io%ola,
9as as ollo9s: =A she Cthe (hurchD shall ha'e deined an%thing to be black 9hich to our e%es appears to be
9hite, 9e ought in like manner to pronounce it black.’
Jesuits 9ere signiicant missionaries and educators
because o their dedication and de'otion to (atholicism. #s the Jesuit order gre9 in po9er and importance, it
The phrase is belie'ed to ha'e been coined in )/,6 b% Joachim Stephani .)/;;5)+6:0 o the &ni'ersit% o
3reis9ald. At ma% not ha'e been stated so succinctl% at the -eace o #ugsburg .)///0, but it 9as the intent o the
While this is ar too simplistic, it 9ill suice or no9.
3usta' A o S9eden C3usta' QasaD .);*+ 5)/+70 created a S9edish national church at the same time $enr% QAAA
created the #nglican (hurch. For similar reasons each e<pelled papal inluence but retained (atholic orms.
Agnatius Io%ola, =Spiritual 4<ercises, 2ule ):’ in Bettenson, /ocuments, p. 6+.
became contro'ersial as it continuall% meddled in the internal political aairs o (atholic countries and 9as
e'entuall% banished rom most o the (atholic nations o 4urope.
The (atholic 2eormation 9as most successul in areas 9here 2oman (atholicism continued .$absburg
lands0 and 9here (atholic monarchs supported Jesuit acti'ities. Some areas o success 9ere -oland,
Bohemia, $ungar%, Areland, Southern Jetherlands, and Ba'aria. The heritage o the (ounterE2eormation
included: a ne9 'igorous spiritual orce propagated b% (atholic theologians 9ho returned to scholasticism
%et ackno9ledged the dignit% o human reason? the spread o literac% due to the educational acti'ities o
'arious monastic orders and religious societies, especiall% the Jesuits? and the gro9th o charitable acti'ities
9ith emphasis on good 9orks. The (atholic 2eormation succeeded in preser'ing and rein'igorating
undamental (atholic belies. But, 9hile the 2oman (atholic 2eormation halted the urther spread o
-rotestantism in 4urope, it 9as able to regain relati'el% little territor% that had been lost to the -rotestants. To
summariBe, the 2eormations did all o the ollo9ing: strengthened the authorit% o the state o'er its people?
re'i'ed an interest in religion, but one based on authorit%? contributed to the rise o the middle class?
stimulated capitalism b% making interest and the in'estment o capital respectable? led to terrible religious
9ars? and 9as e'en relected in the struggles o 4uropean nations in the contest or areas o the =Je9 World’.
2egarding the inluence o the 2enaissance and 2eormation on Western (hristendom, (hristianit% 9as at
irst threatened b% the 2enaissance o secularism but 9as later re'italiBed b% the -rotestant and 2oman
(atholic 2eormations, 9hich the 2enaissance helped to pro'oke. The 2enaissance and the 2eormation can
be compared to each other in that both 9ere related to the gro9th o capitalism and the rise o the middle
The standing arm% 9as arguabl% the most persuasi'e acilitator o paradigm shits in earl% modern 4urope.

$a'ing one allo9ed>pro'ided an opportunit% or a ruler to control dissident elements 9ithin a state? lack o
one meant a ruler could neither control, deend nor e<pand his>her realm. Since a successul 9ar, be it
domestic or oreign, usuall% resulted in enhanced authorit% or monarchs, it 9as thus !uite tempting or
rulers to attempt to e<pand their spheres o control b% using their ne9 to%s .the standing armies0
aggressi'el%. 2aising and maintaining one 9as the problem, or a standing arm% raised !uestions such as:
aordabilit% Cback to mercantilism? ta<ation? bureaucrac%D? ho9 large? 9here to station it>them .i se'eral0?
rom 9hence the rank and ile? and 9ho stas itL #s it e'ol'ed, the standing arm% became a 'ital component
in monarchical control o nobilit%? let the nobles command the arm% and ser'e the state. With inlation
hammering them, a militar% career 9as perect or %ounger sons o nobles, hence the militar% entrepreneur.
#s 9ith the state church, nobles became s%cophants>parasites>dependent upon the largesse o the state 5 and
ardent supporters o the ne9 status =uo. An this 9a%, in most o 4urope, the eudal nobilit% maintained itsel
in a position o strength into modern times. The nature o 9arare changed radicall% during the 4M4. Wars
9ere no longer a single battle or campaign? 9ars became %earEround acti'ities and 9orldE9ide in scope. This
necessitated inno'ations in logistics, tactics, 9eapon technolog%, and troop discipline. 2e!uired 9as a
support s%stem to mo'e e!uipment and to suppl% troops. Iogistics pro'ided li'ing ne%essars
, or
entertainment, and made it less necessar% or soldiers to orage 5 or to straggle. Throughout the 4M4, and
# true national arm% does not appear until the French 2e'olution. What emerges during this period is the standing arm%. More on
this TB-.
#lthough necessar is merel% a Scottish 'ariant o necessar%, its militar% connotation deines that 9hich is needed to
keep a militar% orce unctioning.
especiall% bet9een )//7 and )+/7, 'irtuall% e'er% state o Western 4urope 9as in'ol'ed in 9ar, either ci'il
or international, oten both.
Gn the continent, a prime instigator o 9ar throughout the si<teenthE and se'enteenthEcenturies 9as the
$absburg amil%>d%nast%, 9hich claimed suBeraint% o'er the largest 4uropean "TS since (harlemagne
The si<teenthEcentur% is oten called the Spanish centur%, but a more accurate name 9ould be the $absburg
centur% or that d%nast% controlled the arElung empire under their direct or indirect control. An Spain ro%al
po9er increased as a result o the Spanish An!uisition, militant (atholicism, control o the Aberian -eninsula,
and 9ealth rom the #mericas. (harles Q ruled the largest 4uropean empire since the time o (harlemagne?
and Spanish strength in the second hal o the si<teenthEcentur% 9as based on 9ealth rom the =Je9 World’,
an eicient bureaucrac%, a strong, eicient arm%, and the support o the papac%. Gpposing the gro9th o
$absburg po9er in 4urope 9ere the Qalois>Bourbon d%nast% o France, the Gttoman Turks, -rotestant
princes in the $24, the Tudors o 4ngland, and the (al'inists o the "utch 2epublic.
(harles Q abdicated
in )//+, di'iding the $absburg possessions among his son, -hilip AA o Spain .)/615)/*,0, and his brother,
Ferdinand A .)/7:5 r)//,5)/+;0 o the $24. -hilip had three goals: urther consolidation o ro%al
absolutism in Spain, urther e<tension o Spain’s inluence and domination, and championing (atholicism
against -rotestantism. Throughout his reign -hilip 9as plagued b% recurring re'olts b% the (al'inist
-rotestants o the D&t%h Rep&'$i% 5 oiciall% the 2epublic o the Se'en &nited Jetherlands C2epubliek der
Se'en Qerenigde JederlandenD. #s these rebels 9ere oten helped b% the 4nglish, he sent the =An'incible’
#rmada against 4ngland in )/,,. Sadl% or Spain, it 9as not unsinkable. Thereater Spain declined as a great
po9er because o its costl% oreign 9ars, the e<pulsion o the Je9s and Moors, and a decline in bullion
coming rom the Je9 World.
The $24
9as theoreticall% ruled b% the emperor but it 9as in realit% a conglomeration o 3erman states,
e9 o 9hich paid more than lipEser'ice to their nominal o'erlord.
The -rotestant 2eormation began there,
and 1!angelisch supporters, in addition to adhering to a reormed church, used their church as a cudgel
against the emperor as 9ell as a means o ac!uiring cash .coniscation o church properties0. Stirring the pot
9as the introduction o (al'inism, 9hich neither (atholics nor 1!angelisch recogniBed. Superimposed upon
this religious maelstrom 9ere #ustrian $absburg eorts trul% to become $2 emperors, to eliminate
# diplomatic principle 9hich 9ill emerge rom this opposition to $absburg hegemon% 9ill be that o =Balance o
-o9er’, 9hich reers to the un9ritten, albeit oten ollo9ed, tenet 9hich holds that no single po9er or group o
po9ers in 4urope can be permitted to de'elop enough strength to dominate all others.
Where 2M pursued his proession or o'er t9el'e %ears
There 9ere hundreds o states in 9hat 9as called the $ol% 2oman 4mpire, rom bishoprics like RPln and ree cities such as
$amburg to large states like Ba'aria. The $2 4mperor 9as little more than a titular ruler, or, b% the 3olden Bull o ):/+ the
position o 4mperor o the $24 9as electi'e. Se'en 4lectors .RurTrsten0 chose the =Ring o the 2omans’, 9ho 9ould then
.usuall%0 be cro9ned $2 4mperor b% the pope. Anitiall%, the se'en electors 9ere: =Three prelates Cthe archEchancellor o 3erman%
.MainB0, o 3aul and Burgund% .Trier0, and o Atal% .RPln>(ologne0D? the Bohemia cupbearer, the -alsgra'e seneschal, the
Sa<on% marshal, and the Brandenburg chamberlain.’ Br%ce, 2oly Roman 1mpire, 6;:. B% )+), the se'en electors included: three
ecclesiastical Cthe #rchbishop o MainB, the #rchbishop o Trier, and the #rchbishop o RPlnD and our secular Cthe Ring o
Bohemia .krUl VeskW, RPnig 'on BPhmen0 {also the $2 4mperor heir apparent}? the RurTrst>Margra'e o Brandenburg
.Markgra 'on Brandenburg0? the RurTrst >(ount -alatine o the 2hine .-alBgra bei 2hein0? and the RurTrst>"uke o Sa<on%
.$erBog 'on Sachsen0. Making the situation e'en more comple<, there 9ere three (atholic 'otes .the archbishops0, three
-rotestant 'otes .(al'inist -alatine and Brandenburg plus Iutheran Sa<on%0, and one s9ing 'ote .i a $absburg, (atholic? i
chosen b% Bohemians, (al'inist0
-rotestantism and to restore (atholicism throughout the $24.
This, understandabl%, 9as opposed b% the
concomitant>parallel determination o the potpourri o so'ereign 3erman entities to limit imperial po9er
9hereE and 9hene'er possible.
G'ert resistance to Amperial eorts erupted in the )/;7s, 9ith a !uasiE
constitutionalEreligious truce eected b% the -eace o #ugsburg .)///0. With no accepted or acceptable
authorit% capable o enorcing 5 or 9illing to enorce 5 the terms o the truce, clashes bet9een religious
actions o'er agreement 'iolations 9ere re!uent. B% )+77 the $absburgs had to a large e<tent eliminated
-rotestantism rom #ustria. The Ringdom o Bohemia 9as the ne<t target or their reorming Beal, or it 9as
largel% -rotestant and most o the inluential nobilit% 9ere antiE(atholic 5 and antiEAmperial. #lmost
ine'itabl%, in such a hotbed o Bealotr%, onl% a relati'el% minor e'ent might precipitate 9ar.
The 2eormation in 4ngland diered rom those on the continent in that the head o go'ernment began the
4nglish 'ersion. At 9as an attack on the temporal po9er o the papac%, and it 9as started o'er an issue more
political than religious. $enr% CT&d"rD QAAA .);*)5r)/7*5)/;+0 initiall% opposed Iuther’s ideas, but his o9n
struggle 9ith the papac% let 4ngland 9ith a 'er% catholic although clearl% -rotestant church. # undamental
reason or the decision o $enr% QAAA o 4ngland to break 9ith the pope 9as his determination to saeguard
the uture o his d%nast%. $is dead brother’s 9ie, no9 his 9ie, (atherine o #ragon, had not pro'ided the
realm 9ith a male heir. $enr% re!uested an annulment? but the pope, under the thumb o (harles Q, the
nephe9 o (atherine, demurred. An their relations 9ith -arliament, Tudor kings tended to use -arliament to
promote their o9n programs. Tudor monarchs o 4ngland 9ere generall% successul as absolute rulers
because their ideas about 4ngland’s 9elare coincided 9ith those o their subHects. The 2eormation
-arliament 9as no e<ception. 4ngland 9as the home o W%clie, and there 9as a considerable bod% o
opinion that 9as anti5papal and anti5(atholic in nature. $enr% tapped into this sentiment.
The )/:7s 2eormation in 4ngland 9as, in man% 9a%s, a re'olution. $enr%’s method adumbrated the
tensions o the ne<t )/7 %ears in British Asles. The #ct o Supremac% o )/:; set $enr% as the supreme head
o the (hurch o 4ngland. B% including -arliament in the legal process, the representati'e bod% became an
integral part o the 4nglish constitutional process 5 i it could deal 9ith religion, it could deal 9ith an%thing.
2o%al 9ealth and authorit% increased in the )/:7’s as $enr% QAAA collected church ees and sold the lands o
monasteries he had dissol'ed. The monarch% proited greatl% rom the sale, and the threat o bankruptc% 9as
pushed a9a%. Those 9ho bought monastic propert% rom the (ro9n became part o a ne9 class, the 3entr%.
$enr% ound his greatest support or his break 9ith 2ome among the gentr%, 9hich 9ould become, in
4ngland, the establishment. Fe9 9ere o the noble class? indeed, during the period 9hen ro%al po9er 9as
being strengthened in 4ngland, the king’s ministers 9ere usuall% recruited rom the middle class, and man%
took ad'antage o their status to ac!uire land and position. The gentr% 9as thus bound to the interests o the
(ro9n or ear that their lands 9ould be repossessed 9ere 2oman (atholicism to be reintroduced. #ll this
not9ithstanding, (atholicism did not 'anish. The -ilgrimage o 3race, a re'olt in Morkshire a'oring the
monasteries as an absolute necessit% in the sparsel% populated north o 4ngland, t%piied (atholic support in
4ngland 5 disunited and dispirited. Still, as carried through b% $enr% QAAA, the -rotestant 2eormation ga'e
4ngland a catholic (hurch 9ithout monasteries or pope.
The $absburg monarchs o the $24 o the si<teenthE and se'enteenth centuries regarded themsel'es as apostles o
the (ounter 2eormation.
Gb'iousl% this is ar more comple< 5 some 2( princes a'ored limiting the 4mperor 9hile others didn’t, some (al'inists hated
Iutherans more than (atholics, etc.
2eal religious reorm came during the reign o $enr%’s son, 4d9ard CTudorD QA .)/:15r)/;15)//:0.
#rchbishop Thomas (ranmer introduced a ne9 pra%er book, churches 9ere 9hiteE9ashed 9ith altars and
images being discarded, and a ne9 reorm creed 9as introduced. &pon 4d9ard’ death in )//:, his elder
sister, Mar% A CTudorD .)/)+5r)//:5)//,0, became Oueen and attempted to return 4ngland to the (atholic
(hurch. &nder =Blood% Mar%’ -rotestants 9ere persecuted, 9ith o'er :77 burned. Marian e<iles 9ere those
4nglish religious reormers 9ho led to 3ene'a during her reign. #t her death her %ounger sister 4liBabeth A
CTudorD .)/::5r)//,5)+7:0 became ruler. The 4liBabethan Settlement 5 designed to conciliate as man%
4nglish citiBens as possible 5 reers to the religious settlement in 4ngland o )//*. The #nglican (hurch la%
some9here bet9een the (atholicism o her ather and the -rotestantism o her brother. #s had been done b%
her ather, all la9s 9ere enacted b% -arliament. B% the end o the Tudor (entur%, -arliament had become the
Hunior partner o the monarch%, 9ith man% pri'ileges and prerogati'es 5 but a Hunior partner nonetheless.
(ompromise, ho9e'er, is rarel% acceptable to all. The Marian e<iles, no9 deepl% committed to the ideas o
(al'inism 9ould, upon their return, seek to puri% the (hurch o 4ngland as established b% the 4liBabethan
Settlement. These -uritans 9ould be a maHor orce in the histor% o Britain during the se'enteenthEcentur%.
For a monarch 9ho 9ished to be absolute, (atholics and (al'inists alike 9ere 'ie9ed as threats to the
4ngland bet9een )+77 and )+,* seemed to be the land o 'iolence and change. "uring these %ears 4nglish
opponents o ro%al absolutism beheaded one king and dro'e another into e<ile. 4nglishmen 9ho rose against
the (ro9n in the British (i'il Wars .)+:,5)++70 and again in the 3lorious 2e'olution .)+,,5)+,*0 9ere not
do9ntrodden people re'olting rom a sense o despair? the% 9ere selEasserti'e people out to get the things
the% 9anted 5 po9er, 9ealth, their o9n orm o religious 9orship, and 9hat the% concei'ed to be their rights.
The primar% cause o riction bet9een the irst t9o Stuarts and their -arliaments, 9hich led to re'olution and
the dictatorship o Gli'er (rom9ell .)/**5)+/,0, 9as that both sides sought drastic changes in the e<isting
structure o go'ernment. Both tried to bend the line o 4nglish constitutional gro9th a9a% rom the Tudor
compromise o a strong (ro9n 9orking 9ith and through a medie'al t%pe o -arliament built and based
upon an alliance o nobilit%, gentr%, and the commercial classes. (a)es QA CSt&art>Ste9artD C)/++5r)/+15A
o 4ngland, r)+7:5)+6/0 and Char$es A CStuartD .)+775r)+6/5)+;*0, a short monarch 9ho became shorterD
tried to bend the line to9ard di'ineEright monarch% o the continental t%pe? men in -arliament sought a
legislati'e bod% possessing the inal authorit% in the making and carr%ing out o polic% and la9. 2eligion
pla%ed an important part in 9elding both sides into cohesi'e ighting groups. The ro%alist cause 9as
identiied 9ith $igh (hurch #nglicanism? the parliamentar% cause, at irst supported b% man% moderate Io9
(hurch #nglicans, came to attract and to be dominated b% a strong -uritan or (al'inist element.

James, accustomed to monarchical rule in Scotland, 9as unable to cooperate or long 9ith the 4nglish
-arliament and dissol'ed it at 9ill. -arliament 9as able to e<ert some inluence o'er the Stuart monarchs
because -arliament had control o'er the purse strings o the 4nglish monarchs. -uritans opposed James A
because he made peace 9ith (atholic Spain, because the% e<pected a king 9ho had ruled a -resb%terian
countr% to be more riendl% to9ard them, and because he did not 9holeEheartedl% support the -rotestant
cause .and the cause o his daughter and sonEinEla90 during the :7 Mears’ War. (harles A became monarch o
4ngland in )+6/. &tterl% tactless and unable .or un9illing0 to compromise, he 9as orced into The %etition
For background o the British (i'il Wars, see 3ardiner, 1nglan5 '6)>5'68?, )7 'ols. Man% more TB-.
of Right .)+6,0 9hich 9as a maHor statement o parliamentar% rights and is considered a part o the 4nglish
constitution. $o9e'er he tried to rule 9ithout parliament in )+6* b% collecting ta<es 9ithout -arliament’s
consent .ship mone%0. When he tried to enorce a =$igh (hurch’ orm o #nglicanism in Scotland, his
ele'enE%ear eort to rule as an absolute monarch 9ithout a meeting o -arliament 9as deeated b% a Scottish
re'olt against his religious policies. The Bishops’ Wars .)+:* and )+;70 ultimatel% led to his do9nall
because he 9as orced to call -arliament in order to raise the mone% needed or his arm%. $e then ound that
the Stuart $ouse o (ommons had become in act a (ommittee o the 2uling (lass and one that 9ould not
9ork 9ith him 9ithout considerable compromise on his part.
Amportantl%, 9hile both Tudors and Ste9arts stro'e or secular and temporal authorit% .an important element
in ac!uiring di'ineEright status0, (al'inists in each kingdom 5 -resb%terians in Scotland and -uritans in
4ngland 5 'ie9ed such assertions as anathema. These dierences o opinion 5 9hich underla% the eruption
o the British (i'il Wars t9o generations later 5 ma% be obser'ed b% noting the 4nglish translations o the
9ible used b% the opposing groups: (al'inists used the 0ene!a 9ible .)/**0 9hile ro%alists used the @ing
Aames Bersion o the 9ible {K(VB} .)+)70. The ormer 9as not onl% an outstanding translation but it 9as
also re'olutionar% in tone. Ats e<planator% notes 9ere considered antithetical b% di'ine right theorists but
9onderul b% groups opposing an% religious orm or ormat 9hich smacked o (atholicism 5 as 9ell as b%
indi'iduals and groups holding more republican 'ie9s. Andeed, the RJQB 9as authoriBed, in part, because
James QA>A despised the annotations o the 0ene!a 9ible. Both James and his son, (harles A, orbade the use
o the 0ene!a 9ible 9ithin their kingdoms. #n%one 9ishing to understand the religious issues o the era must
irst become kno9ledgeable o the dierent 'ersions o (hristianit% in the British Asles and o their status:
banned 9as 2oman (atholicism? the (hurches o 4ngland, Scotland and Areland 9ere oicial, stateEchurches
9ithin each kingdom? and (al'inist churches 9hich had no bishops hence no eas% 9a% b% 9hich a subHect
population could be monitored or controlled. (al'inists 9ere 'ie9ed b% the Ste9arts as holding religious 5
and political 5 'ie9s considered b% them to be dangerous at best and treasonous at 9orst. Furthering the
comple<it% 9as the inchoate nationalism o the 'arious groups: (al'inist Scottish -resb%terians 9ere
despised b% (al'inist 4nglish -uritans and 'iceE'ersa.
The British (i'il Wars 9ere 9ars bet9een opposing political and religious principles and sentiments. Basic
issues in the (i'il Wars 9ere: political .9as -arliament or the king so'ereign0, religious .9as there to be a
state church or toleration o practice b% se'eral -rotestant sects0, and social .to 9hat e<tent should the middle
class participate in go'ernment0. The 9ars in Areland began 9ith the (atholic &prising o Gctober )+;). An
June o )+;6, ollo9ing numerous conrontations 9ith -arliament, (harles let Iondon and raised the ro%al
banner at G<ord. There is no clear line di'iding the opponent and supporters o the Ring or -arliament. An
general, nobles and rural areas .especiall% (atholic areas0 supported the Ring, 9hile middleEclass
to9nspeople supported -arliament. The most inluential group supporting -arliament in the British (i'il
Wars 9as the Iondon merchants. This latter group made sure that parliamentar% armies 9ere better supplied
and better paid than ro%alist armies 9ere. The parliamentar% leader 9ho emerged during the British (i'il
Wars 9as Gli'er (rom9ell. -arliament 9as 'ictorious because o the Scottish alliance and (rom9ell’s
militar% reorms. The 'ictor% b% Gli'er (rom9ell ultimatel% led to the e<ecution o the Ring. Follo9ing the
e<ecution o (harles A 4ngland 9as oiciall% a republic but 9as actuall% a militar% dictatorship under Gli'er
(rom9ell. #s Iord -rotector o 4ngland Gli'er (rom9ell reused to accept the title o king. The
(ommon9ealth became a dictatorship that had come to po9er as result o the strength o the Je9 Model
#rm% and the dominating personalit% o (rom9ell. #lthough aced 9ith a di'ided 4ngland, a hostile
Scotland and a rebellious Areland, (rom9ell not onl% mastered all his oes 5 9ith great brutalit% in the case
o Areland 5 but also succeeded in conducting 'ictorious oreign 9ars e<tending the limits o the empire. The
parliamentar% problem, ho9e'er, he could not master, and the ephemeral nature o his regime 9as clearl%
demonstrated b% its collapse t9o %ears ater his death. Though the Stuarts 9ere restored C(harles Stuart AA
.)+:75r)++)5)+,/0D, no 4nglish king could e'er again hope to rule 9ithout -arliament or take ultimate
command o the public purse rom it. The re'olution that o'erthre9 James CStuartD AA Cthe T9it .)+::5r)+,/5
)+,,5)17:0D, last o the Stuart kings, in )+,,, 9as actuall% a coup ’Ctat engineered b% his parliamentar%
opponents, the Whigs, and supported b% some o his nominal riends, the Tories, and the 'ast maHorit% o the
4nglish people. Jot onl% did -arliament thro9 out the Stuarts in )+,,, but the #ct o Settlement o )17),
clearl% established the act that it 9ould decide, in the uture, 9ho 9ould be Ring>Oueen o 4ngland.
CHAPTER I * Seventeenth"Cent#ry $arfare
#n% consideration o Scottish mercenaries
in the Thirt% Mears’ War .)+),5)+;,0 must be preaced b% a note
on the changes in 9arare that took place in the centuries preceding the 9ar. Anno'ations in tactics, 9eapons,
and control o troops had 'astl% changed the nature o 9arare to the e<tent that it had become continental in
scope. Mercenar% armies became the dominant tour e force, and a sur'e% o the de'elopment o the hired
arm% is necessar% or an understanding o the role pla%ed b% mercenaries, particular the Scottish
mercenaries, in the Thirt% Mears’ War. Tactics and strateg% 9ere almost nonEe<istent during the age o
eudalism. The 9ellEtrained and disciplined armies o 3reek and 2oman times had, b% that time, degenerated
into unrul% mobs that 9ere onl% purported to be armies.
The dominant igure on the battleield 9as the
hea'il% armored, mounted knight. The usual battle ormation consisted o a mass o ca'alr% positioned in the
center and bodies o illEtrained and illEe!uipped inantr% on each lank and in ront o the knights. There 9ere
e9 general engagements, ho9e'er, because o the enormous e<pense o ull% e!uipping a knight.
The $undred Mears’ War .)::15);/:0 9itnessed the beginning o change as the inantr% again began to pla%
an important part in the art o 9arare. The common ootEsoldier in the 4nglish arm% ser'ed as a paid soldier.
$is pa% 9as e!ui'alent to the pa% o a laborer, thereb% guaranteeing a continuous suppl% o recruits. These
soldiers 9ere e!uipped 9ith the longbo9, a 9eapon 9hich could, in skilled hands, send arro9s 9ith accurac%
at ranges up to 6/7 %ards>66,.+ meters, thus gi'ing the inantr% a commanding position o'er slo9Emo'ing
knights, especiall% 9hen dismounted. #t (rXc% .):;+0, -oitiers .):/+0, and #gincourt .);)/0, French nobles
learned that small numbers o 4nglish bo9men .9ellEprotected b% 4nglish menEatEarms0 9ere more than a
match or a massed onslaught o armored men.
The end o the $undred Mears’ War looded 9estern 4urope
9ith unemplo%ed men ha'ing no trade e<cept that o 9ar. These men oten banded together into armed
companies, called Free (ompanies, in order to sell their ser'ices to the highest bidder. The pett% !uarrels
bet9een the cit%Estates o Atal% ga'e impetus to the de'elopment o the militar% entrepreneur, the conottiero,
or the cities needed armies or protection but could seldom raise enough troops in their o9n states. The
process 9as relati'el% simple: a conottiero approached the ruler o a cit% or state and oered his ser'ices
and that o his soldiers in return or a speciied remuneration, usuall% amount o mone% per soldier per
month. The contract also speciied the number o soldiers, amount o e!uipage, and t%pes o soldiers to be
Modern mercenaries and their ilk create a totall% alse image o the se'enteenthEcentur% proessional soldiers.
Militar% entrepreneur or enterpriser is more accurate.
Background inormation regarding 9ar and 9arare throughout human histor% 5 in particular, the se'enteenthEcentur% 5 9as
distilled rom: #ston, -risis? Blair, 1uropean Armour? Brandi, Religions.riege? (arman, 2istory of Firearms? (lark,
Se!enteenth--entury? (lark, War an Society? (M$, 'ol ;? "elbrTck, 0eschichte er @riegs.unst, 'ol ;? "urant, -i!ili3ation,
'ols /51? 4arle, Ma.ers of Moern Strategy? Fortescue, 9ritish Army, 'ol )? Fuller, /ecisi!e 9attles of the Western Worl, 'ol )?
3ardiner, Thirty Years’ War? 3indel%, Thirty Years’ War? $olborn, Moern 0ermany, 'ol )? Ilo%d, 2istory of Infantry? Montross,
War Through the Ages? J(M$, 'ols 65/? Ggg, 1urope? Gman, Art of War in Mile Ages, 6 'ols? Gpel, /reissig;"hrige @rieg?
-reston, Men in Arms? 2eade, Sielights? 2oberts, Military Re!olution? Spaulding, Warfare? 'on 2anke, /eutsche 0eschichte?
and Wedge9ood, Thirty Years’ War. Far more TB-.
Gman, War in Mile Ages, AA::,/5:*6 and passim.
War 9as then 9aged, although the battles 9ere oten sham conlicts in 9hich e9 men 9ere
inHured or killed. This 9as done in order to protect the in'estment o the conottiero.

The most amous mercenaries o the iteenthEcentur% 9ere the S9iss pikeEmen. While 4nglish archers aided
in the decline o mounted knights, the S9iss pikeEmen brought about a temporar% dominance o inantr% o'er
ca'alr%. The S9iss ormation, similar to the Macedonian phalan<, pro'ed almost in'incible in combat.
Mercenaries became the principal e<port o S9itBerland, and most S9iss %ouths 9ere trained in the usage o
the pike and the proession o 9ar. 3erman 4ans.nechte copied in e'er% particular the pike and halberd
tactics o the S9iss and competed 9ith the S9iss in the mercenar% market.
$o9e'er, the de'elopment o
the handgun and artiller% made it un9ise or an unsupported phalan< to be used 9ithout there being hea'%
losses. The S9iss ormation declined in importance as inno'ations in ordnance became a'ailable to the
'arious rulers. The de'elopment o 9eapons using gunpo9der 9as e<ceedingl% slo9. #s earl% as the
ourteenthEcentur% artiller% 9as used, but the earl% models 9ere e<tremel% crude and 9ere dangerous to
operate. Field artiller% 9as also hampered b% its immobilit%. Gne attempt to add mobilit% to the artiller% 9as
concei'ed b% Jan YiZka, the $ussite general. $e mounted artiller% in armored 9agons and used them 9ith
great success against the armies o the $2 Raiser 9hich 9ere sent against him .$ussite Wars, );675);:70.
"uring the later Middle #ges impro'ements in the casting o barrels and the de'elopment o impro'ed
gunpo9der made the artiller% 9ing an important eature o the ne9 st%le armies. #rtiller% 9as also
responsible or the decline in importance o the armored knight as artiller% rendered obsolete the stone
castles o the knight, the last bastion o his eudal superiorit%.
The irst hal o the si<teenthEcentur% 9as a period o great change in the art o 9arare. #ncient 9orks on
militar% tactics and strateg% 9ere redisco'ered and republished, 9hile ne9 9orks 9ere 9ritten. 3enerals
learned tactics rom their opponents, rom their o9n mercenaries, and rom books. Works such as 1pitoma
rei militaris b% Qegetius and Strategematica b% Frontinus 9ere considered important militar% te<tbooks.
Works b% [enophon, #elian, (aesar, -ol%bius, Modestus and Qitru'ius 9ere also studied. (ontemporar%
militar% 9riters used these classical 9orks as guides
? ho9e'er:
Their ideas 9ere not s9allo9ed 9hole, but the most practical 9riter on a technical subHect 9as glad to add to
his o9n opinions an echo o ancient authorit%. 4'en Machia'elli \ .in his Arte /ella 0uerra, )/6)0 \ ater
comparing the respecti'e merits o ancient and modern inantr% ... decided that the ideal unit should be made
up hal o men armed in the 2oman manner, 9ith short s9ord and shield, hal in the modern S9iss ashion
9ith pikes and har!uebus.

The most pressing militar% problem o the age 9as the lack o good, stead% troops? and the 2oman model
oered a solution 5 discipline. The best general, the best tactics, and the best e!uipment 9ere all 9asted i
2oberts, 3# A:6))56):.
Montross, War Through Ages, )**567). For the changing o the militar% paradigm and the rise o the militar% entrepreneur, see
Bottomore, 1lites? (ockle, 9ibliography? "elbrTck, 0eschichte er @riegs.unst, 'ol ;? J]hns, @riegs$issenschaften, 'ol 6).6?
Riernan, =Foreign Mercenaries’ in -@- ))? 2edlich, /e -raeda, QSW ;1? 2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1 @ ;,? and
2oberts, Military Re!olution. Far more TB-.
"elbrTck, @riegs.unst, AQ:,5)+, 1)51*.
Machia'elli, Art of War, <'i5<'iii.
$ale, =#rt o War’ in J(M$ AA:;,:.
truculent mercenaries reused to ight. =Gn !uestions o discipline and morale the ad'ice o the ancients
could be taken 9ithout !ualiication.’

The ad'ice o the ancients 9as best applied in the Spanish arm%, 9here discipline and esprit e corps became
important actors in the rise o the Spanish tactical unit, the tercio. The tercio 9as a s!uare o :777 men
di'ided into t9el'e companies o appro<imatel% 6/7 men and 9as composed o e!ual numbers o pikemen
and har!uebusiers. This modiied 'ersion o the S9iss pikeEphalan< came to dominate the battleields o
4urope during the si<teenthEcentur%.
"uring the re'olt b% the "utch 2epublic+ later called the 4ight% Mears’
War .)/+,5)+;,0, small numbers o Spanish inantr% 9ere able to deeat larger numbers o "utch because o
their better discipline and tactics. An spite o its superiorit% o'er eudal tactics, there 9ere limitations. Since
onl% a small number o men could discharge their 9eapons at an% one time, the ormation 9as uneconomical
in its usage o men. Furthermore, the 'er% bulk o the tercio pre'ented an% rapid mo'ement in battle.
An order to combat the superior Spanish ormation, Ma&rits ,an -assa& CMaurice o JassauD .)/+)5)+6/0
de'eloped a more mobile unit o onl% 6/7 men. An battle his units 9ere dra9n up into a linear ormation, thus
gi'ing more men an opportunit% to discharge their pieces at the enem%. B% )+77 the reorms o Maurits 'an
Jassau eected a change in the method o dealing 9ith mercenar% armies. An addition to his tactical reorms
and pa%ment o troops reorms, he also pioneered in the standardiBation o e!uipment, a stricter discipline
and more intensi'e training, the usage o mathematics or ad'ances in ortiication, and in'entions such as
the telescope and a time use or grenades. When the "utch leader insisted that his mercenaries be promptl%
paid, he ended the period o la< discipline, or he demanded actions and deeds or his mone%. The men had to
drill, build ortiications, and undergo se'ere punishments or breaches o discipline, because there 9as no
longer an% e<cuse or la<it%. This is not to sa% that the armies became models o 'irtue, or the% did not? but
prompt pa%ment o 9ages did lead to better and more eecti'e armies.

The rank and ile o the mercenaries o the period ollo9ing );77 traditionall% came rom the poorer
countries that had surplus o manpo9er. Troops 9ere le'ied in these countries b% man% methods, the most
common o 9hich 9as to =\ in'ite b% trumpet and drum all to take emplo%ment, 9hom either the desire o
honor, riches, boot%, pa% or 9ages ma% encourage to undergo their ser'ice \.’
(ompanies and regiments
rom the Atalian, the 3erman states, S9iss cantons, the "utch 2epublic, 4ngland, Areland and Scotland 9ere
ound in all 9est 4uropean armies. Scotland had a long histor% o pro'iding troops or continental armies,
and Scottish soldiers 9ere oten ound in the armies o France, Spain, 'arious 3erman states .including the
imperial armies o the $24, -oland, the "utch 2epublic, "enmark, S9eden and 2ussia. 2esearch has sho9n
that, bet9een ):77 and )+77, Scotland pro'ided appro<imatel% :7,777 soldiers to France? /777 troops to
"anBig and -oland? /777 men to the "utch 2epublic? :777 soldiers to "enmark? and +777 troops to
"uring the Thirt% Mears’ War, appro<imatel% ;7,777 Scots let their homeland to Hoin 'arious
Ibi., AA:;,;5;,/.
"elbrTck, @riegs.unst, AQ:)1;5)1+.
Ibi., AQ:),)5)*7.
Turner, %allas Armata, )+/.
The ollo9ing is a more complete source compilation than that 9hich appeared in &SM. 2ather than separating Scottish
emigration into se'eral notes, this citation co'ers .10 Sources pertaining to Scottish emigration, .20 Sources pertaining to Scottish
militar% emigrants prior to )+), and ..0 Sources pertaining to Scottish militar% emigrants during the Thirt% Mears’ War .)+),5
)+;,0. Man% sources co'er all three categories, but each source is cited but once 5 unless speciic data is pro'ided. .10 Sources
pertaining to Scottish emigration:.a0 3eneral^ Bulloch, The Scot Abroa? Burton, The Scot Abroa? Iithgo9, Dinetene Yeares
armies on the (ontinent.
The underl%ing cause or the e<odus 9as the abHect po'ert% o the countr%. This
condition can be attributed to a number o actors ranging rom geograph% and climate to poor arming
techni!ues, to the unstable political atmosphere o the countr% at that time 5 all o 9hich resulted in periodic
mortalit% crises.
Scotland is a small mountainous countr% o onl% :7,)); s!uare miles>1,,:,1 km
#ppro<imatel% t9oE
thirds o the countr% is comprised o barren mountains and is not capable o supporting a large population.
Warm summers and cool 9inters characteriBe the climate. There is more than ade!uate rainall, especiall% in
the 9estern coastal region. $ea'% rains, coupled 9ith e<tensi'e deorestation,
caused serious erosion timber
and is responsible or the barrenness o much o the $ighland area. The skies are co'ered 9ith clouds or a
great portion o the %ear and are oten accompanied b% hea'% ground og. This combination o hea'% rain
and little sun makes arming diicult in much o Scotland. An se'enteenthEcentur% Scotland, the basic
economic unit 9as the arm. With the 9eather and terrain against him, the Scot compounded his o9n miser%
b% using poor agricultural methods. The maHor ault in the Scottish arming method 9as the neglect o the
bottom lands. Because armers seldom attempted to drain bottom lands, the soil 9as usuall% alkaline, and
Tra!ayles from Scotlan? Jotestein, The Scot in 2istory? .b0 Baltic C"enmark, -oland, 2ussia @ S9edenD^ #ndersson, 2istory of
S$een? Berg @ IagercrantB, Scots in S$een? "onner, Scottish Families in S$een an Finlan? Fischer, Scots in 1astern an
Western %russia? Fischer, Scots in 0ermany? Fischer, Scots in S$een? $allendor @ SchTck, 2istory of S$een? -uendor,
-ompleat 2istory of S$een? Samuel, =S9eden and Scotland’? Steansson, /enmar. an S$een? Steuart, Scots in %olan?
Steuart, Scottish Influences in Russian 2istory? _.c0 France^ Black, =2elations o Scotland and France’? Michel, 4es Ecossais en
France, 'ol ), and a =2e'ie9’ thereo in 1inburgh Re!ie$? Teulet, %apiers ’1tat relatifs e lF2istoire e lFEcosse? _.d0 "utch
2epublic ^ "a'idson @ 3ra%, Scottish Staple at Beere? MacIean, =Scottish Families in $olland’? _and .e0 or principalities or
states 9ithin the $24D^ Bulloch, 0orons in 0ermany? Fischer, Scots in 0ermany? $antsch, 0eschichte Gsterreichs, 'ol )?
Wechmar @ Biederstedt, ="ie schottische 4in9anderung in Qorpommern’? __.20 Sources pertaining to Scottish militar% emigrants
prior to )+),:.a0 3eneral^ Beauge, Martial Atchie!ements of the Scots Dation? 3rant, Scottish Soliers of Fortune? SSJ4? .b0
Baltic^ Berg @ IagercrantB, Scots in S$een, ):5)1? "o9, Ruth!en’s Army, passim? Fischer, Scots in 0ermany, :+ @ +*? Fischer,
Scots in S$een, *)? Smout, =Scottish (ommercial Factors in the Baltic’? Steansson, /enmar. an S$een, /+? Steuart, Scots in
%olan, i<5<<<i'? Steuart, Scottish Influences in Russian 2istory, passim _.c0 France^ ForbesEIeith, Scots Men-at-Arms, ):*1?
Mac"onald, Royal 0uar of Scottish Archers, ::5:1? _.d0 "utch 2epublic ^ Ferguson, Scots 9rigae, 'ol )? _and .e0 $24^
Fischer, Scots in 0ermany? __..0 Sources pertaining to Scottish militar% emigrants during the Thirt% Mears’ War:.a0 3eneral^
Beauge, Martial Atchie!ements? Bulloch @ Skelton, 0orons Uner Arms? "eoe, Scots Dation? 3rant, Scottish Soliers of
Fortune? Iain, Scotlan the 9ra!e? Scotlan Fore!er? _.b0 Baltic^ Berg @ IagercrantB, Scots in S$een, passim? 2M,
1<peition? Fallon, Scottish Mercenaries, passim? Fischer, Scots in 1astern an Western %russia, passim? Fischer, Scots in
0ermany, passim? Fischer, Scots in S$een, passim? 3rant, Memoirs an A!entures of Sir Aohn 2epburn, passim? 3rimble,
=-a%ment o Macka%’s 2egiment’? Macka%, =Macka%’s 2egiment’? GSB? SSJ4? Steansson, /enmar. an S$een, passim?
Steuart, Scots in %olan, passim? Steuart, Scottish Influences in Russian 2istory, passim? S9eAnt? Terr%, Ale<aner 4eslie? _.c0
France^ Michel, 4es Ecossais en France, 6:6115:67? 3rant, 2epburn, passim? _.d0 "utch 2epublic ^ Ferguson, Scots 9rigae,
'ol )? MacIean, 2u$eli;.sinte.eningen _and .e0 $24^ Fischer, Scots in 0ermany, passim? $antsch, Gsterreichs? and Ward,
Austria. Far more TB-.
See #ppendi< AA or these igures.
Mortalit% crises are historical e'ents 9hich endanger large segments o a speciic population. War, amine, and
plague are the most se'ere t%pes o mortalit% crisis. WSB, =#uld Sod’: TB-.
Sources pro'iding inormation pertaining to Scotland in the earl% modern era include: Braudel, =-rices’ in (4c$4?
"ickenson, Scotlan: Franklin, Farming? 3rant, 1conomic 2istory? 3rant, Social an 1conomic? Reltie, 2ighlans?
Iang, Scotlan, 'ols 6E:? Mackie, Scotlan? J(M$? Smout, Scottish %eople? Smout, Scottish Trae? S%mon,
Scottish Farming ? Qan Bath, Agrarian 2istory? and Warrack, /omestic 4ife. Far more TB-.
Bro9n, -ontemporary /ocuments, 6,:, has an interesting notation on the lack o timber. 4arl o Melros, recei'ed a decree rom
James QA in )+7, stating that the e<port o timber rom Scotland 9as orbidden. Melros, in a letter to the Ring, thanked him, but
noted that in no t%me bigane 9ithin the memorie o man, thair hes bene on% t%mmer transported urth o this kingdome, the haill
cuntr% being almost naiked’ and that i James let the restraint on, it is 'er%e probable and liklie that other princes, 'poun notice
thairo, sall mak the l%ke restrent in thair boundis, and sua altogidder spo%le %our malesteis subiectis o that so necessair a
beneeir 9hich goodlie tha% can not 9ant.’ $e then implores James to be careul o making restraints on subHects o 9hich he has
little kno9ledge.
these areas 9ere oten let untilled. Thus, the armer 9as orced to use the hillsides or his crops. An addition
to this, arable land 9as poorl% utiliBed: one section, the inield, 9as 9orked intensi'el% or three or our
%ears until the %ield 9as too small to 9arrant another replanting. #nother section, the outield, 9as then
brought into use and the old ield 9as let to lie allo9 or se'eral %ears.
#s a result, amines occurred 9ith
alarming regularit% and 9ere alle'iated onl% b% hea'% grain imports rom the Baltic region.
concomitant outlo9 o hard currenc% in pa%ment or grain caused serious inlation. Gnl% near the end o the
reign o James, ater his policies had brought about internal stabilit% and e<ternal securit%, did the prospect o
amine become more remote. Beginning in the late si<teenthEcentur%, ho9e'er, there 9as a tendenc% b% the
large landholders to uproot the small armers 9ho could not aord to pa% higher rents, thereb% contributing
to the large increase in the number o destitute persons and 'agabonds in the countr%.

The pattern o trade in Scotland during the earl% se'enteenthEcentur% also illustrates the t%pe o econom% that
Scotland had. For the most part, internal trade 9as limited to coastal traic. "ue to a lack o hard currenc%,
trade 9as oten based upon the barter s%stem. Trade 9ith the continent consisted mostl% o e<ports o cheap,
ra9 materials, such as coal, hides and skins, 9ool, and ish. An return, Scots imported the more e<pensi'e
manuactured items and lu<ur% oods. There 9as little trade 9ith 4ngland.
The paucit% o trade 9ith
4ngland 9as a result o enmit% caused b% centuries o 9arare bet9een the t9o countries. From the t9elthE
centur% until the si<teenthEcentur%, Scotland 9as repeatedl% in'aded b% 4nglish kings seeking not onl% to
increase their domains but also or selEprotection due to a centuriesElong, FrancoEScottish Cthe #uldD
#lliance. Further, constant border 9arare kept the most producti'e areas o Scotland in perpetual chaos.
Gnl% 9ith the accession o 4liBabeth as !ueen o 4ngland 9as there a cessation o open hostilities bet9een
the t9o countries.
The change o polic% 9as brought about, in part, b% the Scottish 2eormation.
The #uld #lliance had been
e<tended 9hen Mar# CStuartD .!ueen regnant )/;65abdicated>led)/+15)/,10 9as married to Francis,
"auphin o France. #t his accession as Francis AA, she became !ueen consort o France .)//*5)/+70, but his
death resulted in her return to Scotland in )/+) as Mar% A, Oueen o Scots. B% )/+7 Scottish internal aairs
9ere dominated b% France, 9ith Frenchmen controlling the highest positions o state and French soldiers
garrisoning Scottish ortresses. These actions 9ere opposed b% Scottish nobles 9ho did not relish the idea o
a strong central go'ernment under French control. Those 9ho desired a reormation o the (hurch 9ere also
opposed to the strong (atholic bond 9hich 9as being orged bet9een France and Scotland. The nobles and
the reormers Hoined orces in )//1, orming a =(ongregation o (hrist’, or, more simpl%, the (o'enant. B%
this action the Scottish 2eormation>antiEFrench re'olution 9as begun. The political repercussions o the
2eormation 9ere irst elt in Scotland in )//*, 9hen John Rno< .)/7/L5)/160, the spiritual leader o the
2eormation in Scotland, returned rom e<ile. Rno< had been ordained in the (atholic (hurch? but in )/;7
he came into contact 9ith some =heretical’ 9ritings and began ad'ocating reorm o the oicial (hurch o
See Smout @ Fenton, =Scottish #griculture’ in #g$2 )::6 .)*+/0, 1:5*:.
#lthough dealing speciicall% 9ith 4ngland, e<trapolations regarding Scotland ma% be made: $oskins, =$ar'est Fluctuations
);,75)+)*’ in #g$2 )6 .)*+;0, :+5;+? $oskins, =$ar'est Fluctuations )+675)1/*’ in #g$2 )+ .)*+,0, )/5:).
Bro9n, Hueen Mary, /+6.
-r%de, Scotlan from '6)>, 6/.
The ollo9ing is a more complete citing than that 9hich appeared in &SM. Background inormation pertaining to religious
issues in Scotland .and in the British Asles0 include: Bro9n, Mary? Buchan @ Smith, @ir. in Scotlan? Bulloch, @ir. in Scotlan?
"onaldson, The Scottish Reformation? MackenBie, Hueen Mary? Willson, Aames BI an I. Far more TB-.
Scotland. An )//; Rno< 9ent to 3ene'a and ser'ed as pastor o the 4nglish church there. $e conerred oten
9ith John (al'in .)/7*5)/+;0 and became inused 9ith militant (al'inism.
Rno< 9as in'ited to return to Scotland b% the (o'enanters to aid the spiritual reormation o Scotland. When
he preached a sermon in -erth that resulted in the destruction o se'eral religious houses, open conrontation
bet9een the FrenchEcontrolled cro9n and the (o'enanters erupted. 4liBabeth interceded on behal o the
-rotestants? and, in June )/+7, the Treat% o 4dinburgh, 9hich ended French domination .as 9ell as the #uld
#lliance0, 9as orced upon Mar%. The Scottish 2eormation -arliament, 9hich met in #ugust, abolished
papal authorit% and established -resb%terianism as an accepted orm o 9orship in Scotland. Most o the
inhabitants o the Io9lands and southern &plands accepted the ne9 religion? but man% $ighland areas
remained (atholic, no9 banned. The 2eormation is e<tremel% important in the histor% o Scotland, or onl%
through it 9as a merging o the (ro9ns o -rotestant Scotland and o -rotestant 4ngland made possible. At
also aids in e<plaining 9h% man% Scots Hoined the -rotestant orces during the Thirt% Mears’ War.
The latter hal o the si<teenthEcentur% 9as sa9 a trend to9ard internal stabilit% in Scotland. Mar%’s reign
9as marked b% a series o marriages, aairs and murders in 9hich she became in'ol'ed and 9hich shocked
the strict (al'inists o Scotland. Follo9ing %et another religious outburst initiated b% John Rno<, Mar% led
to 4ngland in )/+1, and James, her inant son, 9as proclaimed Ring o Scotland. $is earl% %ears 9ere illed
9ith man% traumatic e<periences as 'arious nobles used him as a pa9n in their bids or po9er. When he
began his personal reign in )/,:, he demonstrated an abilit% to rule his countr% 9ell. B% adroitl% using
Realpoliti., he succeeded in establishing his rule o'er Scottish barons and in asserting his control o'er most
aspects o Scottish lie. $e e'en established his supremac% o'er the (hurch CKir/D o Scotland. With his
accession to the 4nglish throne in )+7:, he brought together in one person the cro9ns o the t9o countries.
$o9e'er, it did not create a united kingdom, per se, and there 9as little other contact bet9een the countries.
James did act to eradicate the constant border 9arare bet9een the t9o countries. #lthough not successul as
an 4nglish king .probabl% due to his earl% senilit%0, James, b% 'irtue o his long reign and his understanding
o the Scottish people, established in Scotland b% the end o his reign in )+6/ =a health% respect or ro%al
authorit% ... Cand to achie'eD ... the t9o basic conditions o economic progress, e<ternal securit% and internal
political stabilit%.’

"espite these signs o impro'ement, the basic problems o po'ert% and reactionism 9ere still present. #n%
economic impact that 9as elt 9as limited to certain groups, and most people li'ed in the same manner as
their ancestors. The economic progress o the last !uarter o the si<teenthEcentur% and the irst !uarter o the
se'enteenthEcentur% 9as based upon greater ph%sical securit%, but there 9as little unanimit% o action among
the Scots. There 9ere e9 matters upon 9hich all could agree, and interEclan ri'alr% pre'ented an% true
national solidarit%. Thus, there 9ere still maHor economic problems acing most Scots and e9 opportunities
The era o religious 9ars 9as also a time 9hen the literac% rate rose. This is relected not onl% in an increase o
personal correspondence and accounts 5 sent or pri'ate and public consumption 5 but also in the e<plosion o
popular culture oerings designed to mold and>or manipulate public opinion. See -rimar% Materials and
(ontemporar% #ccounts or an introduction to this literature. See also the numerous nineteenthE and t9entiethE
centur% Hournals and compendia o primar% material. 3uides to this material include: Beller, =Sources’ in #m$2
:6:61+E6,6? Beller, %ropagana? (ockle, 9ibliography? (oupe, 0erman Illustrate 9roasheet, 6 'ols? "a'ies,
9ibliography? Mathieson, -atalogue? Stockum, De$spapers? Terr%, %ublications? and Thomson, %ublic Recors. Far
more TB-.
I%the, 1conomy of Scotlan, 6;*.
that oered solutions. # possibilit% or a e9 Scots 9as that o becoming an oicer in the arm% o another
countr% and acting as a militar% entrepreneur. 2ealiBing the possibilities o mone%, rank and ame as a
soldierEorEhire, man% Scots entered into contracts 9ith 'arious rulers and sought to raise regiments o their
countr%men. With the outbreak o the Thirt% Mears’ War, the proession o militar% enterpriser became more
lucrati'e as the demand or soldiers increased. An the earl% %ears o the 9ar, recruiting in Scotland 9as
relati'el% eas% and le'ies 9ere oten e<ceeded. #s more and more le'ies 9ere authoriBed b% the -ri'%
(ouncil o Scotland {PCS}, 'olunteers became less plentiul, especiall% in the %ears ollo9ing )+6*. Gther
e<pediencies 9ere then resorted to, i.e. pressing and -(S decrees. There 9as also =a large admi<ture o Arish
and 4nglish in late %ears? and Scottish oicers oten had to raise troops in 3erman% or else9here.’
The economic moti'e 9as the primar%, but not the onl% reason or taking ser'ice abroad, or there 9ere man%
Scottish oicers 9ho Hoined the armies or religious reasons. 2eligious moti'es compelled man% (al'inist
Scots to ser'e in Bohemian, "anish and S9edish armies?
and 9hen the religious contro'ers% bet9een
(harles and Scotland erupted in the )+:7s, man% o those oicers returned home.
Fe9 Scots rom the
(atholic strongholds o #ngus, Ban and #rg%ll ser'ed in the Scandina'ian armies, but instead ser'ed in the
(atholic armies o the Spanish or #ustrian $absburgs or o France. At should be noted that there 9ere highE
ranking -rotestants ser'ing the $ol% 2oman Raiser, such as Walter Butler and John 3ordon, 9ho rose to
positions o inluence under the Raiser. (on'ersel%, there 9ere (atholics ser'ing the -rotestant cause, such
as Sir John $epburn and Sir #ndre9 3ra%.
Met another reason or ser'ice abroad 9as a desire to aid 4liBabeth Stuart,
the daughter o James and 9ie
o K&r01rst C4lectorD 2riedri%h Q 'on der -alB CFrederick o the Pa$atinate
D .)/*+5)+:60. This ma%, in
part, e<plain 9h% recruiting 9as easier in the earl% %ears, or a Scotsman’s lo%alt% to a clansman and the clan
leaders 9as 9ellEkno9n.
For some, this lo%alt% 9as e<tended to 4liBabeth and resulted in a desire to ser'e
her cause. There 9as also a desire b% some to ser'e under a great leader and to attain militar% glor%. The
Mar!uis o $amilton is the best e<ample o this t%pe o mercenar%. #ter bringing an arm% o +777 men to
3erman% in )+:) to ser'e 3usta' AA #dol {GA}o S9eden .S'eriges Ronung, r )+))5)+:60, he returned
home 9hen the S9edish king reused to gi'e him another command ater his arm% had 9asted a9a%. #nd
inall%, to compensate or the la9 o primogeniture 9hich e<cluded man% %ounger sons rom clan leadership
or landEholding, man% %oung Scots sought to increase their stature at home b% gaining high ranks and titles
o nobilit% abroad. With the rank and ile, ho9e'er, there 9ere e9 such reasons. Man% o the le'ies 9ere
men 9ho had little hope o earning a decent li'ing in Scotland. The% 9ere, or the most part, 'agabonds and
men o e9 skills. Man% o the regiments 9ere comprised o (atholic $ighlanders ser'ing under (al'inist
oicers, thus religion could not ha'e been o great signiicance to them. Their main consideration 9as
sur'i'al, and the arm% oered them the best chance or this. #lthough man% 9ere pressed into ser'ice, most
Mathe9, -harles, *:.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1:)++5)+,.
Fischer, Scots in 0ermany, *1.
See Gman, 1li3abeth of 9ohemia, passim.
The -alatinate o this period 9as, as 9ere so 'er% man% 3erman states, nonEcontiguous. 2heinpalB>2henish
-alatinate 9as ocused on $eidelberg and GberpalB>&pper -alatinate 9as north o Ba'aria.
Fischer, Scots in 0ermany, *1.
sta%ed and ser'ed 9ell once the% 9ere in a regiment. -a% and the hope o boot% 9ere the most po9erul
incenti'es or them.
Thus, there 9ere man% reasons or the large mo'ement o Scots to the (ontinent during the Thirt% Mears’
War. #ll pla%ed a part in causing the e<odus, and it is not possible to state that one particular actor caused
the mo'ement because it 9as usuall% a combination o se'eral. $o9e'er, the basic cause 9as the po'ert% o
Scotland, 9hich necessitated the outlo9 o men rom Scotland to the continent in search o emplo%ment.
WSB: =4<panding -roessions’? =#uld Sod’? =-ropaganda’? Scottish Mercenaries’? and ="emographic Mo'ement’ are TB- at in the near uture. Still more TB- later.
Chapter II * O#t%rea& of the Thirty 'ear() $ar
and *ani(h +ntervention
The 9ar to 9hich Scots 9ent 9as a general 4uropean conlict, the 3erman portion o 9hich 9as kno9n as
Thirt% Mears’ War.
#lthough there 9ere man% causes o the 9ar, the most important issue 9ith regard to
Scottish participation, at least initiall%, 9as the religious one. An the $24 Amperial authorit% 9as s%non%mous
9ith the (atholic C(ounterED2eormation in 3erman% The Bohemian rebellion against the $absburg $2
Raiser in )+), 9as ostensibl% caused b% the ears o Bohemian -rotestant nobles o a JesuitEled religious
purge in Bohemia. This muchEpubliciBed ear aided in gaining much popular s%mpath% or their cause in
-rotestant countries, particularl% in 4ngland and Scotland. When 9arrants 9ere issued in those countries or
the raising o troops or ser'ice in Bohemia, the religious issue 9as certainl% a maHor actor in the speed%
raising o regiments 9hich 9ent. &nderl%ing the religious struggle in Bohemia 9as a crisis little noted
outside the 4mpire, this being the constitutional crisis precipitated b% a stunning act o deiance: the
"eenestration o -rague .6: Ma% )+),0. The Bohemian phase o the Thirt% Mears’ War 9as
the last, aborti'e attempt o the eudal nobilit% o the $absburg cro9n lands to preser'e and, i
possible, e<tend their constitutional, economic and social prerogati'es against the ad'ancing
bureaucratic centralism, political absolutism and religious conormit%, 9hich 9ere the aims o the
Qiennese 3o'ernment.

When Bohemian nobles then renounced 2erdinand CAAD .)/1,5r $2 Raiser,)+)*5)+:10 as Ring o Bohemia,
their o'ert action brought to the ore the man% constitutional issues 9ithin the $24, 9hich, as noted earlier,
began much earlier.
#s noted in the G'er'ie9, the -rotestant 2eormation>2e'olt and the (atholic 2eormation>(ounterE
2eormation o the si<teenthEcentur% had 'irtuall% polariBed 3erman% into three separate camps 5
1!angelisch, (al'inist, and (atholic. The 2eligious -eace o #ugsburg .)///0 eected a stalemate bet9een
the camps, 9ith a polic% o cuius regio5 eius religio established. This had not been strictl% adhered to, and
clashes bet9een -rotestant and (atholic orces had been re!uent. The War o the JTlichE(le'es Succession
brought about a conrontation bet9een those -rotestant princes 9ho did not 9ant to see an
#ustrian $absburgs sought control o the $24 and Spanish $absburgs 9aged 9ar in Flanders, the Qaltelline, and FrancheE
(omtX. &ltimatel%, their eorts resulted in a pi'otal conrontation bet9een them and French Bourbons. Ancluded 9ere:.)0 the ,7E
Mears’ War bet9een the &nited -ro'inces and Spanish $absburgs, )/+,5)+;,? .60 the Thirt% Mears’ War .)+),5)+;,0? .:0 the
struggle or the 3risons, )+),5)+66? .;0 the S9edishE-olish War, )+6)5)+6*? ./0 the War o Mantuan Succession, )+6,5)+:)?
./0 the S9edishE"anish War, )+;:5)+;/? and .+0 the FrancoESpanish Wars, )+:;5)+/7 and )+/65)+/*. Jot included but related
to the oregoing are 'arious ci'il 9ars such as rene9ed religious 9ars in France .)+6+5)+6,0 and the British (i'il Wars .)+:15
Steinberg, 1uropean 2egemony, 6;. For Bohemian ' $absburg issues, see 3indel%, 0egenreformation? 2itter,
0egenreformation? MTller, 9Ihmischen @riege? JJJ, 9ohemian %ersecution? and Ward, 2ouse of Austria.
The JTlichE(le'es crisis 9as brought on b% the death 9ithout heir o the $erBog 'on JTlichE(le'esEMarkEBergE2a'ensberg.
There then de'eloped a po9er struggle or possession o this strategicall% and economicall% important duch%. The Raiser
attempted to grant the inheritance to his nephe9, but RurTrst Johann Sigismund 'on Brandenburg and -alBgra Wolgang
Wilhelm 'on Jeuburg a.d. "onau reacted b% agreeing to Hoint occupanc%. Spanish and "utch troops entered the area and
occupied se'eral cities. The Treat% o [anten .)6 Jo'ember )+);0 ended the conlict b% partitioning the area bet9een Johann
increase o AmperialE(atholic authorit%, and Matthias C$absburg o #ustriaD .)//15Ring Bohemia, )+))5$2
Raiser, )+)65)+)*0 9ho 9ished to assert his Amperial rights. -rior to the JTlichE(le'es crisis, a number o
-rotestant rulers had Hoined together to orm the -rotestant &nion C-rotestantische Uni"nD as protection
against Amperial usurpation o their rights.
# tenE%ear deensi'e pact 9as signed b% the members on ); Ma%
)+7,? and Friedrich 9as designated director. Gutsiders, especiall% the "utch 2epublic and France closel%
monitored the situation and tacitl% supported the &nion. &nortunatel% or the &nion, religious dierences
bet9een the Iutheran and (al'inist members pre'ented an% coordinated action rom being taken, a problem
or antiEAmperial action throughout the Thirt% Mears’ War.
An opposition to the &nion 9as the (atholic Ieague CRatholische !i3aD, ormed under the coEdirectorship o
$erBog Ma<imilian A o Ba'aria .)/1:5)+/)0 and the Raiser. The Iiga had been initiall% created in )+7:, but
it 9as not ormall% established until )7 Jul% )+7*. (omprised o iteen archbishoprics, i'e abbacies and
#achen, it recei'ed subsidies rom Spain and the papac%. With such interest b% the great po9ers,
it is eas%
to see that an% conrontation bet9een 3erman princes might easil% escalate into a general 4uropean conlict?
the JTlichE(le'es crisis appeared to be Hust the spark needed or 9ar. FullEscale 9ar 9as a'erted, ho9e'er, b%
the assassination o $enri AQ CBourbon .)//:5Ring Ja'arre, )/165Ring France>le 2oi de France, )/,*5
)+)7D on )7 Ma% )+)7, 9hich plunged France into internal chaos and eliminating her rom the struggle at
that time.
Strie continued in the $24 as the &nion strengthened itsel 9ith alliances 9ith Maurits 'an
Jassau .)+)70, 4ngland .)+)60 and the &nited -ro'inces .)+)10. The Iiga slo9l% disintegrated and 9as
dissol'ed in )+)1, although Ma<imilian ormed a ne9 Iiga in that %ear. Ma<imilian took ull ad'antage o
the Bohemian situation b% promising militar% support against Friedrich and the &nion in e<change or
concessions rom the Raiser, one o 9hich 9as sole directorship o the Iiga. #greed upon on , Gctober
)+)*, Ma<imilian directed the Iiga or o'er t9ent%Esi< %ears.
With the open break bet9een Bohemia and the cro9n, Friedrich, as head o the &nion, attempted to bring his
-rotestant allies into the Bohemian crisis b% accepting the Bohemian cro9n .6+ #ugust )+)*0. The maHorit%
o the &nion, ho9e'er, reused to ollo9 his leadership, lea'ing him 9ith no maHor 3erman all%. $e did ha'e
an arm% .under the command o 3ra 4rnst 'on Mans0e$d C)/,75)+6+D and sent b% (harles 4manuel A, the
"uke o Sa'o% to the Bohemian 4states in #ugust )+),
0, but the onl% allies upon 9hom he could depend
9ere Silesia, Iusatia and Mora'ia, tin% neighboring states 9hich conederated 9ith Bohemia in Jul% )+),.
Finding himsel beret o signiicant support, Friedrich appealed to -rotestant rulers or aid, but recei'ed
little o substanti'e 'alue. James, his atherEinEla9, oered onl% a series o paternal lectures dealing 9ith the
great mistake that the %oung RurTrst had made, this despite popular opinion in Britain a'oring action.
Sigismund and Wolgang Wilhelm. Spanish .and "utch0 troops did not e'acuate cities the% occupied, thereb% e<acerbating ears
b% -rotestants o $absburg intentions.
Formed in )+7,, the -rotestant &nion 9as a deensi'e alliance bet9een Iutheran and (al'inist princes 9ithin the $24 and 9as
directed b% RurTrst Friedrich Q 'on der -alB .)/*+5)+:60. Members o the &nion included: "uke Friedrich 'on WTrttemberg?
the Margra'en 'on Baden and 'on #nsbach? Johann Sigismund? Wolgang Wilhelm? -alBgra Johann AA 'on S9eibrTcken? et al.
Amperial cities such as Stra`burg and &lm Hoined in )+7*. The inal tall% o &nion signees includes nine principalities and
se'enteen Amperial cities. The &nion 9as tacitl% supported b% $enri AQ Ca $uguenot prince turned (atholic: -aris 9as indeed
9ell 9orth a massaD.
# po9er 'acuum e<ists 9hen an area or state 9hich has an e<tremel% 9eak go'ernment and>or arm% has po9erul
neighbors that are desirous o e<pansion. The $24 during this period is a classic e<ample o a po9er 'acuum.
See Baustaedt, Richelieu un /eutschlan or a stud% o 2ichelieu and his oreign polic% at this time.
(harles 4manuel sent the arm% in hopes that the Bohemian estates 9ould elect him to the throne o Bohemia.

James inall% relented to domestic pressures in )+67 and authoriBed Sir #ndre9 3ra% to le'% a regiment o
6777 Scottish 'olunteers or Bohemia.
James also authoriBed the le'% o an 4nglish regiment o 6677 men
and ga'e command o the regiment to Sir $oratio Qere. The rugal Csting%D monarch agreed to inance onl%
the latter.
The Scottish regiment under 3ra% 9as raised in three months and sailed or $amburg at the end
o Ma% )+67.
The rapid raising o the regiment 9as eected 9ith the aid o the -(S, or the (ouncil
ordered all idle and unemplo%ed men to report to the mustering ground in 4dinburgh. Where 'olunteers 9ere
e9, unit strength 9as complemented 9ith =strong and sturdie beggaris, idill 'agaboundis \ and maisterles
men’ 9ho 9ere to register and be escorted to le'% places? =thame that \ neglect and contempne the present
occasioun oerit \ CareD to be apprehendit tha% salbe e<ecute to deade 9ithoute a'our or merc%e.’

#ter landing in $amburg, 3ra%’s 2egiment marched through 3erman% to -rague. Forced b% political
considerations to take a circuitous route. Iutheran RurTrst ("hann Ge"r3 A des K&r01rstent&)
C4lectorateD Sachsen CSax"n#D .)/,/5r )+))5)+/+0 reused to support Friedrich and 9ould not allo9 the
regiment to march through his neutral RurTrstentum. The regiment irst marched east9ard to Brandenburg
and then turned south9ard. While marching through Brandenburg, the Scots 9ere met 9ith great hostilit% b%
the Iutheran inhabitants 9ho eared the mercenaries had been imported b% their (al'inist RurTrst, Ge"r3
Wi$he$) .)/*/5)+;70, to orce (al'inism on them.
The ears o the populace 9ere groundless, as the
regiment did not stop. At arri'ed in -rague on ) Jul% )+67.
&pon its arri'al, the regiment 9as !uartered near
-rague and 9as assigned to act as the personal bod%guard o the Ring. This 9as done at the re!uest o
Manseld 9ho realiBed that the strange ood and the long march had seriousl% 9eakened the regiment.
Ta%lor, an 4nglish 'isitor in -rague at the time, noted in his diar% that man% o 3ra%’s troops 9ere sick.
Because o this, the regiment did not take part in the Battle o White Mountain ., Jo'ember )+670
9hich the Bohemian orces 9ere routed b% the Iiga arm% under (ount CJohann TserclaesD Ti$$# and C(harles
Bona'enture de Iongue'al, (omte deD Buc!uo%.
Follo9ing the deeat o his arm%, Friedrich led his kingdom, deserting his subHects and the remnants o his
arm%. Manseld, 9ho had not taken part in the battle because his arm% had been besieged at P$4e5 C-ilsenD b%
Amperial orces, called the remnants o the Bohemian arm% together and marched to9ard the -alatinate. The
Scots under 3ra% 9ere ordered to surrender the ortress at Rarlstein and to Hoin Manseld.
An Januar% )+6),
John (hamberlain to CSir "udle% (arletonD .6: Februar%)+670. -2GI S- );>))6>)7; CLL pagesD. (S-" );>))6>)7;>)6/: =Sir
#ndre9 3ra% has made suit to be allo9ed to raise 6777 'olunteers or Bohemia. Mone% is 'er% short.’
Sir 2ichard Monge to Iord Souch .);>6; June )+670. -2GI S- );>))/>1: C6 pagesD. (S-" );>))/>1:>)/6:=Sir $oratio Qere
appointed to 3enerall o the ;777 sent to deend the -alatinate.’ The names o the oicers are listed. See also Markham, Fighting
The maHorit% o these recruits 9ere $ighlanders, man% o 9hom carried bo9s, long kni'es and Scottish spears, in
addition to their muskets. This description o Scottish troops 9as 'alid throughout their ser'ice in the 3erman Wars,
as the% 9ere then called.
-roclamation b% 2-(S ., Ma% )+670, ) 2-(S )6:6+7. "ata rom ) 2-(S )6:6/*56+6, 616.
Jan%, 0eschichte er .Iniglich preuJischen Armee, A:;*.
=# True 2elation o the Iate -roceedings in Bohemia\.’ .)+670, )7.
Manseld, Appollogie .)+660, :,
Ta%lor, Taylor5 his Tra!els .)+670, " )56.
See Rrebs, Schlacht am $eiJen 9erge, or an account o the battle.
SetonEWatson, -3echs K Slo!a.s, ))6.
3ra%’s troops eected the Hunction 9ith Manseld and the arm% marched to9ard $eidelberg.
The 4nglish
regiment authoriBed b% James had sailed or the Jetherlands on 6 #ugust )+67. This orce o 6777 soldiers
e'aded the Spanish arm% under the Mar!uXs C#mbrogio di Filippo, mar!uXs de los BalbasesD Spinola
marched up the 'alle% o the 2hine 2i'er to the -alatinate, reaching Worms in Gctober. There, Qere di'ided
his arm% into three sections and occupied the ortiied cities o Mannheim, $eidelberg .on the Jeckar 2i'er0
and Frankenthal. These three cities 9ere the last outposts o Friedrich because Spinola had, b% this time,
con!uered the rest o the -alatinate. Spinola immediatel% besieged the cities.
The 4nglish orces held out
under e<treme hardship until the 9inter o )+66>6: 9hen, one b% one, the cities ell to the orces besieging
An )+66 Manseld at irst sought to impro'e the position o the -rotestants in the -alatinate. &nortunatel% or
him, the t9in deeats o Wimpen .+51 Ma% )+660 and $Pchst .67 June )+660 made his position in that area
untenable. An June, he retreated into #lsace and rom there ad'anced into the Io9 (ountries, 9here he
entered "utch ser'ice. Soon ater contracting 9ith the "utch 2epublic, Manseld deeated Spinola near
$ainault .:7 #ugust )+660. An this battle, Scottish troops under (aptains CJamesD $epburn, CThomasLD $ume
and Sir James 2amsa% distinguished themsel'es.
Manseld’s troops 9ere also able to accomplish the relie
o BergenEopESoom .; Gctober )+660, but little else. The "utch soon 9earied o the plundering o his men,
reused to inance him urther and his arm% disintegrated in )+6:.
The onl% other disciplined -rotestant
arm% in 3erman% 9as under the command o (hristian o Bruns9ick Cder JTngere, $erBog des $erBogtum
Braunsch9eigEITneburg: der tolle $alberst]dterD
, 9hich 9as deeated at Stadtlohn .+ #ugust )+6:0.
Sur'i'ing &nion troops entered the ser'ice o Manseld, 9ho 9as seeking a ne9 master.
An order to recoup his ortunes and regain an arm%, Manseld Hourne%ed to 4ngland in #pril )+6;. $e 9as
accorded a ro%al 9elcome b% the 4nglish, or the% elt Manseld to be the champion o 4liBabeth o
Bohemia. James himsel inall% decided to support the cause o his sonEinEla9 b% pro'iding Manseld 9ith
b67,777 and authoriBing a le'% o +777 men.
This sudden desire to help Manseld 9as surel% moti'ated, at
least in part, b% James’s realiBation that Spain had reHected his son, (harles, as a match or the Spanish
Ananta and b% the conse!uential deterioration o relations bet9een Spain and 4ngland. With the aid o the
king, Manseld 9as able to raise a larger arm% than originall% intended 5 an arm% o )6,777 men.
At 9as,
ho9e'er, illEarmed and illEe!uipped. The troops, lacking tents and 9arm clothing, 9ere shipped to $olland in
Manseld, Appollogie, //.
Jul%E#ugust )+67: Spanish Anter'ention. The Spanish $absburg arm% under Spinola 9as in the 2henish -alatinate because, as
part o the o'erall $absburg strateg% to crush the Bohemian insurrection, Spanish orces let Flanders and occupied most o
Friedrich’s to9ns.
Spinola 9as unable to besiege the cities or an% length o time as the t9el'eE%ear truce bet9een the "utch 2epublic and Spain
9as due to e<pire in )+6), and the conlict 9as certain to be rene9ed. Spinola thereore let the sieges to Till% and returned to
3rant, 2epburn, p. 67.
G the t9ent%Eour regiments under Manseld at this time, t9o 9ere British: 3ra% 9ith a declared siBe o 6777 and
Qere 9ith a declared siBe o :777. Wertheim, 2er3og -hristian, AA:/;/5/;+.
Wertheim, 2er3og -hristian, 6 'ols.
CThomasD Iocke to CSir "udle% (arletonD .)1 Ma% )+6;0. Mone% is needed or reco'er% o -alatinate and ha'e also promised
b)77,777 to the Ring o "enmark. From 9hence is the mone% to comeL Iisting o oicers: our colonels Call 4nglishD 9ith )/77
men each are or Io9 (ountries. -2GI S- );>)+;>*6 C: pagesD.
Iist o oicers and le'ies C:7 Jo'ember )+6;D. -2GI S- );>)1/>,* C6 pagesD. The names are mostl% 4nglish, though some
surnames amiliar in 1<peition .Murra%, Forbes, Beaton: about 67 o +7 9ere Scottish0. Total )6,*77.
the middle o the 9inter o )+6;>6/. There, it rapidl% d9indled a9a% due to disease and 9holesale desertion
to the Spanish.
#t this time, man% o the Scots 9ho had ser'ed under 3ra% or had come 9ith Manseld 9ere
con'o%ed to S9eden under the command o Sir John $epburn.
B% Jo'ember )+6/, onl% :777 o the
original )6,777 men could be mustered in the "utch 2epublic? and these, along 9ith 6777 ne9 recruits, 9ere
sent to "enmark under the command o Sir (harles Morgan, an 4nglishman.
-art o this bod% o soldiers
then marched into Silesia, 9here it 9as incorporated into the ne9 arm% that Manseld 9as building.
rest Hoined Christian AQ .Rong "anmark CDen)ar/D5Jorge, r )/,,5)+;,0 ater the battle o !&tter am
Barenberge .61 #ugust )+6+0.

(ommanders during the Thirt% Mears’ War oten had maHor troubles keeping an arm% at ull strength because
o the problem o pa%ing the men. # t%pical e<ample o the irregularit% o pa%ment and the 'arious sources
used can be pro'ided b% the arm% o Manseld. Manseld did keep his arm% together b% pa%ing his soldiers in
ull, but most o the pa%ments 9ere late. #ter White Mountain .9hen Manseld mo'ed his camp to the
&pper -alatinate0 his arm% 9as subsidiBed b% 4ngland, and he 9as able to pa% his men. Met another time,
9hen his arm% relie'ed Frankenthal, the grateul citiBens paid the 9age arrears. The capture o the Spanish
9ar chest at the Battle o $ainault urther pro'ided Manseld 9ith mone% or his troops.
&pon his arri'al in
the Io9 (ountries, the "utch 2epublic paid his arm% 5 until the atrocities perpetrated on the local
inhabitants determined the "utch to terminate their contract 9ith him. Manseld then 9ent to 4ast Friesland
until )+66, 9hen the people there paid him :77,777 lorins to lea'e. $e inanced the 4nglish arm% 9hich he
raised in )+6; at irst 9ith 4nglish aid and then 9ith French aid in )+6/. =G course, an% soldier 9ho had
died beore his back 9ages could be paid lost out.’
At is ob'ious, then, that the inancing o an arm% oten
depended upon good ortune, and there 9as ne'er an% guarantee to the soldiers that the% 9ould be paid.
While Manseld maneu'ered in the Io9 (ountries, -rotestant ortunes in the $24 declined at a rapid rate.
Friedrich, derisoril% called the =Winter Ring’, 9as stripped o his possessions and titles. Ferdinand, ne9l%
elected $2 Raiser, re9arded Ma<imilian or his support b% granting him the &pper -alatinate and b%
in'esting him as RurTrst 'on Ba%ern CBa,ariaD. Ferdinand also granted Ma<imilian the attendant oice o
imperial ste9ard, 9hich had been enHo%ed since ):/+ b% the (ounts -alatine o the 2hine. Follo9ing White
Mountain a number o Bohemian nobles 9ere e<ecuted? an estimated i'eEsi<ths o the Bohemian nobilit%
9ent into e<ile and their properties 9ere coniscated. An act, appro<imatel% oneEhal the land in Bohemia
9as coniscated and sold to (atholics. #lbrecht CWenBel 4usebius 'on> #lbrecht QUcla' 4usebius B
QaldcteHnaD Wa$$enstein .)/,:5)+:;D
made himsel 9ealth% as the result o the coniscation and sale o the
estates o his -rotestant countr%men.
# (atholic 2eormation, under the aegis o Jesuits, 9as carried out
=2eport o Sir John (oke o a message rom his maHest% to the house o commons’ ., Jul% )+6/0. (S-" )+>;>/+5
/1. Mass deections and the need or mone% or supplies are detailed.
3rant, 2epburn, 61.
Beller, =Morgan’ in 4$2 ;::/6,E/:*.
C-o%ntBD, %oynt3, ;+5;1.
$urter, Wallensteins, )6+.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1:;*,.
Ibi., QSW ;1:;**.
2edlich, =(ontributions’ in 4c$2 )6:6 .)*/*>+70: 6;156+7? 2itter, =Rontributionss%stem’ in $S *7 .)*7:0: )*:56;*? and =WSB,
=Wallenstein and the @ontributionssystem’ .)*++0: TB-.
Friedrich, 9aro=ue, )+,.
9hereb% Bohemian -rotestants .especiall% middleEclass burghers0 either con'erted or 9ere either dri'en out
or e<ecuted.
An late )+6; t9o Scandina'ian kings 5 3# and (hristian 5 considered entering the 9ar, supposedl% to
champion -rotestantism. 3# proposed an alliance bet9een S9eden, the "utch 2epublic, "enmark and
4ngland. S9eden, o course, 9ould lead the coalition, 9ith subsidies supplied b% the &nited -ro'inces and
$o9e'er, his agenda also included subHecting the -olandEIithuania (ommon9ealth as 9ell as
-omerania to S9edish rule, 9hich alienated prospecti'e allies. (hristian had more modest desires. Fearing
that Iiga militar% successes might 9ell result in the restoration, as 9ell as the e<pansion, o (atholicism in
northern 3erman%, he publicl% declared his countr%’s militar% interests 9ere intended halt urther (atholic
encroachments in -rotestant areas. $e also acted to orestall reEinstitution o (atholicism in areas lost to
-rotestantism since )///. &nderl%ing these public claims 9as (hristian’s realiBation that urther (atholic
successes might easil% result in the loss o se'eral ecclesiastical principalities in his o9n possession.
course proposed b% the latter 9as 'ie9ed more a'orabl% b% those states considering inter'ention? and, at the
$ague .6* Jo'ember>* "ecember )+6/0, an accord bet9een the "utch 2epublic, 4ngland .and b% e<tension,
Scotland and Areland0 and "enmark 9as signed.
(hristian thus embarked upon a militar% campaign against
(atholic orces then on his border .later identiied in "anish histor% as =the 4mperors’ War’ .@e;ser.rigen0.
&nortunatel%, the likelihood o militar% success b% the coalition 9as almost immediatel% lessened as the
result o signiicant alterations in the 4uropean politicalEmilitar% milieu e<tant at the time o the agreement.
First, it 9as kno9n that Spain, a 'itall% important Amperial all%, 9as tiedEdo9n b% its commitment to
crushing the rebellion>re'olt b% the "utch 2epublic. &nbekno9nst to (hristian, this 9as oset b%
Wallenstein’s pledge o his personal arm% .numbering some9here bet9een :7,777 and )77,777 soldiers0 to
Ferdinand in return or the right to plunder the captured territories. Second, potential allies 5 particularl%
principalities located in areas certain to be in the anticipated 9ar Bone 5 9ere understandabl% hesitant to
make unnecessar% enemies. -rincipalities and to9ns, especiall% as the 9ars dragged on, 9ere 9ellEa9are o
the dire conse!uences resulting rom choosing the losing side to ailure to meet logistical demands. Jot
surprisingl%, S9eden reHected the idea o a coalition under "anish leadership? 3# instead engaged in 9ar
9ith -olandEIithuania. While France had earlier, tacitl% or the most part,
supported 'irtuall% e'er%
challenge to the $absburgs, domestic issues 5 especiall% a bre9ing ci'il 9ar bet9een French ro%al orces
.operating at the behest o (ardinalE"uc de Ri%he$ie& C#rmand Jean du -lessis de 2ichelieu .)/,/5)+;60D,
able irst minister o Iouis [AAA, le 2oi de France C)+7)5r )+)7 5)+;:0 and $uguenots protected b% the 4dict
o Jantes .)/,*0 5 lessened the likelihood o signiicant assistance rom the French. Third, coalition
operations 9ere hindered b% the lack o unding. The "utch 2epublic 'oted onl% a raction o 9hat (hristian
belie'ed essential or raising enough troops and or ac!uiring the necessars critical or 9aging 9ar against
the orces opposing the coalition. The 4nglish -arliament reused to 'ote an% mone% at all but did not oppose
2oe, =Mission to 3#’, -amen Miscellany ;:,65*6.
(hristian 9as in possession o the ecclesiastical States o Bremen .his second son 9as bishop o Bremen0, Qerden @ $alberstadt
and 9anted the bishopric o GsnabrTck as re9ard or his participation CWard, T(M$, );:;7D. #ccording to the -eace o
#ugsburg .)///0, these 9ere 'iolations o the accord. The "eenestration o -rague 9as but one o man% challenges to the
religious agreements, but it 9as the most signiicant as it initiated the Thirt% Mears’ War.
Ioose, 2amburg un -hristian, ;:6:.
Gpenl%, i the plans o $enri AQ had not been derailed b% his assassination.
the issuance o contracts or le'%ing troops in Scotland and 4ngland. 4ssentiall%, the "anish king 9as going
to 9ar 9ith little more than his o9n treasur% a'ailable to support his plans.
Still, ollo9ing the signing o the accord, a grand strateg% bet9een coalition members 9as agreed upon.
(hristian o "enmark 9as to o'erpo9er Io9er Sa<on%? (hristian o Bruns9ick 9as to attack the
Wittelsbach bishoprics in Westphalia and the lo9er 2hineland? Manseld, appointed generalissimo o
the coalition, 9as to ad'ance against Bohemia, Silesia and Mora'ia? Bethlen C3abor o Trans%l'aniaD
9as to operate against #ustria and Mora'ia and eect a conHunction 9ith Manseld.

An theor%, it appeared a good plan, but the )+6/ campaign season 9itnessed little ighting. When (hristian
suered an ,7Eoot all,
he 9as or all intents and purposes incapacitated or the rest o that %ear. (hristian’s
generalissimo did little to urther the cause or Manseld ailed to ad'ance into Bohemia against the militar%
no'ice, Wallenstein. The coalition’s militar% situation gre9 rapidl% and progressi'el% 9orse 9ith the
resumption o acti'e 9arare in the spring o )+6+. (hristian and Manseld 9ere not onl% 9idel% separated
but also 9ere di'ided b% the 4lbe 2i'er. An a percepti'e .or ortuitous0 strategic mo'e, Till% and Wallenstein
ad'anced their armies into the gap and occupied man% o the passes CcrossingsD o'er the 4lbe.
The central
position held b% the IigaEAmperial armies thus dro'e a 9edge bet9een their opponents and orced coalition
orces to attack an entrenched enem%. The resulting battles 5 "essau Bridge .6/ #pril )+6+0
and Iutter
9ere o'er9helming 'ictories or IigaEAmperial orces. Manseld, ollo9ing his deeat at "essau Bridge,
retreated into Silesia 9ith the remnants o his arm%. $e then set out or Qenice in hopes o inding a
beneactor 9illing to und another arm% but died en route .Jo'ember )+6+0. The remnants o Manseld’s
arm%, supplemented b% ne9l% raised but poorl% trained troops, 9ere placed under the command o 3eneral
BalthaBar Jacob 'on S%h$a))ersd"r0, a commander 9ith appropriate credentials but 9ith little militar%
talent. Further 9est in $olstein, (hristian established a deensi'e line along the Weser 2i'er, anticipating an
oensi'e in earl% )+61 b% the Iiga arm% under Till%.
"esperatel% needing reinorcements to replace his manpo9er losses,
the "anish king contracted 9ith a
number o mercenar% oicers, including 'arious Scottish militar% enterprisers. The MacRa% 2egiment,
arguabl% the most amous o Scottish regiments to ser'e in the 3erman Wars,
9as initiall% commissioned
b% Manseld on + March )+6+. This, in turn, 9as honored b% (harles, 9ho authoriBed a 9arrant or the le'%
Steinberg, 1uropean 2egemony, ;/.
Thro9n rom his horse, (hristian then plunged do9n a steep embankment. #lthough not !uite the drop as e<perienced during the
"eenestration o -rague .and there 9as no con'enient pile o mist upon 9hich to land0, it clearl% aected (hristian’s actions.
From descriptions o his beha'ior ollo9ing the all, it is likel% he suered a se'ere concussion as a result o his tumble.
Whether this 9as a coordinated mo'e .and i so, 9ho suggested or ordered it0 or 9hether this 9as simpl% one o those luck%
things 9hich occurs in 9arare, there is no 9a% o kno9ing at this late date. 3i'en the nature o command and o
communications in the se'enteenthEcentur%, it is more likel% the latter. An an% e'ent the net result 9as AmperialEIiga armies
occupied the central position.
-o%ntB, %oynt3, ;+5;1. -o%ntB claims to oer an =e%eE9itness’ account but his 'ersion is littered 9ith inaccuracies. #ll primar%
material rom that period has to be crossEchecked or accurac% and or -GQ.
"escribed and anal%Bed in Qoges, 4utter.
Wasta3e is a British term used to describe the se'erit% o manEpo9er losses rom all causes. At is an element in the degradation
o militar% orce.
Gb'iousl% 1<peition has much to do 9ith this.
o 6777 men 9hich 9as to be issued b% the -(S to Sir "onald MacRa%, later Iord 2ea%.
An the summer o
)+6+, t9o additional licenses to le'% 9ere issued b% the -(S: one to (aptain #le<ander Seton or /77 men
or "enmark
and the other to Sir James Ieslie or ;77 men or Manseld.
G the latter t9o, it is unkno9n
ho9 man% men 9ere actuall% raised and transported, although an estimate o )777 men has been made.
earl% )+61 three urther commissions or le'ies or "anish ser'ice 9ere authoriBed b% (harles and b% the
-(S: 2obert Ma<9ell, the 4arl o Jithsdale recei'ed a patent on 61 Februar% to raise :777 men?
#le<ander Iindse%, Iord Sp%nie, and James Sinclair o Murkill 9ere each issued 9arrants on , March b% the
-(S, 9ith each authoriBed to le'% :777 men.
An addition to these le'ies, Sir James Spens 9as authoriBed to
raise )677 men or ser'ice in S9eden.
#lthough it is impossible to determine e<actl% the number o troops
raised, it has been =guesstimated’ that appro<imatel% )7,777 o the authoriBed );,777 .including the le'ies o
late )+6+0 9ere raised and transported.
MacRa%’s 2egiment o appro<imatel% 6;77 soldiers, man% o them
$ighlanders, embarked rom northern Scotland in the Fall o )+6+. 2M’s unit sailed rom (romart% on )7
Gctober )+6+, landing at 3lTckstadt si< da%s later. Since the soldiers had been commissioned b% Manseld,
his death meant that Macka% had onl% to re!uest that (hristian emplo% them, 9hich occurred almost
For a regimental histor% prCcis, see Macka%, =Macka%’s 2egiment’ in T3SA ,. For a lengthier account, along 9ith supporting
documentation, see GSB. Both rel% hea'il% on 1<peition: # partial listing o recruiting documents includes: Macka%, Sir
"onald, Iord 2ea%. J#S: 2ea% -apers 3" ,;>6>);+5)*6a. The 9ording o contracts and o le'% authoriBations can be ollo9ed
in the e<tant records o Sir "onald MacRa% o Farr C.a0 4rnest, -rince and (ount o Manseld to (aptain "a'id Iermont at
Iauenburg CFrenchD .6; Januar% )+6+0. (ommission to treat 9ith those le'%ing and bringing Scottish regiments and companies to
the ser'ice o the Ring and Oueen o Bohemia. J#S 2ea% 3" ,;>6>);,? .b0 (harles to the 2-(S .: March )+6+0. 3rant Sir
"onald Macka% a 9arrant or raising 6777 men. 6 2-(S 6:) @ 6:6;/? GSB 6:1? .c0 Ietter o #greement bet9een (aptain "a'id
Iermont and James, Iord Gccultrie, on behal o Sir "onald Macka% C4nglishD .; March )+6+0. J#S 2ea% 3" ,;>6>);*? .d0
2-(S Iicense to Macka% .)+ March )+6+0. #uthoriBes le'% o 6777 or "enmark. J#S 2ea% 3" ,;>6>)/7? .e0 Mr Wolen and
another Cto Iord Treasurer MarlboroughD .#pril )+6+0. =#greement made 9ith Sir "onald Macka% in name o (ount Manseld
or le'% o regiment o :,777 or $is MaHest%’s ser'ice in 3erman% \ 9e stand in need o present mone% or the transportation
o the regiment.’ (S-" )+ 6::/6:>)7/>)66? .0 Gicial commission rom 4rnest, -rince and (ount o Manseld .in Serbst0, to
Sieur "onalt Mac!ua% (he'alier CFrenchD .* #pril )+6+00. Macka% named colonel o :777 Scots in )/ companies. J#S 2ea%
3" ,;>6>)/). T9o urther recruiting notes:.a0 2M recei'ed in )+6+ a commission as a lieutenant in the regiment: =2obert Monro,
at irst lieutenant in the said regiment to the noble and 9orth% captain, Thomas MackenBie o Rildon, brother o the noble lord,
the Iord 4arl o Seaorth.’ C1<peition Antro:)D and .b0 =Da h-uile fear a thei a hollaih 0heibh a olar bho MhacAoih’ 5
3aelic pro'erb in the northern $ighlands: =$e that is do9n in his luck shall get a dollar rom Macka%’. #ccording to GSB 6/;, it
is likel% rom the Thirt% Mears’ War era and stems rom 2ea%’s recruiting eorts. A 9ould posit that it is more than Hust =likel%’.
These .and more0 documents are TB- on See also Fallon, Scottish Mercenaries, :;5),1, or data on ulilling militar%
contracts. M% &SM 9as researched and 9ritten in )*++5)*+,? Fallon’s remarkable dissertation 9as accepted in )*1;. AM$G,
9hile A broke ne9 ground on the topic, Fallon’s manuscript should long ago ha'e been published. -erhaps he 9ill permit me to
post his 9ork .o 9hich A ha'e a purchased cop%0 on A he 9ill contact me, or a reader can pro'ide contact
inormation .contact us0, and permission is granted, his dissertation 9ill be posted. Further, SSJ- is an in'aluable resource or
locating material on the topic.
Ie'% Iicense to #le<ander Seton .6/ June )+6+0. 6 2-(S )::)/.
Ie'% Iicense to Sir James Ieslie or ;77 men .67 Jul% )+6+0. 6 2-(S )::/1.
3rant, Soliers, )6+. 3rant estimates the orce raised b% MacRa% at :;77 9hich is about :7K higher than probabl% raised, that is
6;77. $is estimate o the number o troops raised b% Ieslie and Seton 9as )/77? and i this is also reduced b% :7K, the igure is
appro<imatel% )777.
Iicense to 2obert Ma<9ell, 4arl o Jithsdale .61 Februar% )+610. 6 2-(S ):/:)5/:6.
Iicense to #le<ander Iindse%, Iord Sp%nie ., March )+610. 6 2-(S ):/:*5/;7? Iicense to James Sinclair ., March )+610. 6
2-(S ):/;7.
Iicense to Sir James Spens .): Februar% )+610. 6 2-(S ):/6:5/6;.
6 2-(S ):l<<<iii, /+/5/+,, /1,5/,1 @ +)). TB-: WSB. =4<panding -roessions’.
An )+61 Wallenstein and Till% acted to e<pand the area controlled b% their orces or se'eral reasons.
Foremost in their strateg% .either independentl% or mutuall%0 9as the deeat o the orces arra%ed against
them. Secondl%, an unstated, albeit one 9idel% eared b% northern 3erman -rotestants, goal 9as the
restoration .and perhaps the e<tension0 o (atholicism to areas lost to -rotestantism since the Treat% o
#ugsburg .)///0. Finall%, there 9as the desire b% both Till% and Wallenstein to sustain their orces b%
bringing more territor% under the @ontributionssystem.
#s de'eloped b% Wallenstein, the
@ontributionssystem 9as a method b% 9hich the inhabitants o a region paid or matCriel
re!uirements>necessars o troops !uartered in their 'icinit% 9ithout ha'ing to billet them Cma%beD. This
!uasiElegal e<tortion 9as o t9o maHor t%pes: mone% contributions and pa%ment in kind. When an arm%
approached a to9n o an% siBe, its commander assessed the 'alue o the to9n? and its citiBens 9ere inormed
o 9hat the% 9ere e<pected to pa%. A pa%ment 9ere not orthcoming, the cit% 9as either captured or, this
being uneasible, the countr%side 9as de'astated. -a%ment in kind 9as dealt 9ith in a similar manner. #gain,
commanders decided ho9 much ood 9as necessar% to sustain one man and to9nspeople had to suppl% that
amount or e'er% man in the arm%. The 'alue o these rations 9as calculated b% commanders, and ood 9as
doled out to soldiers in lieu o mone% pa%ments. With such goals in mind, in earl% June .the opening o
=ighting’ season0, AmperialEIiga orces mo'ed against the -rotestant coalition orces.
An the campaigns o )+61, (hristian’s armies 9ere e<pelled rom Io9er Sa<on%, then chased into Jutland.
Wallenstein soon circumscribed Till%’s role and relegated the Iiga arm% to a secondar% role in Io9er
Sa<on%? his Amperial arm% then in'aded Mecklenburg and -omerania. "anish armies could onl% dela%
enem% ad'ances as the Iiga>Amperial armies 9ere ar too po9erul to be halted. #ccording to 2obert Monro
{RM}, Scottish troops pla%ed a prominent role in the dela%ing tactics ought b% (hristian’s arm%. #t
BoiBenburg our companies o $ighlanders .,77 men0 under MaHor James "unbar held o )7,777 soldiers
under Till% in June )+61.
&nortunatel%, as oten happens 9hen isolated posts cannot be relie'ed and 9hen
a commander o the garrison reuses to parle%, "unbar and his our companies, reduced b% disease and
combat to ;77 men, 9ere later 9iped out at the (astle o Breddenburg .#ugust )+610.
$olstein 9as no9
'irtuall% undeended, and the last "anish ield arm% in the 9est 9as practicall% annihilated at 3rossenbrode
.; September )+610. (olonel Sir (harles Morgan and the remainder o 4nglishEScottish troops 9hich had
Hoined (hristian in )+6/ 9ere bottled up in cities and ultimatel% surrendered .6/ #pril )+6,0.
himsel 9as at Stade, near Bremen, 9here the Scots under his command put up the onl% resistance 9hen
Till% attacked.
An Gctober )+61 the Mar!uis o Baden 9as deeated b% Till%, and onl% he and i'e
companies o Scots escaped.

2edlich, =(ontributions’ in 6 4c$2 )6:6;156/;? 2itter, =@ontributionssystem’ in $S *7:)*:56;*. 2M euphemisticall% calls the
ac!uisition o necessars 'ia the use o orce and>or threat a =contribution’ but this is clearl% an #ngliciBation o the 3erman
@ontribution. The practice 9as not ne9, as 2oman legions operated under the motto: bellum se ipsum alit .or alet0. =War eeds
itsel’ .3erman: /er @rieg ern"hrt en @rieg? French: 4a guerre oit se nourrir elle-mLme0 9as implemented on a lesser scale b%
Till% in )+6: on occupied enem% territor%. Wallenstein raised the practice to its most producti'e le'el, leading some to conclude
that he actuall% created the s%stem utiliBed during this period. The brutal results o the Thirt% Mears’ War on the $24 led to a
dierent the st%le o 9ar: an era o limited 9ar 9aged b% proessional armies ollo9ing =2ules o War’ and =(odes o (onduct’
9hich 9ere outlined in part b% $ugo 3rotius.
1<peition A:)75)6. #lso Gpel, nieers"chsisch-"nische @rieg, 6:LL.
1<peition A::,5;). #lso Gpel, nieers"chsisch-"nische @rieg, 6:6, ? 3rant, Scottish Soliers, 6:)56:6.
3ardiner, 2istory of 1nglan +:),/5+. #lso Beller, =Morgan’ in 4$2 ;::/6,5/:*.
$urter, Wallensteins, )6:.
Sir Thomas (on9a% to Qiscount Wilmot .)+ Gctober )+610. -2GI S- )+>,)>/) Cthree pagesD. (on9a%’s description is likel%
reerring to Macka%’s troops, including 2M. (harles Morgan and his troops are also mentioned. Jote: (S-" )+ 6>,)>/)>:,* is a
T%pical o Scottish bra'er% and steadastness 9as the Battle o Gldenburg in September )+61.
-rior to this
battle, Wallenstein deeated a "anish arm% in Silesia under 3eneral BalthaBar Jacob 'on Schlammersdor,
9ho retreated north9ard to the island o -oel, near Wismar.
Mean9hile, the remaining se'en companies o
the MacRa% 2egiment had been ordered east9ard as reinorcements or the "anish arm% in Silesia.
$o9e'er, upon learning o that arm%’s deeat, the regiment s9itl% shited direction and marched also to
-oel. #ter rendeB'ousing 9ith 'on Schlammersdor’s battered arm%, the combined orces 9ere e'acuated,
then transported b% sea to $eiligenhaen. Follo9ing disembarkation, the arm% marched to Gldenburg to ace
Till%. #s the pass at Gldenburg 9as unortiied, part o the "anish arm% 9as ordered to construct ield
ortiications or deense o the 'ital chokeEpoint. &nortunatel% or the deenders, Till%’s s9it ad'ance
to9ards Gldenburg brought the Iiga arm% to the pass beore eecti'e breastE9orks 9ere built. Till%
immediatel% ordered assaults to be made on "anish trenches and the "anish arm% began to all back in
conusion. Macka%’s men 9ere ordered or9ard in order to stabiliBe the "anish line. Mo'ing or9ard in
silence, as 9as their custom,
the $ighlanders stopped the ad'ance o the Iiga arm% and held the line or
the rest o the da%.
At 9as ob'ious that the "anish arm% 9as in a precarious position. Grders 9ere issued to the arm% secretl% to
retreat that night and to embark or "enmark. The $ighlanders, ha'ing ought 9ell, 9ere the irst to be
pulled back and sent to $eiligenhaen or embarkation. When it became kno9n that the Scots 9ere gone, the
rest o the "anish arm% began to retreat in hopes o getting a9a% beore Till% ad'anced. The retreat rapidl%
became a mad rush, and it 9as 9ith diicult% that the $ighlanders 9ere able to board ship. Scouts rom
Till%’s arm%, 9ho noticed that the pass had been e'acuated, immediatel% notiied the Iiga general. $is arm%
9as immediatel% set in motion and their pursuit caught the bulk o the "anish arm% on the docks. These
soldiers surrendered and Hoined Till%’s arm%, doing so in ull 'ie9 o the Scots 9ho had alread% sailed. The
$ighlanders, reduced as a result o battle and disease to ,77 soldiers capable o acti'e dut% plus )/7 other
sick and 9ounded men, 9ere thoroughl% disgusted b% the proceedings.
#lthough (hristian sa'ed his arm%
rom complete annihilation, the territor% he eecti'el% controlled 9as reduced to the "anish home islands.

To e<tend Amperial authorit% to the Baltic coast, Ferdinand appointed Wallenstein as 0eneral es 9altischen
un #3eanischen Meeres
and authoriBed the le'%ing o more troops or the Amperial arm%, increasing its
'er% short rendition o a threeEpage document. #s A began accessing original documents, it became clear that personal bias b% the
calendarian .my $or: a person 9ho compiles a calendar0 occasionall% resulted in a ske9ed .-GQ0 s%nopsis o the document.
This 9as most ob'ious in documents pertaining to the British (i'il Wars 9here antiEScots -GQ oten maniests itsel, this not
Hust rom the tone o the document itsel. #s posting progresses, a calendar citation 9ill be matched 9ith a transcription o the
original.s0. So please keep checking back. A %ou ha'e alread% transcribed this, or other cited documents, please contact us. Mou
9ill recei'e ull credit, i posteda
1<peition A:)+56,.
Gpel, nieers"chsisch-"nische @rieg, 6:61/561,.
Firth, -rom$ell’s Army, )7). This assuredl% puts a dent in the thesis o McWhine% @ Jamieson, Attac. an /ie .)*,60 9hich
asserts that massi'e battle casualties suered b% the (onederac% on the battleields o the #merican (i'il War are attributable to
Southern battle tactics deri'ed rom their 9ild, screaming (eltic ancestors. Andeed, the thesis comes 'er% near to deeming this
propensit% a social ata'ism, similar to beha'ior described in Schumpeter, So3iologie er Imperialismen.
1<peition A:))56,.
RellenbenB, =$amburg’ in Q$B ;*>/7:,:.
Qalentin, 0eschichte, 6;;.
mass to 17,777 men. Wallenstein 9as gi'en authorit% to recruit, to disband troops and to regulate his
command structure. An eect, the Amperial arm% 9as Wallenstein’s arm% because he, and onl% he, determined
promotion or demotion.
To carr% out his task, Wallenstein solidiied his control o northEcentral 3erman%
b% subHecting cities 9hich had s9orn allegiance to (hristian and allo9ed the Iiga arm% under Till% to control
northE9estern areas. Amportantl%, not all cities in northern 3erman% 9ere occupied b% either Wallenstein or
Till%, as the numbers re!uired to garrison so man% cities 9as ar be%ond the capacit% or capabilit% or the
(atholic orces. Andeed, some cities, such as $amburg, 9ere ne'er occupied b% e<ternal orces during the
Thirt% Mears’ War. Gn the other hand, the t9o (atholic armies did control 5 either directl% or indirectl% 5 the
Baltic coastline o the $24 or the Raiser: e<cept or Stralsund,
a cit% located on a peninsula o the
-omeranian coast near the island o 2Tgen. Stralsund 9as 'irtuall% impregnable to land attack, and suppl% b%
sea 9as eas%. That assessment, to Wallenstein, 9as unacceptable. An a strategic mo'e, Wallenstein dispatched
)777 soldiers as aid to the Ring o -oland, pro'iding the illusion that the 4mpire 9ould urther assist him i
help 9ere re!uested. $is obHecti'e 9as to encourage the -oles to ight harder against 3#. This 9ould,
hopeull%, pin do9n the S9edish arm% in -oland thereb% keeping S9eden out o the conlict.

Stralsund 9as then attacked. &pon the arri'al o the irst contingents o the Amperial arm% 5 under 3eneral
Johann 3eorg 'on Arni) CEBoitBenburgD .)/,:5)+;)0, Wallenstein’s general 5 on ): Ma% )+6,, t9o
assaults 9ere immediatel% made. #lthough Stralsunders repulsed these attacks, the% s9itl% concluded that
the% could not hold out or long. Turning to (hristian or support, "anish arm% reinorcements to the
beleaguered cit% soon arri'ed. The irst groups, under the command o (olonel $einrich $olk, landed on the
and 1
o June. These units 9ere comprised o the MacRa% 2egiment’s *77 Scots plus a contingent o ;77
"anes and 3ermans.
The Scots 9ere immediatel% sent to the Frankentor, the 9eakest sector o the cit%’s
#lthough 3# 9as at the time engaged in a 9ar 9ith -oland, he obser'ed the presence o the
$absburg arm% on the shore o the Baltic 9ith alarm. This threat to his plan o making the Baltic a =S9edish
Iake’ orced him to act. When Stralsund re!uested his assistance, on :7 June, S9edish aid o eight ships and
+77 men arri'ed. $o9e'er, no troops disembarked until a t9ent%E%ear alliance bet9een S9eden and
Stralsund 9as signed.
# treat% 9as signed on : Jul%, the same da% Wallenstein arri'ed to take personal
command o the siege. With his arri'al the comple<ion o the ighting changed. Anstead o ora%s and
harr%ing attacks, hea'% rontal assaults 9ere launched. These assaults 9ere made, !uite naturall% and
e<pectedl%, on the 9eakest point o the Stralsund deenses 5 the Frankentor. Gn the ;
, 1
, ,
and *
o Jul%,
Amperial orces made night assaults, suering horrendous casualties 9hile accomplishing little sa'e
The cost to the regimentL
Wedg9ood, Thirty Years War, 6);.
Sir Thomas 2oe to (harles A .67>:7 June )+6*0, in 2oe, =Mission to 3#’, -amen Miscellany ;:))5)6. The onl%
other cit% o signiicance to remain under (hristian’s control 9as 3lTckstadt on the 4lbe.
Friedrich, 9aro=ue, )1:.
Berg @ IagercrantB, Scots in S$een, :1.
1<peition A:+;.
Fuller, 9attles, 6:;1.
2M de'otes t9ent%Et9o o eight%Ei'e pages C6+KD o his account o the MacRa% 2egiment’s t9oEandEaEhal %ears
in "anish ser'ice to the battle to deend Stralsund. 1<peition A:/*5,7.
An deence o this to9n o Trailesound, our regiment did lose near i'e hundred men, and o the
remnant escaped, both o oicers and souldiours, A do not think one hundred 9ere ree o 9ounds
recei'ed honourabl%, in deence o the good cause. Who 9ill then sa% but that blood 9as better lost
than kept, 9hen it returns 9ith ad'antage, ha'ing brought credit to themsel'es and countr%L Iet none
then mourn or the loss gotten so honourabl%.
This paean to his proession is clearl% the same to his ello9 Scots, or .according to him0 the sal'ation o
Stralsund achie'ed b% the bra'er% and blood o the Scots stationed there.

Still, e'en 9ith such sacriice, Stralsund 9as under great pressure and 9as prepared to surrender. The arri'al
o Iord Sp%nie’s regiment o ))77 Scots in "anish pa% ser'ed to bolster the sagging spirits o the citiBens. #
surrender ultimatum rom Wallenstein 9as then reHected. Gn )+ Jul% 3eneral #le<ander Ieslie o the
S9edish arm%, along 9ith ,77 Scots and S9edes, arri'ed to take command o the cit%. $e immediatel%
organiBed sallies and strengthened the deensi'e ortiications. This acti'e deense, coupled 9ith hea'% rains
.6)56; Jul%0 9hich turned the area outside the cit% 9alls into a s9amp% marshland, led Wallenstein to
abandon the siege. 2M 9as ob'iousl% pleased to get a Scottish go'ernor o the to9n because the troops had
been illEtreated b% the to9nspeople.
C#Dnd 9hat a blessing it 9as to a to9n, perple<ed as this 9as, to get a good, 9ise, 'irtuous and 'aliant
go'ernor in time o their greatest trouble, 9hich sho9s that 9e are go'erned b% a po9er abo'e us ... it
aring then 9ith Trailesoun, as 9ith Sara: she became ruitul 9hen she could not belie'e it, and the%
become lourishing ha'ing gotten a Scots go'ernor to protect them, 9hom the% looked not or, 9hich
9as a good omen unto them, to get a go'ernor o the nation, that 9as ne'er con!uered, 9hich made
them the onl% to9n in 3erman% ree, as %et, rom the Amperial %oke, b% the 'alour o our nation, that
deended their cit% in their greatest danger.
When the siege 9as lited, Ieslie 9as 9ellEre9arded b% the grateul citiBens o Stralsund.
importantl% or the uture, 3#’s treat% 9ith Stralsund 9as his irst direct action against the $absburgs and his
irst encounter 9ith Wallenstein. #lthough the S9edish king publicl% declared his interest to be the 9elare
o 3erman -rotestants, it 9as the threat to S9eden posed b% Wallenstein’s arm% that caused him to send
Ieslie and o'er /777 Scots and S9edes to Stralsund.
With the S9edes in irm control o Stralsund, (hristian attempted to regain control o at least some o
-omerania, as 9ell as to restore some o his tattered prestige. $is orces, strengthened b% the recalled
regiments o Iord Sp%nie and MacRa%, landed near Wolgast and prepared to in'ade Mecklenburg.
Wallenstein 9as 9ellEprepared to meet an% threat o that nature and, on )6 #ugust, the arm% o (hristian 9as
'irtuall% annihilated. (hristian retired to Wolgast 9ith the remnants o his orce, lea'ing rearEguard action to
his Scots.
(hristian embarked or (openhagen 9ith his depleted orces, arri'ing )* #ugust. There the
Scottish regiments 9ere reinorced b% )777 ne9 troops recruited in Scotland b% MacRa%, no9 Iord 2ea%.
1<peition A:,7.
1<peition A:+,.
1<peition A:11.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser in QSW ;1:::).
"ro%sen, =baltischen Frage’ in $S )/:6/)561+.
1<peition A:,7
The ne9 and old troops 9ere combined and ormed into 9hat 9as 'irtuall% a ne9 regiment, the old regiment
ha'ing suered so man% casualties.
An #pril )+6*, (hristian planned an in'asion o $olstein, but the
oering o lenient terms b% Wallenstein to (hristian or the ending o the 9ar settled the issue.
At 9as
reported that Wallenstein, 9ith regard to the terms oered to (hristian, said: =A he has not lost his 9its he
9ill grasp at it 9ith both hands.’

2epresentati'es o the t9o negotiated a treat% 9hich 9as signed at ITbeck on 66 Ma%, terminating hostilities
bet9een the (atholic $absburg Raiser and the Ring o "enmark. (hristian agreed to surrender so'ereignt%
o'er the 3erman ecclesiastical territories that he held
as 9ell as o'er Io9er Sa<on%. $e 9as allo9ed to
reoccup% Jutland, Schles9ig and part o $olstein. 4ssentiall%, this meant that (atholic orces no9 controlled
much o the $24, 9hich ga'e the Raiser an enormous constitutional ad'antage o'er the 3erman nobles.
Since Scottish troops 9ere no longer needed, the% 9ere paid o and allo9ed to depart. Most o them 9ere
taken into the ser'ice o S9eden.
#s or the $24, an uneas% peace settled o'er the land, uneas% because
Ferdinand then unilaterall% issued the =4dict o 2estitution’, in 9hich he declared:
all alienation o church lands since )//6 .(on'ention o -assau0 null and 'oid, called or their
restitution to their rightul proprietors, authoriBed the latter ater such restitution to e<pel all 9ho
9ould not coness according to the preerence o the ruler o the territor%, and outla9ed all -rotestant
conessions e<cept the Iutheran o #ugsburg (onession....

This, in eect, meant that t9o archbishoprics, t9el'e bishoprics and appro<imatel% /77 religious houses and
institutions 9ould change hands and that thousands o citiBens 9ould be e<pelled rom their homes. The
4dict pro'ed a gross political error, ser'ing to unite -rotestants 9ithin the $24 against urther
encroachments o (atholicism and b% the Raiser. The 4dict o 2estitution negated the eects o the -eace o
ITbeck and set the stage or the third phase o the Thirt% Mears’ War 5 the period o S9edish inter'ention.
The proession o militar% enterpriser 9as about to become more lucrati'e as the demand or mercenaries
9ould soon increase.
1<peition A:,65,;.
Wedg9ood, Thirty Years War, 6/).
Wedg9ood, Thirty Years War, 6;;.
Qalentin, 0eschichte, 6;;.
See 1<peition AA:)56, or his account o the transer o Macka%’s 2egiment to S9edish ser'ice.
Friedrich, 9aro=ue, )1;. The te<t o the 4dict ma% be ound in Iundorp, Acta %ublica 6:)7;,.
Chapter III * ,#(tav#( Adol-h#( of Sweden +ntervene(
Gn + Jul% )+:7, 3#,
the thirt%Esi< %ear old Ring o S9eden, landed his small arm% near -eenemTnde on
the northern end o the island o &sedom in -omerania. $is in'asion had a t9oEold purpose: S9edish
securit% and control o the -omeranian coast. The presence o Amperial and Iiga orces on the southern shore
o the Baltic 9as percei'ed as a serious threat to S9edish securit%, or no po9er could be allo9ed to control
potential in'asion staging areas in -omerania and Mecklenburg. Well a9are that north 3erman states could
no longer deend themsel'es rom Amperial domination, 3# 9as determined to establish a strong S9edish
presence along the middle Baltic coast. Ancidental to his strategic plan, but important in his eort to gain
alliances 9ith north 3erman states, 9as his desire to assist the -rotestants o the $24.
Seeking allies, 3#
conerred 9ith (hristian in Februar% )+6* and tried to persuade him to Hoin S9eden as a Hunior partner to
orce a retreat o Amperial orces. Because o his e<cursion into the $24, (hristian 9as not particularl%
interested in urther 9arare at that time. Jorth 3erman states and cities 9ere 9ooed b% the 3#? and his
personal representati'e, John #dler Sal'ius, prepared the 9a% or the in'asion b% mounting an intense
propaganda campaign in north 3erman% against the $absburgs. 3# also obtained tacit consent or
inter'ention rom France, the "utch 2epublic and 4ngland.
-rior to the in'asion, S9eden had long been engaged in a struggle or control o the Baltic Sea and its
coastline. An particular, there 9as little lo'e lost bet9een "enmark and S9eden, or each had the same
strategic goal. &nder 3#, the oreign polic% o S9eden 9as aimed at a ominuim maris 9altici. An order to
supplement the national income o S9eden, control o the mouths o ri'ers empt%ing into the Baltic 9as
sought in order to collect tolls on trade coming do9n the ri'ers. The -eace o Stolbo'a .)+)10 ended
S9eden’s 9ar 9ith 2ussia and put the ports o the eastern Baltic region under S9edish control. Thus little
2ussian trade could reach the West 9ithout passing through S9edish customs posts. 3# then attacked
Ii'onia .)+6)0, capturing the port o 2iga, on the "'ina. The -olish War .)+6;5)+6*0. in addition to being a
9ar against the Ring o -oland, a (atholic Wasa e<pelled rom the S9edish throne and 9ho 9as meditating
re'enge, 9as an e<tension o the S9edish Baltic polic%. =B% )+6* the -russian ports o Memel, -illau and
4lbing 9ere in S9edish hands? "anBig bought its neutralit% b% entering the S9edish s%stem.’
The -eace o
ITbeck determined the king to end the -olish War because the 3erman situation demanded his attention.
With French diplomatic assistance, 3# thus agreed to the truce o #ltmark .6/ September )+6*0 b% 9hich
-oland ceded Ii'onia and the administration o the -russian customs to S9eden.
This allo9ed S9eden to
enter the conlict in 3erman% 9ithout ear o a multiEront 9ar.
The core o the S9edish arm% o )+:7 constituted 4urope’s irst national arm%. S9edish inantr% 9as raised
b% a t%pe o drat kno9n as the uts.ri!ning? and, since regimental units 9ere usuall% composed o men rom
the same pro'ince, a high le'el o unit cohesion 9as achie'ed. The uts.ri!ning 9as !uite eecti'e or, in the
See "ro%sen, 0ustaf Aolf? Fletcher, 0usta!us Aolphus? $arte, 0usta!us Aolphus? and 2oberts, 0usta!us
Aolphus, 6 'ols.
2oberts, 1ssays, ,65,+.
Steinberg, 1uropean 2egemony, ;*.
For a contemporar% account o the negotiations, 2oe, =Mission to 3#’, (S: -amen Miscellany ;:,65*6
period bet9een )+6+ and )+:7, ;*,/77 men 9ere raised b% this method. S9edish ca'alr% 9as composed o
'olunteers o the best !ualit%, and there 9ere e9 desertions.
-a% or these troops came rom the land
re'enues in S9eden. $is militar% successes raised his ambitions, he 9as 9ell a9are that an in'asion o the
$24 9ould re!uire ar more soldiers than he had. More troops meant mercenaries 9hich meant more hard
mone% 5 9hich, gi'en the nature o S9eden’s resources, 3# had precious little o. #s noted in (hapter A,
oreign troops 9ere raised b% a contract made bet9een 3# and a militar% entrepreneur? but the S9edish ruler
hoped that mercenaries, ater being mustered,
9ould ight on credit. #ll go'ernments during the Thirt% Mears’ War enlisted ar more mercenaries than the%
could aord to pa% regularl%, and trusted to the chapter o accidents 5 a 'ictor%, a lucrati'e sack, e<tortion
rom the ci'ilian population 5 to e<tricate them rom their inancial diiculties.

MusterEmone% o eight riksdalers per soldier 9as the initial amount re!uired in order to assemble the
soldiers. An )+:7, the amount dropped to si< riksdalers and later to our. # compan% o inantr% .)*7 men0
9as guaranteed a pa%ment o )*/, riksdalers per month as 9ages and the oicers o a regiment .67 men0
9ere promised )6,/ riksdalers per month. #ctual pa% recei'ed b% mercenaries 9as rarel% that 9hich 9as
guaranteed. Since ull pa% 9as a rarit%, good !uarters and the @ontributionssystem 9ere important to keeping
his armies intact. An lieu o cash, 3# stro'e to pro'ide this arm% 9ith ood, shelter, uel, salt and other
G mercenaries ser'ing in the S9edish arm% in )+:7, appro<imatel% )6,777 men, or oneEsi<th o the total
manpo9er o the S9edish arm%, 9ere Scottish. Man% had ser'ed under 3# in -oland, but se'eral regiments
Hoined S9edish ser'ice ater their ser'ice under (hristian 9as terminated.
With the S9edish Ring 9hen he
landed at -eenemTnde 9ere the Scottish regiments o Macka% .no9 Iord 2ea%0, Sir James Spence, and C dD
Sir #le<ander Ieslie, Sir John $epburn, Iord Sp%nie, CdD Stargate and Sir James Iumsden
commanded other Scottish regiments ser'ing in the S9edish arm%. There 9ere also man% other Scottish
oicers in command o 3erman or S9edish troops, men such as William Baillie, Sir "a'id Ieslie Ccousin o
#le<anderD, 2obert Monro, the Black Baron Ccousin o 2MD, John Monro Celder brother o 2MD and Sir
$ector Monro C%et another 2M cousinD. Scottish regiments ser'ed an important role in the campaigns o the
ne<t t9o %ears or the% 9ere almost al9a%s in the 'an on a march. The% 9ere used as the shock troops in
storming cities or ortresses, and the% 9ere placed in critical positions in battle ormations. The reason or the
hea'% use o Scots 9as their steadastness in battle and their 9illingness to pro'e their merit under the most
disheartening o conditions. Their de'otion to 3# earned them the aection o the S9edish king.
Scots, along 9ith the S9edish and Finnish troops, 9ere the best soldiers in the S9edish arm%.

The S9edish arm% 9as 9ellEdisciplined, or, although the =#rticles o War’ 9ere similar to others in use on
the continent, S9edish =#rticles’ 9ere more strictl% enorced than those used b% other armies. $ea'%
2oberts, 3# A:67*.
2oberts, 3# A:6):
See 1<peition AA:)56, or transer o Macka%’s 2egiment.
S9eAnt ):;*.
#lthough 2M noted that this steadastness and ortitude came at a price. A one is good, one is o'erused. Still, the
Scottish soldier has been lauded as a great ighter or centuries. See Iain, Scotlan the 9ra!e.
2M makes this claim oten in 1<peition, 9hich is repeated in 3rant, Soliers, Fischer’s 9orks and GSB
penalties 9ere prescribed or oenses such as blasphem%, dueling or allo9ing =loose’ 9omen in camp.
&nortunatel%, the practice o the times demanded that mercenar% regiments deal 9ith their o9n disciplinar%
problems, and 3# 9as unable to control his mercenaries as 9ell as he did his dratees. #s his arm% became
composed o more mercenaries, the discipline problem became more and more acute and e<cesses
multiplied. #lso, his inabilit% to pa% his orces regularl% caused much looting, as plundering 9as a more
promising alternati'e to the troops than se'ere pri'ation.
The discipline that 3# initiated 9as necessar% in
order to allo9 his militar% reorms to be successul. =Je9, unamiliar ... 9eapons, ne9 tactical units, a ne9
st%le o ighting, demanded as a precondition or success intensi'e drilling o the indi'idual soldier and
careul e<ercises b% smaller and larger bodies o troops.’
Soldiers 9ere drilled constantl% and largeEscale
maneu'ers 9ere oten held. Gn the da% beore the battles o Breiteneld and at #lte Feste, 3#’s soldiers
practiced the t%pe o combat that 9ould be aced on the battleield the ollo9ing da%.
The brigade 9as the ne9 tactical unit and the successor to the successul e<periments b% Maurits 'an
Jassau. At 9as usuall% made up o t9o 9eak regiments or one ull regiment. The combat unit 9as
=a brigade o )/)6 oot dra9n up in three lines. Three groups o pikemen totaling +;,, orm a
protecti'e triangle. Behind them, in the inter'als, and on the lanks, are ,+; musketeers in i'e groups
occup%ing positions rom 9hich the% can sall% orth, deplo%, ire and retire once more 9ithin the
ormation to reload.’

This ormation resulted in added maneu'erabilit% and increased irepo9er to S9edish arm%, and it 9as ar
superior to the tercio.
Gne o the most amous brigades in S9edish ser'ice 9as the 3reen, or Scots
Brigade, ormed in March )+:). (ommanded b% Sir John $epburn, it 9as made up o regiments o Iord
2ea%, Sir James Iumsden, $epburn plus Stargate’s (orps.
Anitiall% an o'ersiBed brigade o ;/77 men, it
9as composed almost completel% o Scots, or about oneEthird o the total number o Scots ser'ing in 3#’s
primar% arm% at that time.
At almost goes 9ithout sa%ing that unit cohesion 5 a ke% element in the !ualit%
o a ighting unit 5 o the 3reen Brigade pla%ed a signiicant role in orming the Scottish soldiers’ reputation.
While 3usta'us #dolphus mounted his in'asion o 3erman%, Wallenstein prepared to meet the threat. $is
abilit% to meet the impending in'asion 9as se'erel% hindered 9hen, in Ma% )+:7, the Raiser ordered the
general to send :7,777 Amperial troops to Atal% to aid Spanish orces engaged in the War o the Mantuan
Then, the 2egensburg @urfMrstentag .June5#ugust )+:70 con'ened amidst smoldering
The =#rticles o War’ in eect in the S9edish arm% bet9een )+6) and )+:7 9ere relati'el% simple, and punishments 9ere light
.see The S$eish /iscipline in S9eAnt /:LL0. An )+:), ne9er and harsher =#rticles’ 9ere instituted because o e<cesses committed
b% 3#’s troops. See FrauenholB, /as 2eer$esen, :::,;5;,/, or the re'ised #rticles. For an e<ample o S9edish militar% Hudicial
procedure, see 3ebauer, =4in sch9edischer Milit]rproBess’ in $S *,:/;;5/+7.
2oberts, 3# A:6:*.
2oberts, 3# A:6;7.
Montross, War, 61).
"elbrTck, @riegs.unst, AQ:67*.
Stargate’s (orps 9as detached shortl% thereater, lea'ing a brigade o :777 men. "isease and battle C9astageD soon reduced the
Scots Brigade to the siBe o a regular =S9edish brigade’.
3rant, 2epburn, /;5++.
The War o the Mantuan Succession .)+615)+:)0 9as ought o'er the strategicall% important "uch% o Mantua.
Iocated in northern Atal%, Mantua 9as sought ater b% France and the $absburgs because o its pro<imit% to Turin
and Milan. France became acti'el% in'ol'ed in the conlict, but the Spanish 'eterans deeated the ine<perienced
hostilit% b% the RurTrsten or Wallenstein
as 9ell as trepidation regarding Ferdinand’s moti'es. Ferdinand
sought the election o Ferdinand, his eldest son CCr"6n Prin%e 2erdinand .)+7,5r )+:1 as Ferdinand AAA5
)+/10D as Ring o the 2omans as 9ell as increased support rom the $24 or Spanish $absburg eorts in the
Io9 (ountries. 2ealiBing that some RurTrsten 9ere 9illing to turn to France, Ferdinand acceded to their
demand or the dismissal o his general. An #ugust Wallenstein resigned at the re!uest o the Raiser, and Till%
9as gi'en command o a greatl% reduced Amperial arm%. The 4dict o 2estitution 9as, in eect, cancelled
although the Raiser did not rescind the decree. For this, Ferdinand recei'ed nothing? both o his re!uests
9ere denied. Thus, the 4mpire lost :7,777 'eteran troops and the onl% general capable o raising and
supporting another large arm%. Aronicall%, the resignation occurred Hust as the S9edish king 9as landing in
The initial S9edish in'asion orce 9as small, onl% ):,777 strong. Follo9ing debarkation, the S9edish king
ordered his troops to dig in. $e then e<panded his beachhead b% occup%ing 2Tgen and the surrounding area.
Ieslie 9as ordered to send an arm% south9ard rom Stralsund? and a orce under Johan Ban7r .)/*+5)+;)0,
including hal o 2ea%’s 2egiment, 9as then sent north9ard. 2ea%’s 2egiment reEHoined the main S9edish
arm% 9hich la% beore Stettin, a harborEcit% o maHor importance situated at the mouth o the Gder 2i'er.
Bogisla9 [AQ, $erBog 'on -ommern
.)/,75)+:10, attempted to a'oid becoming embroiled, but 3# made
it clear that he 9anted the cit%. Follo9ing a parle% bet9een Bogisla9 and 3#, the $erBog rode back to the
cit%. While the dra9bridge 9as do9n, a compan% o Scots rom 2ea%’s 2egiment seiBed the gate. Because o
the complete surprise gained b% the Scots, there 9as no organiBed resistance.
An addition to his tin% arm%,
3# had +777 troops under Ieslie in Stralsund and /7,777 troops in garrisons in S9eden, Finland and
-russia? Finnish and S9edish troops made up appro<imatel% oneEhal o his arm% and the remainder 9as
composed primaril% o Scottish and 3erman mercenaries.
B% the end o Jul% )+:7, the -omeranian coast
bet9een Stralsund and Stettin 9as in S9edish hands.
#s the result o a ortunate accident, a large segment o $interE-ommern came under S9edish control. Si<
companies o 2ea%’s 2egiment, under 2M, had been stationed in Braunsberg in -russia or nearl% a %ear
ollo9ing their Hoining S9edish ser'ice. An #ugust )+:7 the unit 9as ordered to reEHoin the main bod% o the
regiment at Stettin. 1n route, one o the boats oundered o the -omeranian coast near Rolberg, and nearl%
677 men landed 9ith onl% themsel'es, their =s9ords, pikes and some 9et muskets.’
The Scots surprised the
to9n o 2Tgen9ald and obtained resh po9der and ammunition. The% held the to9n or nine 9eeks until 3#
sent $epburn’s Scottish regiment to relie'e them. This orce then Hoined 9ith a S9edish regiment under
(olonel William Macka% plus the rest o 2ea%’s 2egiment
and marched to Hoin S9edish orces besieging
French. 2ichelieu turned to diplomatic means and secured the election o the proEFrench "uke o Je'ers to the
"uch%. B% the peace o (herasco .)* June )+:)0, Je'ers recei'ed Mantua and Monterrat as his ie and the
Amperial orces 9ere orced to e'acuate the Qal Telline.
Wallenstein 9as made $erBog Bu Mecklenburg in Ma% )+6*. The general had, b% his ele'ation to princel% status, aroused the
animosit% o the RurTrsten.
BorE and 2inter-%ommern: -omerania, 9est o and to the east o the Gder 2i'er, 9ith Stettin as the capital.
S9eAnt )://5/+.
"ro%sen, 0usta! Aolf, 6:,/.
1<peition AA:)/.
Macka%, =Macka%’s 2egiment’, )7:.
Rolberg. Gn ): Jo'ember an Amperial relie orce under C(ount 2aimondoD M"nte%&%%&$i .)+7*5)+,70
9as deeated, resulting in the capitulation o Rolberg.
B% the end o )+:7, 3# commanded o most o the
-omeranian coast. Bogisla9 had been orced to contribute 677,777 thalers to the S9edish 9arEeort, thereb%
alle'iating some o the S9edish monarch’s monetar% 9oes. The "ukes o Mecklenburg, ha'ing lost their
land to Wallenstein, rallied to the S9edish cause, as did (hristian Wilhelm 'on Brandenburg .)/,15)++/0,
and Iandgra Wilhelm Q o $esseERassel .Iandgraschat $essenERassel0.
Still, the maHor problem o inancial support or 3#’s arm% 9as not sol'ed. Fortunatel% or him France and
S9eden shared certain strategic goals. France, 9hich 9as 'irtuall% encircled b% $absburg territories, could
e<pand onl% at the e<pense o the $absburgs. $eretoore, internal religious 9ars had kept France rom
acti'el% combating $absburg encirclement. Gnl% in )+:7, ollo9ing the subHugation o the $uguenots, did
France mo'ed o'ertl% against the $absburgs. &nder 2ichelieu’s guidance France engaged in political
sub'ersion o $absburg authorit%, either b% subsid% o those rulers or states 9hich opposed to the $absburgs,
or b% secretl% supporting those countries acti'el% engaged in 9arare 9ith the amil%. At 9as this latter t%pe o
aid 9hich brought about the Truce o #ltmark bet9een -oland and S9eden and 9hich allo9ed S9eden to
in'ade the $24. Then, on 6: Januar% )+:), at B]r9alde, S9eden and France concluded a treat% b% 9hich
the 3# agreed to raise and maintain an arm% o :7,777 inantr% and +777 ca'alr% in the $24 in return or a
French subsid% o ;77,777 thalers per %ear.
The liberation o northern 3erman% and the Baltic coastline
rom the Amperioal %oke 9as the proclaimed goal o the treat%. (atholic 9orship 9as to be tolerated in all
areas con!uered b% the S9edes. The greatest ad'antage gained b% S9eden in the treat% 9as the open
ackno9ledgment o French support or S9eden.

With this support, 3# 9as read% to e<pand his bridgehead. The S9edish arm% let their !uarters at Stettin in
late Januar% )+:), 9ith most o the arm% marching to Iandsberg, 9hile ,777 troops under 3# attacked Jeu
Brandenburg. The irst assault 9as led b% a bod% o $ighlanders and 9as successul in capturing some o the
out9orks. The deenders then agreed to surrender and marched out.
# small garrison o )777 men,
including appro<imatel% /77 Scots, 9as let in the to9n, and the Ring marched into Mecklenburg. &pon the
departure o the S9edish king and his arm%, Jeu Brandenburg 9as surrounded b% Till%’s arm% o 66,777
men. The deenders, ho9e'er, reused to surrender although the to9n 9as illEprepared or deense. Gn )*
March, ater nine da%s o artiller% bombardment, Till%’s arm% began the attack and soon con!uered the to9n.
Ouarter 9as at irst reused and most o the Scottish deenders 9ere slaughtered. T9o oicers and some men
sur'i'ed and escaped to bring the ne9s to Sir John $epburn, the commander o the ne9l% ormed 3reen
Brigade. The ne9s inuriated the Scots, and the% determined to seek re'enge at the irst opportunit%. That
Montecucculi 9as an Atalian FieldEMarshal in Amperial ser'ice. #ter distinguishing himsel in the Thirt% Mears’ War, he 9as sent
to $ungar% to take the ield against the Turks. $is 'ictor% at SBentgotthard .)++;0 9as the irst maHor setback or the Turks in
$ungar%. An the 3erman Wars .)+165)+1,0 he commanded Amperial orces 9ith success. #s re9ard or his ser'ices, he 9as made
a prince o the $24.
S9eAnt ):+/5+1.
(hristian Wilhelm 'on Brandenburg 9as =the -rotestant administrator o the archbishopric o Magdeburg, CandD hoped to regain
9ith S9edish help the oice CoD 9hich he had been depri'ed b% the 4dict o 2estitution. The cit% o Magdeburg 9as the ke%
ortress 9hich dominated the line o the ri'er 4lbe and laid open the roads into Io9er Sa<on% and Thuringia? it 9as at once
placed under a S9edish go'ernor.’ Steinberg, 1uropean 2egemony, /;.
Friedrich, 9aro=ue, ),7.
RellenbenB, =$amburg und die ranBPsischEsch9edische Susammenarbeit’ in SQ$3 ;*>/7:,;5,/.
Fischer, Scots in S$een, *)5*:.
opportunit% came at Frankurt a.d. Gder on -alm Sunda% .): #pril 0 )+:).
The to9n 9as deended b%
nearl% +777 men under the (ounts CFriedrich $ermann, )st "uke o .)+)/5)+*70 Schomberg and
Montecucculi, 9hereas the S9edish arm% numbered );,777 men. 3# ordered his artiller% to ire a sal'o and,
under the smoke and conusion thereb% pro'ided, a general assault 9as launched. The Scots, 9ho ormed the
'anguard, 9ere under hea'% ire rom the outset. #lthough suering man% casualties, the% 9ere able to carr%
the main gate and to enter the ortress. T9ice, the deenders called or a parle%, but the Scots paid no heed
and took their re'enge, killing )177 o the deenders and taking o'er )777 prisoners 9ith a tremendous
amount o boot%.
#ter the capture o Frankurt a.d. Gder, the S9edish arm% mo'ed 9est9ard through Brandenburg to Berlin.
3# halted his arm% there and negotiated 9ith his brotherEinEla9, RurTrst 3eorg Wilhelm or the ortress o
Spandau. While the Ring negotiated, the Iiga arm% under Till% and C3ottried $einrichD 3ra C(ountD Bu
Pappenhei) .)/*;5)+:60 stormed, sacked, and destro%ed the -rotestant cit% o Magdeburg.
The S9edish
arm% had been too small to pre'ent the loss o the cit%, and 3# could onl% mo'e his diseaseE9eakened arm%
urther 9est9ard to Werben. There he set up a ortiied camp and began to rebuild his arm%. Till% attacked
the ortiications in June but 9as orced to all back, lea'ing +777 dead and 9ounded out o an attacking
orce o 66,777.
Till%’s ailure to dislodge the S9edes rom Werben then orced him to in'ade Sa<on%, or
Mecklenburg 9as too ra'aged to support both the S9edish and Iiga armies. This in turn led RurTrst Johann
3eorg to seek an alliance 9ith S9eden in order to protect his countr% rom the looting soldiers o Till%. The
alliance bet9een Sa<on% and S9eden added 67,777 soldiers to the siBe o the S9edish arm%. 3# realiBed that
he then had an arm% large enough to gi'e battle to Till%.
Mean9hile, an 4nglishEScottish arm% o +777 men under the Mar!uis o $amilton 9as in the inal stages o
preparation or embarkation or 3erman%. This arm% had been commissioned b% 3# in Ma% )+:7,
but no
action had been taken until March o )+:). Ieslie had been sent b% the S9edish king to Scotland to aid in the
le'%ing o the troops, but he recruited onl% ;77 men.
(harles then interceded and ordered the sheris o all
shires to round up all 'agrants and send them to the mustering places. B% Jul% )+:), $amilton raised his
arm% o +777, although onl% )777 9ere Scots and e9 o the total 9ere 'olunteers. These soldiers 9ere
landed at Wolgast on 6) #ugust )+:) and 9ere ordered to campaign in Mecklenburg.
$amilton, an
=incapable oicer C9ho 9asD 'er% conscious o standing,’
lost o'er 6777 soldiers to disease and desertion
9ithin si< 9eeks.
$e had, at least, orced Till% to send some orces north9ard, orces that the Iiga general
could illEaord to lose because the main S9edish arm% 9as gro9ing steadil% stronger.
#t Breiteneld on 1>)1 September )+:), the S9edish Ring, the student o Maurits 'an Jassau, met Till%, the
pupil o C#le<ander Farnese? #lessandro Farnese .At0? #leHandro Farnesio .Sp0, "uke oD Par)a Cand
1<peition AA:6;.
1<peition AA:6/.
See &singer, ="ie SerstPrung Magdeburgs’ in $S ):::1,5;7/.
Montross, War, 61;.
Ja%lor, Military 2istory of 0ermany, ):/:7.
Fischer, Scots in 0ermany, *).
"ro%sen, 0ustaf Aolf, AA:6+:
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1:;:*.
Berg @ IagercrantB, Scots in S$een, ::.
-iacenBa .)/;/5)/*60D. The t9o armies 9ere airl% e'en in numbers at the outset o the battle, 9ith each side
ha'ing appro<imatel% :/,777 men. There 9ere se'eral actors that could ha'e 9on the battle or either side.
Till% had the ad'antage o the 9ind and the sun, or both 9ere in the aces o the S9edes. Wh% this 9as a
disad'antage can be e<plained thusl%. First, i the sun 9ere in the e%es o one group, it 9ould be harder or
them to detect mo'ements b% their opponents, or to aim the 9eapons. The most important actor 9as the
9ind because =it dro'e the dense smoke on them \ Cand rustrated eortsD in priming their pieces. This had
to be done 9ith the inest o meal po9der, and 9as almost impossible 9hen acing the 9ind.’
Then too, the
S9edish allies, the Sa<ons, untested on the battleield, 9ere subHect to panic i pressed too iercel%. The
maHor ad'antage held b% the S9edes 9as their battle ormation 5 9hich ga'e mobilit% to the troops that 9as
unheard o in that da% and time. The S9edish artiller% superiorit% 9as also a actor in a'or o the S9edes.
3# dre9 up his arm% o 66,777 men in t9o lines 9ith a reser'e behind the center. The inantr% 9as ormed
into the battle ormations, the brigades, in ranks o si< deep. The% 9ere positioned ar enough apart so that a
s!uadron o ca'alr% could operate bet9een each brigade. T9el'e regiments o ca'alr% 9ere stationed on the
right lank and si< others on the let. The 3reen Brigade 9as in the second line and 9as located on the
e<treme let o the inantr% line. The Sa<on arm%, )+,777 strong, 9as positioned to the let o the S9edish
arm% and 9as dra9n up in tercios. The S9edes had almost )77 cannon, these being placed in ront o the
troops. Till% dre9 up his :/,777 troops in the traditional Spanish manner. $is tercios a'eraged )/77 men
apiece, and, like the S9edes, these s!uares 9ere arranged in t9o lines. The ca'alr% 9as posted on both
9ings, the artiller% in ront o the troops. The Iiga arm% 9as urther a'ored b% ha'ing a do9n9ard sloping
hill in ront o them.
#t noon the S9edish cannon opened ire and 9ere soon iring at a rate o almost three shots to one shot or
Till%’s cannon. The Iiga arm% soon became restless because o the hea'% pounding that the% 9ere taking and
both 9ings o ca'alr% charged. The (roats on the right 9ing 9ere immediatel% successul and dro'e the
Sa<ons rom the ield. The cuirassiers o -appenheim, ho9e'er, 9ere not as ortunate, or the mobile
S9edish orces stopped e'er% attack. -appenheim’s se'enth attempt ser'ed onl% to break his orces, and the
sur'i'ors took to light.
Mean9hile, the tercios o Till% mo'ed to take ad'antage o the unco'ered S9edish
let lank. There, as on the S9edish right, the maneu'erabilit% o the S9edish brigade demonstrated its 'alue,
or the 3reen Brigade 9heeled let and to take position perpendicular to the original ront, thus presenting an
unbroken ront to Till%. The musketeers then closed together to orm onl% three ranks and ired 'olle%s into
the ad'ancing tercios.
The Scots, charging into the Iiga orces, disorganiBing them thoroughl%. 3# ordered
his ca'alr% on the right lank to charge since, b% then, -appenheim’s ca'alr% had let the ield. The path o
the charge la% parallel to the original S9edish battle line and in a direct line 9ith the let lank o the Iiga
arm%. The attack shattered Till%’s arm%, and his 'eterans led the ield. Till%’s arm% suered )6,777
casualties and 1777 others surrendered, 9hereas the S9edes lost onl% 6)77 men.
Spaulding, Warfare5 ;17.
"elbrTck, @riegs.unst, AQ:6:+56:,
Such concentrated irepo9er 9as ne9 to the battleield or, prior to this battle, onl% a small proportion o the men in the ranks
had been able to ire at one time. Turner, %allas Armata, 6:1. See also 1<peition AA:++517.
Follo9ing the battle, the Scots regrouped b% beating the =Scots march’ on the drum.
The number o
casualties 9as noted, and Monro asked 3# to let him recruit all 4nglish soldiers rom the ranks o the
captured. $e ound onl% three Britons, all Arish, and these he declined to take.
3# later praised the 'alor o
the Scots in the presence o his entire arm% and promised them =noble re9ards’.
(olonel James 2amsa%
9ho commanded three regiments at Breiteneld and had been se'erel% 9ounded 9as re9arded 9ith a grant
o land in Mecklenburg and the go'ernorship o $anau or his bra'er%.
#ter the battle IeipBig 9as retaken
and restored to RurTrst Johann 3eorg. #ter resting his arm% or a e9 da%s, 3# marched south9ard
to9ards WTrBburg. #ter passing through the ThTringen Forest, the S9edish arm% dre9 up beore the cit% o
WTrBburg and demanded its surrender. The cit% capitulated on + Gctober )+:), ater Father Ggil'ie a priest
in a Scottish cloister in the cit%, negotiated a treat% 9ith the S9edish king.
The (atholic lords and bishops
o Franconia had stored most o their 'aluables in the supposedl% impregnable Festung Marienberg, thus
making it a tempting target or 3#. The onl% direct 9a% to the castle 9as 'ia a bridge 9ith one arch
destro%ed, so the king decided to circum'ent this b% sending a orce across the ri'er in boats. (olonels James
and John $amilton and their Scottish troops 9ere to cross the ri'er and attack 9hile co'ering ire
9as to be pro'ided b% another Scottish orce that 9as to cross the bridge 5 using a plank to bridge the gap 5
and then attack the out9orks o the castle. #ter ighting until nightall, the Scots had almost succeeded in
capturing the castle. $o9e'er, 3# called the Scots back and ordered his S9edish troops to inish the storm
on the ollo9ing morning, thereb% den%ing the Scots the pri'ilege o looting the stormed ortress. "isgusted
b% the king’s treatment o the Scots, $amilton resigned and returned to Scotland.
Follo9ing the capture o Marienberg, the S9edish arm% marched 9est9ard to9ard the 2hine and the soE
called =priests’ alle%’ or P0a00en3asse. Gn 61 Jo'ember, Frankurt a. Main 9as taken, and MainB 9as
surrendered to the king shortl% thereater. When 3# 9ent into 9inter !uarters, he 9as in command o an
arm% o )7,,777 men. $e had ),,777 on the 2hine 9ith him, 67,777 on the Main, ,777 in $esse, ):,777 on
the 4lbe, )1,777 in Mecklenburg, 67,777 in Bohemia, and )6,777 in 'arious garrisons throughout territor%
under his control.
An order to support his arm%, he demanded and recei'ed a @ontribution rom each cit% in
the area that he controlled. While the main S9edish arm% mo'ed through south 3erman%, the Sa<on arm%,
no9 commanded b% #rnim .ormerl% a general in Wallenstein’s arm%0, and the arm% o the Mar!uis o
$amilton marched to9ard Bohemia. The Sa<ons, ater their precipitous light at Breiteneld, 9ere an<ious to
regain their honor. Their irst target 9as Iusatia, 9hich 9as s9itl% reduced. An the months o Jo'ember and
"ecember, the Sa<on arm% captured the Bohemian cities o -rague, 4ger and Bud9eis, ater 9hich the%
returned to "resden. An conHunction 9ith the Sa<on arm%, $amilton and Ieslie mo'ed into Iusatia, then
This =Scots March’ is described b% 3rant, 2epburn, )7+, thusl%: =This old national air, 9hich 9as the terror o the Spaniards in
$olland, and o the #ustrians in 3erman% 55 so much so that it 9as re!uentl% beaten b% the drums o the 3ermans at night 9hen
the% 9ished to keep their !uarters unmolested, 9as irst composed or the ancient guard o James Q, 9hen marching to attack the
castle o Tantallon in )/61.’
1<peition AA:1:.
1<peition AA:++.
"alr%mple, 4ife of Sir Aames Ramsay, 65;.
3rant, 2epburn, ))+.
Same as the abo'e mentioned 2amsa%, so A guess he 9as not as se'erel% 9ounded at Breiteneld as indicated. #ter
WTrBburg, ho9e'er, he did no more campaigning.
S9eAnt 6:):5);.
Montross, War, 6,7.
turned north9ard and entered Silesia 9ith an 4nglishEScottish 3erman arm% o :777 men. #ter man%
marches, the arm% returned to Magdeburg in "ecember, much reduced in siBe due to disease and desertion.
B% Februar% )+:6, there 9ere onl% 177 soldiers let in the arm%, and these 9ere merged into other units.
$amilton 9as not gi'en another command, and he Hoined the Ring’s personal guard. An September )+:6,
ollo9ing the battles at JTrnberg, he returned to Scotland.
3# planned to increase his arm% b% an e<tra )67,777 men, but a ne9 competitor or troops arose in
"ecember )+:) 5 Wallenstein. #ter his orced retirement in )+:7, Wallenstein had returned to his estates
and had taken no part in the 9ar, e'en reusing to suppl% Till% 9ith the products o his estates.
Breiteneld, the Raiser Ferdinand realiBed that his dismissed general 9as 'ital to the 9ar eort and
endea'ored to get him to return. Wallenstein inall% agreed to raise an arm% but 9ould not lead it. The call
9ent out and men rom e'er%9here came, =rom sunn% Atal%, rom hard% Scotland, rom e'er% 3erman land
bet9een the Baltic and the #lps. -rotestants and (atholics alike 9ere 9elcomed there.’
An #pril )+:6, he
inall% agreed to lead the arm% ater Ferdinand had ac!uiesced to all o his demands. The actual terms that
the Raiser 9as orced to accept 9ill probabl% ne'er be kno9n? but, in light o subse!uent e'ents, it ma% be
presumed that Wallenstein had absolute control o'er his arm% 5 e'en to the point o appointing all oicers
and making treaties 9ithout conerring 9ith the Raiser.
The presence o the po9erul S9edish arm% in the -aengasse alarmed 2ichelieu. #ll o Thuringia,
Franconia, much o the 2hineland and the lo9er -alatinate, and man% bishoprics had allen to the triumphant
S9edish arm%. Trier and (ologne re!uested French garrisons in order to pre'ent the -rotestants rom
o'errunning the lo9er 2hine and the Mosel regions. France had ac!uiesced to the treat% o B]r9alde, ne'er
e<pecting that S9eden 9ould ad'ance into (atholic southern 3erman% as rapidl% as she had. RurTrst
Ma<imilian .as o )+6:0 had been a secret all% o France? but, seeing that 2ichelieu 9as not going to aid him,
he turned to the Raiser. Thus, 3# 9as pro'ided 9ith a reason or in'ading Ba'aria.
An March )+:6 the
S9edish arm% let their 9inter !uarters in the 2hine Qalle% and marched to Frankort a. Main 9ith the Scots
Brigade as the 'anguard.
From there the% mo'ed to #schaenburg and then to Windsheim 9here the arm%
9as re'ie9ed b% Friedrich and 3#. Friedrich 9as especiall% interested =in the Scottish troops, the% being the
countr%men o 4liBabeth, his beautiul and highEspirited Oueen.’
Gn / #pril )+:6, the S9edish arm% dre9
up beore "onau9Prth. # 3erman regiment 9as ordered to lead the storm and it ad'anced beating the Scots
March, hoping to righten the deenders. The deenders 9ere not deterred and charged, causing the 3ermans
to all back in disorder. =$ad it not been or the 'alor o the Scots Brigade, the% 9ould ha'e all been lost and
The cit% 9as shortl% thereater taken and the arm% rested or our da%s. The S9edish arm% then
marched on M1n%hen>Munich. The Iech 2i'er 9as crossed, despite a desperate deense organiBed b% Till%,
in 9hich the Iiga #rm% suered :777 casualties in addition to the loss o the se'ent%Ethree %ear old Till%. Gn
Berg @ IagercrantB, Scots in S$een, ::5:+.
4rnstberger, =Wallensteins $erressabotage’ in $S:);6, ;)516.
3ardiner, Thirty Years War5 )/6.
Wedg9ood, Thirty Years War, :775:7).
1<peition AA:))/.
Macka%, =Macka%’s’ in T3SA, )1:.
1<peition AA:))/.
)1 Ma%, 3# entered MTnchen, 9ith the 3reen Brigade being gi'en the honor o entering the cit% irst. At 9as
also assigned the dut% o being the king’s personal bod%guard 9hile he sta%ed there.

While 3# marched through Ba'aria, Wallenstein began his mo'ements. Gn 6/ Ma% his arm% retook -rague
9hile the Sa<on arm% under #rnim retreated into Silesia. This action greatl% perturbed 3# because he 9as
counting on #rnim holding Bohemia and keeping Wallenstein occupied and a9a% rom S9edish lines o
communication. #rnim did not ollo9 his instructions and the S9edish king 9as orced to retreat, Follo9ing
the recapture o -rague, Wallenstein ad'anced to9ard CJurembergD -1rn'er3 thereb% threatening 3#’s
suppl% line. This strateg% orced 3#’s 9ithdra9al rom Ba'aria, but the S9edish king marched onl% as ar
north as JTrnberg 9here he prepared to oer battle to the Amperial orces. #ter his arri'al on 67 June )+:6,
he outlined his plan or peace in 3erman%: =the -rotestant princes should unite in a general union 9ith
S9eden ater dissol'ing their bonds 9ith the 4mpire.’
This plan 9as una'orabl% met b% all parties e<cept
the 2iksredet, Cthe S9edish (ouncil o the 2ealmD. #t the same time, 3# called together his scattered orces.
When Wallenstein arri'ed near JTrnberg on June :7, the t9o great generals 9ere inall% ace to ace.
When Wallenstein arri'ed, he had appro<imatel% ;/,777 soldiers as apposed to ),,777 or 3#. "espite his
numerical superiorit%, it 9as not the intention o the Amperial general to ight, or he did not 9ant to risk his
untried troops in battle. Anstead, he had his men dig in around the t9o hills o the #ltenberg and the #lte
Feste. $is ca'alr% 9as sent out to scour the countr%side and to s9eep it bare. Mean9hile, reinorcements or
the king continued to arri'e 5 t9o Scottish regiments and i'e Sa<on regiments under the S9edish 2iksE
(hancellor #<el C3ustassonD 8xenstierna Ca SPdermPre, (ount o SPdermPreD G<enstierna .)/,:5)+/;0
arri'ed on )7 #ugust, and the ,777 troops o Bernhard 'on SachsenEWeimar .)+7;5)+:*0 CBernhard ,"n
Wei)arD came soon ater9ards.
B% the end o Jul%, 3# had :/,777 soldiers in his camp, but Wallenstein
still 9ould not lea'e his ortiications. Both armies began to lose hea'il% to disease an desertion, but each
9as 9aiting or the other to mo'e. An #ugust, the irst engagement o an% siBe 9as ought. # strong orce o
3ermans, Scots and Arish sallied orth rom the Amperial lines in order to attack a suppl% train o the S9edes.
The S9edes reacted !uickl% and counterEattacked, routing the 3ermans. Gnl% )777 Scots and Arish held
ormation, and these ought their 9a% back to the Amperial lines, although man% o the initial orce 9ere
captured. MaHor Walter Ieslie and IieutenantE(olonel John 3ordon,
9ho 9ere among those captured,
spent the ne<t ele'en 9eeks 9ith their ello9 Scots beore being allo9ed to return to the Amperial arm% ater
ha'ing been released on orders o 3# 9ho praised the t9o Scots or their bra'er%.

Gn 6, Jul% )+:6, $epburn declared that he 9ould no longer ight or the Ring o S9eden. 3# had made
sarcastic remarks about the ine armor and dress o $epburn, thereb% irritating the Scotsman. When the Ring
insulted $epburn’s religion .(atholicism0, the Scot promptl% resigned. Gther reasons or the resignation
could ha'e been the illEtreatment o the Mar!uis o $amilton .most Scots elt that $amilton should ha'e
been gi'en another arm% ater the irst had disintegrated0, the aair at Marienberg 9hen the Scots had been
denied the inal storm, and the mistreatment o a IieutenantE(olonel C55D "ouglas, 9ho had been imprisoned
ater appearing unannounced and unin'ited at a tennis match bet9een 3# and the Ring o Bohemia.
1<peition AA:)6/5)6+.
Friedrich, 9aro=ue, ),6.
S9eAnt L::75::.
Bulloch, =John 3ordon’ in 9anffshire .)*)+>)*)10, 6756,.
Bulloch, 0ay 0orons, :;.
(ommand o the 3reen Brigade 9ent to IieutenantE(olonel 2M, 9hile $epburn and $amilton returned to
Scotland 5 $amilton to return to politics and $epburn to raise a regiment o Scots or French ser'ice.
#lthough his position 9as the 9eaker, 3# still resol'ed to attack and set the date o the assault or :
September )+:6. The battle began on the morning o that da% and lasted or almost t9o da%s. The Scots
Brigade, under (olonel 2M,
had the dubious distinction o leading the attack on the #lte Feste, the
strongest point in Wallenstein’s ortiications. For ten hours, the Scots struggled up the hill but made little
progress. The S9edes and Finns 9ere sent into action? but, as beore, Wallenstein’s line remained unbroken.
Jight ended the action, but the troops remained 9here the% 9ere until the ne<t morning 9hen one inal
attack 9as launched. 3# then called o the attack, lea'ing 6777 dead on the ield and bringing o +77
9ounded. Most o these men had been his best assault troops. Wallenstein had suered onl% 6/77
#ter the aborti'e attempt on the #lte Feste, 3# pulled his 9ear% troops back into his camp.
The setback caused a deep drop in morale, and desertions immediatel% sk%rocketed. Within ourteen da%s,
oneEthird o his strength 9as gone, and, on ), September, he retreated to Jeustadt and then south9ard.
Wallenstein, ha'ing outE9aited his opponent b% three da%s, mo'ed north9ard into Sa<on% to9ard IeipBig. #t
"inkelsbThl, bet9een "onau9Prth and 2othenburg ob der Tauber, the Scots Brigade 9as ordered to remain
behind and to recuperate 9hile the main bod% o the S9edish arm% pursued Wallenstein. The Brigade had
suered grie'ousl% in the campaign o )+:6, and its strength 9as do9n to se'en companies .,77 men0.
Beore the rest o the arm%, the Scots 9ere thanked b% the king. Then, 3# began his march north9ard.
Wallenstein, encamped at ITtBen near IeipBig, sent -appenheim to $alle 9ith part o the troops in order to
ind better 9inter !uarters. The ne9s o the arri'al o the S9edish arm% caught him completel% b% surprise,
but he reacted s9itl% b% sending 9ord to -appenheim to return as rapidl% as possible. $is arm% o )6,777
9as then deplo%ed in a strong deensi'e position, 9ith the right lank resting on the to9n o ITtBen and
protected b% the artiller% placed there. The inantr% in the center 9as arranged into our tercios, and the
ca'alr% 9as di'ided into t9o 9ings, one on each lank. Gn the morning o +>)+ Jo'ember )+:6, the S9edish
arm% o )6,777 came onto the battleield. The battle line 9as basicall% the same as that used at Breiteneld,
sans the Sa<ons. The right 9ing 9as under the command o the king and the let 9as under Bernhard 'on
Weimar. There 9ere e9 Scottish units present in the S9edish ranks since most, decimated b% disease and
battle, had been combined 9ith other units. Ieslie’s Scottish brigade on the e<treme let and $enderson’s
Brigade as a reser'e brigade in the center 9ere the onl% t9o Scottish units that 9ere able to take part in the
although there 9ere man% Scots in other brigades.
#s the S9edish arm% ad'anced to attack, a hea'% og en'eloped the ield, reducing the 'isibilit% to onl% a
e9 eet. The let lank captured most o the Amperial cannon, but an Amperial counterattack orced them
back. The 3reen Brigade .ne9l% constituted and consisting mostl% o 3ermans, 9ith some Scots0 5 a part o
the S9edish let lank 5 9as orced back along 9ith the other units, but it reused to break contact and
(harles authoriBed a le'% o )677 b% Sir John $epburn or French ser'ice on :>6,>)+::, 9hich 9as appro'ed b% the -(S on
;>6;>)+::. 6 2-(S /:+/.
1<peition AA:);,: on =eighteenth o #ugust )+:6, C3#D placed me (olonell o'er the 2egiment.
Malleson, 9attlefiels of 0ermany, 1+.
1<peition AA:)/*.
"eutike, Schlacht, 16
The rest o the Amperial line, 9a'ering, 9as about to collapse 9hen the arri'al o -appenheim and
his ;777 cuirassiers stabiliBed the situation. $o9e'er, -appenheim 9as mortall% 9ounded in the initial
attack, and his demoraliBed ca'alr%men let the battleield. At 9as shortl% ater -appenheim’s attack had
restored the Amperial line that 3# himsel 9as killed.
While tr%ing to regroup S9edish orces on his right,
the king, inad'ertentl% charging into a group o Montecucculi’s ca'alr%men, 9as shot and killed. The Ring’s
death at irst demoraliBed the S9edish arm%, but then seemed to instill in them a desire to re'enge the deed.
Bernhard 'on Weimar, although 9ounded, led a charge on the let lank, recaptured the Amperial cannon
again and turned them on Wallenstein’s orces. Amperial orces could not retake the guns and retreated to
IeipBig, and rom there, to Bohemia. The S9edish arm% 9ithdre9 south9ard to S9abia. The S9edish arm%
suered about )7,777 casualties 9hile inlicting about )6,777 on the Amperial arm%.
Seidler, Schlacht bei 4Mt3en, +:.
Seidler, Schlacht bei 4Mt3en, +;. There are man% conlicting accounts o the time and place o the death o the S9edish Ring.
Seidler presented the best account based on the latest data and this 9riter has used him as the authorit%. Seidler states that 3# 9as
killed b% some o Montecucculi’s ca'alr%men. The time 9as gi'en as shortl% ater noon and the place 9as on the right lank o
the S9edish arm%. Seidler 9as the main source or the account o the battle.
CHAPTER IV9 The End of the Thirty 'ear() $ar N+8O
With the death o 3#, the cro9n o S9eden passed to his si<E%earEold daughter, Kristina #ugusta .)+6+5r
)+:65)+,*0? but real po9er o the go'ernment remained in the hands o G<enstierna, the capable chancellor
o the slain monarch and director o 3#’s oreign polic%. G<enstierna 9anted to continue the policies o his
late master b% continuing the 9ar against the $absburgs. $is task 9as made ar more diicult b% a
threatened collapse o the S9edish alliance and subsid% s%stem. #s the ne9s o the death o 3# spread,
RurTrst 3eorg Wilhelm, RurTrst Johann 3eorg and man% other rulers in 3erman% hesitated to continue. An
addition to this, Rong (hristian =oered to mediate a general peace in the 4mpire’, although e9 took him
'er% seriousl%.
An an eort to orestall a peace mo'ement, G<enstierna negotiated separatel% 9ith each
ruler. The son o the RurTrst 3eorg Wilhelm 9as promised the hand o the %oung Oueen Rristina, thereb%
paci%ing him 9ith an illusion o a uture S9edishEBrandenburg superpo9er.
The pett% diplomatic attempts
b% the ruler o Sa<on% to assume the role o -rotestant leader and to become the head o a =peace part%’ 9ere
circum'ented b% a meeting o signiicant -rotestant leaders at $eilbronn in March )+::. The conerence,
9hich RurTrst Johann 3eorg bo%cotted, subse!uentl% resulted in the ormation o a coalition or the
protection o its members 5 Franconia, S9abia, the upper 2henish and electoral Rei%h/reise CAmperial
and Brandenburg 5 rom Amperial aggression. The Ieague o $eilbronn, as it 9as called, 9as led
b% S9eden, 9ith France recogniBed as a Hoint protector. B% these actions S9eden assured hersel o a
dominant role in actions taken in the $24 regarding $absburg polic% in the postE3# era.

The deterioration o the S9edish arm% ollo9ing the death o 3# posed an e!uall% serious problem. The
inabilit% o the S9edish go'ernment to pa% its mercenaries regularl% had caused trouble e'en in the lietime
o the S9edish monarch. With his death, and 9ithout his persona, conditions or S9edish troops 9orsened as
the collapse o the S9edish subsid% s%stem, based to a large e<tent upon =contributions’ rom -rotestant
allies, made satis%ing either the militar% entrepreneurs or their men almost impossible. 2esentment o'er the
nonEpa%ment o 9ages and arrears maniested itsel in a mutin% b% a group o 3erman oicers in the spring
o )+::. The oicers declared that the% 9ould =reuse to obe% urther orders, unless satisied 9ithin a stated
period o time. A not satisied then, the% 9ould act on their o9n account, occup% con!uered territor%, and
hold it as a pa9n until the arm% 9as paid in ull.’
Because most lesserEranking S9edish and Scottish
oicers reused to participate in the mutin% 5 supporting instead 3enerals C(ountD 3usta' H"rn Ca
BHPrneborgD .)/*65)+/10
and Bernhard 'on Weimar 5 the re'olt collapsed. Wage settlements 9ere made
Wedg9ood, Thirty Years’ War, ::,.
She ne'er married, but her situation 9as normal or the time: she 9as 'ie9ed as but a pa9n in Realpoliti..
# 2eichskreis 9as a regional grouping o states in the $24, created or organiBational control and or raising
mone%. There 9ere ten established b% )/)6.
Baustaedt, Richelieu un /eutschlan in $S 6*/:*75))7.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1:/7+.
See $ackradt, 2orn.
9ith the mutineers b% granting them land in territor% under S9edish control and letting them use the
re'enues to deal 9ith their o9n men.

The S9edish position in south 3erman% 9as urther complicated b% the Healous% and animosit% bet9een the
t9o S9edish arm% commanders 5 Bernhard 'on Weimar and $orn 5 and their reusal to 9ork together.
Bernard 'on Weimar, a prince o the blood, demanded o'erall command o the S9edish arm% as his right?
9hereas $orn, a S9edish general o long tenure, elt that the highest rank should be reser'ed or him due to
his length o ser'ice. Because o this ri'alr%, the t9o ob'iousl% could not ser'e in the same arm%?
G<enstierna’s solution 9as to gi'e each an independent command, the ormer in Ba'aria and the latter in
S9abia. The Scottish regiment that 3# had let in S9abia C2M’sD 9as placed, irst under the command o
Bernhard 'on Weimar then later under $orn. At 9as ordered to patrol the "anube Qalle% and surrounding
areas and to occup% as man% posts as possible. Monro’s 2egiment, as 2ea%’s 2egiment 9as no9 called, 9as
combined 9ith the remnants o the regiment o Monro o Gbsdale and other Scottish units, to orm a unit o
ighting strength. An midE)+:: 2M returned home to raise more cannonEodder. $is recruits, and those o
other Scottish militar% entrepreneurs, 9ere sent rom time to time throughout )+:: until, b% )+:;, the
regiment 9as brought up to ull strength 5 about 6777 men.

#t the same time that the S9edish arm% 9as undergoing changes in composition and morale, the Amperial
arm% 9as also in transition. Follo9ing ITtBen, Wallenstein retreated into Bohemia to rebuild his arm%.
Belie'ing that man% o his oicers had sho9n spinelessness at ITtBen, thereb% costing him the battle, the
Amperial general con'ened the =Blood% Judgment o -rague’ at 9hich a number o his oicers and men 9ere
condemned and e<ecuted or their alleged co9ardice. This act cost him the allegiance o man% o his
Wallenstein also rerained rom in'ol'ing his arm% in an% acti'e prosecution o the 9ar, thereb%
planting a seed o doubt in the mind o the Raiser as to the real intentions o his general. B% the end o )+::
Wallenstein had onl% accomplished the liberation o Silesia rom the S9edes? but, on the other hand, he had
allo9ed 2egensburg to all to Bernhard 'on Weimar. Ferdinand then ordered Wallenstein to send +777 troops
to Atal% to aid C"on Fernando de #ustria>Ferdinand 'on fsterreichD, the Cardina$:In0ante 2erdinand
C(ardenalEAnante Fernando de 4spagaD .)+7*>)+)75)+;)0, 9ho 9as in the process o raising an arm% or
ser'ice against the "utch 2epublic. The general 9as also ordered to recapture 2egensburg. Wallenstein
reused to do either. Anstead he summoned his oicers to -lBeh .))5): Januar% )+:;0 and declared that he
9ould resign his command beore doing as the Raiser ordered. $is oicers re!uested that he remain and
s9ore allegiance to him alone.
The Raiser then acted to negate the machinations o his general, relie'ing Wallenstein o his command on 6;
Januar% )+:;. An earl% Februar% Ferdinand declared his ormer commander guilt% o high treason. The
general, a9are that most o the oicers 9ho had s9orn allegiance to him had deserted him, attempted to
escape. Gn 6: Februar%, he let -lBeh and Hourne%ed to (heb CE3erD on the 2i'er Ghie in order to eect a
meeting 9ith representati'es o Sa<on% Cprobabl% rom #rnim, his ormer subordinateD. 1n route Wallenstein
encountered an Amperial dragoon regiment under Arishman (olonel Walter Butler and ordered the regiment to
ollo9 him. The to9n o 4ger 9as opened to him b% the Scottish oicers, IieutenantE(olonel John 3ordon
2itter5 /eutsche 0eschichte, :://;5//+.
GSB )1*.
Srbik, Wallensteins 1ne, 677. #ccounts o Wallenstein’s last da%s ma% be ound in: 'on 2anke5 0eschichte Wallensteins? Srbik?
and 'on $urter5 Wallensteins !ier let3te 4ebens;ahre.
and MaHor Walter Ieslie, 9ho 9ere in charge o the cit%. The three Britons kne9 that Wallenstein 9as a
ugiti'e and conspired to assassinate him, thinking that the% 9ould be 9ell re9arded. Gn the night o 6;>6/
Februar%, the three oicers and si< Arish "ragoons cut do9n Wallenstein’s riends? (aptain "e'erou<, an
Arishman, broke into Wallenstein’s bedroom and killed the general. #s the conspirators had hoped, their
eorts 9ere 9ell re9arded. 3ordon, or e<ample, used this e<ploit as a stepping stone to higher positions,
e'entuall% gaining the rank o (olonelE3eneral o the Amperial arm%, attaining the rank o Mar!uis, and
becoming the bearer o the golden ke% as $igh (hamberlain to the Raiser.
With Wallenstein’s remo'al
command o the Amperial #rm% 9as gi'en to #ustrian $absburg (ro9n -rince Ferdinand and to 3eneral
Matthias Ga$$as CMatthias di 3allassoD .)/,,5)+;10 C3ra 'on 3allas Bum Schlo` (ampo und

"uring the summer o )+:;, S9edish orces continued to ra'age (atholic areas o southern 3erman%
although rene9ed Amperial acti'it% threatened to undermine their position. Bernhard 'on Weimar’s arm% 9as
hindered b% an outbreak o the plague? but $orn 9as acti'e in the area near Iake (onstance, besieging
jberlingen in an eort to close the route that the (ardinalEAnante Ferdinand and his ne9l%Eraised orces
9ould ha'e to take in order to reach the Io9 (ountries. When the Amperial arm% under the (ro9n -rince
Ferdinand besieged 2egensburg, $orn raised his siege o jberlingen and marched north9ard. $e and
Bernard 'on Weimar Hoined orces and marched to relie'e 2egensburg? but the cit% ell on 6* Jul%, t9o da%s
beore their arri'al. The S9edish commanders again separated their armies. The cro9n prince then mo'ed
against JPrdlingen, the most hea'il% ortiied -rotestant cit% in S9abia. This mo'e b% the Amperial #m%
orced Bernhard 'on Weimar and $orn to unite their armies once again, this time to relie'e JPrdlingen. The
combined S9edish orce o 67,777 men arri'ed in the 'icinit% on 66 #ugust )+:;.
The Scottish regiment,
under the command o IieutenantE(olonel William Ste9art marched 9ith the 9ing o Bernhard 'on

An the Battle o JPrdlingen .61 #ugust>+ September )+:;0 the S9edish combined orce 9as completel%
o'er9helmed b% superior Amperial orces. The (ardinalEAnante Ferdinand, on his 9a% rom Milan to the
Spanish Jetherlands 9ith an arm% o )1,777 men, united his arm% 9ith that o his cousin, (ro9n -rince
Ferdinand, orming an arm% o :+,777 men. Anitiall%, b% taking ad'antage o a strong natural position south
o the cit%, the AmperialESpanish arm% stood on the deensi'e. 4'en though outnumbered, the S9edish
tactical plan called or $orn to attack the Amperial right 9hile Bernard 'on Weimar pinned the Amperial let
and pre'ented an% shiting o orces. "espite the bra'er% o S9edish troops, the AmperialESpanish arm%
repulsed the poorl% concei'ed attack. Because o the e<haustion o his men, $orn attempted to 9ithdra9
rom his untenable position, but $absburg orces maintained contact at the S9edish rear. Simultaneousl%,
$absburg attacks on Bernard’s position routed the S9edishE3erman right. Those troops then 9heeled into
Bulloch, =John 3ordon’ in 9anffshire .)*)+>)*)10, 6756,. See also "udik5 Sch$een in 9Ihmen un M"hren, ,, @ )77.
3allas managed to lose e'er% arm% entrusted to him although he 9as rarel% engaged in battle, thus earning or
himsel the title 2eer!ererber .arm% destro%er0. #ccording to (ust5 Warriors of the Thirty Years’ War, A::,), a
medal 9as struck in $amburg in )+;/ to commemorate the ineptitude o 3allas. The medal had the inscription =#
succinct narrati'e o the distinguished achie'ements o 'on 3allas in $olstein’. The ob'erse bore his eig% and the
re'erse 9as let perectl% smooth and 9ithout an% legend.
Struck, Schlacht bei DIrlingen, ;)5;/.
1<peition AA:),7. Ste9art, brother o the 4arl o Tra!uair, commanded the regiment rom #ugust )+:: to #ugust )+:;. An
March and #pril o )+:;, (olonel -atrick 2uth'en also returned to Britain in order to raise troops but 9as unsuccessul in raising
man%. 5 Frankland to 2. $ar'e% .67 March )+:;0. (S-" )+>61,>67.
$orn’s lank and 'irtuall% annihilated his entire 9ing, killing o'er +777 S9edish inantr% and capturing $orn
in the process. Full% hal o the oicers 9ere killed, and the rest o the arm% 9as captured or scattered. The
catastrophe 9as reported to Iondon in the dourest o terms: =scarce 677 o the 9hole Scottish brigade let’ \
=(olonel 2amsa%’s regiment is !uite cut o 5 a captain and t9o under oicers are onl% let o it’ \ o
6;,777 men there are onl% *777 let.
When Bernard 'on Weimar mustered S9edish orces on 61
September at Frankurt a. Main, onl% )),777 men out o the 9hole arm% 9ere present. 2M’s regiment o
6777 men 9as so crippled that it ne'er acted again as a separate unit as scarcel% ;77 Scots reHoined their unit.
2M himsel 9rote that the regiment 9as =reduced ater the Battaile o Jerling, to one (ompan% in
September )+:; at Wormes in the -altB.’
$absburg losses 9ere light, 9ith but )677 casualties o :+,777
The S9edish arm% 5 at that moment completel% demoraliBed and unit or combat 5 could onl%
The remnants o t9o S9edish armies retreated to central 3erman% to raise ne9 recruits and to
a9ait reinorcements rom S9eden and Scotland.
With the deeat at JPrdlingen, most o south9estern 3erman% 9as let in a political and militar% 'acuum, a
situation or 9hich 2ichelieu had been preparing. 4'en beore the battle, he had authoriBed the hiring o
more oreign mercenaries in order to increase the siBe o the French arm% at a more rapid rate. The Scottish
regiment o (olonel 3eorge, Iord 3ordon .k )+;/0, 9as mo'ed its position on the Atalian rontier to Iorraine
in order to ser'e under the Marshal CJac!uesEJompar de (aumont, ducD de $a 2"r%e .)//,5)+/60.
Sir John
$epburn raised a regiment o almost 6777 men in Scotland. The Regiment ’2ebron, as it 9as called, arri'ed
in France in #ugust )+:: and 9as later sent to Iorraine.
Then, in )+::, 2ichelieu ordered French armies to
in'ade the "uch% o Iorraine. Follo9ing JPrdlingen, 2ichelieu seiBed the opportunit% to increase the French
sphere o inluence arther into the $24 and ordered the French armies in Iorraine to ad'ance into #lsace as
ar as the 2hine 2i'er. Gne French arm% occupied orts and cities rom ;a'ern>Sa'erne to Mannheim, 9hile
a second arm% occupied the let bank o the 2hine rom Basel to Sabern.
#nother French arm% crossed the
2hine at Mannheim, Hoined 9ith the arm% o Bernard 'on Weimar, and relie'ed the cit% o $eidelberg on 66
"ecember )+:;. Gn 61 Gctober )+:/ Bernhard 'on Weimar Hoined the French ser'ice, and all o his troops
9ere taken into the pa% o France. An late "ecember the soldiers o the Marshal de la Force, $epburn and
Bernard 'on Weimar 9ere brought together. #t that time, all Scottish units in French ser'ice 9ere united
under $epburn and ormed into an o'erElarge unit composed o some ,777 men, although it 9as still called
the Regiment ’2ebron.
This composite 9as ormed b% the remnants o man% o the old regiments, =... the
Bohemian bands o Sir #ndre9 3ra%, all the Scottish regiments o 3usta'us, and e'en the Scottish #rcher
3uard o the French kings....’
$epburn, ho9e'er, did not command the regiment or long, as he 9as killed
John "urie to Sir Thomas 2oe .,>), September )+:;0 C4nglishD. -2GI S- )+>61;>)).
1<peition title page.
Struck, Schlacht bei DIrlingen, 165,*, and Fuchs, Schlacht bei DIrlingen, )67 5):+.
"ro%sen, 9ernhar !on Weimar AA:6*.
Bulloch @ Skelton, 0orons Uner Arms, #&S /*:;:7.
ForbesEIeith, Scots Men-at-Arms, ):;:7.
# humorous incident bet9een Father Joseph and Sir John $epburn occurred in "ecember )+:;. Father Joseph belie'ed himsel
to be 9ellE'ersed in the art o 9ar. $e 9as talking 9ith $epburn about ho9 eas% it 9ould be to take this cit% or that cit% 5
pointing our each cit% on a map 9ith his inger. #ter listening or a 9hile, $epburn interHected, =3o not so ast, good Father
Joseph, or, belie'e me, to9ns are not taken 9ith a inger end.’ 3rant, 2epburn, 66,.
Macka%, ),).
ForbesEIeith, Scots Men-at-Arms, 6)656):.
at Sabern on 6, June )+:+. &nder a ne9 commander, Iord James "ouglas, the regiment 9as renamed le
Regiment e /ouglas.
Thus, 9hile the S9edish role in 3erman% had been signiicantl% reduced, the French
role 9as correspondingl% increased.

Follo9ing JPrdlingen, most o S9eden’s ormer allies deserted her and entered into negotiations 9ith the
Raiser. The political disintegration o the $eilbronn Ieague had been taking place throughout )+:;, despite
G<enstierna’s eorts to hold the alliance together. With JPrdlingen, the $eilbronn Ieague ceased to e<ist,
and S9eden 9as let to end or hersel. RurTrst Johann 3eorg resurrected his peace proposals and 9on o'er
some o S9eden’s ormer allies. RurTrst 3eorg Wilhelm deserted the S9edish cause 9hen S9edish designs
on -omerania became kno9n. Gn :7 Ma% )+:/, most o the -rotestant 3erman principalities and states came
to terms 9ith the Raiser and signed the -eace o -rague, 9hich a'ored the $absburgs almost totall%. The
authorit% o the Raiser 9as assured b% the prohibition o alliances bet9een the 'arious states o the $24 and
b% pro'iding or an Amperial arm% unded b% the 2eichskreise. The religious !uestion 9as resol'ed b%
reairming the doctrine o cuius regio, eius religio b% implication, and, b% similar implication, setting the
4dict o 2estitution aside. =4cclesiastical domains ... 9ere to be di'ided on the actual possession at the time
o the -eace o -assau ... and, or those ac!uired ater -assau, the date o )6 Jo'ember )+61, should
There 9ere certain e<ceptions: Bohemia and the -alatinate 9ere not to be aected b% the
religious clauses. #lso, (al'inism 9as again reused recognition as a religion. Most o the larger states in
3erman% accepted the -eace o -rague, these being:
Ba'aria, Sa<on%, Brandenburg, MainB, (ologne, Trier .ater Spanish soldiers had kidnapped the
Francophile archbishop0, the landgra'e o $esseE"armstadt, the dukes o Mecklenburg and some
imperial cities, including ITbeck, Frankurt, and &lm. $o9e'er, it ailed to achie'e a general
paciication as its true intent onl% stiened the determination o the antiE$absburg po9ers: France,
S9eden, and the Jetherlands.
At appeared that there 9as to be, at long last, a genuine peace? but, nine da%s beore the peace 9as signed,
France declared 9ar on the $absburgs, and the 9ars 9ould go on or another thirteen %ears. What had begun
as a seemingl% insigniicant e'ent in -rague in )+), 9as about to become a continentE9ide conlagration.
France had long been participating in the 9ar, although not o'ertl%. #s has been noted, inancial aid had been
gi'en to S9eden or man% %ears prior to the -eace o -rague. An addition to sub'erting $absburg policies b%
subsid%, 2ichelieu undermined the $absburg policies b% diplomac%. The French (ardinal stro'e to pre'ent
the $absburgs rom orming outside alliances and to pre'ent the Spanish $absburgs rom assisting the
#ustrian $absburgs and 'iceE'ersa. Furthermore, 3#’s success in the $24 led him to reEe'aluate his
position regarding outright inter'ention, or he no more 9ished success to the S9edes than he did to the
$absburgs. Still, it 9as not until 6/ Februar% )+:/ that 2ichelieu allied France 9ith the "utch 2epublic in an
oensi'e and deensi'e alliance 5 a clear attack on the Spanish $absburgs. S9eden had, !uite naturall%, been
resentul o the minor role relegated to her b% France, and negotiations or keeping a S9edish arm% in
3erman% broke o in earl% )+:/. G<enstierna tra'elled to -aris in order to reEestablish relations? and, on 6,
ForbesEIeith, Scots Men-at-Arms, 6);.
Baustaedt, Richelieu un /eutschlan, );;5)/).
Friedrich, 9aro=ue, ),,5),*.
Steinberg, 1uropean 2egemony, +,5+*.
Februar% )+:/, he agreed to the Treat% o (ompikgne. France also concluded agreements 9ith Sa'o%,
Mantua and -arma in Jul%, thus presenting the $absburgs 9ith %et another ront. Finall%, -oland 9as
disengaged rom the Amperial cause 9ith the Truce o Stumsdor on )6 September )+:/. There still remained
problems 9ith his alliance s%stem, the most se'ere being the termination o alliances 9ith man% 3erman
states 9hich had been, at least tacitl%, allied 9ith France through the Ieague o $eilbronn. An the end onl%
those cities along the 2hine remained aithul to their alliances.
"espite 2ichelieu’s preparations or an allEout 9ar against the $absburgs, the French militar% position in
)+:/5)+:+ 9as actuall% !uite tenuous. Their position along the 2hine 9as 9eakened 9hen Spanish troops
attacked Trier and rapidl% subdued it and the surrounding area. The in'asion o FrenchEheld territor% in )+:/
undertaken b% Amperial and Spanish orces in the Spanish Jetherlands 9as at irst successul. 3allas stormed
Raiserslautern and then marched to Hoin the "uke o Iorraine. Mean9hile, the French arm% under $epburn
and Cardina$ CIouis de Jogaret deD $a Va$ette .)/*:5)+:*0 maneu'ered in the area bet9een MainB and
Bingen in order to dra9 Amperial orces north9ard, but 9as orced to 9ithdra9 to MetB 9hen 3allas ignored
their mo'ements and mo'ed to se'er their line o communication 9ith France. Jear Boula% 3allas surprised
the French arm%, and onl% the discipline o the Scottish troops pre'ented complete disaster.
An conHunction
9ith the mo'ements o 3allas, the "uke o Iorraine in'aded Iorraine and launched attacks into #lsace as ar
east9ard as St. Mihiel beore 9inter ended the campaign. 2ichelieu realiBed the necessit% or a much larger
arm% and called or the ormation o t9ent%Eone ne9 regiments in addition to the *7,777 troops stationed on
the 'arious French borders.

An )+:+ $absburg orces in the $24 and the Spanish Jetherlands launched a t9oEpronged in'asion o
France. The (ardinalEAnante Ferdinand commanded a combined Ba'arianESpanish arm% in'ading rom the
Spanish Jetherlands, and 3eneral 3allas commanded a united AmperialEIorraine arm% in'ading rom the
east. The Spanish arm% in'aded -icard%, crossed the Somme and ad'anced to #miens. Ba'arian ca'alr%
under C(ount Johann 'onD Werth .)/*)5)+/60, outdistanced the rest o the arm%, coming as close to -aris as
(ompikgne. 3allas ad'anced almost as rapidl%, occup%ing all o FrancheE(omtX beore inall% being held up
near Iangres b% Bernhard 'on Weimar. Finding himsel unable to ad'ance urther, 3allas halted his arm%. An
Jo'ember, as 9inter rains began, the Amperial general retreated, his arm% 9asting a9a% due to disease and
desertion. An the ollo9ing %ear the French 9ere able to regain the oensi'e. The arm% that 2ichelieu had
ordered raised 9as read%, and his e<tremel% competent commanders, Bernhard 'on Weimar and C$enri de la
Tour dl#u'ergne, Qicomte deD T&renne .)+))5)+1/0, pushed the in'aders completel% out o France. B%
)+:,, the French armies 9ere again on the 2hine? and in "ecember o that %ear, Bernard 'on Weimar
captured the ortressEcit% o Breisach,
thereb% cutting the Spanish suppl% line that ran rom northern Atal%
to the Jetherlands 'ia the 2hine. An Jul% )+:*, Bernhard 'on Weimar died, and 9ith the e<ception o limited
French actions in the Black Forest and the French in'asions o Ba'aria in )+;+ and )+;1, signiicant militar%
acti'it% in the $24 b% France 9as ended as their maHor eorts 9ere directed at Spanish orces in the Io9
(ountries and in Atal%.

3rant, Scottish Soliers of Fortune, 6,656,;.
Baustaedt, Richelieu un /eutschlan, )/;5)+7. Gthers TB-.
See Iut, Freiburg.
Baustaedt, Richelieu un /eutschlan, )11.
Scottish mercenaries continued to enter the French arm%, although the% mostl% arri'ed in mere driblets.
Bet9een )+:* and )+;:, 9arrants or the le'%ing o */77 soldiers 9ere issued.
Gne amous unit, kno9n as
4a 0are 1cossaise u -orps u Roi, 9as raised b% the 4arl o Ar'ine in )+;6 and landed at "ieppe in
September, Gctober and Jo'ember )+;:. The unit ser'ed 9ith distinction under CIouis de Bourbon, the "uc
dl4nghien andD -rince o C"nd< Cle 3rand (ondXD .)+6)5)+,+0 at Thion'ille .)+;:0 and at Iens .)+;,0,
ighting at the side o the French 2egiment o 3uards in the latter battle.
The Regiment e /ouglas ser'ed
in northern France and the Io9 (ountries rom )+:1 until the end o the French 9ar 9ith Spain in )++7. An
)+/: $epburn’s old regiment 9as placed under (olonel 3eorge "ouglas, 9ho succeeded his halEbrothers
Iord James "ouglas and #rchibald "ouglas as colonel o the RCgiment e /ouglas. The most important
battle in this particular theater 9as ought on 6* Ma% )+;:, at 9hich French orces under (ondX deeated
and slaughtered the Spanish inantr% at 2ocroi, 9ith the credit or the 'ictor% belonging to the 'eteran
oreign mercenaries, man% o 9hom 9ere Scots.
Just as the -eace o -rague endangered French positions along the 2hine, the peace also HeopardiBed S9edish
orces in central 3erman%. S9eden 9as 9ithout a maHor all% in that area? and, 9ith Bernhard 'on Weimar
Hoining French ser'ice, a 9hole arm% 9as remo'ed rom S9edish control. The other maHor S9edish arm%,
commanded b% Bankr, 9as steadil% orced north9ard and a9a% rom the hardE9on ruits o the 'ictorious
campaigns o )+:)5)+:;. An Gctober )+:/, Sa<on% completel% deserted her ormer all% and attacked the
S9edish orces under (olonel 2obert "ouglas at 4glen, causing Bankr to retreat urther north.
The Sa<ons
then besieged "PmitB, planning to use the cit% as a base in their eorts to orce the S9edes out o -omerania.
# S9edish orce under -atrick 2uth'en marched to "PmitB to relie'e the cit%. &pon his arri'al .66 Gctober
)+:/0, he attacked and =#s, ho9e'er, Cthe Sa<onsD 9ere neither pro'ided 9ith artiller% nor ca'alr%, 2uth'en
led his men boldl% against the besiegers, and almost annihilated their arm% under CWol $einrich 'onD
Ba&dissin CBauditBD .)/1*5)+;+0, killing some thousand men, and taking prisoners as man% more.’
'ictor% helped to restore the morale o the S9edish armies.
Throughout the entire time S9edish orces 9ere being orced north9ard, $anau, a cit% near Frankurt a.
Main, reused to surrender to Amperial orces besieging it. Sir James 2amsa%, described as =... one o a
number o e<cellent Scottish oicers 9ho had set out or the (ontinent to take part in the great struggle...’,
had been seriousl% 9ounded at Breiteneld in )+:). Soon thereater, unable to campaign urther, he 9as
made go'ernor o that small, but strategicall% important cit%. From the all o )+:/ until June )+:+, 9hen the
cit% 9as relie'ed b% 3eneral Ieslie,
$is conduct during the siege 9as outstanding, or he sho9ed great
ingenuit% in his deense 5 making sallies? taking precautions? and pre'enting 9aste. e'en to the e<tent o
ripping up the pa'ing o the streets, so9ing grain, and reaping a har'est.
$is best troops in these eects
6 2-(S 1:6;156;,, 6,) @ :765:7:. # contemporar% 'ie9er noted the number o men to be raised and ho9 man% 9ere actuall%
raised in Scotland and 9rote that it 9as e<tremel% diicult to ind men in Scotland 9illing to ser'e abroad. Memoirs Illustrati!e
of the 4ife an Writings of Aohn 1!elyn, 6:6+:, cited in ForbesEIeith, Scots Men*at*Arms, 6)).
ForbesEIeith, Scots Men-at-Arms, 6))56)6.
ForbesEIeith, Scots Men-at-Arms, ))1.
Armer, Arnim, :6+5:61.
(ust, Warriors of the Thirty Years’ War, A:://.
"ro%sen, 9ernhar, AA:6),.
"ro%sen, 9ernhar, AA:66).
"alr%mple, 4ife of Sir Aames Ramsay, /51.
9ere his personal bod%guard, a group composed entirel% o Scots.
When the cit% 9as relie'ed on 6; June
)+:+, it 9as restocked 9ith supplies and the garrison 9as replaced b% )677 $essians. The second siege o
$anau began in Jul% )+:1, but there 9as little hope o relie, or the closest French armies 9ere in #lsace,
and the S9edish armies 9ere too ar north to be o aid. 2amsa% bargained 9ith the besiegers in hopes o
gaining time but had little success. The ne9 garrison 9as made up o sullen, un9illing soldiers, and he 9as
unable to conduct an acti'e deense. An late Januar% )+:,, the cit% 9as betra%ed rom 9ithin, but 2amsa%,
our oicers and 17 soldiers barricaded themsel'es in a house and held out until )6 Februar%. When 2amsa%
inall% surrendered, his captors reused to ransom him? and, poorl% treated b% his Hailers, he died on )) March

An the ollo9ing %ear, the S9edish arm% regained much o its lost prestige and reputation at the Battle o
Wittstock .; Gctober )+:+0. Throughout the preceding summer, a combined Amperial and Sa<on orce o
6:,777 men had besieged Magdeburg 9hile S9edish Field Marshal Bankr 9as orced to 9atch because his
arm% 9as too 9eak, ha'ing a strength o onl% )1,777 men. Finall%, he di'ided his arm% into t9o sections and
aced the enem% 9ith a completel% di'ided battle line. S9edish 3eneral CIennartD T"rstenss"n C(ount o
Grtala, Baron o QirestadD .)+7:5)+/)0 9as gi'en the command o the right section, and Bankr took
command o the let. The entire AmperialESa<on arm% deplo%ed against the right 9ing o the S9edish arm%,
9hich 9ithstood the combined assaults o the enem% or three hours. #t dusk, ater ha'ing marched around
the enem%, Bankr’s hal emerged at the rear o the AmperialESa<on arm%. Bankr promptl% attacked, thro9ing
the enem% arm% into conusion. Because this attack 9as deli'ered late in the aternoon, the AmperialESa<on
arm% escaped under co'er o darkness. But the 9ar chest 9as captured b% the S9edes, and the mercenaries
o the AmperialESa<on arm% reused to return to the battleield 9ithout mone%.
At 9as Bankr’s 'ictor%, but
FieldEMarshal #le<ander Ieslie’s brilliant command o the center o Torstensson’s 9ing must be gi'en
partial credit or the 'ictor%. There the AmperialESa<on arm% 9as not able to break the S9edish lines although
the% outnumbered the S9edes three to one. #nother Scot, MaHorE3eneral James Ring, 9as present at the
battle and commanded the let 9ing o Torstensson’s arm%.

#lthough the S9edish militar% situation 9as impro'ed b% battles such as Wittstock, other problems arose. #s
the 9ar continued, the strict discipline that had been a trademark o the S9edish arm% in the time o 3#
graduall% deteriorated. The mutin% o )+:: adumbrated the discipline problems that 9ere to be aced b% the
S9edish high command ater )+:;. #s more and more 3erman troops 9ere hired, discipline became
practicall% impossible to enorce, or the 3ermans 9ere true mercenaries 9ith little lo%alt% or the master
the% ser'ed and less regard or the ci'ilian population o 3erman%. The Scottish stand at Jeu Brandenburg
had demonstrated a 9illingness o the Scots to ight to the death or S9eden, but the 3erman mercenar%
much preerred his Sol to an% cause. Ii'ing b% this principle, the mercenar% oten turned to the ci'ilian
population in order to increase his earnings, and literature rom the period
is illed 9ith tales o ho9 the
mercenaries e<torted mone% rom the ci'ilians. With the appointment o Torstensson as the S9edish
Fischer, Scots in S$een, ,/.
"alr%mple, Ramsay, 15)7.
"elbrTck, @riegs.unst, ;:6;,56/).
Berg @ IagercrantB, Scots in S$een, :*5;:, passim.
See 3rimmelshausen, Simplicissimus .)++*0. For an alternate interpretation, see 4rgang, Myth.
generalissimo in )+;),
discipline deteriorated e'en urther. Torstensson sol'ed his 9age pa%ment problem
b% simpl% stating that he 9ould no longer pa% his soldiers. Anstead, he allo9ed them to plunder the peasantr%
or their ood and 9ages.
Much o the militar% action in the $24 in the last e9 %ears o the 9ar 9as composed o sieges, small
skirmishes, and long marches. 4ach S9edish general acted more or less independentl%, and most campaigns
9ere little more than raids undertaken in hopes o ac!uiring boot% and comortable !uarters. The arm%
commanded b% Torstensson lodged itsel in Bohemia, Silesia and Mora'ia, deeating e'er% Amperial arm%
that 9as sent against it. "uring this last phase o the Thirt% Mears’ War, there 9as onl% one Scot o an%
signiicance ser'ing in the S9edish arm% 5 Field Marshal 2obert "ouglas. #t Jankau .6; Januar% )+;/0, he
9as in command o the S9edish let 9ing in the battle that destro%ed the Ba'arian ca'alr%, the backbone o
the Amperial arm%. This battle had the eect o gi'ing control o all Amperial land north o the "anube to the
S9edes. "ouglas 9as also acti'e in the campaigns undertaken b% the S9edes in Bohemia and Mora'ia
bet9een )+;7 and )+;,.
An Ma% )+;:, Torstensson 9as ordered to lea'e Mora'ia and attack "enmark
CS9edishE"anish War .)+;:5)+;/0D.
Within a e9 9eeks he in'aded "anish continental pro'inces and
orced the "anes to retreat to their islands. The -eace o BrPmsebro 9as a humiliating deeat or "enmark,
or she 9as orced to cede much o her possessions on the S9edish peninsula to S9eden as 9ell as to e<empt
S9edish 'essels rom "anish tolls.
Torstensson then returned to Bohemia, and, 9hen the 9ar ended in
)+;,, his orces 9ere at the gates o -rague 5 9here it had all begun thirt% %ears earlier.
(oncurrent 9ith the militar% operations in 3erman%, negotiations 9ere carried on b% the 'arious po9ers in
hopes o ending the 9ar. The irst steps or peace 9ere made on 6; Februar% )+:,, 9hen the French and
S9edes made public their demands or peace settlement. The accord, signed in $amburg, called or the =...
restitution o the political, constitutional, and religious status o )+),, a general amnest%, and the =satisaction
o the t9o cro9ns’ o France and S9eden.’
The accord also pro'ided or the urther French subsidies or
the S9edish arm%.
Ferdinand AAA realiBed that man% o the 3erman states 9ould be 9illing to accede to the
FrancoES9edish demands and summoned the Amperial diet in order to deal 9ith the problem. $o9e'er,
militar% re'erses 9eakened his position so that it 9as impossible or him to gain support rom the 3erman
states. Finall%, in )+;:, representati'es rom 'arious principalities and states began arri'ing at the
Westphalian to9ns o MTnster and GsnabrTck in order to begin negotiations. The negotiations dragged on or
i'e %ears, 9ith the 9ars continuing all the 9hile. The negotiations 9ere held in t9o places because S9eden
reused to %ield precedence to the French, hence the duplication o representati'es at the t9o sites 5 the
AmperialEFrench negotiations at MTnster and the AmperialES9edish negotiations at GsnabrTck. Gstensibl% the
mediators o the negotiations 9ere the -apac%, represented b% (ardinal Fabio (higi, and the 2epublic o
Qenice, represented b% #l'ise (ontarini.
The demands o the 'arious combatants or territorial
compensation, the disputes o'er the rights o the -rotestants, the desires o S9eden to ha'e a ninth RurTrst
Bankr died on )7 Ma% )+;).
"udik, Sch$een in 9Ihmen un M"hren5 )675)6) @ )6*567,, passim
See Steansson, /enmar. an S$een.
Ioose, 2amburg un -hristian IB5 ))75)67.
Steinberg, 1uropean 2egemony, 11.
RellenbenB, =$amburg und die ranBPsischEsch9edische Susammenarbeit’ in SQ$3 ;*>/7:*;.
The deiniti'e source or the negotiations ma% be ound in Braubach @ 2epgen, Acta pacis Westphalicae.
created in addition to the eighth RurTrst reser'ed or the RurTrstentum -alatine 5 all aided in the
prolongation o the negotiations. Finall%, on 1 Januar% )+;,, the stalemate 9as broken 9hen Spain and the
&nited -ro'inces agreed to a peace treat% at MTnster. France, 9ith the help o Ba'aria, then pressured the
Raiser into agreeing to a peace. Gn 6; Gctober )+;,, the separate treaties o MTnster and GsnabrTck,
together kno9n as the -eace o Westphalia, 9ere signed, thus bringing to an end the Thirt% Mears’ War. The
terms o the treaties 9ere man% and 'aried, but most 9ere resol'ed according to the 9ishes o France and
S9eden. France gained so'ereignt% o'er MetB, Toul, Qerdun, Breisach, and -hillipsburg. She 9as also ceded
#lsace, although the terms o the cession 9ere couched in e<tremel% ambiguous terms. S9eden gained West
-omerania .including Stettin and the island o 2Tgen0, Bremen, Qerden and Wismar. $er armies 9ere also to
be paid i'e million thalers b% the 4mpire. The &pper -alatinate and the old RurTrstentum 'ote remained
9ith Ba'aria? the 2henish -alatinate 5 and a RurTrstentum 'ote 5 9as gi'en to Rarl Iud9ig C-alBgra bei
2hein u. RurTrst 'on der -alBD .)+)15r )+;,5)+,70, the son o Friedrich, the Winter Ring. The
independence o the S9iss (onederation and the &nited -ro'inces 9as recogniBed? and the so'ereignt% o
the 'arious states in the $24 9as established. #t long last (al'inism 9as recogniBed as an oicial religion,
and religious matters 9ere no longer decided b% the strict application o cuius regio, eius religio.
The signing o the -eace o Westphalia e'idenced the rise o a ne9 po9er structure in 4urope. The 4mpire,
de'astated b% thirt% %ears o 9ar and di'ided into nearl% :/7 separate .and essentiall% so'ereign0 entities b%
the treat%, ceased to be a po9er in 4urope.
The #ustrian $absburgs, realiBing the impossibilit% o
controlling the states o the $24, turned to consolidation o their hereditar% lands and to e<pansion to the
southeast. S9eden became the dominant po9er in the Baltic region, dominating the economic lie o central
and northern 3erman% through its control o the mouths o the Gder, the Weser and the 4lbe 2i'ers, this in
addition to maintaining so'ereignt% o'er a maHor portion o the southern Baltic coast. Spain, ignored b% the
French negotiations at Westphalia, 9as a declining po9er long beore )+;,, and the treat% merel%
demonstrated her impotence. France, on the other hand, demonstrated her preEeminent position at
Westphalia, or it 9as her diplomats 9ho led the bargaining, her mone% that supported her allies, and her
armies 9hich 9ere the best in 4urope. Just as France gained supremac% at Westphalia, the papac% lost
'irtuall% all o its diplomatic credence at the (ongress. The -eace o Westphalia signaled the end o the
(ounterE2eormation and religious 9ars and initiated the era o struggles bet9een secular states. The state
s%stem 9as standardiBed b% the treat%, and the congressEs%stem pro'ided the template or taking action 9hen
e'ents threatened to upset the e!uilibrium supposedl% established at Westphalia.
An diplomatic terms the $24 became a po9er 'acuum, that is, an e<tremel% 9eak .politicall%, militaril% or both0
area 9ith po9erul neighbors desirous o e<pansion. Think hungr% dogs and a Huic% bone.
CHAPTER V9 E-ilo.#e and Con/l#(ion( N')'O
G the appro<imatel% ;7,777 Scots 9ho let their nati'e land bet9een )+), and )+;, in order to ser'e in the
armies on the continent, onl% a small number e'er returned to Scotland. Most o those 9ho returned 9ere
oicers, as the common soldier had little hope o lea'ing the arm% ater enlisting. This 9as especiall% true
9ith regard to those men 9ho had been orced to enlist? i the% men deserted their regiment and returned to
Scotland, the% 9ere subHect to a death penalt%.
"isease and a high, battle casualt% rate C9astageD combined
to deplete Scottish regiments o their allEScottish nature? and most regiments 9ere Scottish in name onl%
ater ser'ing in se'eral campaigns 5 unless re!uent inusions o recruits 9ere sent b% militar% entrepreneurs
such as Iord 2ea% or 2M. Since the common soldier 9as not allo9ed to resign, the Scottish soldier 9ho
ser'ed on the (ontinent generall% remained 9ith his unit until he 9as killed or rendered incapable o acti'el%
engaging in combat. Some e9 common soldiers did return home, although most o them 9ere maimed. An
September )+:;, the -(S granted the right to erect a hospital or maimed soldiers returning rom the
S9edish 9ars to (olonel 2M.
Thereore, it ma% be assumed that the re9ards o the common soldier 9ere
small and transitor% in nature, ha'ing little eect on Scotland.
The oicer class 9as more ortunate in gaining signiicant re9ards or their ser'ices, e'en though death 9as
also the common re9ard or most o these men. # sur'e% o the oicers 9ith the rank o lieutenantEcolonel
or abo'e .o those 9hose ate is kno9n0 sho9s that si<t% perEcent o these oicers 9ere killed in 3erman% or
died as a result o 9ounds or disease.
Iesser oicers led a more dangerous lie and li'ed under more
s!ualid conditions, and it ma% be assumed that their mortalit% rate 9as much higher. Scottish oicers 9ho
sur'i'ed battle and disease, and 9ere deemed capable and trust9orth%, 9ere re9arded through ad'ancement
in rank, albeit at a 'er% slo9 rate: Ieslie and 2uth'en both reached the rank o FieldEMarshal in the S9edish
ser'ice, but onl% ater each had ser'ed S9eden or almost thirt% %ears.
The reason or the slo9ness o
promotion or Scots 9as that beore and during the time o the Thirt% Mears’ War, the highest ranks 9ere
in'ariabl% reser'ed or men o noble birth Cthink Bernhard 'on Weimar and $ornD? e9 Scots 9ho sought
ser'ice abroad it into that categor%. Anterestingl%, onl% in S9edish ser'ice might a lo9Eborn soldier hope to
attain high rank on merit alone.
G oicers ortunate enough to sur'i'e the rigors o combat and camp lie, e9 proited rom their long %ears
o ser'ice abroad. #s has been noted, ull and regular pa%ment o the soldiers 9as a rare occurrence,
especiall% in a losing campaign. T%pical o this is the case o the 4nglishman, Sir (harles Morgan, 9ho 9as
orced to support his troops in )+6+5)+61 b% using his o9n resources because the 4nglish go'ernment sent
onl% 9orthless bills 9ith 9hich to pa% o'erdue 9ages and because the "anish go'ernment could not aord
) 2-(S )6:6/1, 6/* @ 616.
6 2-(S /:::;, :;* @ :/:5:/+.
See #ppendi< A or a data base {&SM )6,}.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1:),7, notes that there 9ere se'eral Scots 9ho attained high rank at a 'er% earl% age. G the
three men 9ho became colonel beore their t9ent%Eirst birthda%, t9o 9ere princes and the other came rom the "ouglas amil%.
G the se'en men 9ho became general beore the age o t9ent%Esi<, our 9ere princes and three 9ere noblemen. $amilton, as
irst peer o Scotland, ell into the latter categor%.
to pa% him.
&nder 3# the S9edish go'ernment paid the troops more regularl%? but e'en Iord 2ea%, an
important supplier o troops, 9as orced to sell parts o his estates in order to repa% debts incurred 9hile
acting as a militar% entrepreneur or 3#.
With regular mone% pa%ment to the militar% enterprisers an
impossibilit% or most emplo%ers, grants o land became a common orm o remuneration. This 9as
especiall% true 9ith regard to men 9ho ser'ed S9eden. The areas con!uered b% S9eden ormed a seemingl%
endless suppl% o 9ealth to be distributed as back 9ages to her oicers. Man% o the earl% endo9ments 9ere
made in southern 3erman%, e.g. 2uth'en recei'ed the Fugger 3raschat 'on Rirchberg in )+::. $o9e'er,
ollo9ing the S9edish debacle at JPrdlingen in )+:;, most o this land 9as lost to S9eden and also to all the
oicers 9ho had been gi'en land in that region. An the )+;7s -omerania became the area in 9hich
coniscated estates 9ere gi'en to deser'ing oicers. 2obert "ouglas obtained se'eral estates in -omerania
and in Qerden.
William Ie9is, too, recei'ed an estate in Ii'onia or his ser'ice? and his descendants,
kno9n as the amil% o Io9is 'on Menau, 9ere still in that region in )*77.
There 9ere other haBards that pre'ented Scots rom attaining tangible gains rom ser'ing abroad.
Andebtedness 9as the largest problem. "aniel $epburn, a ca'alr% colonel in Amperial ser'ice, 9as orced to
borro9 mone% rom Wallenstein and died o9ing the general ,777 thalers .9hich the general later collected
rom $epburn’s 9ido90.
#nother risk 9as that o being taken prisoner, as the ransom mone% demanded b%
the captor 9as oten high. Walter Butler, an Arishman in the Amperial ser'ice, is a t%pical e<ample o this. An
)+:), he 9as orced to pa% 2M )777 thalers or his reedom ollo9ing his capture at Frankurt a.d. Gder.
Gthers 9ere more ortunate: John 3ordon and Walter Ieslie, 9ho, 9hen captured at JTrnberg b% the S9edes
in )+:6, 9ere released 9ithout ransom b% 3# because he admired their bra'er%.
Still others 9ere reused
ransom because their ighting !ualities 9ere such that release might come back to haunt the captor, e.g.
James 2amsa%, the go'ernor o $anau. #lthough 9orth *77,777 thalers in mone% and gems, he 9as reused
ransom and died in capti'it%.
#nother haBard or oicers and men alike 9as the ci'ilian population or, as
reported b% 2M, stragglers or un9ar% soldiers caught b% the ci'ilians 9ere tortured and killed.
Thus, the
haBards o ser'ing in a mercenar% arm% at that time 9ere great and the re9ards small.
Gccasionall%, there 9as a Scot 9ho, ortunate enough to sur'i'e the pitalls encountered b% the lesser
oicers and common soldiers, amassed a large ortune and high position. John 3ordon parle%ed his role in
the assassination o Wallenstein into a title, a high oicial position, and a ortune in land and mone%.
(ommanders 9ho 9ere able to control their soldiers and pre'ent looting 9ere oten re9arded b% cities or
regions. #le<ander Ieslie recei'ed a large sum o mone% rom Stralsund upon his departure rom that cit% in
)+:) as a token o thanks or his aid to the cit% 9hen it had been besieged b% Wallenstein. 2obert "ouglas
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1:6/;.
Fischer, Scots in 0ermany, *)5*6.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1::/;5:/+.
Fischer, Scots in %russia, ):6.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1:),+56;: . passim0.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1::*;. 2M describes Butler’s 'alor, but mentions neither the ransom amount nor that he
recei'ed this amount in 1<peition.
Bulloch, 0ay 0orons, ::.
2edlich, %raea Militari, QSW :*:/+.
1<peition A:;+ @ AA:)66
Bulloch, 0ay 0orons, ;75;6.
recei'ed /77 lorins rom the people o S9abia ater he had maintained discipline in the S9edish arm% 9hich
had been stationed in the region ater the Treat% o Westphalia.
2anks o nobilit% 9ere oten conerred
upon successul soldiers in the S9edish ser'ice, and the rolls o the Riarhas, the S9edish $ouse o Iords,
displa% names such as $amilton, 2amsa%, Spens and "ouglas.
-ositions o high command could and did
lead to the abuse o po9er, and Scots 9ere certainl% not immune to the desire or boot%. -atrick 2uth'en
amassed si< carriageEloads o loot in &lm 9hile he ser'ed as the go'ernor o that cit% in )+:)5)+:6. (olonel
John $epburn also 9as guilt% o looting WTrBburg upon its capture b% the S9edes in )+:).
Gne beneit a'ailable to those ortunate enough to sur'i'e the long campaigns in good health 9as the
pension plan. A an oicer 9ere ortunate enough to be emplo%ed b% a po9er or a prince that remained in the
ield, and i that oicer reached the age o retirement, he could do so and 9ould be gi'en a pension. This 9as
usuall% a sum agreed upon beore the man entered that ser'ice. 4'en the common soldier 9as not totall%
ignored? old soldiers 9ere gi'en pensions o si< riksdalers per %ear.
#n enlisted man 9as also allo9ed to
retire ater ser'ing a gi'en number o %ears and had the option o a pension or land. $o9e'er, the records o
S9eden, Scotland, 4ngland, and other countries are illed 9ith petitions rom pensioners 9ho 9ere not
recei'ing their allotments or 9ere recei'ing them inre!uentl%.
A a soldier 9ere unortunate enough to be
maimed 9hile ser'ing a po9er, he 9as to be gi'en a pension and then allo9ed to return home? but, again,
most o these unortunates 9ere orced to end or themsel'es. Fe9 po9ers had mone% to spare or those
9ho 9ere incapable o rendering urther ser'ice. The best pension s%stem 9as that o S9eden. Field Marshal
#le<ander Ieslie recei'ed a pension o ,77 riksdalers per %ear 9hen he resigned rom his command in the
S9edish arm%.
Field Marshal -atrick 2uth'en, too, recei'ed a pension, but o )677 riksdalers. IieutenantE
(olonel 2obert Iumsden recei'ed )777 riksdalers, 9hile (olonel William 3unn 9as a9arded )777
riksdalers until the end o Oueen Rristina’s minorit%. Gn the other hand, James Ring ne'er recei'ed his back
9ages and, until his death in )+/6, regularl% petitioned the 2iksredet or his pension and back 9ages.
Gccasionall%, in addition to a pension, a git 9as presented oicers 9ith good records 5 =... a gold chain 9ith
the picture o $er MaHest%.’

Most o the oicers 9ho took ad'antage o the pension plan and let the S9edish ser'ice in the )+:7’s had
an important reason or lea'ing.
# religious contro'ers% in Scotland bet9een Ring and Rirk had led to an
open break bet9een the t9o. Scotland had re!uested the proessional soldiers to return home to sta the
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1::+). The S9edish arm% 9as stationed in S9abia to collect the mone% promised b% the
Rreise or pa%ment o the S9edish armies as guaranteed b% the -eace o Westphalia.
IorentBen, sch$eische Armee, ),;.
#ndersson, A 2istory of S$een, ),).
Fischer, Scots in S$een, ))*. The pensions 9ere liberal 9hen one considers the po'ert% o S9eden at the time but Oueen
Rristina 9as determined to re9ard her aithul ser'ants 9ell.
(S-" ); and (S-" )+ calendars man% e<amples o soldiers petitioning or back 9ages and pensions. #lso, man% authors cite
S9edish state papers 9hen reerring to the nonEpa%ment o pensions. Judging rom these t9o sources, it ma% be presumed that
neglect o pensioners 9as a regular occurrence throughout the period.
2edlich, Military 1nterpriser, QSW ;1::6*.
Fischer, Scots in S$een, )), @ )):5));.
Ri.s-Raets %roto.oll QAA:/,1. (ited in Fischer, Scots in S$een, )):.
Most o the oicers 9ho returned home to Hoin the (o'enant 9ere -resb%terian oicers ser'ing in the Scandina'ian armies.
(atholic Scots ser'ing in the French, Spanish and #ustrian armies remained. Thereore, the oicers mentioned in this chapter are
those 9ho ser'ed in the -rotestant Scandina'ian armies and 9ere more 9illing to heed the call o the -resb%terians in Scotland
9hen the trouble 9ith (harles arose.
arm% that 9as being raised to resist the religious polic% o (harles 9ho had Hust authoriBed a Book o (anons
9hich 9as to be used in the Scottish Rirk. This book 9as regarded b% most Scots as =popish’ and !uite
repugnant to their religious con'ictions. The reading o the Book at St. 3iles Rirk in 4dinburgh in Jul% )+:1,
produced a riot and the beginning o an open break bet9een Scotland and the Ring. An Februar% o the
ollo9ing %ear, a =(o'enant,’ signed b% the nobles, 9as then issued to the general public. #s the positions o
(o'enanters and Ring hardened, it became clear that onl% a 9ar could settle the issue. # =(ircular Ietter
rom the (ommittee’ at 4dinburgh 9as sent to each shire in Scotland stating that, or protection o libert%,
Scotland had to be deended. For deense, regiments 9ere to be raised and 9ere to be led b% a colonel, a
lieutenantEcolonel, and a sergeantEmaHor
...9ho, being prime oicers, ought to be men o skill, and must be sent or out o 3erman% and
$olland, and paid or out o the irst end o the contribution o the shires. 4'er% compan% must ha'e a
captain, lieutenant, ensign and t9o sergeants. The captain and ensign ma% be noblemen or gentlemen,
the lieutenants and sergeants must be sent or out o 3erman% and $olland, and paid or as is
At 9as because o this crisis and the plea or help that Scottish oicers hurried home. $ighEranking
commanders, such as FieldEMarshals Ieslie and 2uth'en, 3eneral Ring, as 9ell as man% other oicers,
resigned. James Iumsden, "a'id Monro, and 2. (lerck are onl% three o the man% colonels 9ho let in order
to take positions in the Scottish arm%. =Jo 9onder that Ieslie on his arri'al in Je9castle met no e9er than
t9ent%Esi< o his ormer companionsEinEarms in the S9edish 9ars.’
At should be noted, ho9e'er, that e9
Scottish oicers ser'ing in France returned home, because these oicers, predominantl% (atholic, 9ere less
interested in the religious contro'ers% in Scotland.
Most oicers 9ho let the S9edish ser'ice at this time 9anted onl% to obtain a lea'e o absence, but 9ere
orced to resign because o possible international complications that might arise. These oicers 9ere lea'ing
S9edish ser'ice to take part in a rebellion against their rightul ruler. S9eden, although a -rotestant countr%
and a secret supporter o the (o'enant, could not openl% sanction a re'olt against a king. #lso, some o the
oicers 9ished to obtain artiller% and muskets in lieu o their back pa%, and this again might ha'e led to
international complications. At 9as decided that, i these oicers 9ished to return to Scotland, the% 9ould
ha'e to resign and lea'e the S9edish ser'ice completel%, thereb% absol'ing the S9edish go'ernment o
blame that 9ould be normall% attached to actions such as the Scottish oicers 9ere taking. #lso, 9eapons
9ere to be gi'en to the men as re9ards or their ser'ices, but not as part o their 9ages. An this 9a% an%
suspicion o acti'e support to rebels could be circum'ented. The largest recipient o these 9eapons 9as
#le<ander Ieslie 9ho recei'ed 6777 muskets and t9o artiller% pieces.
#lso, =2obert Iumsden recei'ed
677 muskets and 677 cuirasses in )+;7.’
When these men returned home, the% 9ere immediatel% gi'en positions o responsibilit% in the ne9 Scottish
arm%. Ieslie 9as appointed o'erall commander, #le<ander $amilton .the in'entor o the mobile =leather gun’
(ircular Ietter .Januar% )+:*0. (S-" )+:;)7>)+1.
Fischer, Scots in S$een, ));.
Fraser, 4e!en, )::*6.
Fischer, Scots in S$een, )):.
that 3# made amous0 9as appointed 3eneral o #rtiller%, "a'id Ieslie 9as placed in charge o the ca'alr%,
and 2M 9as gi'en command o the inantr%. With these men in high command and their man% brother
oicers aiding in the drilling and training o the recruits, the (o'enanter orces =... 9ere an arm% and not an
armed mob.’
(harles raised 6),777 men but, realiBing that his arm% 9as grossl% inade!uate, he agreed to
the Treat% o Ber9ick .), June )+:*0. An the ollo9ing %ear, ho9e'er, (harles again raised an arm% and
attempted to subdue Scotland, but the superior Scottish arm% soon orced the retreat o (harles’ motle% orce.
The Scots then occupied Jorthumberland and "urham. #t 2ipon, on )+ Gctober )+;7, a treat% 9as signed
b% 9hich the Scots 9ere to ad'ance no urther and 9ere to recei'e b,/7 a da% rom (harles or sustenance.
#s a result o this treat%, (harles 9as orced to call -arliament .the Iong -arliament, )+;75)++70 in order to
raise the mone% to pa% the Scots.
Follo9ing the Bishops’ Wars, (harles, because o trouble 9ith -arliament, 'isited Scotland and sought to
gain the aid o these ine Scottish soldiers. $e created man% nobles, e.g. Ieslie 9as created the 4arl o
Ie'en. $e also distributed large pensions, e.g. MaHorE3eneral James Ring recei'ed b)777 and a diamond
ring .ostensibl% or ser'ices rendered the -rince -alatine0. With the actual outbreak o ci'il 9ar in )+;6,
some o the ormer (o'enanter oicers did Hoin the Ring, although the most important oicers remained
9ith Scotland. An )+;:, Scotland Hoined 9ith -arliament in a =Solemn Ieague and (o'enant’, and an arm% o
6),777 men under #le<ander Ieslie 9as raised to assist the -arliamentar% orces. #t the Battle o Marston
Moor .6 Jul% )+;;0 the -arliamentar%EScottish orce under (rom9ell .)/**5)+/,0 and #le<ander Ieslie met
the 2o%alist orce o -rince R&pert Cthird son o Friedrich: -rinB 2uprecht 'on der -alB .)+)*5)+,60D. An
this battle, o'er hal o the Scottish oot broke and ran, but the regiments o the John, 4arl o Iindsa% and Sir
John Maitland stood irm and beat o the charges o 2upert. These regiments 9hich had been trained in the
st%le o 3#, acted 9ith 9ellEdisciplined, precision mo'ement. The men in these regiments 9ere also
positioned in the S9edish battle ormation 9ith musketeers and pikemen intermingled. This steadastness
pre'ented 2upert rom breaking the -arliamentar% right e'en though most o the original line had led. Gn
the -arliamentar% let lank, the 2o%alist horse 9as at irst successul, but the discipline o (rom9ell’s troops
pre'ented a breakthrough. # timel% countercharge b% "a'id Ieslie’s ca'alr% broke the 2o%alist right, 9hich
led the ield. The combined ca'alr% o (rom9ell and Ieslie then routed 2upert’s ca'alr% orce. With both
9ings o the 2o%alist ca'alr% in light, the 2o%alist inantr% had little hope o standing against the entire
-arliamentar% arm%. The% reused to surrender, ho9e'er, and most o the orce, including the Je9castle
Whitecoats, 9as annihilated.
Follo9ing Marston Moor, Scottish participation in 4ngland 9as less signiicant because o the acti'ities o
CJames 3raham, /
Mar!uis oD M"ntr"se .)+)65)+/70, in the $ighlands and the support necessar%
or the Scots #rm% in Areland. #t the same time, (rom9ell 9as orming his =Je9 Model #rm%,’ a national
arm% 9hich 9as regularl% paid and 9ellEtrained.
With the ending o the irst phase o the 9ar in )+;+, and
the subse!uent capture o the Ring, man% (o'enanters re'ersed lo%alties and supported the Ring. Scotland
had, in act, become a 'er% Hunior partner to9ard the end o the (i'il War and had become perturbed o'er the
religious policies o (rom9ell and the -arliamentar% arm%. The ultraEconser'ati'e -uritan religion adopted
caused conser'ati'e (o'enanters to ree'aluate their position and to realign themsel'es 9ith the 2o%alists. An
"ecember )+;1, (harles, although a prisoner on the Asle o Wight, agreed to a secret =4ngagement’ 9ith
Firth, -rom$ell’s, );.
Firth, -rom$ell’s, 175*:, passim:
three Scottish commissioners and agreed to establish -resb%terianism or three %ears in 4ngland in return or
the help o the Scottish armies. An )+;, the =4ngagers’, under the leadership o the Mar!uis o $amilton,
crossed into 4ngland 9ith the stated intention o reeing the Ring and instituting the (o'enant. Beore
$amilton could cross the border, rebellions in Wales and 4ngland erupted. These uprisings 9ere to ha'e
occurred simultaneousl% 9ith the in'asion, but 9ere premature and 9ere crushed. Thus, $amilton 9as let
9ithout hope o aid rom the 4nglish and =... his arm% 9as no longer the 9ellEorganiBed orce o the =Bishops
Wars,’ or it had been raised in the ace o a =protest’ rom the stal9arts o the Rirk. $amilton had little sa'e
his courage to recommend him.’
$is disorganiBed and separated arm% 9as attacked and destro%ed in
piecemeal ashion b% (rom9ell at -reston, Wigan, and Warrington on )15)* #ugust )+;,. $amilton
demonstrated in the engagements that he had learned little o tactics 9hile in command o a separate arm% in
3erman% in )+:). The deeat at -reston cost him his head? he 9as tried on a charge o treason, condemned
and e<ecuted.
Follo9ing -reston, (rom9ell consolidated the position o -arliament throughout Britain. 2ecogniBing 9ith
regret that (harles 9ould ne'er subordinate himsel to parliamentar% rule, (rom9ell allo9ed the Ring to be
tried on a charge o high treason. $e 9as condemned and e<ecuted in Januar% )+;*. Thus, the rule o
-arliament 9as established 9ith ruthless inalit%. With 4ngland under -arliamentar% control, (rom9ell
turned to Scotland, in'ading that countr% in )+/7 9ith )+,777 troops o his Je9 Model #rm% to suppress the
(o'enanters. "a'id Ieslie, a capable general 9ho had learned the art o 9ar 9hile ser'ing in the S9edish
arm%, 9as the actual commander o the Scottish orces 9hich opposed (rom9ell, although the se'ent%Eone
%ear old #le<ander Ieslie 9as the supreme commander o the Scottish arm% that numbered almost 6/,777
men. Sadl% or Scottish hopes, in a purge conducted b% the Rirk, "a'id Ieslie 9as depri'ed o :777 o his
soldiers and eight% o his oicers because o their lack o theological perception and de'otion. With the most
decisi'e campaign under 9a%, Ieslie 9as se'erel% 9eakened b% the 9ellEmeaning ministers o the Rirk.
Still, the %ounger Ieslie held a commanding position and, b% using a polic% o attrition similar to that used
b% Wallenstein at JTrnberg, reused battle, orcing the choice o retreat or star'ation upon (rom9ell’s
orces. (rom9ell chose the ormer course and began his retreat. Ieslie immediatel% made plans to attack the
enem% but had to postpone the attack because it 9as the Sabbath. Ieslie then ollo9ed (rom9ell closel%, and
b% 6 September )+/7, the Scottish arm% had the -arliamentar% orces trapped at "unbar, 9ith the latter in a
'alle% underneath the guns o the (o'enanters. $o9e'er, at the instigation o the committee o ministers,
Ieslie 9as orced to abandon his a'orable position and to descend and place his inantr% on the le'el ground
in ront o the hill.
There, MaHorE3eneral Sir James $olborne o Menstrie either stupidl% or traitorousl%
ordered the inantr% to e<tinguish their matches and to seek co'er or the night. Anstructions 9ere also gi'en
to the ca'alr% to set some o the horses out to orage. (rom9ell’s scouts 9ere !uick to note the strange
beha'ior o the Scottish arm% and !uickl% alerted (rom9ell, 9ho immediatel% set his arm% in motion. #t
da%break on : September )+/7, the Scottish arm% 9as conronted b% the -arliamentar% arm% in ull battle
arra% 9hile the Scots 9ere totall% unprepared. An the debacle that ollo9ed, o'er :777 Scots 9ere killed and
Mackie, Scotlan, 667.
Iane, @ing -o!enant, 66/.
Iane, @ing -o!enant, 66+5661. The reason or the abandoning o the good position 9as that the ministers decided to use their
o9n tactics. These tactics had been, as the% said, =\re'ealed to them b% the Iord o $osts.’
)7,777 9ere captured. (rom9ell then occupied 4dinburgh and established control o'er the Io9lands.
-risoners taken at "unbar 9ere sent as sla'es to the sugar plantations in the West Andies.
"a'id Ieslie and his e9 remaining oicers de'oted the ollo9ing 9inter to training a ne9 arm%. "unbar
had cost the Scots the last semblance o the arm% that had taken the ield in )+:*5)+;7, and an entirel% ne9
arm% had to be raised and trained. Gn ) Januar% )+/), -rince (harles 9as cro9ned as king at Scone, and the
Scots again attempted to o'erthro9 parliamentar% orces. An the spring o )+/), (rom9ell outmaneu'ered
the Scots b% mo'ing north9ard to9ard -erth, cutting Ieslie’s line o communication 9ith his base o suppl%.
Ieslie and (harles 9ere aced 9ith either attacking (rom9ell and risking almost sure disaster or in'ading
4ngland in hope o gaining 4nglish allies. (hoosing the latter course, the Scottish arm% mo'ed slo9l% do9n
the 9est9ard coast o 4ngland but ound little support. (rom9ell pursued the 2o%alist arm%, co'ering :67
miles in three 9eeks. The Scottish arm% o )+,777 illEtrained soldiers stood little chance against the :),777
'eterans o the Je9 Model #rm%, but (harles retreated to Worcester and prepared to make a stand.
(rom9ell di'ided his arm%? con'erged on the Scottish arm% in a 9ellEe<ecuted doubleElank attack? and,
e<actl% one %ear to the da% ater "unbar, annihilated the (o'enanter arm%. Gnl% a e9 hundred men,
including the ne9 king, escaped.
"a'id Ieslie 9as captured and imprisoned rom )+/) until the
2estoration in )++7 9hen he 9as released and ennobled b% (harles AA.
Follo9ing the Scottish deeats o
-reston, "unbar, and Worcester, there occurred a great e<odus o Scots 2o%alists to the (ontinent. The
maHorit% o these men ollo9ed their Ring to France 9here the% Hoined the armies o that countr% in her 9ar
9ith Spain, Hoining such regiments as 4es 0ares 1cossaise,
the "umbarton 2egiment .the old $epburn
2egiment0, and the (ampbell 2egiment.
When (harles AA returned to 4ngland in )++), he 9as
accompanied b% some o these troops. The "umbarton 2egiment e<ists in 3reat Britain toda% as the 2o%al or
Grkne% regiment and is the oldest continuousEser'ice regiment in the British arm%.
#lthough the maHorit%
o those Scots 9ho led their homeland 9ent to France, some e9 9ent to Scandina'ia. Iord 2ea% ser'ed
(harles A but had been captured. Montrose reed him, but 9hen Montrose 9as deeated at -hiliphaugh in
September )+;/, 2ea% returned to "enmark 9here he died our %ears later.
James Ring, 9ho aided (harles
A in the earl% %ears o the 9ar but oten displa%ed s%mpath% or his ello9 Scots, returned to S9eden 9here
he died in )+/6.
#nother theatre o action or the returning oicers 9as Areland, 9here a re'olt o the Arish (atholics against
their 4nglish masters, directed at the -rotestant 4nglish and Scottish settlers in Areland, had broken out in
)+;). An Jo'ember )+;), the Scottish -arliament had oered )7,777 troops to -rince o the -alatine? but
ater a (atholic massacre o -rotestants in Areland 5 especiall% in &lster 5 cancelled this proHect, the men =...
9ere oered Cto (harles AD and accepted or the !uelling o the Arish, and placed under the command o the
Iane, @ing -o!enant, 66+5661.
Montross, War, :715:7,.
"JB +:*+,.
This regiment should not be conused 9ith the Scots 3uards or 4a 0are 1cossaise u -orps u Roi: This regiment 9as the one
raised in )+;6 b% the 4arl o Ar'ing.
G all Scots, the (ampbells 9ere the most noted o the supporters o the Ring and man% o the clansmen ollo9ed (harles AA to
France ollo9ing the deeat o the Ring at Worcester.
ForbesEIeith, Scots Men-at-Arms, 6);.
"JB )6:/++5/+1.
"JB )):):/5):+.
4arl o Ie'en, as general.’
Ammediate command o the Scots #rm% in Areland 9as gi'en to 2M, author o
1<peition. From )+;6 until )+;1, Monro commanded the arm% in Areland 9ith no great success, although
9ith no great ailure either. An )+;+, (olonel Jones and ,777 men o the Je9 Model #rm% 9ere sent b%
(rom9ell to Areland and, b% the end o )+;1, Areland 9as again !uiet.
The Second British (i'il War
resulted in the disbanding o the Scottish #rm% in Areland? 2M 9as sent to the To9er o Iondon or i'e
%ears, ater 9hich he 9as then released and pardoned, li'ing out his remaining da%s in Areland.
An )+/6,
(rom9ell himsel commanded the Je9 Model in Areland and crushed the Arish rebellion 9ith great cruelt%.
Militaril% then, the Scottish proessional soldiers 9ho returned to Scotland aected the militar% policies and
strateg% or o'er a decade ater returning home, using training methods that the% had learned in the
(ontinental armies: trained soldiers 9ould naturall% lead the martial acti'ities o a nation engaged in 9ar.
$o9e'er, the Scottish oicers and nonEcommissioned oicers 9ho returned to help Scotland oten ound
their eorts hindered b% political intrigue, clan politics and b% the religious policies o the Rirk. Thereore, it
ma% be stated that there 9as little noticeable inluence b% these soldiers on the militar% customs and tactics
as practiced b% the Scots or hundreds o %ears prior to )+),. Andeed, it 9as not until ater the &nion o )171,
and the ormation o ne9 Scottish regiments or ser'ice in British armies, that the old st%le o a !uick, shockE
attack 9ith cla%mores completel% died out.
Since the proession learned b% the returnees had little
noticeable eect o Scotland, the !uestion arises as to 9hether the soldiers had an% appreciable eect on
Scotland at all. G interest 9ould be possible eects in areas such as religion, social and political
ad'ancement, the e<change o ideas, or economic de'elopment.
The inluence on religious ideas 9ould be the second most important possibilit% or the returning
mercenaries, 9ho had been in contact 9ith other creeds and doctrines or man% %ears. At 9as also a time o
religious change in 4ngland. A these returnees had encountered an% ne9 ideas, it appears that the% 9ould
ha'e been able to con'e% them to riends and to establish a ne9 church. $o9e'er, there 9as no change
brought about b% the proessional soldiers or the internal structure o the Rirk made change diicult. =The
(hurch 9as not onl% supreme in spiritual matters, but it 9as the dut% o a (hristian State to support it and to
lend the secular arm, 9hen re!uired, to carr% out its decrees, to punish heres%, and to enorce discipline, and
to suppress an% church 9hich threatened ri'alr%.’
The armies that the returning oicers staed 9ere 9ell
pro'ided or religiousl% as =... morning and e'ening pra%ers, and sermons on Sunda%, and FastEda%s, both in
the morning and aternoon ...’ 9ere gi'en. There 9as also a =complete s%stem o ecclesiastical
Hurisdiction...established in the arm%.’
Thereore, religion 9as not aected b% the returning mercenaries.
Social ad'ancement due to 9ealth attained or glor% 9on and a concomitant rise in politics 9ould be another
possibilit% or inluencing Scottish lie. Man% highEranking oicers returned home and recei'ed titles o
Fraser, 4e!en, ):;7*.
Farmer, Stuarts, )/1.
"JB )::+:15+:,.
#s late as )+,* the $ighland method o attack 9as successul or, at Rilliekrankie, Qiscount "undee and his bareoot
$ighlanders annihilated an 4nglish arm% under 3eneral Macka%. At 9as ne'er again as successul, or a better e!uipped 4nglish
arm% destro%ed a Scottish arm% at "unkeld in )+*7, and completel% humbled the $ighlanders. For a misunderstanding o
Scottish ighting methods, see McWhine% @ Jamieson, Attac. an /ie.
#s much as A hate to state it, the rest o &SM is in dire need o re'ision 5 and it 9ill be. (heck back or TB-.
Buchan, @ir., 6,.
Firth, -rom$ell’s, :)/, or both !uotes.
nobilit% 9hich 9ould seem to ensure the men a place o distinction. $o9e'er, the historical e'idence
demonstrates that these men, returning to Scotland at a time o trouble, ne'er had a chance to assert their ne9
po9er. Andeed, most o those men either landed in prison or led to the (ontinent 9ithin ten %ears o
returning home. #lso, the nobles 9ho had been the leaders beore the return o the militar% entrepreneurs
remained the leaders ater their return, delegating authorit% to the returnees onl% 9hen necessar% 5 as 9hen
an arm% commander 9as needed. There 9as a longEterm eect, or man% o the peerage lines established at
that time 9ere able to inluence Scottish political actions at a later date. The marriage alliance that 9as
arranged bet9een 3usta'us Ieslie, the eldest sur'i'ing son o #le<ander Ieslie, 4arl o Ie'en, and the
daughter o the 4arl o 2othes, a member o an old but impo'erished amil%,
9as surel% a common
occurrence as the ne9 nobilit% attempted to =get respectable.’ $o9e'er, there 9as no immediate eect on the
social and political structure in Scotland ollo9ing the return o the oicers.
With the inlu< o men 9ho had been on the (ontinent or man% %ears, it 9ould seem logical that there
9ould be a corresponding inlu< o ne9 ideas into Scotland, but again that e<pectation is pro'ed alse.
&nortunatel% or Scotland, man%, i not most o the men 9ho 9ent abroad 9ere illiterate and 9ere not
interested in ne9 ideas or techni!ues. Thus, there 9as 'er% little o a radical or an inno'ati'e nature brought
back b% the mercenaries. Gne maHor e<ception 9as 2M, author o 1<peition, 9ho 9as a 9ellEread and
intelligent person. An his book, he commented on e'er% concei'able topic, but his inluence 9as small
considering that e9 Scots could read. This is not to sa% that ne9 ideas 9ere not reaching Scotland at that
time, or it 9as during this period that Scottish students b% the thousands 9ere attending (ontinental
uni'ersities. The old medie'al la9 s%stem 9as being replaced b% the 2oman la9 that the students 9ere
learning at the French and 3ermans uni'ersities.
The art o go'ernment as practiced in France particularl%
impressed %oung Scots 9ho 9ere stud%ing in -aris. There 9as also a large interchange o ideas bet9een the
-resb%terians and their coEreligionists in France, the $uguenots. =Tra'el to -aris ormed an almost essential
element in the training o a man o politeness and o aairs.’
$o9e'er, this 9as not 9hat 9as re!uired o a
mercenar%, and the soldier simpl% did not come into contact 9ith ne9 ideas and so 9as unable to bring an%
home 9ith him.
Gne inal area in 9hich the Scottish mercenaries could ha'e aected Scotland 9as in the economic ield. The
outlo9 o such a large number o %oung men could, at irst, seem to ha'e caused harm to the internal
economic s%stem o Scotland. $o9e'er, because o the relati'el% small potential o absorption o labor in the
Scottish economic s%stem, the maHorit% o men that 9ent abroad did little harm to the s%stem, or the% 9ere
actuall% a glut on the labor market. Andeed, simultaneousl% 9ith the lo9 o the mercenaries abroad, there
9as an outlo9 o merchants and peddlers 9ho did help the Scottish econom% or =#t the bases 9here these
regiments 9ere e!uipped, solid merchant houses C9ereD established.’
With the establishment o these
clearing houses abroad, the merchants o Scotland had a =actor’ 5 a trader, preerabl% a Scot, 9ho sold the
goods in the market or a commission. =... Scottish trade 9as concentrated mainl% in those areas and at those
to9ns 9here Scottish merchants settled do9n...’
5 Scandina'ia, $olland, and France. "uring the irst hal
Mathe9, -harles, 61*.
Smith, =Scotland’ in 9ritish -ommon$ealth, AA:6)56:.
Mathe9, -harles, 67+.
Mathe9, -harles, 61,.
Smout, 1!e of Union5 *+5*1.
o the se'enteenthEcentur%, the e<portEimport trade bet9een Scotland and the Baltic region greatl% increased,
and much o the credit or the increase must be gi'en to the trading houses that 9ere established there. The
increase in the e<portEimport trade is also indicati'e o a health% increase in the economic situation that
occurred in Scotland at the time. This is not to sa% that mercenaries 9ere directl% responsible or the increase
in trade or in the economic situation in Scotland. The% 9ere not. $o9e'er, Scots tended to go 9here their
countr%men had gone, and the large congregation o Scots in the Baltic region dre9 trade to the area. There
9as, then, an increase in the production in Scotland o goods or sale abroad. This alone 9as a tremendous
aid to Scotland.
An summation, then, it must be stated that the Scottish mercenar% had 'er% little eect on his nati'e land or
on the (ontinent. A there 9as an% actual impact, it 9as elt b% the militar% leaders o the da% 9ho recogniBed
the ighting !ualities o the Scots and their 'alue as shock troops. There 9ere e9 Scots 9ho 9ere able to rise
to positions o high command, but there 9ere man% Scots 9ho ser'ed as HuniorEgrade oicers and nonE
commissioned oicers. The inabilit% o the a'erage Scot to lead large numbers o troops ma% be noted in the
actions in the British (i'il Wars 9here no great success 9as attained b% Scottish arms e<cept possibl% at
Marston Moor. $o9e'er, the abilit% o the Scot as an indi'idual ighter 9as ne'er doubted, and, as a part o a
9hole, the Scot 9as a useul soldier to ha'e in battle. But, because o his inabilit% to accept discipline and to
do menial tasks, such as digging trenches, his 'alue as a 9ellErounded soldier 9as diminished. Thereore,
Scottish mercenaries ser'ed a small but necessar% part in the (ontinental armies in that the% could be relied
upon in battle. Their pride in their militar% capabilit% pre'ented their leeing at the least pro'ocation. #lso,
the Scots 9ere lo%al to their master and ought 9ell or him. There are e9 instances in the Thirt% Mears’ War
9here the Scot betra%ed the trust placed in him. $o9e'er, their re9ard 9as small, or most o these soldiers
no9 lie in unmarked gra'es at the sites o the battles and camps.
The Scottish mercenar% 9ho returned home brought little o 'alue 9ith him, and his social, political,
intellectual and economic impact on Scotland 9as small. Andeed, a Scot 9ho returned home almost al9a%s
returned home as a stranger. -eter 2oss accuratel% described the plight o the returnee 9hen he 9rote: =The
9anderer at length goes home to ind it home no longer. Friends and relati'es ha'e died or 9andered a9a% to
other parts o the earth, old landmarks ha'e disappeared or changed and the place that kne9 the 9anderer
no9 kno9s him no more.’
Thus the Scot 9ho returned home 9as little more than an alien in a changed
9orld. Gnl% those e9 9ho had been able to maintain contacts 9ith home actuall% had an%thing to 9hich
the% could return.
2oss, Scots, /+.
Appendix I9 S/otti(h Offi/er( A%road and at 0o1e NUSM '?7*'>+O
$uge numbers o Scottish oicers ser'ed 'arious leaders and m%riad rulers>masters throughout the Thirt%
Mears’ War. #ppendi< A is a listing o Scottish oicers holding the rank o lieutenantEcolonel or abo'e 5
primaril% those in -rotestant ser'ice? and more speciicall%, those ser'ing in the 3erman Wars 5 bet9een
)+), and )+;,. At also notes rank attained during British (i'il Wars. The inormation comes rom man%
sources, including: Bulloch @ Skelton, Uner Arms? "eoe, Scots Dation? "JB? 1<peition, Iist: )5/?
Fraser, 4e!en? 3rant, Memoirs of 2epburn? Ar'ing, 9oo. of Scotsmen? GSB? 2-(S? and S9eAnt. Gicers o
the rank abo'e colonel are listed b% highest rank achie'ed and seniorit%? (olonels .(ol0 and IieutenantE
(olonels .ItE(ol0 are listed alphabeticall%. This is b% no means a comprehensi'e list? at some point, such a
list is TB-. Bear in mind that it 9as compiled in )*+,, long beore there 9ere databases such as SSJ4.
#. FieldEMarshals.
• Sir #le<ander Ieslie, )
4arl o Ie'en .m)/,75)++)0. Ser'ed S9eden or appro<imatel% thirt% %ears.
3o'ernor o'er man% cities along the Baltic (oast and later FieldEMarshal o'er S9edish orces in Westphalia.
(ommanded Scottish (o'enanter orces during British (i'il Wars.
• Sir -atrick 2uth'en, 4arl o Forth and Brentord .)/,:5)+/)0. Ser'ed S9eden or appro<imatel% t9ent%Eeight
%ears. 3o'ernor o &lm, )+:)5)+:6, and later commanded S9edish arm% 9hich deeated Sa<ons at "PmitB
.66 Gctober )+:/0. Was ro%alist general in the British (i'il Wars.
• Sir 2obert "ouglas C(ount o Skenninge and Baron o Skalb%D .)+))5)++)0. Amportant general and
administrator or S9eden. (ommanded let lank o S9edish arm% 9hich deeated Sa<ons at Jankau .+ March
)+;/0. Field Marshal .)+/15)++60.
• Walter Ieslie, (ount Ieslie .)+7+5)++10. 4ntered Amperial ser'ice and ad'anced slo9l% in rank. 2ole in
assassination o Wallenstein .)+:;0 assured his ad'ancement. 2ecei'ed regiment o oot ollo9ing JPrdlingen
.)+:;0. #d'anced to rank o ieldEmarshal b% )+;,. S9orn to Amperial -ri'% (ouncil in )+//. 2ecei'ed Grder
o the 3olden Fleece in )++/.
B. MarXchal de France.
• Sir John $epburn .)/*,5)+:+0. Began ser'ice in 3erman% 9ith 3ra%’s regiment in Bohemia. Transerred to
S9edish ser'ice in )+6/. #ppointed )
colonel o the Scottish>3reen Brigade under 3#. Iet S9edish ser'ice
in )+:6 and Hoined French ser'ice. (ommanded RCgiment e 2ebron Rilled at Sa'erne in )+:+.
(. 3enerals.
• James, the :
Mar!uis Clater )
"ukeD o $amilton .)+7+5)+;*0. 2aised orce o +777 British inantr% to ser'e
3# .)+:)5)+:60. 2o%alist during British (i'il Wars. Beheaded on orders rom (rom9ell.
• #ndre9 2utherord, 4arl o Te'iot .LL5)++;0. Mentioned as earl% as )+)7 in S9edish 9ar 9ith 2ussia. Ser'ed
9ith distinction in French arm%. Rilled at Tangier in )++;.
• Sir James Spence CSpensD o Wormieston, (ount o Grcholm @ Iord o Moreholme. 2aised regiment or 3#
in )+6+. Iater (hancellor o S9eden and 0eneralissimo o S9edish orces.
• #le<ander $amilton .called "ear Sandie0. (olonel to a regiment o Scots. 3eneral o artiller% in S9edish
arm%. 3eneral o artiller% in Scottish (o'enanter #rm%.
• #le<ander 4rskine. Minister o War to 3#. 2epresented S9eden during negotiations leading to -eace o
Westphalia .)+;,0.
". IieutenantE3enerals.
• #le<ander Forbes, )7
Iord Forbes .LL5)+160. Fought or S9eden.
• Sir James Ring, Baron 4%thin .)/,*5)+/60. MaHorE3eneral in charge o S9edish operations in Westphalia but
obtained lea'e in )+:* due to conlict 9ith S9edish general Johan Bankr. 2eturned to Scotland in )+;7,
Hoining (harles A. An battle oten displa%ed s%mpath% or ello9 Scots, e'en i on opposing side. 2M note:
=since IieutenantE3eneral’, this postE)+:1.
• James "ouglas .LL5)+;/0. (olonel in ser'ice o France. &pon death o $epburn, took command o RCgiment
e 2ebron and renamed RCgiment e /ouglas. Rilled near "oua% in )+;/.
• William Baillie. (olonel to a regiment o oot o 3ermans. IieutenantE3eneral in Scottish (o'enanter #rm% in
British (i'il Wars.
• 2obert Monro C2MD .)/*75)+,70. C=(olonel to a regiment o Scots, 9hich 9as m% Iord o 2hees’D. #ntiE
Amperial ser'ice .)+615)+:: @ )+:/5)+:10, rising to rank o (olonel. #uthor o 1<peition. 2eturned to
Scotland to ser'e in Scottish (o'enanter #rm%. #ppointed MaHorE3eneral in actingEcommand o the Scots
#rm% in Areland .)+;65)+;,0. Jamed IieutenantE3eneral in )+;,, but captured b% parliamentar% orces in
(arrickergus (astle .)+;,0. Amprisoned in To9er o Iondon .to )+/;0. 2etired to &lster.
• "a'id Ieslie, )st Iord Je9ark .c. )+775)+,60. IieutenantE(olonel to $orse. (olonel o ca'alr% in the
S9edish ser'ice. MaHorE3eneral o ca'alr% in Scottish (o'enanter #rm% in British (i'il Wars. 2o%alist ater
4. MaHorE3enerals.
• Iord $ugh $amilton. Ser'ed S9eden.
• Sir "a'id "rummond. 3eneralEMaHor and 3o'ernor o Stettin in -omerania.
• Sir James 2amse% CBaron Jacob 'onD .)/,*5)+:*0. (ommanded a Scottish regiment in S9edish ser'ice at
Breiteneld. Se'erel% 9ounded in battle, 3# named him 3eneralEMaHor and 3o'ernor o $anau. "eended cit%
against Amperial orces .)+:/5)+:,0. (aptured and died in capti'it%.
• John Ieslie o Maines.
• Thomas Rerr C(arrD .LL5)+:)0. Rilled at Breiteneld.
• Sir John 2uth'en. (olonel to a brigade o 3ermans, and since 3eneralEMaHor.
• William Forbes
• d Bonner
• d Burdon.
• William Iegge.
• d Mac"ougal. Ser'ed in the Amperial arm%.
• William 3unn. Began as a captain in MacRa%’s 2egiment and 9as promoted to the colonelc% o a 3erman
regiment. Iater entered Amperial ser'ice, rising to maHorEgeneral and created baron.
• James (arr. (olonel to a regiment o Scots, and since 3eneralEMaHor.
• Iord 3eorge ."ouglas0, )st 4arl o "umbarton .)+:/5)+*60. MaHorE3eneral and commander o RCgiment e
/ouglasP/umbarton .)+//0.
F. (olonels @ IieutenantE(olonels CItE(olD.
• d #rmstrong. # commander in S9eden.
• Sir William Ballantine CBellendenLD. (olonel to a ootEregiment o Scottish and 4nglish troops in Silesia.
• d Beaton. ItE(ol in S9eden.
• William Borth9ick. ItE(ol to oot.
• Sir $enr% Bruce. (aptured at JPrdlingen b% Amperial orces.
• d Burden. (ommander in S9eden.
• d Bullion. (aptain in Macka%’s 2egiment. 2ose to colonel. Ser'ed as !uartermasterEgeneral o S9edish orces.
• 2. (lerck. (olonel in S9edish ser'ice until )+:*.
• John (ockburn. (ommander in S9eden.
• 3eorge (olin. (ommander in S9eden.
• 3eorge Iindsa%, );
4arl o (ra9ord .LL5)+::0. (olonel o 3erman ootEregiment in ser'ice o 3#. Rilled
b% a lieutenant o his regiment.
• John (richton.
• d (uming C(ummingsD o 2elugas. (ommander in S9eden.
• #le<ander (unningham. ItE(ol, since a (olonel to ootEregiment o 3ermans.
• Sir James (unningham. ItE(ol to oot.
• 2obert (unningham.
• William (unningham. (olonel to ootEregiment o Scots in -russia.
• William "ick. (aptain in Macka%’s 2egiment. 2ose to ItE(ol in S9edish ser'ice.
• James "ickson. ItE(ol, since slain in the -alatinate.
• d "ouglas. ItE(ol since a (olonel o $orse in 3erman% under the S9ede.
• Sir 3eorge "ouglas. ItE(ol, since #mbassador or his MaHest% o 3reat Britain, in -russia, died in 3erman%,
and 9as transported and buried in Scotland.
• Iord 3eorge "ouglas. (olonel o inantr% in French ser'ice. Took command o regiment o his brother, ItE3en
James "ouglas, upon death o latter.
• #rchibald "ouglas, 4arl o #ngus .c.)+7*5)+//0. Titular colonel o the 2egiment de "ouglas.
• James "rummond. ItE(ol to horse.
• Iudo'ick "rummond. Rilled at (openhagen.
• "a'id 4dingtoune. (ommander in S9eden.
• d 4dmond C4dmundsD. (aptured the (ount de Buc!uoi.
• John 4nnis. ItE(ol to oot.
• d Finla%son. (ommander in S9eden.
• d Forbes. (olonel o Scottish ca'alr% in French ser'ice .)+:/5)+;)0.
• Sir #rthur Forbes. ItE(ol to oot in Macka%’s 2egiment. Slain in combat near $amburg C$olsteinD in )+6,.
• Iord #le<ander Forbes. (ommander o t9o regiments o Scottish inantr% in S9edish ser'ice.
• #le<ander Forbes, called the Bald. ItE(ol, since a (olonel.
• #le<ander Forbes, called Finnesse Forbes. (olonel to a regiment o Finns. CItE(ol Finnesse Forbes, since a
• #r'id Forbes. FinnishEborn Scot. 2ose through ranks and commanded inantr% o Bernhard 'on Weimar.
• 3eorge Forbes. ItE(ol to oot.
• John Forbes. (olonel to a ootEregiment o 3erman @ S9iss troops in S9edish ser'ice. Joined French ser'ice
and killed in France.
• John Forbes o Tullough. ItE(ol. 9as slain at JPrdlingen.
• The Master o Forbes. (olonel to a regiment o Scots.
• Matthe9 Forbes. (ommander o S9edish orces.
• J. Forbes. (olonel o Scottish inantr%. French ser'ice .)+:/5)+:,0.
• -o%taghee Forbes. ItE(ol to oot.
• W. Forbes. (olonel o inantr% in S9edish ser'ice.
• d Fullerton. (olonel o regiment o Scottish inantr% in French ser'ice.
• $erbert 3ledstains C3ladstoneD. (ommander o S9edish orces.
• d 3ordon. ItE(ol, since a (olonel to oot o 3ermans under the (ro9n o S9eden.
• John 3ordon. (olonel in Amperial ser'ice. Anstrumental in plot to kill Wallenstein. (reated Mar!uis and
became ad'isor to Raiser.
• John 3ordon. (olonel o 3ermans in S9edish ser'ice.
• Sir #ndre9 3ra%. (olonel o Scottish and 4nglish inantr%. Ser'ed under Manseld in Bohemia and in the
• 2obert $annaCnD. ItE(ol to oot. Rilled in #lsace.
• Sir Frederick $amilton. (olonel to a regiment o Scots @ Arish in S9edish ser'ice.
• $ugh $amilton. (olonel to a ootEregiment o 3ermans. (reated Baron o S9eden in )+/;.
• Sir James $amilton. (olonel to a ootEregiment o Scots.
• Sir John $amilton. (olonel o a Scottish regiment in S9edish ser'ice. 2esigned at WTrBburg in September
• William $amilton. Rilled in 3erman%.
• #le<ander $a%. ItE(ol o "ragoons in S9edish arm% under 3#.
• d $enderson. (ommander o the reser'e o Scottish inantr% at ITtBen in )+:6.
• James $enderson. ItE(ol to Foot.
• John $enderson. ItE(ol, since a (olonel under the Raiser.
• "aniel $epburn. (olonel o t9o regiments under Wallenstein. "ied )+6,.
• Sir James $epburn o Waughton. ItE(ol. Rilled in Iorraine in )+:1.
• William $erring C$eronD. ItE(ol to oot in S9edish ser'ice.
• Thomas $ume o (arolside. ItE(ol o $orse? since a (olonel in France.
• 2obert Annes. ItE(ol in S9edish ser'ice.
• James (ampbell, 4arl o Ar'ine Cd. )+;/D. (olonel o 0are Ecossais Cactuall% RCgiment ’infanterie
EcossaisD. Ser'ed in French ser'ice rom )+;: on9ard.
• #le<ander Ar'ing o Tulloch. ItE(ol in S9edish ser'ice.
• 4d9ard Johnstone.
• James Johnstone.
• d Rinnemond the elder. ItE(ol to oot.
• d Rinnemond the %ounger. ItE(ol to oot.
• d Rinnemond. (olonel to oot o S9edes, since dead.
• James Rinninmond CRinnemondD.
• John Rinninmond CRinnemondD. =9ith one leg, 3o'ernor o d .’
• Sir John Rinninmond CRinnemondD.
• Thomas Rinninmond CRinnemondD.
• William Rinninmond CRinnemondD.
• Sir William Ia9son.
• Walter Ieck% CIeekieD. (olonel to oot o S9edes.
• #le<ander Ieslie. ItE(ol, since a (olonel to oot. CSon o FieldEMarshal Ieslie @ colonel in S9edish arm%D.
• #le<ander Ieslie. in 2ussian arm%.
• 3eorge Ieslie. ItE(ol, since (olonel. 3o'ernor o Fecht.
• 3usta'us Ieslie. 4lder son o FieldEMarshal Ieslie and colonel in S9edish ser'ice .appointed in )+:10.
• John Ieslie, the omnipotent. ItE(ol in 2uth'en’s regiment o 3ermans.
• John Ieslie. ItE(ol, since a (olonel to oot o Scots.
• Iudo'ick Ieslie. (olonel to a regiment o Scots, 9hich 9as Sir John $amilton’s.

• William -hilip. (ommander in S9eden.
• d -otle%. ItE(ol to oot, under Sir 3eorge Fleet9ood.
• #le<ander 2amsa%. (olonel in S9edish arm%. Rilled at JPrdlingen in )+:;.
• #le<ander 2amsa%. (olonel, and 3o'ernor o Bad RreuBnach. OuartermasterE3eneral to Bernhard 'on
• #ndre9 2amsa%. ItE(ol in S9edish ser'ice. Rilled in )+:+.
• Sir James 2amsa%. (olonel to a ootEregiment o 4nglish. 3o'ernor o Breisach. "ied at Iondon.
• Sir Francis 2uth'en. (olonel to oot o 3ermans and Scots in -russia .)+:+5)+:,0.
• Sir John 2uth'en. (ommanded a 3erman Brigade.
• d 2uth9orm C2uth'enD. (olonel o Scottish ca'alr% in French ser'ice ater )+;).
• d Sandilands. ItE(ol, since slain in the -alB.
• James Scott. (olonel to oot o Finns, since dead.
• James Seaton. (olonel to oot o S9edes.
• John Seaton. Brother o James Seaton.
• #le<ander Seton CSeatonD. ItE(ol in MacRa%’s 2egiment. Wounded at Gldenburg in )+61.
• "a'id Sinclair. (olonel o (a'alr%.
• Francis Sinclair. ItE(ol to oot in S9edish ser'ice.
• James Sinclair. Gicer in MacRa%’s 2egiment. ItE(ol in S9edish ser'ice.
• John Sinclair. Brother o 2obert Ieslie. (olonel to Gld Scots 2egiment in S9edish ser'ice.
• Walter Ieslie. Gicer in Amperial ser'ice, rising to maHor in )+:;. For role in assassination o Wallenstein, later
ele'ated to (ount.
• John Iichton. (olonel in S9edish ser'ice. Rilled at Wittstock in )+:+.
• d Iiddel. (ommander in S9eden.
• #le<ander Iindsa%. ItE(ol, since slain in Ba'aria. Brother o John Iindsa%.
• #le<ander Iindsa%, Iord Sp%nie. (olonel o a Scottish regiment raised or ser'ice in "enmark in )+61.
• 3eorge Iindsa%, );th 4arl o (ra9ord .LL5)+::0. (olonel o 3erman regiment in ser'ice o 3#. Rilled b% a
lieutenant o his regiment.
• $enr% Iindsa%. Began ser'ice in Macka%’s 2egiment. ItE(ol to Ieslie the %ounger. Wounded at ITtBen. "ied
at $amburg in )+:*.
• John Iindsa% o Bainsha9. ItE(ol in MacRa%’s 2egiment. Rilled at Jeu Brandenburg in )+:).
• William Iindsa%. ItE(ol to $orse.
• Sir James Iumsden. (olonel to a regiment o Scots in 3reen Brigade o 3#.
• 2obert Iumsden CIumsdellD. Began ser'ice in Macka%’s 2egiment. 2ose to ItE(ol to oot in S9edish ser'ice.
• John I%all CI%ellD. ItE(ol to oot in S9edish ser'ice.
• d Mac"ougalClD. ItE(ol in S9edish ser'ice, since slain in S9abia.
• d Mac"ougal. (olonel o a Scottish regiment. Ianded 9ith 3# in 3erman% in )+:7.
• #ngus Macka%. Son o Sir "onald MacRa%. Ser'ed as colonel in "anish arm%.
• Sir "onald Macka%, Iord 2ea%. (olonel to a regiment o Scots in "anish ser'ice. $eld commission or three
regiments rom 3# and commanded brigade in S9edish ser'ice.
• William MacRa%. ItE(ol o S9edes. Rilled at ITtBen in )+:6.
• d MacRean. ItE(ol in S9edish ser'ice. Rilled at #lte Feste in )+:6.
• d MacRenBie
• Sir John Meldrum. (olonel in -russia to oot.
• #rthur MonEgorge. ItE(ol to oot.
• James Monipenn%. ItE(ol o ca'alr%. -romoted at Breiteneld or bra'er%.
• d Monro. Man% ield oicers o the name. 3rant states there 9ere t9ent%Ese'en.
• Sir $ector Monro. ItE(ol, since a (olonel o 3ermans in S9edish ser'ice. Made Rnight Baronet. "ied at
$amburg in )+:/, and buried at Buckstehood in the Gldland on the 4lbe.
• John Monro o Gbsdale .)/,,>*5)+::0. 4lder brother o 2obert Monro. #ntiEAmperial ser'ice .)+615:60,
rising to rank o colonel o a regiment o Scots. Rilled during altercation 9ith 3erman troops in S9edish
ser'ice. Buried at &lm.
• 2obert Monro, Baron CBlack IairdD o Foulis .d. )+::0. #ntiEAmperial ser'ice .)+615:60: colonel o horse @
oot o'er 3ermans? died o battle 9ounds suered at &lm.
• James Montgomer%. ItE(ol, slain in combat.
• d Mon%penn%. ItE(ol to horse.
• -eter More. (ommander in S9eden.
• John Mnnro o #ss%nt. ItE(ol to oot in S9edish ser'ice.
• $enr% Muschamp. ItE(ol, since 9as a (olonel and 9as slain at JPrdlingen.
• d Muster. (olonel in S9edish ser'ice.
• John Jairn. (ommander in S9eden.
• William Ggil'ie. (ommander in S9eden."a'id Sinclair.
• John Sinclair. ItE(ol in MacRa%’s 2egiment. Rilled at Jeumarkt in )+::.
• $ugh Somer'ille. #ideEdeEcamp to 3# at ITtBen.
• William Spence. ItE(ol to oot.
• d Stargate
• 3eorge Ste9art. ItE(ol in (on9a%’s 2egiment. "ro9ned o "anish coast in .
• James Ste9art. Iast Iord St. (olme.
• 2obert Ste9art. ItE(ol o Iumsden’s pikemen under Gtto Todt. Since a (olonel. &lster -rotestant.
• Sir William Ste9art. ItE(ol in MacRa%’s 2egiment. Wounded at Gldenburg in )+61. Succeeded to (olonel o
2M’s 2egiment upon death o John Sinclair. CIaggan #rm% in &lsterLLD
• d Ta%lor. (ommander in S9eden.
• Thomas Thomson. (olonel to oot o S9edes, since dead.
• William TroopCeD. ItE(ol slain in the -alatinate.
• John &r!uhart o (romart%.
• d Qa'aBer. ItE(ol since a (olonel to oot.
• 2obert Weir. ItE(ol, since slain in Sa<on%.
Appendix II9 A#thori2ed Levie(3 1415–1465 NUSM '>7*'8)O
At is impossible to ascertain e<actl% ho9 man% soldiers emigrated rom Scotland to the (ontinent. Merel%
adding up the numbers authoriBed is a 9aste o time: le'ies in the earl% %ears .)+),5 )+610 9ere oten o'erE
illed? le'ies in the middle %ears .)+:15)+:;0 9ere about threeEourths illed .guestimate0? and le'ies in the
inal %ears .)+:/5)+;,0 9ere rarel% hal met. Then, militar% entrepreneurs oten le'ied illegall%, that is,
recruits 9ere raised and transported 9ithout authorit%. This 9as especiall% true 9hen a militar% entrepreneur
9as recruiting his o9n kinsmen. An the listing belo9, some appear to be duplicates, but that is because there
9ere se'eral steps: ac!uisition o a contract, king authoriBes? -(S disposes Calbeit not al9a%s the number
authoriBed b% king, i.e., not rubberEstampedD. More inormation TB-.
;>6,>)+67 6777 Bohemia>Sir #ndre9 3ra% ) 2-(S )6:6/1, 61:
)>:7>)+6) )77 -alatinate>John Iindsa% 6 2-(S 6:;)6
o>o>)+6: +777 b% James -alatinate>3ra% @ (ount Manseld d
Co>o>)+6: ,777 b% -oland -oland>2obert Ste9art ) 2-(S ::l'ii 5 3# opposedD
Co>o>)+6; <<< b% Spain I(>4arl o #rg%le ) 2-(S ::'iiiD
:>:7>)+6; )677 b% James S9eden>James Spens 6 2-(S ):/6;note>Iondon
)677 S9eden>James Spens ) 2-(S ::;1,>4dinburgh
1>)>)+6; 6777 I(>James Spens ) 2-(S :::+;
o>o>)+6/ :77 b% (harles -alatine>James Ieslie 6 2-(S ):l<i'>Iondon
)>6;>)+6+ ,77 b% (harles -alatine>James Ieslie 6 2-(S )::/;>Iondon
1>67>)+6+ ;77 b% -(S -alatine>James Ieslie 6 2-(S ):://>4dinburgh
:>:>)+6+ 6777 b% (harles -alatine>"onald MacRa% 6
2-(S 6:) @ 6;/>Iondon
:>)+>)+6+ d "enmark>#. Iindse%, Iord Sp%nie 6 2-(S ):6*;
/>)+>)+6+ 6777 b% -(S "enmark>"onald MacRa% 6 2-(S ):6*/>4dinburgh
+>6/>)+6+ /77 "enmark>#le<. Seton 6 2-(S )::)/
)7>66>)+6+ :777 b% (harles S9eden>James Spens 6 2-(S ):/6;>Iondon
6>):>)+61 )677 b% -(S S9eden James Spens 6 2-(S ):/6:>4dinburgh
6>,>)+61 :777 b% (harles "enmark>4>JithsdaleEMa<9ell 6 2-(S ):/:6>Iondon
6>,>)+61 :777 b% (harles "enmark>#. Iindse%, Iord Sp%nie 6 2-(S ):/:*>Iondon
6>,>)+61 :777 b% (harles "enmark>James Sinclair 6 2-(S ):/:*>Iondon
6>61>)+61 :777 b% -(S "enmark>4>JithsdaleEMa<9ell 6 2-(S ):/:)>4dinburgh
:>,>)+61 :777 b% -(S "enmark>James Sinclair 6 2-(S ):/;7>4dinburgh
:>,>)+61 :777 b% -(S "enmark>#. Iindse%, Iord Sp%nie 6 2-(S ):/:*>4dinburgh
,>)1>)+61 6777 b% (harles 4ngland ' France>4arl G Morton 6 2-(S 6:/)>Iondon
,>6*>)+61 6777b% -(S 4ngland ' France 4arl G Morton 6 2-(S 6:/6>4dinburgh
,>)6>)+61 677 4ngland ' France >#. Mlnauchtan 6 2-(S 6:/+
6>)*>)+61 )777 b% (harles "enmark>Sir "onald Mcka% 6 2-(S 6:6*1>Iondon
This appendi< is a some9hat e<panded 'ersion o that 9hich appeared in &SM. #dded is more inormation pertaining to
authoriBed le'ies. #lso added is some data pertaining to unauthoriBed le'ies and to recruiting practices. Sources include 'arious
document collections, (S-" ); @ )+? 1<peition? Fallon, &SM and 2-(S. At is not intended to be a comprehensi'e list. (heck
back or more data TB-.
o>o>)+61 )777 b% -(S "enmark>Sir "onald Mcka% 6 2-(S 6:6*/>4dinburgh
1>))>)+6, /77 b% (harles "enmark>Sir 3eorge Reith 6 2-(S 6:;/+>Iondon
*>6/>)+6, /77 b% -(S "enmark>Sir 3eorge Reith 6 2-(S 6:;/1>4dinburgh
1>)+6, :77 b% (harles S9eden>It(ol (unningham 6 2-(S 6::*+>Iondon
1>)+6, :77 b% -(S S9eden>It(ol (unningham 6 2-(S 6::*1>4dinburgh
Co>o>)+6* 6 2egt b% 3# S9eden>4arl>(ra9ord .3eorge Iindsa%0 Berg @ IagercrantB, 6*D
)7>),>)+6* 2aised :77 S9eden>4arl>(ra9ord .3eorge Iindsa%0 6 2-(S :::):
:>*>)+6* 2egt b% (harles I(>Sir 3eorge $a% 6 2-(S ::**>Iondon
:>*>)+6* 2egt C6777D I(>Sir 3eorge $a% 6 2-(S ::**, )67
;>*>)+6* )677 b% (harles S9eden>#le<ander $amilton 6 2-(S ::):+>Iondon
)677 b% -(S S9eden>#le<ander $amilton 6 2-(S ::):+>4dinburgh
;>*>)+6* )677 b% (harles S9eden>Sir John Meldrum 6 2-(S ::):,>Iondon
)677 b% -(S S9eden>Sir John Meldrum 6 2-(S ::):1>4dinburgh
;>)>)+6* )677 b% (harles S9eden>Sir 3eorge (unningham 6 2-(S ::67,>Iondon
1>1>)+6* )677 b% -(S S9eden>Sir 3eorge (unningham 6 2-(S ::67,>4dinburgh
C*>o>)+6* :77 b% S9eden (apt $enr% Muschamp Fallon, /1D
C*>o>)+6* :77 b% S9eden (apt oo "ouglas Fallon, /1D
)+:7 )677 S9eden>(ol John 3ordon Fischer, *)
;>o>)+:7 6777 b% (harles France>Iord 3ordon d, ,,>Iondon
)7>6;>)+:7 +777 b% (harles S9eden>Mar!uis G $amilton 6 2-(S ;:/,, )*:>Iondon
)7>6;>)+:7 #ssist S9eden> Mar!uis G $amilton 6 2-(S ;:)*;
)7>6;>)+:7 +777 b% -(S S9eden>Mar!uis G $amilton 6 2-(S ;:)*;>4dinburgh
/>/>)+:) 6777 b% (harles S9eden>Sir "onald MacRa% 6 2-(S ;:6)*>Iondon
+>6>)+:) 6777 b% -(S S9eden>Sir "onald MacRa% 6 2-(S ;:6)*>4dinburgh
+>:7>)+:) )677 b% (harles S9eden>Sir Fred. $amilton 6 2-(S ;::)*>Iondon
,>o>)+:) )677 b% -(S S9eden>Sir Fred. $amilton 6 2-(S ;::)*, +61>4dinburgh
1>66>)+:) 6777 b% (harles S9eden>#le<ander Forbes 6 2-(S ;::)*>Iondon
,>o>)+:) 6777 b% -(S S9eden>#le<ander Forbes 6 2-(S ;::),, +61>4dinburgh
))>o>)+:) Sent ),77 S9eden #ppeals For Shipping 6 2-(S ;::+7E:+)
*>o>)+:) 677 b% (harles S9eden>Iudo'ick Ieslie 6 2-(S ;::;6>Iondon
)7>/>)+:) 677b% -(S S9eden>Iudo'ick Ieslie 6 2-(S ;::;6>4dinburgh
;>o>)+:6 )677 b% (harles S9eden>(ol James Iumsden 6 2-(S ;:;,:>Iondon
;>6+>)+:6 )677 b% -(S S9eden>James Iumsden 6 2-(S ;:;,:>4dinburgh
;>),>)+:6 677 b% (harles France>Iord 3ordon 6 2-(S ;:;,6>Iondon
/>6/>)+:6 6777 2ussia>(ol #le<ander Ieslie @ d, ;71
It(ol Thomas Sanderson
1>6*>)+:6 677 S9eden>James Macdougall 6 2-(S ;:/6/
o>o>)+:6 )/77 I( 6 2-(S ;:<<<'ii
:>6,>)+:: )677 b% (harles France>Sir John $epburn 6 2-(S /:+/>Iondon
;>6;>)+:: )677 b% -(S France>Sir John $epburn 6 2-(S /:+/>4dinburgh
)+:: 677 2ussia>Sir #le< Ieslie 6 2-(S /:1*
+>*>)+:/ Jo le'ies>le'%ing permitted b% (harles 6 2-(S +:6,>Iondon
1>)>)+:/ 677 can go France>James Iindsa% 6 2-(S +:LL
1>)1>)+:/ +7 S9eden>Thomas Moat 6 2-(S +:+/
)7>6+>)+:/ d France>(ol J. Forbes d
))>)+>)+:/ d France>(ol J. Forbes d
))>6>)+:/ +7 France>#le<ander 3ordon 6 2-(S +:);75);)
)6>)1>)+:/ +7 France>2obert To9ers 6 2-(S +:)/1
:>*>)+:+ :77 b% (harles I(>James Iord #lmond 6 2-(S +:66/>Iondon
:77 b% -(S I(>James Iord #lmond 6 2-(S +:66/>4dinburgh
;>)+>)+:+ << b% Rristina S9eden>(ol 2obert Monro d
*>))>)+:+ ca'alr% s!uadron S9eden>Francis 2uth'en d
6>61>)+:1 )777 b% (harles France>2obert $ume 6 2-(S +:;7)@:>Iondon
:>*>)+:1 )777 b% -(S France>2obert $ume 6 2-(S +:;7)@:>4dinburgh
/>):>)+:1 ;77 b% (harles S9eden>#le<. (unningham 6 2-(S +:;/,>Iondon
/>):>)+:1 ;77 b% -(S S9eden>#le<. (unningham 6 2-(S +:;/,? Fallon, :76>4dinburgh
)7>)*>)+:1 *6 dro9ned #berdeen>#le<. 3ordon Bulloch, d,;))
/>):>)+:1 ,77 b% (harles S9eden>2obert Monro 6 2-(S +:;/*>Iondon
;77 b% -(S S9eden>2obert Monro 6 2-(S +:;/*? Fallon, :76>4dinburgh
/>):>)+:1 ;77 b% (harles S9eden>2obert Stuart 6 2-(S +:;,/>Iondon
1>6/>)+:1 ;77 b% -(S S9eden>2obert Stuart 6 2-(S +:;,;? Fallon, :76>4dinburgh
)6>;>)+:, )777 b% (harles France>#ndre9 3ra% 6 2-(S 1:)7;>Iondon
)6>;>)+:, )777 b% -(S France>#ndre9 3ra% 6 2-(S 1:)7:>4dinburgh
)>);>)+:* )777 b% (harles France>#le<. 4rskine 6 2-(S 1:)71>Iondon
)>);>)+:* )777b% -(S France>#le<. 4rskine 6 2-(S 1:)7+,):+>4dinburgh
)>o>)+:* d Scotsa (ome $omea Bishops’ Wars
)6>:>)+;) )7,777 b% -(S Areland>Scottish #rm% 6 2-(S 1: d>4dinburgh
:>6>)+;6 ;/77 b% (harles France>4arl Ar'ineEJ. (ampbell 6 2-(S 1:6;,>Iondon
:>6>)+;6 ;/77 b% -(S France>4arl Ar'ine 6 2-(S 1:6;1>4dinburgh
;>1>)+;6 )777 b% (harles France>(ol Fullerton 6 2-(S 1:6,)>Iondon
;>1>)+;6 )777 b% -(S France>(ol Fullerton 6 2-(S 1:6,)>4dinburgh
+>6/>)+;6 )777 b% (harles France>James "ouglas 6 2-(S 1::76>Iondon
1>6)>)+;6 /77 b% -(S France>James "ouglas 6 2-(S 1::76>4dinburgh
:>/>)+;6 6777 France>James "ouglas Bulloch, d, ;7/>+,
o>o>)+;o )/77 France>Wm 3ordon Spaulding, S(:6:, */
6>)+>)+;: ,7 France>James 3ordon Bulloch, d, ;:,
)>)+;; 6 companies France>William 3ordon Bulloch, d, /);
,>6*>)+/; )777 (ontinent>4arl G 3lencairn d, 6*
,>6*>)+/; )777 (ontinent>Iaird G Iugton d, 6*
)+/; 2egt S9eden>(ol James Sinclair Fischer, S$een, )6:
C:>)+/+ 2egt b% Rristina (ol (ranstoun Fischer, S$een, )6:D
Bi%lio.ra-hy NUSM '8'*'(8O
At ma% be untrue, but it surel% seems that an%thing 9ritten or publication must ollo9 a st%le ormat 9hich is
#IW#MS some9hat dierent rom all other 5 including 'arious standard 5 st%le ormats. An particular,
spacing, spelling, abbre'iations and punctuation usage re!uirements dier greatl%. (reating a bibliograph%
thus re!uired de'eloping>ollo9ing a consistent ormat>methodolog%. Since De$ 2art’s RulesQ The
2anboo. of Style for Writers an 1itors .G<ord &-0 oers the greatest le<ibilit%, its basic guidelines are
applied. The best ad'ice oeredL =# decision Cregarding 9hat to include>e<cludeD \ should be applied
consistentl% to all citations.’CDe$ 2art’s Rules, ::)D Thus, there is onl% one guarantee: posted entries 9ill
make sense and 9ill contain 9hate'er bibliographical inormation pro'ided throughout This
should make it possible or %ou to ollo9 9hate'er st%le sheet re!uired o %ou. A %ou hate the abbre'iations
and acron%ms, %ou’ll Hust ha'e to li'e 9ith them 5 e'en A had to learn ho9 to txt. A am, o course, WSB.
A''re,iati"ns Used in 2""tn"tes ? Bi'$i"3raph#9
@ Ar%hi,es
BI British Iibrar%, Iondon
J#S Jational #rchi'es o Scotland .ormerl% Scottish 2ecord Gice0, 4dinburgh
JIS Jational Iibrar% o Scotland, 4dinburgh
-2GI -ublic 2ecords Gice, Iondon
@ Ar%hi,a$ C"$$e%ti"ns
BI TT Thomason Tracts
BI Broadsheets 3erman Broadsheets
44BM 4arl% 4nglish Books, );1/5)+;7 .microilm, 9hich A used0
44BG 4arl% 4nglish Books Gnline .'arious 9ebsites0
J#S 3" ,; 2ea% 5 Baron o MacRa% -apers
-2GI S- ); 5 State -apers, "omestic, James A, )+7:56/
-2GI S- )+ 5 State -apers, "omestic, (harles A, )+6/5;*
@ AntiA&arian ? Hist"ri%a$ P&'$ishin3 S"%ieties9
#&S #berdeen &ni'ersit% Studies
B( Bannat%ne (lub
(S (amden Societ%
3( 3rampian (lub
$MSG $is>$er MaHest%’s Stationer% Gice
M( Maitland (lub
2( 2o<burghe (lub
2$S 2o%al $istorical Societ%
S#S Societ% o #nti!uaries o Scotland
S#&- St. #ndre9s &ni'ersit% -ublications
SB2S Scottish Burgh 2ecords Societ%
S( Spalding (lub
S3S Scottish 3aelic Societ%
S$S Scottish $istor% Societ%
S2S Scottish 2ecord Societ%
STS Scottish Te<t Societ%
SS Spottis9oode Societ%
T2$S Transactions of the Royal 2istorical Society
@ ("&rna$s+ M"n"3raphs ? Data'ases9
#g$2 Agricultural 2istory Re!ie$
#m$2 American 2istorical Re!ie$
(4c$4 The -ambrige 1conomic 2istory of 1urope
(M$ The -ambrige Moern 2istory
4c$2 1conomic 2istory Re!ie$
4$2 The 1nglish 2istorical Re!ie$
$J The 2istorical Aournal
$I The 2arleian miscellany
$T 2istory Toay
$2 2istorical Research
$S 2istorische Reitschrift
A$S Irish 2istorical Stuies
J(B3 Aaarboe. -entraal 9ureau !oor 0enealogie
JBS Aournal of 9ritish Stuies
JM$ Aournal of Military 2istory
M$O M2HQ The Huarterly Aournal of Military 2istory
J(M$ The De$ -ambrige Moern 2istory
GSB Macka%, An #l Scots 9rigae
-@- %ast an %resent
S3 Scottish 0enealogist
S3M Scottish 0eographical Maga3ine
S3S Scottish 3aelic Societ%
S$2 The Scottish 2istorical Re!ie$
Scotia Scotia5 the Aournal of the St: Anre$ Society
SSJ4 Scotland, Scandina'ia and Jorthern 4urope
T3SA Transactions of the 0aelic Society of In!erness
QSW Biertel;ahrschrift fMr So3ial- un Wirtschaftsgeschichte
SQ$3 Reitschrift es Bereins fMr 2amburgische 0eschichte
@ Hist"ri%a$ 8r3ani4ati"ns
J#(BS Jorth #merican (onerence on British Studies
@ Ca$endars+ Bi'$i"3raphi% G&ides and Di%ti"naries
Beller, 4.#. =(ontemporar% 4nglish -rinted Sources or the Thirt% Mears War’ in #m$2 :6 .)*6+>610, 61+56,6.
(ockle, Maurice J.". A 9ibliography of 1nglish Military 9oo.s to '68? an of -ontemporary Foreign Wor.s. Iondon
3B: Simpkin Marshall, )*77.
(S-" );: -alenar of State %apers5 /omestic Series5 of the reigns of 1$ar BI5 Mary5 1li3abeth5 Aames I .)/;15)+6/0
preser'ed in the State -aper "epartment o $er MaHest%’s -ublic 2ecord Gice CS- );D. )6 'ols? 'arious eds. Iondon 3B:
$MSG, ),/+5),16.
(S-" )+: -alenar of State %apers5 /omestic Series5 of the Reign of -harles I .)+6/5)+;*0 preser'ed in the State -aper
"epartment o $er MaHest%’s -ublic 2ecord Gice CS- )+D. 6: 'ols? 'arious eds CJohn Bruce, W.". $amilton @ S.(. IomasD.
Iondon 3B: $MSG, ),/,5),*1.
"ahlmannEWaitB: Huellen.une er /eutschen 0eschichte. *. #ulage? 'arious eds CFriedrich (hristoph "ahlmann,
3eorg WaitB u. 4rich BrandenburgD. IeipBig "4: Roehler, )*:).
"JB: The /ictionary of Dational 9iography. 66 'ols? Ieslie Stephen @ Sidne% Iee .eds0. Iondon 3B: G<ord &-,
"a'ies, 3odre% .ed0. 9ibliography of 9ritish 2istoryQ Stuart %erio5 '6)>*'+'8. G<ord 3B: (larendon, )*6,.
Matheson, (%ril. A -atalogue of the %ublications of Scottish 2istorical an @inre -lubs an Societies5 'S)7*'S?+.
#berdeen 3B: Milne @ $utchison, )*6,.
2oach, John. # 9ibliography of Moern 2istory. (ambridge 3B: (&-, )*+,.
2-(S: Register of the %ri!y -ouncil of Scotlan .)/+*5)1710. : series? :+ 'ols C) 2-(S )5); .),,75),*,0? 6 2-(S )5, .),**5
)*7,0? : 2-(S )5); .)*7,5)*::0D? 'arious eds. 4dinburgh 3B: $M 3eneral 2egister $ouse, ),,75)*::.
Terr%, (. Stanord. A -atalogue of the %ublications of Scottish 2istorical an @inre -lubs an Societies5 '+7)*'S)7.
3lasgo9 3B: James MacIehose, )*7*.
Thomson, John M. The %ublic Recors of Scotlan. 3lasgo9 3B: James MacIehose @ Sons, )*66.
d -rimar% Material and (ontemporar% #ccounts
=# Most True 2elation o the Iate -roceedings in Bohemia, 3erman%, and $ungaria dated the ), the )7 and ): o Jul%
this present %eere, )+67.’ "ort, )+67.
Bettenson, $enr% .ed0. /ocuments of the -hristian -hurch, 6
ed. Iondon 3B: G<ord &-, )*+:.
9ible: 3ene'a .)/++0? 4nglish .)/**0. The '(SS 0ene!a 9ible %atriot’s 1ition. White $all WQ: Tolle Iege, 67)7.
BI 0erman 9roasheets .)+:75)+:60. BI )1/7 b 6*>*/: Scots logging -apists? BI )1/7 b 6*>)7;: ,77 Scots arri'e in
Stettin? BI )1/7 b 6*>)7/: Ring o S9eden uses oreign nationals.
Bro9n, -. $ume. Scotlan before '+)) from -ontemporary /ocuments. 4dinburgh 3B: "a'id "ouglas, ),*:.
Burnet, 3ilbert. The Memoirs of:::Aames an William5 / of 2amilton an -astle-2eral. Iondon 3B: 3ro'er,
(o9an, Samuel. The Ruth!en Family %apers. Iondon 3B: SimpkinEMarshallE$amiltonERent, )*)6.
(ro9ne, William. A True Relation of:::the tra!els of:::Thomas:::1arl of Arunell5 Ambassaor
1<traorinary:::to:::Fernano the Secon. Iondon 3B: $enr% Seile, )+:1.
C(ro9ne, WilliamD. -onnoisseur an /iplomatQ The 1arl of Arunel’s 1mbassy to 0ermany in '6>6 as recounte in
William -ro$ne’s /iaryT: Francis (. Springell .ed0. Iondon 3B: Shen'al -ress, )*+:.
"al%ell, Sir John 3raham. Fragments of Scottish 2istory. 4dinburgh 3B: C"a'id WillisonD or #rchibald (onstable,
Ferguson, James .ed0. %apers Illustrating the 2istory of the Scots 9rigae in the Ser!ice of the Unite Detherlans5
'(+?*'+7?. S$S: : 'ols^ :6, :/ @ :, C'ol )^:6: the War o Andependence, )/165)+7*? the Time o the T9el'e
Mears’ Truce, )+7*5)+6)? the Thirt% Mears’ War, )+6)5)+;,? the #ge o William o Grange and the British
2e'olution, )+;*5)+*1 .),**0D. 4dinburgh 3B: (onstable, ),**5)*7)D.
ForbesEIeith, William. The Scots Men-at-Arms an 4ife-0uars in France. 6 'ols. 4dinburgh 3B: -aterson, ),,6.
Fraser, Sir William .ed0. The Manuscripts of the / of 2amilton. Iondon 3B: 4%re @ Spottis9oode, ),,1.
Fraser, Sir William .ed0. The Mel!illes5 1arls of Mel!ille5 an the 4eslies5 1arls of 4e!en. : 'ols. 4dinburgh: n.p., ),*7.
Fraser, Sir William .ed0. The Sutherlan 9oo.. : 'ols C'ol ): Memoirs? 'ol 6: (orrespondence? 'ol :: (hartersD.
4dinburgh: n.p., ),*6.
F%e, J.3. .ed0. Scottish /iaries an Memoirs. 6 'ols C'ol ): )//75)1;+D. Stirling 3B: 4neas Macka%, )*61.
3ardiner, Samuel 2a9son .ed0. The Fortescue %apers. Je9 ser (S ). Iondon 3B: J.B. Jichols @ Sons, ),1).
3ardiner, Samuel 2a9son .ed0. The 2amilton %apers. Je9 ser (S 61. Iondon 3B: J.B. Jichols @ Sons, ),,7.
3ardiner, Samuel 2a9son .ed0. 4etters an /ocuments Illustrating the Relations bet$een 1nglan an 0ermany at the
-ommencement of the Thirty Years War. (S *7 @ *,. Iondon 3B: J.B. Jichols @ Sons or Gices o the 2o%al
Societ%, ),+/ @ ),+,.
3rimmelshausen, $ans Jakob (hristoph 'on. /er Abenteuerliche Simplicius Simplicissimus .)++*0. 2eprint. MTnchen:
W. 3oldman, )*+).
$eldmann, Rarl. FMrsten- un Felherrenbriefe aus er Reit es /reiJig;"hrigen @rieges. 3Pttingen "4: Qandenhoeck
u. 2upprecht, )*):.
RJQB: 2oly 9ible '6'' @ing Aames Bersion. ;77
#nni'ersar% 4dition. 3rand 2apids MA: Sonder'an, 67)).
=Ietter rom 3eorge Fleet9ood to his Father, 3i'ing an #ccount o the Battle o ITtBen and the "eath o 3usta'us
#dolphus .)+::0’ in The -amen Miscellany, (S )? Sir -hilip de Malpas 3re%E4gerton .ed0. Iondon 3B: Gices o
the 2o%al Societ%, ),;1: :5)6.
Iithgo9, William. The Totall /iscourse T of long Dinetene Yeares Tra!ayles from Scotlan T: Iondon 3B: Jicholas
Gkes, )+:6.
Mac"onald, #le<ander .ed0. 4etters to @ing Aames the Si<th from the Hueen5 T the %rincess 1li3abeth an her
husban Frierich @ing of 9ohemia T: M( :/. 4dinburgh 3B: M(, ),:/.
Mac"onald, #le<ander .ed0. %apers Relati!e to the Royal 0uar of Scottish Archers in France. M( :+. 4dinburgh 3B:
M(, ),:/.
Mac"onald, #le<ander .ed0. Reports on the State of -ertain %arishes in Scotlan. M( :;. 4dinburgh 3B: M(, ),:/.
Machia'elli, JiccolN. The Art of War .)/6)? )
4nglish ed, )/+70. 2e' ed o 4llis Farne9orth? Jeal Wood .trans0.
Andianapolis AJ: Bobbs5Merrill, )*+/.
Macka%, Sir "onald, Iord 2ea%. J#S: 2ea% -apers 3" ,;>6>);+5)*6a. Ietters, commissions, petitions, @c., primaril%
regarding Macka%>2ea% as militar% entrepreneur .)+6+5::0.
MacIean, A.J. /e 2u$eli;.sinte.eningen Ban Schotse Militairen in Deerlan '(+8*'66(: Sutphen JI: "e Walburg,
CManseld, 4rnstD. The Appollogie of 1rnestus5 1arle of Mansfiele. S.W. .trs0. $eidelberg "4: n.p., )+66.
Michel, Francis!ue. 4es 1cossais en France5 les FranUais en 1cosse. 6 'ols? Iibraire de la SociXtX de l’pcole AmpXriale
des (hartes et de la SociXtX AmpXriale des #nti!uaires de France .-aris: #. Franck, ),+60.
Monro, 2obert. Monro his 1<peition $ith the Worthy Scots Regiment calle Mac-@eyes Regiment T: Iondon 3B: W.
Jones, )+:1.
Monro his 1<peition $ith the Worthy Scots Regiment -alle Mac-@eyes b% (olonel 2obert Monro .Iondon 4ngland:
)+:10. WSB, ed. -raeger Series in War Studies .Westport (T: 3reen9ood, )***0.
J.J.J., an e<ile. 2istory of the 9ohemian %ersecution5 from:::7S8 to:::'6>?. Iondon 3B: B.#. or John Walker, )+/7.
C-o%ntB, S%dnamD. The Relation of Synam %oynt35 '6?8*'6>6. : (S );? #.T.S. 3oodrick .ed0. Iondon 3B: Gices o
the 2o%al Societ%, )*7,.
-2GI S- );. State %apers5 /omestic Series5 of the reigns of 1$ar BI5 Mary5 1li3abeth5 Aames I .)/;15)+6/0
preser'ed in the State -aper "epartment o $er MaHest%’s -ublic 2ecord Gice, Iondon 3B.
-2GI S- )+. State %apers5 /omestic Series5 of the Reign of -harles I .)+6/5)+;*0 preser'ed in the State -aper
"epartment o $er MaHest%’s -ublic 2ecord Gice, Iondon 3B.
-uendor, Samuel 'on. The -ompleat 2istory of S$een. (. Brock9ell .trs0. Iondon 3B: Joseph Wild at the 4lephant
at (haring (ross, )176.
-uendor, Samuel 'on. An Introuction to the 2istory of the %rincipal @ingoms an States of 1urope. J. (rull .trs0.
Iondon: Three (ro9ns in St. -aul’s (hurch%ard, )1)*.
2ea% -apers. J#S 3" ,;>6>);+5)*6a.
C2oe, Thomas:D =Ietters 2elating to the Mission o Sir Thomas 2oe to 3usta'us #dolphus, )+6*5)+:7’ in The -amen
Miscellany, (S 1: Samuel 2a9son 3ardiner .ed0. Westminster 3B: J.B. Jichols @ Sons, ),1/: ppp .
Scott, "a'id. 2istory of Scotlan containing all the 2istorical Transactions of that Dation5 from the year of the Worl
>6'S to the year of -hrist '+?6. Westminster 3B: (luer @ (ampbell, )16,.
Scott, Sir Walter. A 4egen of Montrose .),)*0. Je9 Mork: 2outledge and Sons, ),:).
Spalding, John. Memorialls of the Trubles in Scotlan an in 1nglan5 A:/: '6?8*A:/: '68(. S(: 6 'ols C6) @ 6:D?
John Stuart .ed0. #berdeen 3B: S(, ),/75/).
Steuart, #. Francis .ed0. %apers Relating to the Scots in %olan5 '(+6*'+S>. S$S /*. 4dinburgh 3B: S$S, )*)/.
S9eAnt: The S$eish Intelligencer5 Religious5 -i!ile5 an Military: , parts: .a0 Iion o the Jorth C-art A 5 6 'ols, to
Breiteneld? -art AA 5 ; 'ols, to Munich? -art AAA 5 / 'ols to ITtBen? -art AQ 5 : 'ols, )+:75)+:6, histor% o other
armies not 9ith 3#D? .b0 (ontinuation o 3erman $istor% C-art Q 5 : 'ols, )+::? -art QA 5 : 'ols, )+:;D? .c0 Modern
$istor% C-arts QAA @ QAAA : sections 5 / 'ols, )+:;5)+:/D. Iondon 3B: Jathaniel Butter @ Jicholas Bourne, )+::5
Ta%lor, John. Taylor5 his tra!els5 from the -ity of 4onon in 1nglan to the -ity of %rague in 9ohemia:::$ith many
relations $orthy of note. Iondon 3B: J. Gkes or $. 3osson, )+67.
Teulet, Jean Baptiste #le<andre Theodore. %apiers ’1tat relatifs e lF2istoire e lFEcosse au '6me SiecleV tires es
9ibliothe=ues et es Archi!es e France5 et publies pour la 9annatyne -lub ’1inbourg. B( )71, LL @ LL? : 'ols
.-aris: -lon rkres, ),/)5),/60.
=The 3reat and Famous Battel o IutBen, ought bet9een the 2eno9ned Ring o S9eden and Walstein ... aithull%
translated out o the French cop% .)+::0’ in $I:;. Jacob Baum .ed0. Iondon 3B: $arding @ Wright, ),7*: )*156)7.
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The De$ -ambrige Moern 2istory CJ(M$D. ); 'ols C'ol 6: The Reformation5 '(?)*'((S .)*+/>)**70? 'ol :: The
-ounter-Reformation an %rice-Re!olution5 '((S*'6') .)*+,0? 'ol ;: The /ecline of Spain an the Thirty Years War5
'6)S*87P(S .)*170? 'ol /: The Ascenancy of France5 '687*'677 .)*+;0D? 'arious eds CF.I. (arsten? J.2. (ooper?
3.2. 4ltonD. (ambridge 3B: (&-, )*/15)*1*.
Qalentin, Qeit. @naurs /eutsche 0eschichte. Stuttgart "4: "eutscher Bucherbund, )*+7.
Qan Bath, B.$. Slicher. The Agrarian 2istory of Western 1urope a:: ())5'7(). Gli'e Grdish .trs0. Iondon 3B:
4d9ard #rnold, )*+:.
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Ward, #.W. The 2ouse of Austria in the Thirty Years War. Iondon 3B: Macmillan, ),+*.
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d #rticles
Beller, 4lmer #. =The Thirt% Mears War’ in J(M$ ;: :7+5:/,.
Beller, 4lmer #. =The Militar% 4<pedition o Sir (harles Morgan to 3erman%, )+615*’ in 4$2 ;: .)*6,0: /6,5/:*.
Black, (harles Ste9art. =The 2elations o Scotland and France during the $undred Mears’ War’ in Scotia : .)*7*0: )765
))/, )+15)1+ @ 6:)56:1.
Bo%nton, I.G.J. =Billeting: the 4<ample o the Asle o Wight’ in 4$2 1;: 6*7 .)*/*0: ):*5);,.
Braudel, Fernand @ Frank (. Spooner. =-rices in 4urope rom );/7 to )1/7’ in (4c$4 ;: :1;5;,+.
Bulloch, J.M. =# ScotoE#ustrian. John 3ordon, the #ssassinator o Wallenstein’ in Transactions of the 9anffshire Fiel
-lub .)*)+>)*)10: 6756,.
"ickinson, 3lad%s. =Some Jotes on the Scottish #rm% in the First $al o the Si<teenthE(entur%’ in S$2 6, .)*;*0:
"ro%sen, 3usta'. =Studien Bur baltische Frage’ in $S )/ .),++0: 6/)561+.
4rnstberger, #nton. =Wallensteins $eeressabotage und die Breitenelder Schlacht .)+:)0’ in $S );6 .)*:70: ;)516.
=Francis!ue Michel, =Ecossais en France5 les Francais en Ecosse: a 2e'ie9’ in 1inburgh Re!ie$ )),: 6;) .Jul% ),+:0:
3ebauer, Johann $. =4in sch9edischer Milit]rproBess 'on )+:)’ in $S )*, .)*710: /;;5/+7.
3rimble, Aan. =The 2o%al -a%ment o Macka%’s 2egiment’ in S3S * .)*+)0: 665:1.
$ale, J.2. =#rmies, Ja'ies and the #rt o War’ in J(M$ 6: ;,)5/7*.
$oskins, W.3. =$ar'est Fluctuations and 4nglish 4conomic $istor%, );,75)+)*’ in #g$2 )6 .)*+;0: :+5;+.
$oskins, W.3. =$ar'est Fluctuations and 4nglish 4conomic $istor%, )+675)1/*’ in #g$2 )+ .)*+,0: )/5:).
RellenbenB, $. =$amburg und die ranBPsischEsch9edische Susammenarbeit im "rei`igH]hrigen Rrieg’ in SQ$3 ;*>/7
.)*+;0: ,:5)71.
Riernan, Q.3. =Foreign Mercenaries and #bsolute Monarch%’ in -@- )) .)*/10: ++5,+.
Macka%, John. =Macka%’s 2egiment, )+6+5)+:;’ in T3SA , .),1+>),1*0: )6,5),*.
MacIean, J. =Scottish Families in $olland’ in S3 )6 .)*+/0: /:5//.
2edlich, FritB. =(ontributions in the Thirt% Mears’ War’ in 4c$2 )6:6 .)*/*>+70: 6;156+7.
2itter, MoritB. ="as Rontributionss%stem Wallensteins’ in $S *7 .)*7:0: )*:56;*.
Samuel, John S. =S9eden and Scotland’ in Scotia5 the Aournal of the St: Anre$s Society : .)*7*0: ,+5*6.
Smout, T.(. =Scottish (ommercial Factors in the Baltic at the 4nd o the Se'enteenthE(entur%’ in S$2 :*:)6, .Gctober
)*+70: )665)6,.
Smout, T.(. @ #le<ander Fenton. =Scottish #griculture beore the Ampro'ers 5 an 4<ploration’ in #g$2 )::6 .)*+/0,
&singer, 2. ="ie SerstPrung Magdeburgs’ in $S ): .),+/0: :1,5;7/.
Wechmar, A. 'on @ 2. Biederstedt. ="e schottische 4in9anderung in Qorpommern im )+. und rThen )1. Jahrhundert’
ins 0reifs$al-Stralsuner Aarhbuch / .)*+/0: 156,.
WSB. =Ferdinand AA o #ustria’ in 0reat 4i!es in 2istory5 Renaissance to 'S)). -asadena (#: Salem, )*,*: 16151:).
2e'ised, illustrated and updated: posted .67)70: .
WSB. ="anishES9edish Wars, );*15)+1*’ in 0reat 1!ents from 2istoryQ The Renaissance K 1arly Moern 1ra.
-asadena (#: Salem, 677/: 6:;56:+. TB- 5 2e'ised, illustrated and updated: posted .67)60: .
WSB. =4<panding -roessions in the Se'enteenthE(entur%: Scottish Militar% 4ntrepreneurs in the 4arl% Modern 4ra’
.Birmingham #I: (SBS, )**)0. TB- 5 2e'ised, illustrated and updated: posted .67)60: .
WSB. =John (al'in’ in 0reat 4i!es in 2istory5 Renaissance to 'S)). -asadena (#: Salem, )*,*: :;75:;;. TB- 5
2e'ised, illustrated and updated: posted .67)60: .
WSB. =Iea'ing the #uld Sod: -opulation -ressures and Scottish 4migration -atterns in the 4arl% Modern 4ra’ .Je9
Grleans I#: S(BS, )**/0. TB- 5 2e'ised, illustrated and updated: posted .67)60: .
WSB. =-ropaganda in 4arl% Modern 4urope, )/775)+;,’ .Jackson'ille FI: -(#S, )*,*0. TB- 5 2e'ised, illustrated
and updated: posted .67)60: .
WSB. =2obert Monro: -roessional Soldier, Militar% $istorian and Scotsman’ in Scotlan an the Thirty Years’ War,
Ste'en Murdoch .ed0. Ieiden JI: Brill, 677): 6)/56;).
WSB. =Sa%ing What Mou Mean, and Meaning What Mou Sa%: or "oes the Term q(eltic Britainrl 2eall% Tell Mou
#n%thing’ .Boulder (G: J#(BS, )**/0.
WSB. =Scottish Mercenaries in the Thirt% Mears’ War’ .Francis Marion &ni'ersit%, Florence S(: S($#, )*,+0.
-ublished in The %roceeings of the S-2A 'S76 .#iken S(: $o9ell, )*,10, ;)5;1. TB- 5 2e'ised, illustrated and
updated: posted .67)60: .
WSB. =Scottish Militar% 4migrants in the 4arl% Modern 4ra: #n #nal%sis o "emographic Mo'ement in an 4mergent
Societ%, )/175)++7’ .Fort Worth T[: S(BS, )**)0. TB- 5 2e'ised, illustrated and updated: posted
.67)60: .
WSB. Seminar 4ssa%: =Wallenstein and the @ontributionssystem: Militar% Iogistics in the Thirt% Mears’ War’ in Topics
in 1arly Moern 1urope 9ith John -atrick "olan .&S(, (olumbia S(: "epartment o $istor%, )*++0.
WSB. Senior Thesis: =2enaissance Ouestions: 3uicciardini, Machia'elli @ Jean Bodin and Their &nderstanding o
$istor%’ 9ith John -atrick "olan, .&S(, (olumbia S(: "epartment o $istor%, )*++0.
WSB. =Till%, (ount Johan Tserclaes .)//*5)+:60’ in Magill’s 0uie to Military 2istory .-asadena (#: Salem, 677)0,
WSB. =The "eenestration o -rague, )+),’ in 0reat 1!ents from 2istoryQ 1uropean Series: -asadena (#: Salem,
)**,0, 6/756/:. 2e'ised, illustrated and updated: posted at .67)70: .